WorldWideScience

Sample records for clergy

  1. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  2. Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy.

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    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Foy, Steven L; Arroyave, Whitney D; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Lauderback, Kari H; Meador, Keith G

    2013-03-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication claims in a sample of Protestant clergy. It estimated the proportion of clergy in the sample who had a claim for psychotropic medication (i.e., anti-depressants and anxiolytics) in 2005 and examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics, occupational distress and having a claim. Protestant clergy (n = 749) from nine denominations completed a mail survey and provided access to their pharmaceutical records. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and occupational distress on having a claim. The descriptive analysis revealed that 16 % (95 % Confidence interval [CI] 13.3 %-18.5 %) of the clergy in the sample had a claim for psychotropic medication in 2005 and that, among clergy who experienced frequent occupational distress, 28 % (95 % CI 17.5 %-37.5 %) had a claim. The regression analysis found that older clergy, female clergy, and those who experienced frequent occupational distress were more likely to have a claim. Due to recent demographic changes in the clergy population, including the increasing mean age of new clergy and the growing number of female clergy, the proportion of clergy having claims for psychotropic medication may increase in the coming years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of psychotropic medication among clergy.

  3. Predictor variables of clergy pedophiles.

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    Ruzicka, M F

    1997-10-01

    File data on familial traits, past sexual experience as a victim, and other traits identified in the literature as leading toward pedophilia, were summarized for 10 convicted clergy pedophiles to construct a set of variables possibly useful for screening. Further research is underway to identify trauma in early life and those personality-related variables current studies indicate as relevant.

  4. "The Friendly Clergy": Characteristics and Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; McNally, Christopher J.

    1998-01-01

    Among the recommendations possible in assessment of clients' religious beliefs is that of referral to the "friendly clergy." Delineates guidelines for referral as well as ideal characteristics of that spiritual profession. (Author)

  5. The Clergy Occupational Distress Index (CODI): background and findings from two samples of clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Meador, Keith G

    2013-06-01

    This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the Clergy Occupational Distress Index (CODI). The five-item index allows researchers to measure the frequency that clergy, who traditionally have not been the subject of occupational health studies, experience occupational distress. We assess the reliability and validity of the index using two samples of clergy: a nationally representative sample of clergy and a sample of clergy from nine Protestant denominations. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's scores are generated. Construct validity is measured by examining the association between CODI scores and depressive symptoms while controlling for demographic, ministerial, and health variables. In both samples, the five items of the CODI load onto a single factor and the Cronbach's alpha scores are robust. The regression model indicates that a high score on the CODI (i.e., more frequent occupational distress) is positively associated with having depressive symptoms within the last 4 weeks. The CODI can be used to identify clergy who frequently experience occupational distress and to understand how occupational distress affects clergy's health, ministerial career, and the functioning of their congregation.

  6. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

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    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  7. Predicting Burnout, Conflict Management Style, and Turnover among Clergy

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    Beebe, Ronald S.

    2007-01-01

    Typically, the literature on clergy burnout employs an individual model and describes the pastoral role from the perspective of multiple demands or offers prescriptions for recovery. Although some literature examines the systemic nature of clergy burnout, little attention is paid to the internal psychological dynamics surrounding social…

  8. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

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    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  9. Attitudes of Catholic and Protestant clergy on euthanasia and abortion.

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    Nagi, M H; Pugh, M D; Lazerine, N G

    1981-01-01

    The attitudes of a random sample of 614 Catholic and Protestant clergymen from the Cleveland area were analyzed in relation to the following: 1) acceptance of euthanasia; 2) the establishment of legal guidelines; and 3) the similarity between euthanasia and abortion. In general the clergy were not opposed to all forms of euthanasia. They tended to make strong distinctions between passive and active euthanasia. Active euthanasia was highly unacceptable to the clergy, but they viewed passive euthanasia more favorably. There was a definite ranking in priority of the different circumstances under which the termination of life-supporting techniques would be acceptable to the clergy. Also significant was the fact that they did not tend to evaluate the issues surrounding euthanasia completely from a spiritual, or sacred perspective. Both Protestants and Catholics tended to approve of passive euthanasia, but they highly disapproved of active euthanasia. Catholics were significantly more opposed to both forms of euthanasia. In general conservative Protestants were more opposed to passive euthanasia on most dimensions than were Catholics. Both Catholic and Protestant clergy showed fear that official approval of types of euthanasia would spread into abuses. Although spiritually oriented clergy tended to show somewhat less unfavorable views on euthanasia when compared with abortion, generally, appreciable differences or role types on this particular sub-dimension was lacking.

  10. The Impact of Education on Views of Homosexuality in the Senior Clergy of Hidalgo County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education.

  11. Clergy-Sensitive Mental Health Consultation: An Integrated Model & Training Manual for Group Leaders

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    Gray, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Clergy are significant providers of mental health services in the United States. The literature shows disparity between the need of clergy for mental health training and the type of brief training provided through seminar formats. It also indicates that the collaborative professional activities of clinicians and clergy may be enhanced when (1) the…

  12. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

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    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  13. Clergy and Counselors--Collaborating toward New Perspectives.

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    Getz, Hildy D.; Kirk, Ginger; Driscoll, Lisa G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a workshop and exploratory study done by counselors for a clergy group that requested assistance in working with families. Counselors focused on four family dynamic concepts: communication, distance, hierarchy, and adaptability to change. Data show that changes occurred in distance and adaptability to change concept perceptions among…

  14. Predictors of Clergy's Ability to Fulfill a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Karen; Geist, Monica; Kuo, Richard; Marshall, Day; Wines, James D

    2016-03-01

    Catholic, Jewish and Protestant clergy (n = 801) completed a survey to identify predictors of clergy's ability to fulfill a suicide gatekeeper role. Exploratory backward stepwise regression identified predictors of risk identification including suicide knowledge, religion, conducting suicide funerals, having an attitude that people have a right to die, age, and race. Predictors of ability to intervene include suicide knowledge, training, religion, right to die attitude, and ethnicity. Recommendations include more suicide training and clergy self-care.

  15. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

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    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  16. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

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    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  17. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

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    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  18. Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy.

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    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David

    2013-12-01

    The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health.

  19. Closeness to God among those doing God's work: a spiritual well-being measure for clergy.

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    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.

  20. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter's Thesis.

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    Uecker, Jeremy E; Lucke, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites-clergy-and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites.

  1. The appreciation of the spiritual in mental illness: a qualitative study of beliefs among clergy in the UK.

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    Leavey, Gerard

    2010-09-01

    Clergy in the UK continue to provide health and social care services. However, collaboration between mental health services and clergy may be problematic, particularly in the resolution of conflicting beliefs and therapeutic modalities. For example, belief in demonic possession and other supernatural causes of mental illness, which are contentious among secular medical practitioners, remain prevalent in many ethnoreligious communities. Thus, interpretations of illness by clergy within health systems may be crucial to appropriate intervention for people with mental illness. However, clergy conceptualizations of suffering also reveal something about the secularization within religious institutions through the despiritualization of particular phenomena. This paper on Christian clergy beliefs and attitudes to supernatural explanations, describes how the negotiation of such beliefs are complex and often equivocal among mainstream clergy but integral to the Pentecostal churches and evangelical clergy in the mainstream, institutional churches. These beliefs and their implications for collaboration with psychiatry are discussed in the context of a rapidly changing religious and cultural landscape.

  2. The role of the clergy in community mental health service: a critical assessment.

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    Bissonette, R

    1979-01-01

    Efforts to expand mental health manpower have taken three major directions: (1) increased use of consultation, (2) creating entirely new roles, and (3) offering training to persons engaged in roles or occupations presumably at strategic points of contact between the public and the mental health system (clergy, police, hairdressers, and bartenders). In this paper the role of modern clergy is examined along several dimensions in order to provide a more rational basis for determining their true potential as mental health service extenders or gatekeepers. Role aspects examined are: public acceptance, approachability, community stature, role separation, and professional identity. Clergy seem to be both appropriate and available as mental health resources.

  3. A Pilot Survey of Clergy Regarding Mental Health Care for Children

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    Leigh Blalock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety, past experiences with behavioral health workers, and resources available through their home institutions. Overall, surveyed clergy support collaborations to improve childhood mental health. However, they vary considerably in their confidence with recognizing mental illness in children and perceive significant barriers to collaborating with mental health providers.

  4. To welcome or affirm: Black clergy views about homosexuality, inclusivity, and church leadership.

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    Barnes, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.

  5. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter’s Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Lucke, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites—clergy—and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites. PMID:24072933

  6. Clergy, nobility and crown in Decadência

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    Yi Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.

  7. Marriage and family therapists and the clergy: a need for clinical collaboration, training, and research.

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    Weaver, A J; Koenig, H G; Larson, D B

    1997-01-01

    This article calls for greater collaboration between clergy and marriage and family therapists. It spells out the reasons for potential collaboration and suggests some specific ways it can occur. Marriage and family therapists acknowledge the highest rates of religious involvement of any mental health profession, placing them in a unique position to be involved in the continuing education of clergy. There is a clear need for research to understand how marriage and family therapists and clergy can more effectively work together. The dearth of research, training, and collaboration between the two vocations is all the more unfortunate given the clear evidence of the importance of religion in the personal lives of the clients we serve.

  8. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

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    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  9. A revised psychoticism scale for the revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: a study among clergy.

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    Francis, L J; Robbins, M; Louden, S H; Haley, J M

    2001-06-01

    The psychometric properties of an improved 6-item form of the Eysenck Psychoticism scale are examined among three samples of clergy, 1,227 Anglican clergywomen, 1,468 Roman Catholic male priests, and 1,321 male and female Methodist ministers. On the basis of these data the scale is commended for further use.

  10. Clergy, nobility and crown in Decadência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.No presente trabalho tenciono indagar as causas internas que dirigiram o império marítimo português à decadência. Depois de uma revisitação da historiografia relativa ao declínio do Estado da Índia, procedo a uma análise do triângulo de Monarca-Igreja-Nobreza durante os Descobrimentos e dos seus papéis respectivos no evoluir do Império português. É verificável que a absolutização da Coroa, a sobre-expansão do clero e a potenciação da aristocracia tornaram-se as características mais salientes e duradouras na estrutura social portuguesa depois de o país se lançar nas façanhas marítimas, do que resultou a agricultura prejudicada e indústria atrasada. A predominância dessas três instituições, por um lado, impediu a ascensão da burguesia, assim dificultando a transformação da economia

  11. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

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    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  12. The Study of Living Conditions and Perceived Needs for Social Security among Clergy in China: A Case Study of Guanzhong Qinling Area.

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    Zhai, Shaoguo; Zhuang, Qi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-02-17

    This study used quantitative and qualitative data collected in the Guanzhong Qinling area of China to examine living conditions and perceived needs for social security among men and women of the clergy. The survey finds that most respondent clergy are Buddhists. When the clergy have economic difficulties, their main types of support include self-support (28.8%), help from other believers (25.6%), and assistance from other community residents (18.4%). When the clergy are old, they tend to live alone (25%), receive institutional care from religious organizations (19%), and receive support from other believers (18%). When the clergy are ill, they will often select self-treatment (primarily the use of traditional Chinese medicine [25%], and spiritual healing [25%], including meditation, prayers, and psychotherapy) and receive treatment at hospitals (20%). The study found that the clergy perceived their needs for social security as either great (19.7%) or modest (36.5%). Very few clergy (10%) indicate the absence of social security needs. Most clergy believe that the key social security priorities should be medical care (34%), elderly care (29%), and charitable assistance (21%).

  13. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

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    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  14. "Sod 'Em, Sod 'Em Like There's No Gomorrah": Comparing Sexualities Education for Teachers, Doctors and Clergy in the UK

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    Nixon, David

    2013-01-01

    In the context of changes in UK public discourse concerning sexualities over the last decade, this paper compares education in the field of sexualities equality, enquiring how teachers, doctors and clergy are being prepared for their professional lives. Data from a qualitative study using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are analysed…

  15. Drama Queen or Trauma Queen: Does Elevating Self-Awareness Impact the Colonized Consciousness of Female Clergy?

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    Clifton, Angelita

    2013-01-01

    This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design…

  16. Drama Queen or Trauma Queen: Does Elevating Self-Awareness Impact the Colonized Consciousness of Female Clergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Angelita

    2013-01-01

    This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design serves: (1)…

  17. Beyond clergy: congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders.

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    Frenk, Steven M

    2014-03-01

    This study examines U.S. congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations. The analysis finds that 8.0 % of congregations sponsor social services for people with mental disorders, and that congregations' religious tradition influences the likelihood that they sponsor them. Most of the services assist people with substance use disorders. Coupled with findings from previous studies, we conclude that most of the support and care people with mental disorders receive from congregations comes from clergy rather than formal social services. Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to provide social services for people with mental disorders should take note of the findings about the programs already underway and their patterning in order to accurately pinpoint nexuses of congregational receptivity.

  18. Ministry-Related Burnout and Stress Coping Mechanisms Among Assemblies of God-Ordained Clergy in Minnesota.

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    Visker, Joseph D; Rider, Taylor; Humphers-Ginther, Anastasia

    2017-06-01

    Clergy members suffering from burnout face both personal and professional complications. This study assessed occupational burnout and stress coping mechanisms among ministers affiliated with the Assemblies of God, a denomination that has received little attention in previous burnout-related studies. A cross-sectional design was employed using two instruments with acceptable psychometric properties. Approximately 65 % of those surveyed were either suffering from burnout or on the verge of burnout. Statistical differences in coping mechanism use were found between those who were and were not experiencing some level of burnout. The results of this study add to the existing understanding of occupational burnout among clergy members and ways in which burnout may be alleviated.

  19. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

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    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed.

  20. The Orthodox Clergy of Romania in the Second Half of the ХІХ Century (on the Materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tserkovnaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the Orthodox Parish Clergy of Romania based on the materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry». The a uthor shows the comparative characteristic of the country and city clergy and considers the level of its education, competency, everyday life and influence on the parish. On the basis of the publications found in «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry» the author analyses widespread among the clergy bribery, drunkenness and dissoluteness. It reveals that the material support and educational process at the seminaries didn't contribute to the increase of the intellectual and moral level of the priests. The article also considers an information about the quantity and the condition of the churches and temples in Romania.

  1. Role of clergy in the creation and function of the Serbian state from the time of First Serbian Uprising

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    Janjić Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Priesthood fulfills their mission for Serb people, and therefore shares the fate of people. It recognizes and shares needs, problems and aspirations of Serb nation. So that was the case in the First Serbian Uprising, hence the same needs and aspirations of the Serbian People and Serbian Clergy to get rid of the Ottoman occupation and have their own state in which they would live by their own laws. This paper attempts to show which way the Clergy was engaged to lead to the establishment of Serbian authority, on the ruins of the Ottoman feudal order on the territory of Belgrade Province, and which way was it included in their work. The intention was the attempt to show what was directly done to lead to the establishment of the Serbian State in the making, but also indirectly through mission of priests within the clergy in order to reach this goal. Specifically, the endeavor was to show how the Karlovac Metropolitanate Stevan Stratimirović, the largest and undisputed spiritual authority among the insurgents of Serb Uprising, with his frequent invitations, (including the addressing to individual insurgent commanders in order to respect the law and order contributed to creating an environment for the development and operation of the authority of a new Serb State. It seems that, in literature about history and law, and in historiography in general, such activities that indirectly favored the creation of the state of First Serbian Uprising were not sufficiently addressed. But here, such issues were at least partially indicated.

  2. An Analysis of Foreign Diplomatic Aid to the Catholic Clergy during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939

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    Antonio Manuel Moral Roncal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the European crisis of the thirties of the twentieth century, the most significant persecution of the Catholic Church in the history of Spain was generated. With the ultimate goal of saving lives, the Foreign Diplomatic Corps provided many humanitarian services, the most important of those the massive granting of diplomatic and consular asylum to more than 11,000 people, including Catholics and clergy. This article analyzes the genesis and realization of this fact and its consequences, which were supposed to maintain and facilitate a clandestine Catholic cult in the Spain of Popular Front.

  3. Facilitators and barriers to HIV activities in religious congregations: perspectives of clergy and lay leaders from a diverse urban sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Werber, Laura; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E; Mata, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines facilitators and barriers to HIV activities within religious congregations, the relative internal or external sources of these influences, and suggestive differences across congregational types. Results are based on in-depth interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57) from 14 congregations in Los Angeles County, California, purposively selected to reflect diversity in racial-ethnic composition, denomination, size, and HIV activity level. Many common facilitators and barriers were related to norms and attitudes, only a few of which appeared overtly associated with theological orientations. Clergy support was a facilitator particularly prevalent among congregations having higher HIV activity levels, indicating its importance in sustaining and expanding HIV programs. Resource issues were also prominent, with material resource barriers more frequently mentioned by smaller congregations and human resource barriers more among larger congregations. Organizational structure issues were mostly centered on external linkages with various social service, public health, and faith-based entities. Analysis of internal versus external sources highlights the roles of different stakeholders within and outside congregations in promoting HIV activities. Potential differences across congregational types represent fruitful areas for future research.

  4. PARISH CLERGY OF KUBAN DURING RECESSION OF THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (ON MATERIALS OF THE STAVROPOL DIOCESAN SHEETS

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    Natalya B. Akoeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the question of a role of parish clergy which the activity, behavior, moral shape formed public ideas of the Russian church in general is investigated. It is noted that in conditions of the first Russian revolution position of parsons as spiritual pastors, was rather difficult. They should have read sermons, to speak with the parishioners, but they didn't know what assessment to give to the taking place events. And the many thousands clergy on the whole was silent about revolutionaries since the majority itself didn't understand what occurs in the country. However, a part of priests, understanding all complexity of a situation, tried to offer solutions of a problem of moral education of parishioners and counteraction to revolutionary promotion. In their opinion, it was necessary to expand scales of the traditional oral sermon; to discuss the main events which are taking place in the country with parishioners; to improve the education; to issue newspapers, etc. But in general, the ROC couldn't become the political educator of the parishioners. 

  5. African-American clergy's perceptions of the leading health problems in their communities and their role in supporting parishioners' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Donnie W; West, Donnie W; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie; Branch, Cheryl A; Novgrod, Judith; Sim, Tiffanie; Williams, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    This article is a report on a survey of Southern California pastors to learn of their perceptions of the leading health problems in their congregations. Participants (N=41) identified stress, overweight, and obesity as the top three health indicators that effect the health of their congregations. Tobacco use and substance abuse were listed among the top five. From a list of health problems, pastors felt that from the pulpit they could impact parishioners responsible sexual behavior most. Pastors expressed their opinions about the reasons for certain maladies and addictions. The findings indicate room for improvement in building clergy's understanding of the nature of illness and addiction and in empowering them in their role of supporting healthy behaviors in the African-American community.

  6. Image of the clergy in the cinema of the conquest of Mexico: the Black Legend in the “Nuevo Mundo” of Gabriel Retes

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    Manuel Jesús González Manrique

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.

  7. Ecclesiastical justice and social control in Burgos during de fifteenth century: the punishment of offenses and crimes among the clergy in late medieval Castile

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    Susana Guijarro González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the relationship between the extensive regulation regarding behavior and acts, adopted by the Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter of Burgos, and its reflection on the justice system of penance during the Fifteenth century. To this end, 282 cases of offenses and crimes, obtained from the Cathedral Chapter Acts of Burgos, are analysed. Firstly, a typology of the registered offenses and crimes is established, along with the terminology which is used in the sources to define them. Secondly, the punishments applied to the different wrong doigs are classified according to their frequency and variability, and also to their relationship with the cathedral statutes and the rules of the synods. Finally, the degree of involvement that clergy and laity had in the prosecuted crimes is examined. All of this aims at determining whether or not there is a discrepancy between the norm and its implementation.

  8. Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15881

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    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastical discourse searched opposing to their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages. 

  9. La culture juridique des hommes d’Église en Anjou et dans le Maine (XIVe – début XVIe siècles - The Legal Culture of the Clergy in Anjou and Maine (from the 14th to the Early 16th Centuries

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    MATZ, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.

  10. MINANGKABAU CLERGIES AND THE WRITING OF HADITH

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    Jannatul Husna bin Ali Nuar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the barns in the Islamic scholars throughout Indonesian archipelago, many Minangkabau scientists in the field of hadith had born figures spelled out with no exception. Trend of works by scholars of Minang in the field of hadith had also shown its own special evidences. Not only the work of translation and Sharh were generated, but also the original works in the field of hadith even drafted in Arabic. The main purpose of this article is to introduce a number of works on hadith and the science of hadith generated by the egg heads of Minangkabau, typically in the 20th century. As for example, Professor Mahmud Yunus, Engku Mudo Zainuddin Hamidy, Ustaz Fachruddin Husain Datuk Majo Indo, Professor Zainal Abidin Ahmad, Buya Mawardi and Ustaz Muhammad Oemar Bakry Besar Datuk Tan. This study inspired cutting-edge scholars, even if they were graduates of local Surau and Madrasah, glorious hadith’s books of high-value compilation were published similar to the context of riwayah-dirayah hadith, fiqh al-hadith or mushthalah hadith. The works were worthy triggers the spirit and inspiration of Muslim intellectuals today for innovation and transformation. In addition, the recent Muslim intellectual were exposed to a lot of formal higher education and academic degree holders, to be more productive in the delivering of similar treasury with the supports of sophisticated modern technology. Above all, the triggers should have been for the sake of preserving the writings of hadith in this beloved country

  11. Linguagem, saberes e mediação sobrenatural: magia, clerezia e intervenção sobre a natureza no cotidiano e nas representações do Ocidente Medieval = Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.

  12. ¿«Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? La exención del clero de la ciudad de Nápoles entre las finanzas urbanas y fiscalidad papal (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? The exemption of the clergy of the city of Naples between urban finances and papal taxation (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? L’esenzione del clero della città di Napoli tra finanze cittadine e fiscalità papale (1535-1618

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Carlo GIANNINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la construcción de mecanismos de exención del clero de los impuestos sobre el consumo en la ciudad de Nápoles entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de evitar el fraude y contra el pago anual de una suma de dinero, el clero napolitano fue de hecho llamado a pagar los impuestos sobre géneros de amplio consumo. El uso de los fondos de estas «franquicias» pronto se convirtió en objeto de disputa dentro del mismo clero. El Papado rápidamente asumió un papel clave, tanto como fuente de legitimidad de la exacción, cuanto como beneficiario del dinero de las «franquicias» del clero de Nápoles, que fue destinado a la Fabbrica di San Pietro en Roma.The aim of this article is to analyze the construction of mechanisms of exemption of the clergy from excise taxes in the city of Naples between XVIth and XVIIth centuries. In order to avoid fraud and against annual repayment of a sum of money, the Neapolitan clergy was in fact called upon to pay the taxes on certain consumer goods. The use of the proceeds of this «franchigie» soon became the subject of dispute among the clergy. The Papacy quickly assumed a key role, both as legitimizing power for the levy and as the beneficiary of the money of the exemptions of the clergy of Naples, which was allocated for the Fabric of St. Peter’s Church in Rome.Scopo di questo articolo è analizzare la costruzione dei meccanismi di esenzione degli ecclesiastici dalle gabelle nella città di Napoli fra Cinque e Seicento. Al fine di evitare frodi e a fronte del rimborso annuale di una somma di denaro, il clero napoletano era infatti chiamato a pagare le gabelle su alcuni generi di consumo. La destinazione del gettito di tale «franchigia» divenne ben presto oggetto di contrasti all’interno del clero. Il papato assunse ben presto un ruolo chiave, sia come legittimatore del prelievo sia come beneficiario del denaro delle franchigie del clero di Napoli, che furono

  13. The Iranian Islamic Clergy: Governmental Politics and Theocracy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-05

    tradition to lino ic li’gi a" az.,t.n - ti1n In dung so, they reactivated the process which na& 0uc _e into the early nineteenth century equilibrium...essf igureheiLd was highi Ight od urmtIS in ii-Angos ucS r (eVo)IutIonary Council enfovci press , L-tnsorship against papuz,> cons lCdet too 34 ~r IL i:a...li. It c .ly, Ltue tuardis h.axe -d A C, ), too: i I".V .~> -ino :c:-Lion b-twtec -ti,, a. .x.. U l.A, Wfeet COW -A. tnt. Ce flet ss tof j o int ope

  14. A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…

  15. Attitudes of Catholic and Protestant Clergy Toward Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Even though Catholic and Protestant clergymen, in about the same proportions, tend to see the terminal patient as competent to make decisions concerning euthanasia, the two groups, strongly agree that neither the individual patient nor the state should be allowed sole responsibility for the decision. (Author)

  16. A Unique Betrayal: Clergy Sexual Abuse in the Context of the Catholic Religious Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The sexual abuse of children and adolescents by Roman Catholic priests entails a violation of meaning as well as persons. Precisely because the priest is regarded by Catholics as an "alter Christus," another Christ, his violation of a child's or adolescent's body is also a violation of a sacred trust and worldview. The implications of this…

  17. The United States and Iraq’s Shi’ite Clergy: Partners or Adversaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    time of this writing, Sistani has consistently refused to meet with U.S. offi cials, including U.S. administrator Paul Bremmer.43 He 14 apparently...Jockeying for Shiite Hearts,” Chicago Tribune, May 1, 2003, internet. 56. Catherine Philp , “Cleric Raises Shai Militia to Defend Faith and Defy America

  18. Assessing Gender Differences in the Relationship between Negative Interaction with the Clergy and Health among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    A rapidly growing literature indicates that supportive social relationships are associated with better physical and mental health. However, this research further reveals that interaction with others may also be conflicted and unpleasant. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate negative interaction that arises within a social context that…

  19. Écritures de clergie. De la charte à la littérature (Castille, XIIe-XIIIe siècles.

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    Amaia Arizaleta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesdames et Messieurs les membres du jury, je voudrais commencer mon exposé en vous remerciant très sincèrement d’avoir accepté de lire mon dossier et de le juger en conséquence. Depuis le moment où j’ai connu la composition définitive du Jury de mon Habilitation, j’ai souvent anticipé ce que notre conversation de cet après-midi pourrait être ; tout en la redoutant, car mon travail contient assurément des erreurs et des affirmations discutables, je l’attends depuis longtemps : très rares sero...

  20. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  1. Attitudes of the Secular Clergy towards the Government of José I during the Spanish War of Independence Actitudes del clero secular ante el gobierno de José I durante la Guerra de la Independencia

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    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The affirmation of traditional historiographers that there were only a few French leaning clergymen during the Spanish War of Independence does not hold up in light of new studies. As shown in this article, a good number of bishops, many canons and more than a few priests, collaborated with the government of José I. This article analyzes their attitude towards this government.La afirmación de la historiografía tradicional de que fueron pocos los clérigos afrancesados no se puede sostener a la luz de los nuevos estudios. Un buen número de obispos, muchos canónigos y no pocos curas, colaboran con el gobierno de José I, según se muestra en el artículo, analizando su actitud ante el gobierno josefino.

  2. Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olendzki, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.

  3. VOTOS A FAVOR DEL REGALISMO EN EL ALTO CLERO CHARQUEÑO (SIGLO XVII Votes in favour of the Regalism in the High Clergy of Charcas (17th Century

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    Andrés Eichmann Oehrli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La reflexión sobre el mejor modo de gobernar y de armonizar las potestades civiles y eclesiásticas tuvo particular impulso en La Plata (hoy Sucre, Bolivia, a fines del siglo XVII. El escrito más importante de ese tiempo es un voluminoso tratado del sardo Pedro Frasso, fiscal de dicha Real Audiencia. Algunos de los más encumbrados personajes de la ciudad (entre ellos cinco eclesiásticos elogian a este jurista por medio de cartas que son publicadas en los preliminares de ambos volúmenes del tratado. Me interesa: 1 situar estos paratextos en relación con las controversias en torno al regalismo; 2 delinear el perfil de sus autores; 3 poner a la vista sus argumentos; 4 ensayar respuestas a la pregunta por las motivaciones de su adhesión, así, como por las del silencio de otros.In La Plata (nowadays Sucre, Bolivia, reflections on the best way of governing and harmonizing civil and ecclesiastical authority were of particular interest at the end of the 17Th century. The most important text of that time is a voluminous treatise written by the Sardinian Pedro Frasso, a public prosecutor of the Royal Audience mentioned above. Some of the highest personages of the city (among them five ecclesiastics eulogized this jurist by means of letters published within the preliminaries to the two volumes of the treatise. I would like 1 to situate these paratexts with regard to the controversies about the regalismo; 2 to outline the profile of the authors; 3 to make their argumentation visible; and 4 to explain the motivations of their adhesion while others remained silent.

  4. 76 FR 2135 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... so that it protects public safety, holds offenders accountable, and provides treatment and..., elected officials, tribal leaders, clergy, faith-based organizations, and especially families and young..., family strengthening, recreational activities, and extended reentry aftercare to help...

  5. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends People who are very ill often ask spiritual questions, in seeking comfort, meaning and hope. While clergy, chaplains and other spiritual leaders may play an important role in spiritual ...

  6. Clérigos a la sombra de un pariente en el XVIII burgalés

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    The Catastro of Ensenada contains, inside the thick volumes of the Respuestas Particulares or Memoriales, a detailed description of the vital parameters of the clergy. The usual formula is to take care of the ecclesiastical with independent housing and to study their professional activities. However, we also discovered the existence of clergy who, by different circumstances, are forced to live under the order of any close relation, within the walls of their own households and under the shadow...

  7. Militiaman to Regular: The Training of the American Soldier 1763 - 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    happiness , and to do all they lawfully can, to 44 promote it." The clergy also explained to the militia the peoples’ -.4. .4- .4...with a power, in some degree, to secure that happiness . . . ." To protect these rights, they explained that men had formed societies. The clergy...the Continental Army moved -,ad seized Dorchester Heights. S. All during the night the soldiers worked furiously to .~ ~ construct their defenses

  8. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  9. The Role of Religious Leaders in Suicide Prevention

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    Tatsushi Hirono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.

  10. El alto clero de Nueva España ante el subsidio eclesiástico de Felipe V

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Salvador, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the reactions of the high clergy of New Spain to the implementation of the ecclesiastical subsidy in the Indies. From the study of an interesting correspondence between bishops and cathedral chapters is possible to know the different opinions that the new tax generated. Without doubt, the subsidy tested the loyalty of the clergy to the new reign of Felipe V and began a new phase in their relationship with the Indian Church. Despite the failure of tax collection money to th...

  11. Project DEGRUPE: Goals and Historiographical Contextualization

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    COELHO, Maria Helena da Cruz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main axes of the project DEGRUPE whose principal objective is to study the role of the clergy in the construction of the Iberian monarchies and mobility circuits designed by these protagonists. To fulfill this objective, the interuniversity project team of DEGRUPE opted for a comparative perspective between different kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The second part of this paper consists of a brief analysis of the underlying historiographical framework of the project including mainly research on relationship between clergy and royalty in the middle ages.

  12. ОФІЦІЙНА ПОЛІТИЧНА ПОЗИЦІЯ РИМО-КАТОЛИЦЬКОГО ДУХОВЕНСТВА ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОЇ УКРАЇНИ ЩОДО РОСІЙСЬКОГО САМОДЕРЖАВСТВА У XIX — НА ПОЧАТКУ XX ст.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Хитровська Ю. В.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis of the Rome-Catholic Church political position in the Right-Bank Ukraine to Russian autocracy in the 19th— early 20th ct. For the investigating of this problem author used scientific literature, archives documents and the materials of the periodical press. Rome-Catholic Church in the Right-Bank Ukraine on the whole supported the policy of the autocracy, because the most religion ministers of this confession satisfied social security, which gave them Russian government. But existing of social stratificationon also seriously influenced on their official position , because among clergy of this confession were as hierarchs, as a simple clergy. Their political positions often did not coincide. Church’s hierarchs on the whole supported Russian autocracy. Simple clergy often had another, non-official position, display of opposition. Anti-Catholic Church’s policy of government which played vital importance role in forming of Rome-Catholic clergy political position was also very important in this situation.

  13. Annotated Bibliography on Inservice Training for Allied Professionals and Nonprofessionals in Community Mental Health. Public Health Service Publication No. 1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 169 entries of materials published between 1960 and 1967 classified into the following sections: (1) Physicians--Roles and Continuing Education, (2) Nurses, (3) School Psychologists, (4) Teachers, Special Educators, (5) Clergy, (6) Social Work Technicians, Welfare Workers, (7) Police, (8) Mental Health Workers…

  14. You Must Change Your Life: A Narrative and Theological Inquiry into the Experiences of Transformative Learning in Clinical Pastoral Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Logan Carroll

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study is to explore and describe the experiences of transformative learning in seminary students and clergy who have participated in a Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) residency program while providing pastoral care to patients in an acute care hospital setting. This research focuses on the affective…

  15. 76 FR 40394 - Final Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... justice system so that it protects public safety, holds offenders accountable, and provides treatment and... leaders, clergy, faith-based organizations, and especially families and young people themselves--who have... Offender Reentry Project, the Tribal Youth Program, among other programs, allow grantees to provide...

  16. Teaching Professional Sexual Ethics across the Seminary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Darryl W.

    2013-01-01

    Clergy often begin their ministerial careers unprepared to handle issues of professional power, sexuality and intimacy, and interpersonal boundaries. In response, denominational bodies and theological schools are seeking together ways to enhance the teaching of "professional sexual ethics"--referring to the integration of professional ethics,…

  17. ORTHODOX FAITH AND ROMANIA CREDINTA ORTODOXĂ ȘI ROMÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Bugiulescu Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry

  18. Review of Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Simmons

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind 'expands on a pilot study of non-believing Protestant ministers that Daniel C. Dennett and Linda LaScola published in 'Evolutionary Psychology 'in 2010. As a continuation of the study, this slight but engaging book similarly concerns those who entered the clergy but were unable to move beyond their doubts.

  19. The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagha, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Lebanese Shi`ite resistance movement, Hizbullah, is going through a remarkable political and ideological transformation. Hizbullah was founded in 1978 by various sectors of Lebanese Shi`ite clergy and cadres, and with Iranian backing as an Islamic movement protesting against social and politica

  20. Safe Environment Training: Effects on Catholic Schoolteachers' and Administrators' School Security and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, James Brian

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, in light of the sexual abuse crisis in the Catholic church, The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops established "The charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" that mandated safe environment training for clergy personnel, and volunteers working in the Catholic church. In this study, under the auspices of a…

  1. An Inquiry into the Selection and Spiritual Formation of Catholic Public School Lay Principals in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domfeh-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of the Second Vatican Council on the role of the laity in the Church has re-awakened a renewed participation of the laity in the evangelizing mission of the Church. The lay faithful are now occupying a number of significant positions in the Church and are playing various leadership roles once exclusively played by the clergy and…

  2. Educating American Baptist Pastors: A National Survey of Church Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohall, Kirkpatrick G.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the typical Baptist pastor has evolved well beyond providing spiritual direction. Congregations expect them to fulfill complex leadership roles, similar to those in secular institutions, such as church administrators, political strategists, and social activists. Leadership preparation in seminaries for clergy has not kept up with the…

  3. Conqueror and Administrator: Civil and Military Actions of Marshall Louis-Gabriel Suchet in the Spanish Province of Aragon, 1808-1813

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    De Santander, Although not deeply religious, Suchet, whose education had been related to religion , identified the significant influence ofthe clergy...pinosa he wasre,placed by La Romana , made commander ,of the :forces of the Coronilla. ,He Jo~ght throughout" . :years 1809-::1.1 ’in:the :south

  4. Shepherds of the Lord : Priests and episcopal statutes in the Carolingian period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, A.C. van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed light on two, linked phenomena of the Carolingian period that have thusfar been largely ignored. The first is a group of low clergy, the priests who worked and lived in the many rural settlements of the empire, while the second consists of a recently edited corpus of texts w

  5. Geriatric, Ethics, and Palliative Care: Tending to the Mind & Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Nancy E.; White, Paula; Nadeau, Kathy K.; Chessa, Frank; Dreher, George K.; Frost, Cindy; Hurwitz, Craig; Nesbitt, Marylou; Scotton, David W.; Todorich, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the outcomes from the William Randolph Hearst Scholars Program (HSP) conducted at Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine from September 2005 to September 2006. The HSP was an interdisciplinary (nursing, rehabilitation therapies, social work, clergy, pharmacy, physicians, respiratory therapy, physician's…

  6. Teaching Spiritual Care to Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda A.

    1996-01-01

    Spiritual care that enhances patient well-being should be taught to nurses, but it is unclear how or if it is being taught, according to a survey of 685 Scottish nurses. Nurses should be aware of the spiritual dimension of their own lives, have experience and learning from crises, and collaborate with clergy in meeting patients' spiritual needs.…

  7. The Intersection of Dominican Values and Women's and Gender Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Tara M.

    2016-01-01

    The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…

  8. Assessing the Impact of Community Marriage Policies on County Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Paul James; Weed, Stan E.; Olsen, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Community marriage initiatives (CMIs) are designed to strengthen marriage and increase marital stability by addressing relevant laws, policies, and cultural factors. We examined a specific CMI designed to lower divorce rates by establishing a shared public commitment among clergy to strengthen marriage. A mixed-effects general linear model was…

  9. The Obscurantist Design in Saint Augustine's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper examines Saint Augustine's obscurantist preferences in popular preaching (as distinguished from his episcopal instructions to other clergy) as a way of identifying one of the classical influences on Christian rhetorical strategy. The first section of the paper offers a comparison of Augustine's theoretical approval of homiletic…

  10. A Social Marketing Campaign in Denver: Reducing the Risk of Elder Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Judy; Miller, Jacque; Curtis, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Acknowledging the pain and loss senior citizens experience due to fraud, the Denver District Attorney's Office launched a campaign--"Clergy Against Senior Exploitation (CASE)"--to reduce fraud perpetrated on older persons. The thrust of this project was preventing fraud by educating older adults through their religious affiliations in…

  11. This is Who We Are: The Politics of Identity in Twentieth Century Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    power remained centralized within a small number of religious leaders, while maintaining a veneer of democratic process.52 The clergy had seized power...time to consolidate the power of his new regime, formalize the structure of his new government, and cement its control of the country.79 Identity

  12. ORTHODOX FAITH AND ROMANIA CREDINTA ORTODOXĂ ȘI ROMÂNIA

    OpenAIRE

    PhD. Bugiulescu Marin

    2015-01-01

    Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry

  13. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    would prefer to opt for this latter supposition (it is after all suggested by Inic’s evolution from a lucid critic of many nega- tive things within... dream of secular activity, of dividing people according to their religious affiliation, of making the clergy a partner with sociopolitical

  14. The Role of Doubt in Religious Identity Development and Psychological Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Tiago; Coffen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The need to develop a strong religious identity has concerned clergy and educators for many years. However, how religious identity development occurs has seldom been analyzed or used to guide educators' efforts to promote identity development in their students. This discussion delves into the framework of identity development as described by…

  15. Entre aromas de incienso y pólvora : Los Altos de Jalisco, México, 1917-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Ulloa, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Mexican Revolution and on the opposition strategies followed by the opponents of the revolutionary regime who lived in the region known as Los Altos de Jalisco. In this particular region, the Catholic population, supported by the Clergy, was in constant conflict with the r

  16. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? An Examination of Calling, Congruence, Job Design and Personality as Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillsen, C.; Earl, J. K.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether congruence, calling, job characteristics or personality were better predictors of job satisfaction and tenure. The sample consisted of 1968 employees across four different job roles: sales engineers (N = 309), graphic designers (N = 383), teachers (N = 481) and clergy (N = 795). Data was collected as part of a selection…

  17. Overview of the TREC 2012 Crowdsourcing Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    women clergy 445 1404 62 5% 29 2% 69% tourists, violence 446 2020 162 9% 119 6% 90% Stirling engine 447 1588 16 1% 2 0% 100% Table 1: Each of the 10...descrip- tive concepts, e.g., sky , clouds, birds, the task in IRAT was to gather relevance decisions for a set of 90 search topics and 20k images

  18. Saving Our Children from Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Describes current efforts undertaken by the Catholic community to prevent alcoholism and drug abuse among young people. Outlines the objectives of such preventive programs and actions currently being taken. Highlights efforts including parent education programs, workshops for teachers, clergy, and community networks. (WL)

  19. Metamorphoses of Visualisation: Experiences of Interpreting Stained-Glass Artworks of Anglican Emmanuel College Chapel of Cambridge University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronova, Lidia V.; Chugunova, Tatiana G.; Khazina, Anna V.; Babayeva, Anastasiya V.; Shmeleva, Natalia V.

    2016-01-01

    This research was caused by an accidental discovery of a photo reproduction of one unknown in Russia masterpiece of British stained glass art of the Victorian age found on open spaces of the Internet: a full-height portrait of John Colet, a famous member of clergy of the pre-reform period, Erasmus' and Thomas More's friend and mentor. Exquisite…

  20. Decolonization and the Politics of Syncretism: The Catholic Church, Indigenous Theology and Cultural Autonomy in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norget, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    The author's examination of Indigenous Theology and the indigenous pastoral is based on several periods of research over the past ten years in both rural and urban areas of Oaxaca state in Mexico, including participant-observation in several different kinds of church-directed settings and activities, and extensive interviews with clergy and…

  1. Las intervenciones regias en las elecciones episcopales en el reinado de Juan II de Castilla (1406-1454. El caso de los arzobispos de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarroel González, Óscar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The archbishops of Toledo was, along the Middle Ages, the principal clergy in Castile, as it's well-known. The intervention of the king John II of Castile in his elections is an example of the royal capacity to intervene in the promotions of clergy and the eclesiastical elections.

    Est un fait bien connu qui les archevêques de Toledo étaient, pendant le Moyen Age, la principal dignité ecclésiastique de Castile. Les interventions du roi Jean II dans leurs élections sont un exemple à l'habilité royal pour intervenir dans les promotions et les elections ecclésiastiques.

  2. An Invisible Wall: The Relationship Between Congregational and Seminary Libraries in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Klemme Eliceiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theological (seminary and congregational libraries in the Christian and Jewish religious traditions have coexisted in some fashion since their beginnings; however, little research exists regarding the relationship between these related-but-distinct library types. This essay explores the relationship between these types of libraries through a survey of their literatures and available statistics, considering their histories and contexts within the broader religious and library worlds, as well as their current relationship in light of their diverse religious institutions. The roles of these libraries will be examined regarding religious, theological, and information literacies as well as exploring their staffs, their staff's education, funding, library hours, their goals, objectives, and outcomes, particularly regarding the changing landscape of religious and theological education for both clergy and laypeople.  It concludes with future possibilities in the religious library world in a congregational landscape that often cannot afford full-time, traditionally-theologically-educated clergy, much less paid congregational librarians.

  3. The Interpretation of Cause of Death 53 Among Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, Magdalena

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies on mortality in 18th and 19th century Sweden have discussed the validity of cause of death information. The fact that the Swedish clergy historically were responsible for the stipulation and reporting of causes of death has initiated a discussion on the medical competence of the clergy. Other issues concern the level of accomplishment in medical science and the effects of instructions and regulations on cause of death registration. This paper argues that cause of death analyses are quite useful for the understanding of mortality transitions if cause of death information is placed in its proper context and are combined with other kinds of mortality analyses. An awareness of 1 the conditions under which causes of death were stipulated, 2 what regulations were in effect at the particular time, and 3 the environmental and epidemiological changes provides good prerequisites for successful use of cause of death information.

  4. Religión, guerra y ciudad: clero y gobierno local en Puebla durante la guerra con Estados Unidos (1847-1848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rosas Salas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the clergy in Puebla (Mexico in defense of the city during the war with the United States, and their ability to reach agreements with civil authorities in order to protect the civilian population, maintain order despite the military occupation, and maintain religious services as a factor of public tranquility. It argues that, thanks to negotiation and agreement between both powers, devotional practice became a fundamental factor in maintaining order. The research was based on local files and a group of published sources dealing with the relations between the U.S. army and the clergy in Puebla, leading to the conclusion that Catholicism was a factor of cohesion in defending the city.

  5. The process of hispanizaton in early New Spain transformation of collective identities during and after the conquest of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Felix

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the methods and results of cultural change during the conquest of Mexico and in the early New Spain. It is the attempt to systemize the mechanisms of Christianisation and «Hispanization» — which can be understood as a reciprocal process of the transformation of collective identities. The fact that an indigenous clergy was not created was generally misunderstood as the Nahuas’ incapability to meet to the requirements of Spanish morality and civilization («policía...

  6. ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Policy: Is It Time to Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    of consideration in re-examining this sensitive issue. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Homosexual , Gay , Lesbian , Sexual Orientation, Military Values 16. SECURITY...26 March 2009 WORD COUNT: 7,539 PAGES: 38 KEY TERMS: Homosexual , Gay , Lesbian , Sexual Orientation, Military Values CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified For 15... homosexual agenda as gay clergy occupy the sacred pulpit.5 The Gay Rights Movement has been effective in slowly but methodically moving the American

  7. Terrorism: National Security Policy and the Home Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-15

    the centuries of political powerlessness, the Imami Shii clergy developed a theory of general agency which justified their claim to be the...universally valid moral law of Islam transcends the territorial and national limitations which an anthropocentric philosophy of history imposes on communism and...Muslim community divided along the lines it has preserved until this day. 30. E. Kohlberg , “The Development of the Imami Shi’s Doctrine of Jihad

  8. Go Forth and Multiply: How the Chaplain’s Actions can Have Strategic Impact in the Current Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    International Studies in Washington D. C. notes that “training on religion within U.S. government agencies is often overly focused on doctrine and...involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan, John Esposito, Professor of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, predicted that religion will only become...NCMAF was founded in 1901 when the War Department (Department of Defense) began to require that clergy secure an “ ecclesiastical endorsement” as

  9. The resilience of the eighteenth century hymn in contemporary Church of Ireland (Anglican) worship : a liturgical study / David Joseph Baxter

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The combination of observational, anecdotal and circumstantial evidence suggests that, in the present-day Christian church, older, traditional hymns are slowly but inexorably being replaced by modern, contemporary ones. Whilst it is a truism that hymnody, like every other aspect of civilisation, moves forward with the times, there still remains a large number of people, congregations and clergy for whom the early eighteenth century English hymn is a genre that remains ever-popu...

  10. Finding Religion: An Analysis of Theology LibGuides

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    Gerrit van Dyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will compare various LibGuides in theology from thirty-seven different institutions. These institutions include universities granting undergraduate and graduate degrees in religion or theology as well as seminaries for professional clergy. Data on LibGuides content, such as books, ebooks, journals, databases, librarian contact information, and others, will be compared and analyzed. Resources especially tailored to religious and theological studies will also be highlighted.

  11. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Khamene’i: Clergy Must Publicize Unity by Action (KEYHAN, 8 May 85) 188 Khamene’i Urges Sustained Campaign Against Illeteracy (KEYHAN, 25 Apr 85...male workers whose needs per head are higher than for a population with more balanced agersex structures). Industries catering for other con...needs arid pollution risks, minimum efficient scale of production and value-added per worker, etc. At the same time, With population and skill

  12. Modeling Stakeholder Decision Logic: A Case Study of Lebanese Hezbollah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    100 and 400 (Farndon 2007). Khan’s iron-fisted rule alienated the clergy (and others), but it was his relationship with Nazi Germany ahead of World...IRGC (Coughlin 135). 27 Musa al-Sadr’s disappearance is an enigma . Not everyone agrees with Coughlin’s characterization. Barbara Slavin, in an...excused [the occupation] for the common good” in light of the threat faced with Nazi Germany (Gardner 2009), but Roosevelt disavowed “any designs on the

  13. La culture juridique des clercs dans le Royaume de Hongrie sous les rois angevins au XIVe siècle - Judical Culture of Clerics in the Medieval Hungarian Kingdom under the Angevin Kings (14th Century

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    KISS, Gergely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Th e present work aims to show the main elements of the legal culture of the clergy in the 14th century-Hungary. Th e starting point is the explanation of the notion “legal culture”, the presentation of its three main elements, the legal service at the royal court, the activities of the loca credibilia and of the ecclesiastical courts, the personal legal culture. Th e paper shows not only the connection of the legal culture and the development of the bureaucratic writing, the chancellery, but the eff ects of the university studies as well, its main turning points and periods (Paris, Bologna, Padova, with a special focus on the Angevin era (14th century. We can state that the legal culture of Hungarian clergy underwent several changes in this era. With the laicisation of the bureaucratic activities, the royal court needed representatives who had legal experiences for its international aff airs, thus it favoured the change of the legal culture of the clergy at the court. Th e same period is also very important because of the ecclesiastical and secular justice. Several elements of personal legal culture (e. g. collection are also presented.

  14. El alto clero de Nueva España ante el subsidio eclesiástico de Felipe V

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    Aguirre Salvador, Rodolfo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reactions of the high clergy of New Spain to the implementation of the ecclesiastical subsidy in the Indies. From the study of an interesting correspondence between bishops and cathedral chapters is possible to know the different opinions that the new tax generated. Without doubt, the subsidy tested the loyalty of the clergy to the new reign of Felipe V and began a new phase in their relationship with the Indian Church. Despite the failure of tax collection money to the Crown was important to establish the precedent of new taxes on the clergy and demonstrate the strength of the new dynasty.Este trabajo analiza las reacciones del alto clero de Nueva España ante la implantación del subsidio eclesiástico en Indias. A partir del estudio de una interesante correspondencia entre obispos y cabildos eclesiásticos es posible conocer las diferentes opiniones que el nuevo gravamen generaba. Sin duda, el subsidio puso a prueba la lealtad del clero al nuevo reinado de Felipe V e inició una nueva etapa en su relación con las iglesias indianas. A pesar del fracaso recaudatorio en dinero, para la Corona fue importante establecer el precedente de nuevos gravámenes al clero y demostrar la fuerza de la nueva dinastía.

  15. El fin de un privilegio: la contribución eclesiástica a la Hacienda Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CATALÁN MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A pesar de que teóricamente el clero estaba exento de impuestos, a partir de mediados del siglo XVI se le incluyó entre los contribuyentes habituales de la Hacienda real a través del Subsidio y del Excusado. Sus protestas por tributar en ambas gracias acabaron con la concertación de las mismas en un tanto alzado, fosilizado durante siglo y medio, consiguiendo una estabilidad contributiva que a la larga beneficiaría a la Iglesia. La estabilidad nominal de los impuestos eclesiásticos unido al pago de los mismos en una moneda devaluada con una serie de ventajas adicionales hizo que la carga contributiva descendiera en términos relativos.ABSTRACT: The Spanish clergy was free tax. As from second half of the sixteenth century, the clergy was included between usual taxpayers of Royal Finances through the Subsidio and the Excusado. The clergy's protests finished with compound a tax lump-sum which lay over the one century and half. During seventeenth century, the lump-sum payment, the devaluation to vellón and others advantages in the tax-payment did that the tax pressure would have descended comparatively.

  16. Implications of Methodist clergies’ average lifespan and missional lessons learned from obituaries of deceased ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehlohonolo J. Mathibe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are born, we touch the lives of others, we die – and then we are remembered. For the purpose of this article, I have assessed from obituaries the average lifespan of the clergy (ministers in the Methodist Church of South Africa (MCSA, who died between 2003 and 2014. These obituaries were published in the Yearbooks of the MCSA from 2004 to 2015. I also give attention to how the deceased ministers are remembered. The average lifespan of Methodist ministers is 72 years, and it is likely to increase to 74 years by 2023. This article discusses the implications of Methodist ministers’ average lifespan and suggests that the clergy should be encouraged and enabled to retire at the age of 60 years. The following 12 themes (or missional lessons, mainly answering the question of how the clergy are remembered, emerged from the qualitative analysis of obituaries: they were gifted preachers of the gospel of Jesus Christ; they lived a balanced life; they were humble servants in Jesus’ vineyard; they were sensitive storytellers with a deep sense of humour; they were community builders; they were leaders and meticulous in administration; they were prayer warriors; they loved and valued education; they were disciplined and principled; they enjoyed music; they worked hard for an everlasting peace on earth; and they were zealous stewards of God’s creation.

  17. Las querellas de la paz: patronato real, público y liturgia en la Nueva España, 1750-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbajal López, David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 16th century, the Catholic Reformation abolished the kiss of peace among the faithful in the ceremonies of the Mass, establishing instead the Pax-board at solemn Masses, reserved for clergy, sovereign, and magistrates. In the Hispanic world, particularly in the realm of New Spain during the second half of the eighteenth century, Pax became a source of complaints among the clergy, judges, and members of local councils. While bishops and clergy were trying to preserve what they considered a separate and distinctive element of sacred ceremonies and distinctive characteristic of the clerical hierarchy, the civil authorities claimed its presentation based on Patronage on the Church, as well as reasons for public utility.En el siglo XVI, la Reforma católica suprimió el beso de la paz entre los fieles en las ceremonias de la misa, estableciendo en cambio el beso del portapaz en las misas solemnes, reservado para clero, para los soberanos y sus magistrados. En el mundo hispánico y en particular en el reino de Nueva España durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, el portapaz se convirtió por ello en motivo de querellas entre el clero, los magistrados y los miembros de los ayuntamientos. Mientras obispos y canónigos trataban de preservar lo que estimaban un elemento propio de ceremonias sagradas y distintivo de la jerarquía clerical, las autoridades civiles reclamaron su presentación fundados tanto en la regalía del Patronato regio de la Iglesia, como en motivos de utilidad del público.

  18. The interpretation of the Battle of Leipzig (October 16–19, 1813 in the German patriotic sermon

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    Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.

  19. La secularización de doctrinas en el arzobispado de México: realidades indianas y razones políticas, 1700-1749

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The present work must like objective resist the arguments set out in the meetings of Madrid in charge to discuss the situation of the regular clergy in Indians, previous to the real law of 1749 on secularización of parishes, with the reality of the same in the Mexican region. The meetings, composed by ministers of king and the archbishops of Mexico and Lima, had as it puts to demonstrate the necessity to separate of the parishes to the friars due to the relaxation of his votes and the indepen...

  20. Space and the chapter organization in accordance with the statutes of the cathedral of Viseu in the transition to the Modern Age

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    Carlos Filipe Pereira Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1561, Bishop D. Gonçalo Pinheiro (1552-1567 sent draft the statutes of the Cathedral of Viseu. These statutes are the first symptom of council meetings that were held in Trento with the aim of reforming the customs of the secular clergy and restore credibility to an institution that was now threatened by Protestant attacks from Central Europe. However, the reality of the Viseu’s cathedral was quite different from that imposed by statute. We have to do a review on the main statutory and verify how the council adapted to these regulations.

  1. Pedagogy and Purpose: Moral Imagination and the Teaching of Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2016-04-01

    This essay is an exploration of the development of moral imagination as an important outcome in the teaching of medial ethics. It is contextualized within the growth of professionalism and pays attention to the formation of character of physicians in their formal training and in the first phase of their careers. Issues around formation as it is understood historically in the vocation of the clergy are also considered. Finally, there is discussion of the place rites of passage as they figure in the lives of those who teach medical ethics.

  2. BLACK MONEY?... (A New theory on “MONEY”

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    M.Arulmani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “BLACK MONEY” means “ILLEGAL MONEY”?... “BLACK” means “SINFUL”?... If so… “CARBON MONEY” earned by global national for “CARBON CREDIT” is ILLEGAL?... SINFUL?... The clergy men, Judges, magistrates, who wear long black robes are illegal?... No… No… No… This scientific research focus that the term “MONEY” shall be considered closely associated with “MATTER” of Universe composed of fundamental particles rather than denoting different currency of nations. (e.g BLACK MONEY shall mean BLACK MATTER; WHITE MONEY shall mean WHITE MATTER.

  3. Jane Austen's Standard of values about Marriage——pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹璐

    2009-01-01

    Jane Austen(1775-1817)is one of the greatest of English novelists in the romantic period.In her novels,the life of the gentry,landowners,clergy and officers at the end of the eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth centuries is shown in detail.Jane wrote her works with her usual irony,humor and profound sensitivity to express her standard of values about marriage and other values she recognized.This essay takes her Pride and Prejudice as an example to discuss her standard of values about marriage to reveal her reflection on the society she lives in and her feminist consciousness.

  4. Isidorian historiography : theology and politic

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    Sergio Alberto Feldman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isidore of Seville is a Visigothic Bishop of Late Antiquity, author of an exegetical, and theological work, as well as historiography. This article aims to understand the function and purpose of the isidorian historiographic works in the context of the evangelization of the Iberian Peninsula and the quest for legitimization and the strengthening of the Catholic monarchy, having the Church as an ally. The writing of history in Isidore has different motivations, being molded from theological interpretations and intent on generating behavioral models to kings, nobles and clergy, and other social sectors. The pedagogical sense stands, along with the teleological view.

  5. Le clergé et la diffusion du franquisme en Biscaye : un nouveau modèle de prêtre pour un nouveau modèle de société

    OpenAIRE

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez

    2001-01-01

    Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize prie...

  6. The Bible as a Source for Political Thought in Sermons in New Granada, 1808-1821

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    Viviana Arce Escobar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the era of New Granada’s fight for independence, the clergy participated in the struggle through means of their words. In their sermons they expressed their political opinions in favor of or against the new order. In order to validate their statements, they turned principally to the Bible as a source for argumentation and for truth. This article analyzes the Holy Scriptures as an ecclesiastical resource that served to legitimize or desacralize the regime change. In order to do this, the authors study the biblical references that appear in the sermons of New Granada and attempt to approach the thematic context of the Bible.

  7. Seeing the world through the eyes of Andries van Aarde: Radical inclusivity

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    Glenna S. Jackson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author reflected on her personal and existential experience of a journey to Egypt, and how this highlights radical inclusivity. The article focused on the issues of the violence of poverty, the history of Coptic Christianity and the role of women within this tradition. The article touched on aspects such as ‘women monks’, ecclesiastical hierarchy in modern Coptic Christianity, and the ordination of clergy. It also considered the perspective of ‘social hierarchy’ and ‘spiritual or divine hierarchy’.

  8. The role of religious leaders in health promotion for older Mexicans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz

    2015-02-01

    Clergy in the Mexico play a major role in addressing the health care needs of their congregants. With qualitative semi-structured key-informant interviews, this study explored the views of ten male Mexican religious leaders (mostly Catholic) about their understanding of their role in diabetes health promotion. The major themes from the qualitative interviews emphasized the importance of open communication between church leaders and their parishioners, the role of the church in diabetes programs, and the unique position of religious institutions as a link between physical and spiritual aspects of health. Implications for diabetes interventions are discussed.

  9. «La obediencia constante y leal a la autoridad pública ». León XIII y el comienzo de la regencia de María Cristina

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    After the death of Alfonso XII a period of uncertainty was opened. The danger of a new civil war and of republican raisings they were threatening Maria Cristina’s regency. León XIII supported to Regent and asked to bishops, clergy and Spanish Catholics who were accepting the legality.Tras la muerte de Alfonso XII se abría un periodo de incertidumbre. El peligro de una nueva guerra civil y de levantamientos republicanos amenazaba la regencia de María Cristina. León XIII apoyó a la regente y pi...

  10. Plan de reforma de la iglesia española impulsado por Napoleón Bonaparte

    OpenAIRE

    Barbastro Gil, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with a subject unknown up to the present, the plan of reformation carried out by the Spanish Catholic Church. This plan was promoted by Napoleon Buonaparte in 1808 and put into practice by a team led by Monsignor de Pradt, who was at the basis of the religious policy followed by Buonaparte’s gouvernement. The article analyses the Spanish clergy, and presents the reformation measures that were undertaken, together with a critical assessment of the said reformation.El artícul...

  11. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  12. Do sagrado ao lúdico: a festa do asno From the sacred to the playful: the Festum asinorum

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    Francisco Benjamin de Souza Netto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto trata de certas comemorações de caráter profano dentro do espaço sagrado ou litúrgico. Além do carnaval, enfoca-se a Festa do Asno, notadamente a celebrada na cidade de Rouen, que compreendia uma procissão com grande aparato, acompanhada pelo clero e pelo povo.This essay is concerned with certain profane commemorations within the sacred or liturgical space. Besides Carnival, it focuses on the Festum asinorum, particularly the one celebrated in the town of Rouen, which comprised a magnificent procession, congregating the clergy and the people.

  13. Changing systems to address elder abuse: examples from aging services, the courts, the long-term care ombudsman, and the faith community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malks, Betty F; Strobel, Donna M; Leung, Yolanda; Court, Michelle Williams; Morris, Janet R; May, Gus; Reeves, Shawna; Davies, Molly; Cartan, Heidi; Philyaw, Meredith L

    2010-07-01

    The authors describe their use of systems change as a means of ameliorating elder abuse. After assessing the needs of their target audiences, projects developed a variety of strategies. These include disseminating promising practices in courts, creating Elder Law Clinics to assist with conservatorships, educating older adults about predatory mortgage lending, building a new response system for complaints of abuse and neglect in unlicensed care facilities, and convening clergy and lay leader groups to learn how faith communities can make a difference in elder abuse and neglect. The authors share tips on replicating their work, describing barriers to implementation and possible solutions.

  14. El clero secular en Europa en la Baja Edad Media. Bibliografía

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    Cárcel Ortí, Mª Milagros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The bibliography covers all aspects of Medieval Studies about the Secular Clergy within the date range 1100 to 1500. The geographical range is the continent of Europe of catholic tradition. Items are classified by countries.

    La bibliografía abarca solo los aspectos de los estudios medievales sobre el clero secular, desde 1100 al 1500. El espacio geográfico comprende el continente europeo de tradición católica. Los ítems se ordenan por países.

  15. Testimonio del Padre J. M. Lacoume, S. I., capellán interino de la cárcel de Ondarreta de San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa sobre la represión nacional de clérigos vascos locales desde octubre de 1936 a Junio de 1937

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    Sierra Nava, Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the transcription of P. Lacoume's manuscripts, the author reconstructs the rebuke of some part of Basque clergy during the first months of Spanish Civil War in Guipúzcoa.

    A través de la transcripción de las notas manuscritas por el P. Lacoume, el autor reconstruye la represión de parte del clero vasco en los primeros meses de la Guerra Civil española en la provincia de Guipúzcoa.

  16. 简·爱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlotte; Bronte

    2015-01-01

    Charlotte Bronte was born in a rural pastor’s family in Yorkshire in northern England in 1816.With her mother’s early death,8-year-old Charlotte was sent to the Clergy Daughters’School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire,where her two elder sisters Maria and Elizabeth died one after another because of contracted pneumonia.So Charlotte and her sister Emily returned home.When she was 15 years old,Charlotte entered a school hosted by Miss Wooller and worked as a teacher in this school several years

  17. La prohibición de las segundas nupcias de la viuda de clérigo en los concilios hispanos tardoantiguos

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    Gutiérrez Pardina, Jesús

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a series of western canons, dated between the 5th and 6th centuries dealing with nuptials of clergys' widows. All those laws do not accept those second nuptials and establish a variety of measures against it. These laws are usually related to the eclesiastical rejection of the second nuptials per se, added to mysoginistic attitudes from the clergy. The analysis of the hispanic canons shows that another interpretation is possible, linking them with the history of the formation of the ordo ecclestiasticum in Hispania and the negotiation of its social area.

    Existe un conjunto de cánones occidentales, datados entre los siglos V y VI, dedicados las segundas nupcias de la viuda de clérigo. Todos ellos se muestran contrarios a las mismas, regulando una serie de medidas en respuesta. Normalmente se suele ligar estos cánones con el repudio eclesiástico a las segundas nupcias per se y con tendencias clericales misóginas. A partir del estudio de las disposiciones hispanas, es posible otra interpretación de las mismas, vinculándolas a la historia de la formación del ordo ecclestiasticum en Hispania y la negociación de su espacio social.

  18. Incertidumbre política y opción por la patria en el norte peruano: la independencia y los miembros del clero (1812-1824

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    Hernández García, Elizabeth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little historiographical research has been done on the Catholic clergy in northern Peru during the years of Peru’s war for independence from Spain. This article investigates the personal concerns, survival strategies, and political behavior of several members of the upper clergy of the Bishopric of Trujillo during the tempestuous decades of the 1810s and 1820s. This approach privileges the Peruvian people’s sense of uncertainty and chaos during the long war for independence.

    El clero del norte del Perú ha sido escasamente trabajado en la historiografía para el período de la independencia. Este artículo busca acercarse a las preocupaciones personales, a las expectativas de sobrevivencia y al comportamiento político de algunos miembros del alto clero del Obispado de Trujillo en las conflictivas décadas de 1810 y 1820. Esta aproximación privilegia los anos de incertidumbre y desconcierto de la población peruana durante la dilatada guerra por la independencia.

  19. Hacia un nuevo clero en los Andes a finales del siglo XVIII: la ordenación A título de lengua en el Arzobispado de Lima

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    Lavallé, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the archbishopric of Lima, as well as in others, there is a significant change in the recruitment of secular clergy for parishes towards the end of the 18th century. The lenguaraces, those who know the indigenous language, are granted privilege by favoring that prerequisite above all others. This had notable consequences on their preparation, as well as the social and ethnic background of these priests, who were forced to work with a fragile status, with no possibility of relocation or promotion, all of which led to the appearance of a true lower clergy.En el arzobispado de Lima, como en otros, a finales del siglo XVIII se nota un cambio sustancial en el reclutamiento del clero secular para las doctrinas. Se privilegia entonces a los lenguaraces, conocedores de la lengua indígena, pasando ese requisito por encima de los demás. Eso tuvo consecuencias notables sobre la preparacion pero también el origen social y étnico de esos sacerdotes, obligados a trabajar con estatuto fragilizado, sin posibilidad de promocion ni cambio de destino, desembocando todo eso en la aparicion de un verdadero bajo clero.

  20. Jurisdicción episcopal y violencia en el clero diocesano burgalés durante el siglo XV

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    Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed, in a selective way, the different kinds of violence in the diocesan clergy of Burgos during fifteen century: violence from clergymen against laymen, between the clergymen and from laymen against clergymen. All these situations were reported to the episcopal justice of Burgos. The different cases of violence were blows, slaps and attacks with knifes and swords, taking place homicides sometimes. Definitely, the aforementioned cases show strong social tensions, internal and external, affecting in a local level the rural clergy in the diocese of Burgos.En este trabajo se realiza un análisis selectivo de las diferentes formas de presencia de la violencia en el clero diocesano burgalés durante el siglo XV. Violencia de los clérigos hacia los laicos, entre los propios clérigos y de los laicos contra los clérigos, situaciones todas ellas que fueron denunciadas ante la justicia episcopal burgalesa. Las manifestaciones de violencia fueron desde simples golpes, bofetadas y pedradas hasta ataques con cuchillos y espadas, no faltando algún caso de homicidio, todo lo cual, en definitiva, viene a ser una clara muestra de las fuertes tensiones sociales, tanto internas como externas, que a nivel local afectaban al clero rural en la diócesis de Burgos.

  1. El clero extradiocesano en el arzobispado de Zaragoza a principios del siglo XV

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    Pueyo Colomina, Pilar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of documents, — licencia celebrandi in diocesi and comissio cura animaram, -, that form part of the Register of Common Acts kept at the Diocesan Archive of Zaragoza, have been taken as the corpus for the study of the presence of foreign clergy in the diocese of Zaragoza. The paper also analyses the clergy's geographical mobility while they governed, as regents, a good number of their parishes in the last decade of Don Garcia Fernández de Heredia's pontificate (1400-1411.

    Dos tipos documentales —licencia celebrandi in diocesi y comissio cura animaram—, insertos en los Registros de Actos Comunes, conservados en el Archivo Diocesano de Zaragoza, nos han servido de base para estudiar la presencia de clero extranjero en la diócesis de Zaragoza y su movilidad geográfica al dirigir, como regentes, un buen número de sus parroquias, en los últimos diez años del pontificado de D. García Fernández de Heredia (1400-1411.

  2. Взаимоотношения Армии и Церкви в Российской Федерации

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    Sergey Mozgovoy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the cooperation between the Armed Forces of Russia and religious associations. Using a wide range of facts and specific sociological investigations, the author reveals problems and shows tendencies in military-religious relationships, while forecasting its further development in the near-term. The essence, nature, trends and forms of cooperation between the Army and Russian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (ROCMP are revealed in the article. This interaction has a systematic and protectionist nature. At the same time, there is discrimination with respect to other confessions. Despite the fact that there is no institution of military clergy, the Russian Orthodox Church plays an ideological role in the Russian Army. Ecclesiastic tendencies in the army which are dangerous for democracy may be observed. Among soldiers the ROCMP cultivates great-power chauvinism, religious xenophobia, hatred for the followers of non-Orthodox confessions and heterodoxy. In reality, the  cooperation between the Russian Army and the ROCMP conflicts with the Russian Constitution and the standards of international law. Refusal to accept legal norms, ignorance of the principles of liberty of conscience and the infringement of Russian legislation typical for military authorities, commanders of military units and clergy of the ROCMP may lead to fatal consequences for the Army, the Church and the whole country.

  3. Reading and proclaiming the Advent call of John the Baptist: An empirical enquiry employing the SIFT method

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    Leslie J. Francis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching suggests that the reading and proclaiming of scripture reflects the psychological type preferences of the reader and preacher. This thesis is examined among a sample of clergy (training incumbents and curates serving in the one Diocese of the Church of England (N = 22. After completing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the clergy worked in groups (designed to cluster individuals who shared similar psychological type characteristics to reflect on and to discuss the Advent call of John the Baptist. The Marcan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the perceiving functions (sensing and intuition in light of its rich narrative. The Lucan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the judging functions (thinking and feeling in light of the challenges offered by the passage. In accordance with the theory, the data confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types, and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.

  4. Reading and proclaiming the Advent call of John the Baptist: An empirical enquiry employing the SIFT method

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    Leslie J. Francis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching suggests that the reading and proclaiming of scripture reflects the psychological type preferences of the reader and preacher. This thesis is examined among a sample of clergy (training incumbents and curates serving in the one Diocese of the Church of England (N = 22. After completing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the clergy worked in groups (designed to cluster individuals who shared similar psychological type characteristics to reflect on and to discuss the Advent call of John the Baptist. The Marcan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the perceiving functions (sensing and intuition in light of its rich narrative. The Lucan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the judging functions (thinking and feeling in light of the challenges offered by the passage. In accordance with the theory, the data confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types, and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.

  5. Taking a "leap of faith": acceptance and value of a cancer program-sponsored spiritual event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Nancy J; Mertens, Wilson C

    2004-01-01

    Investigations of spiritual interventions for cancer patients are disproportionately few compared to the reported importance of religion to Americans. We report on the implementation and evaluation of a spiritual, community-based intervention developed with interdenominational community clergy. Approximately 1200 people attended a total of 3 gatherings: 2 at Roman Catholic and another at a Protestant Church. Respondents to questionnaires evaluating attendee characteristics and satisfaction (n = 209) were predominantly women (85%); 50% were patients and 45% were aged 60 years and older. Men were more likely to be currently under treatment for cancer, while women were more likely to be past patients or friends. Fewer than 2% felt anger or anxiety; attendees felt the service was very (90%) or somewhat (9.5%) helpful and expressed appreciation for cancer program clinician attendance and for hospital sponsorship of the event. Components in order of preference were prayer, music, Scripture, and litany. Logistic regression models reveal that music was most appreciated by previously treated patients, and prayer by currently treated patients. Secular healthcare systems can offer a religious service that comforts and links attendees to a broader community, including clergy and cancer program clinicians. Surveys can identify service components that appeal to differing groups and can facilitate service development.

  6. Críticas al exceso de clero en las Canarias de los Austrias

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    Esteban Alemán Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Las quejas por el crecimiento desproporcionado del clero bajo los AUstrias no fueron privativas de los reinos peninsulares de la Corona de Castilla. En Canarias también las hubo, aunque la voces contrarias d Id proliferación de conventos y monasterios y -en menor medida- a la amorti7ación de la tierra, se escucharon comparativamente tarde (después del primer tercio del XVII y, sobre todo, en la segunda mitad del siglo. Al igual que en otros territorios de la Monarquía hispánica, la crítica procedió del mundo seglar, pero también de dentro del propio estamento eclesiástico. La protesta del primero se organizó en torno a los concejos o cabildos insulares (aunque no faltó la del vecindario sin mediación institucional, a la cabeza de todos el de Tenerife, isla que contaba con el clero secular más numeroso del Archipi6lago y donde se fundó la mayor cantidad -con diferencia- de casas de religión. También el episcopado, el cabildo catedralicio y el clero parroquia se opusieron a lo que entendían como un aumento desmedido de la fundaciones del clero regular, en ocasiones en perfecta sintonía con las autoridades seglares, si bien su comportamiento no se comprende al margen de la conflictividad intestina del estamento (lo cual, sumado a la competencia por la captación de limosnas y rentas, explica las críticas vertidas por unas órdenes religiosas contra otras. El estudio de estas posturas -y de los casos particulares a través de los cuales se manifestaron habitualmente- apenas si puede ser esbozado, dado el estado actual de nuestros conocimientos sobre el tenia. No obstante, todo apunta a que semejante conciencia de saturación obedeció -en parte, al menos- a un crecimiento del clero en las Islas desequilibrado desde los puntos de vista demográfico, económico y espacial.The complaints due to the desproptionate increasement of fhe clergy in the reign of the Spanish Habsburgs were not exclusive of the territories in the mainland of

  7. УЧАСТЬ ПРЕДСТАВНИКІВ РИМО-КАТОЛИЦЬКОГО КЛІРУ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОЇ УКРАЇНИ В РЕВОЛЮЦІЙНО-ДЕМОКРАТИЧНИХ ТА ЛІБЕРАЛЬНИХ ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯХ у другій половині XIX — на початку XX ст.

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    Ю. В. Хитровська

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.

  8. Familia, matrimonio y mujer: El discurso de la iglesia Católica en Barranquilla (1863 - 1930.

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    Dalín Miranda Salcedo.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article explores the rhetoric of the Catholic Church in Barranquilla during a period of political and juridical instability. The struggle between Liberals and Conservatives in their attempt to build a nation according to their own ideological interests led the Church to adhere to the political project of the Conservative party since it supported and vindicated the principles of Roman Catholicism principles. Therefore, those who rejected the authority of the Church, i.e., the Liberals, were persecuted. In order to counteract social transgressions in this particular context, the Catholic Church in Barranquilla designed a new rhetorical strategy in Barranquilla. Civil marriage, Templar structures, women and the Holy Family archetype were key issues within this particular discourse. In this way, the clergy tried to regulate the daily practices of a society characterized by high levels of illegitimacy and civil marriage.

  9. Cebada, mulas, caballos, carruajes y habas. La catedral de Burgos en el setecientos

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    Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The upholding of the privileges of some of the ecclesiastics dependent on the Burgos' Cathedral allows a reflexion to the author about the state of the bishopric in the transition times of Ancien Regime. The request of payment of the horse and mule foods of these people is a way to approach the state of the clergy in the second half of the 18th century.

    El mantenimiento de los privilegios de algunos de los eclesiásticos dependientes de la catedral de Burgos permite al autor una reflexión sobre la situación del obispado en la época de transición del Antiguo Régimen. La petición del pago de los alimentos para los caballos y muías de estas personas es una manera para aproximarse a la situación del clero en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.

  10. El regalismo borbónico frente al poder Vaticano: acerca del estado de la iglesia en el Perú durante el primer tercio del siglo XVIII

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    Moreno Cebrián, Alfredo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies some aspects of the difficult relations betwen Philip V and the Papacy through a double analysis: verifying the credibility of certain affirmations in a document previous to the «Noticias Secretas de América» as regards the irregular life of the Peruvian colonial clergy, and contextualizing both the author and contents of the said document in the early 18th Century.

    La comprobación de la verosimilitud de las afirmaciones contenidas en un documento anterior a las Noticias Secretas de América sobre el desorden en que vivía el clero colonial peruano, así como la contextualización de este testimonio y de su autor en el primer tercio del XVIII, sirven para analizar las dificultades que marcaron las difíciles relaciones entre Felipe V y el Papado.

  11. El Sindicato del Servicio Doméstico y la Obra de Nazareth: entre asistencialismo, paternalismo y conflictos de interés, Bogotá, 1938-1960

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    William Elvis Plata Quezada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizing housemaids to form a trade union has been quite a difficult task because of the characteristics of this occupation,the lack of school education of its members, and the traditional undervaluation and disdain such an important activity generates. Not many people are aware of a relatively long history of attempts for organizing these workers and that in the 1940s the foundation of the first domestic service union was set by a Catholic Church initiative through the so-called Catholic Action. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct part of this story, highlighting the paternalistic bias of the organization and, even though the movement had female leadership, activities and development of the union were determined by the support given by the clergy and the ecclesiastical institution. Also, although it was a lay organization in its beginnings, the union served as for the creation of two women religious orders.

  12. The ‘Orthodoxy’ of Orthodoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas; Boylston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article uses ethnographic studies of Orthodox Christianities as a way to investigate the concept of ‘orthodoxy’ as it applies to religious worlds. Orthodoxy, we argue, is to be found neither in opposition to popular religion nor solely in institu- tional churches, but in a set of encompassin...... of faith and deferral are also political worlds.......This article uses ethnographic studies of Orthodox Christianities as a way to investigate the concept of ‘orthodoxy’ as it applies to religious worlds. Orthodoxy, we argue, is to be found neither in opposition to popular religion nor solely in institu- tional churches, but in a set of encompassing...... relations among clergy and lay people that amounts to a religious world and a shared tradition. These relations are characterized by correctness and deferral—formal modes of relating to authority that are open-ended and non-definitive and so create room for certain kinds of pluralism, heterodoxy, and dis...

  13. The health and health behaviors of a sample of African American pastors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Evans, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    There is growing concern for the health status of clergy in light of recent studies showing high rates of chronic health conditions and obesity. This manuscript examined the health and health behaviors of South Carolinian African Methodist Episcopal (AME) pastors (n = 40). A majority of pastors were overweight or obese (93%) with hypertension (68%); half had two or more chronic health conditions, 35% had high cholesterol, 30% arthritis, and 20% diabetes. On average, pastors had a waist circumference that put them at an increased risk for disease. Yet, with the exception of fruit and vegetable consumption (mean = 3.4 ± 4.0 cups/day), pastors generally engaged in positive health behaviors. Understanding where the greatest needs lie is the first step in developing programs that can improve pastor health, which may ultimately improve the health of their congregations.

  14. Iglesia y transición en la diócesis de Orihuela-Alicante

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    Moreno Seco, Mónica

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the situation of the Church in the diocese of Orihuela- Alicante during the years of the Spanish transition. Here are watched the differents attitudes of hierarchy, clergy, and the secular movements in view of the new politic situation that was horning in 1975.

    Este artículo estudia la situación de la Iglesia en la diócesis de Orihuela- Alicante durante los años de la transición española. En él se observan las distintas actitudes de la jerarquía, el clero y los movimientos seglares ante la nueva situación política que nacía en 1975.

  15. Preachers Who are Not Believers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Dennett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are systemic features of contemporary Christianity that create an almost invisible class of non-believing clergy, ensnared in their ministries by a web of obligations, constraints, comforts, and community. Exemplars from five Protestant denominations, Southern Baptist, United Church of Christ, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of Christ, were found and confidentially interviewed at length about their lives, religious education and indoctrination, aspirations, problems and ways of coping. The in-depth, qualitative interviews formed the basis for profiles of all five, together with general observations about their predicaments and how they got into them. The authors anticipate that the discussion generated on the Web (at On Faith, the Newsweek/Washington Post website on religion, http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith//2010/03/disbelief_in_the_pulpit/all.html and on other websites will facilitate a larger study that will enable the insights of this pilot study to be clarified, modified, and expanded.

  16. Extraordinary Funding of the War of the Spanish Succession

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    Francisco ANDÚJAR CASTILLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Bourbon monarchy encountered one of its main hurdles in the critical situation of the royal treasury inherited from the reign of Charles II, with most of the assets engaged in the payment of public debt. One further obstacle was the start of the War of Succession, which brought about, on the one hand, a reduction in the treasury income and, on the other, a considerable increase in expenses intended to fund the creation of a large new army. To cope with such a situation, the monarchy had to resort to multiple extraordinary resources. This article deals with two of these resources: the income obtained from the sale of positions and honours, and an exceptional loan provided by the clergy in the spring of 1707. It also addresses the monarchy’s extraordinary revenue accounts between June 1705 and June 1707, which reveal the multiple resources employed to fund the war during that critical period.

  17. Preachers who are not believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel C; Lascola, Linda

    2010-03-27

    There are systemic features of contemporary Christianity that create an almost invisible class of non-believing clergy, ensnared in their ministries by a web of obligations, constraints, comforts, and community. Exemplars from five Protestant denominations, Southern Baptist, United Church of Christ, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of Christ, were found and confidentially interviewed at length about their lives, religious education and indoctrination, aspirations, problems and ways of coping. The in-depth, qualitative interviews formed the basis for profiles of all five, together with general observations about their predicaments and how they got into them. The authors anticipate that the discussion generated on the Web (at On Faith, the Newsweek/Washington Post website on religion, http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith//2010/03/disbelief_in_the_pulpit/all.html) and on other websites will facilitate a larger study that will enable the insights of this pilot study to be clarified, modified, and expanded.

  18. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.

  19. Crónicas de un cura doctrinero de principios del siglo XIX. Sociedad, población y economía en el Valle de Famatina, la Rioja, del Virreinato del Río de la Plata

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    Ayrolo, Valentina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The document that we presented/displayed form leaves from the register made by the doctrinero priest of Famatina, the Rioja of the Tucumán, Jose Ortiz de Ocampo. The unusual document wealth allows to see the social composition of the population, the communitarian life, its economy, like thus also trasluce the characteristics and profile of the colonial clergy.El documento que presentamos forma parte del padrón confeccionado por el cura doctrinero de Famatina, La Rioja del Tucumán, José Ortiz de Ocampo. La riqueza inusual de documento permite ver la composición social de la población, la vida comunitaria, su economía, como así también trasluce las características y perfil del clero colonial.

  20. Church and Society. The Role of Religious Journals in the Difusion of the Biblical Element within the Historical Banat area. 1867-1918

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    Alin Cristian Scridon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The church press published important documents regarding the religious life of Romanians from Transylvania and Banat. This publication also included details regarding the religious life of the school from Banat. The Biserica şi Şcoala magazinewas published in the western historical Banat, in Arad. This was possible due to the fact that Timisoara, the most important city in Banat, had a Romanian Orthodox Deanery that was dependent on the Diocese of Arad, before the establishment of the Diocese of Timisoara in 1939.The Caransebes Diocese’ magazine Foaia Diecezană (The Diocesan Sheet provided the clergy and the faithful with information on Christian spirituality. Along the aforementioned magazines, there were a few newspapers which have enriched this field's literature. Based on those covered by the study, we find that the media made an overwhelming contribution to the dissemination of the biblical information during that particular period of time.

  1. Maçonaria, religião e culto cívico na atuação de Euclides de Vasconcelos César no Ceará da década de 1920

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    Marcos José Diniz Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies Euclides de Vasconcelos Caesar’s p erformance as a writer, teacher and journalist, on the public stage of Ceará in the 1920s, highlighting, on the one hand, his intellectual role through the press, as a defender of religious freedom and equality, and supporter of a republican and secular st ate, on the other hand, analyzing his performance as a cultural agitator through the creation of Polimática Academy, promoting public education, civic service and the defense of universal brotherhood. As a Freemason and spiritualist as well as having a so lid positivist culture, Euclid Caesar will also promote the networking element of intellectual solidarity among spiritualist of different character, enabling them to cope with the fierce opposition of the local Catholic clergy.

  2. [Peculiarities of oral health of organized collectives and professional communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Avdeenko, O E

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of scientific literature on the peculiarities of the dental status of organized groups and professional associations. After reviewing the literature, it becomes clear that the studies carried out in organized groups and professional societies are very relevant today, because the prevalence of dental diseases among them remains high, fueled by a number of factors: habitat, diet, lifestyle, occupational hazards, particularly hygienic oral care. Nowadays there is no information about the features of the dental status among the clergy, whose professional activity is connected with direct close contact with people. This profession covers a large number of our population. The research of certain groups is of special interest, since a number of different factors affect dental health.

  3. Depression Treatment Among Rural Older Adults: Preferences and Factors Influencing Future Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Katherine A; McKibbin, Christine L; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; Carrico, Catherine P; McConnell, Katelynn A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate depression treatment preferences and anticipated service use in a sample of adults aged 55 years or older who reside in rural Wyoming. Sixteen participants (mean age = 59) completed 30- to 60-minute, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative methods were used to characterize common themes. Social/provider support and community gatekeepers were perceived by participants as important potential facilitators for seeking depression treatment. In contrast, perceived stigma and the value placed on self-sufficiency emerged as key barriers to seeking treatment for depression in this rural, young-old sample. Participants anticipated presenting for treatment in the primary care sector and preferred a combination of medication and psychotherapy for treatment. Participants were, however, more willing to see mental health professionals if they were first referred by a clergy member or primary care physician.

  4. El hábito no hace al monje. Reflexiones histórico-semióticas sobre la ética sacerdotal tradicionalista

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    Jhon Janer Vega Rincón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the priestly ethos implementing a semiotic analysis of discourse and exploring in depth the Actas y Decretos del primer Concilio Provincial Neogranadino 1868, in its provisions concerning the life and honesty of the clergy, particularly as regards the external appearance the priest. It focuses on aspects such as the ecclesiastical tonsure and habit, examining the relationship between the sensible forms and their ideological content. To understand its historical sense analytical findings, interpretations proposes a line-length, in dialogue with the early days of Christianity, the provisions of the Council of Trent and suffered break the regime of visibility to the realization of Vatican II in the twentieth century. It raises thus the proposed traditionalist Catholicism, founded a clerical regime visual rhetoric in which the expressive elements are placed as symbols of transcendent values, thus expressing certain ethical model for the priest, where the external appearance plays a fundamental role.

  5. «La obediencia constante y leal a la autoridad pública ». León XIII y el comienzo de la regencia de María Cristina

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    Martínez Esteban, Andrés

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available After the death of Alfonso XII a period of uncertainty was opened. The danger of a new civil war and of republican raisings they were threatening Maria Cristina’s regency. León XIII supported to Regent and asked to bishops, clergy and Spanish Catholics who were accepting the legality.Tras la muerte de Alfonso XII se abría un periodo de incertidumbre. El peligro de una nueva guerra civil y de levantamientos republicanos amenazaba la regencia de María Cristina. León XIII apoyó a la regente y pidió a obispos, clero y católicos españoles que aceptasen la legalidad.

  6. The medical treatment of battered wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, L H; Maurer, L

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge gained from a literature summary was tested against data obtained from a national volunteer sample of 1,000 battered women recruited primarily through solicitation by an advertisement in Woman's Day magazine. In comparison with other help-sources (social service agencies, the clergy, the police, lawyers, women's groups, shelters), medical personnel were found to have been used fairly frequently, but they were seen by the battered women as less effective than any other group. Quotes taken from indepth interviewers with 146 of the battered wives are used to bring life to the comparative statistics. Specific reasons for the low effectiveness ratings of the medical profession are considered, and ways to improve service delivery ratings are discussed.

  7. РОСІЙСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛІЗМ ПОЧАТКУ ХХ ст. НА ПРАВОБЕРЕЖЖІ В КОНТЕКСТІ ВИБОРІВ ДО ДЕРЖАВНОЇ ДУМИ

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    О. В. Мартинюк

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article brings up a topic of electoral processes in Right-bank Ukraine in the period between the Revolution of 1905, when the State Duma was established, and the beginning of World War I in 1914. During this time existed very limited, but nevertheless legal, opportunities for political representation of different national groups from left to right political specter. A considerable success at the elections won Russian nationalists, particularly those of moderate right-wing views. This success resulted from a certain level of institutional support, participation of Orthodox clergy in the mobilization of voters, the use of powerful media tools, etc. Russian nationalists developed a wide publication work aimed at spreading the idea that Russian nationalism is the nationalism of the majority of population in the Southwest of the Empire, which is threatened by non-Russians (inorodcy.

  8. Negative Religious Rhetoric in the Lives of Black Cisgender Queer Emerging Adult Men: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Walker, Ja'Nina J; Torres, Vanessa M

    2016-12-02

    Given the intersection of racial, religious, and sexual identities for Black queer populations, the current study examines sexuality related religious rhetoric. Twenty Black cisgender queer men were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. Using thematic analysis, the research team identified four themes: negative religious rhetoric, personal consequences of negative religious rhetoric, social consequences of negative religious rhetoric, and growth from negative religious rhetoric. Participants explained the pervasiveness of negative religious rhetoric within their churches and family structures. Men also conveyed how negative religious rhetoric frames societal ideologies around same-sex behavior often condoning violence toward queer populations. Although men had negative experiences, participants articulated the importance of using oppression as a platform for growth. Black cisgender queer men are present within religious institutions, however, such negative religious rhetoric may negatively affect their mental and physical health. Researchers, clinicians, and clergy should consider the ways negative religious rhetoric marginalizes queer populations.

  9. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

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    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  10. Teaching evolution in Chile. History of a conflict documented in textbooks of secondary education

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    Manuel Tamayo Hurtado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the presence of the evolution in secondary education textbooks used en Chile since 1902 to 2003. Textbooks analysis of secondary education shows the disputes between evolutionisms and their opponents. Members of the clergy participated actively as antievolutionisms and several of the most outstanding evolutionisms were liberal and francmasones. The text of Bernardino Quijada marked a landmark and polarized to those in favor and detractors during half century. The evolutionary subject was reduced in second half of century XX, partly by the development of other biological fields, but also by ideological pressures of preservative religious sectors. During the last reforms, evolutionary theory oscillates between the compulsory and the optative contents of the programs of Chilean secondary education.

  11. "A remarkable experience of god, shaping us as a family": parents' use of faith following child's rare disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience.

  12. The Colombian conference of bishops and its participation in peace negotiations with insurgent groups: origins and discussions (1982-1990

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    Andrea Cristancho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.

  13. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  14. The creation of "monsters": the discourse of opposition to in vitro fertilization in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkowska-Walkowicz, Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    In Poland, there is a campaign to criminalise in vitro fertilization, led by the Catholic church. This article explores how this campaign makes "monsters" of IVF children in its discourse, that is, embodiments of "the other" in the sense of Frankenstein's monster. Basing the analysis primarily on Catholic mass media publications, the article investigates the discursive strategies employed to oppose IVF, most notably by the Catholic clergy and activists and journalists associated with the Church. They attribute "monstrosity" to the children in the following ways: physical (possible bodily deformity), psychological (survivor syndrome, identity crisis), social (loneliness, uncertain place in family relations), and ethical (a life burdened with the deaths of many embryos). Although the world of families with IVF does not provide examples of children who could be considered monsters in any of these terms, these arguments have become the primary reasons given for banning IVF.

  15. “Que as minorias não sejam espezinhadas em seus direitos”: igualdade religiosa em debate na imprensa cearense nas décadas de 1920 e 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Diniz Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the debates and clashes between supporters of freemasonry, spiritualism and theosophy with the Catholic clergy Ceará, registered in the local press, focusing on central freedom of thought and religious equality. Here are the explicit propositions of spiritual groups and minority religious landscape emerging in Brazil amid the secularization of the state. / O artigo trata dos debates e confrontos ocorridos entre adeptos da maçonaria, do espiritismo e da teosofia com o clero católico cearense, registrados na imprensa local, tendo como foco central a liberdade de pensamento e a igualdade religiosa. Explicitam-se aqui as proposituras de grupos espiritualistas minoritários e emergentes no panorama religioso brasileiro em meio à secularização do Estado.

  16. Clérigos a la sombra de un pariente en el XVIII burgalés

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    Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Catastro of Ensenada contains, inside the thick volumes of the Respuestas Particulares or Memoriales, a detailed description of the vital parameters of the clergy. The usual formula is to take care of the ecclesiastical with independent housing and to study their professional activities. However, we also discovered the existence of clergy who, by different circumstances, are forced to live under the order of any close relation, within the walls of their own households and under the shadow of their own business. How many are they? What were their household structures? What were their professional activities? What impact did their presence in the household which gave them shelter? What colaciones and streets did they live?.El Catastro de Ensenada contiene, en el interior de los gruesos volúmenes de las Respuestas Particulares o Memoriales, una detallada descripción de los parámetros vitales del clero. La fórmula habitual es ocuparse de los eclesiásticos con vivienda independiente y estudiar sus actividades profesionales. No obstante, también descubrimos la existencia de clérigos que, por diversas circunstancias, estaban obligados a vivir bajo la férula de algún pariente, entre las paredes de sus hogares y a la sombra de sus quehaceres. ¿Cuántos son? ¿En qué estructuras domésticas se albergaban? ¿Cuáles eran sus actividades profesionales? ¿Qué impacto tenía su presencia en los hogares que les daban cobijo? ¿En qué colaciones y calles habitaban?.

  17. El clero liberal de la diócesis compostelana durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX: análisis e interpretación de un fenómeno peculiar

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    Vázquez Vilanova, José Antonio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of a Galician clergy who is massively committed to the absolutist cause should by no means hide the existence of a small, though active group, who apart from professing an open liberalism will play a major role in the dissemination of new approaches. Taking into account the diocesan clergy of Santiago, this fact, apart from telling us about a certain ideological diversification, becomes valuable evidence of the impact these new ideas will have on its members. Fear of reprisals may have prevented a bigger participation or a more intense activity on their side and the former might also account for the fact that it is in periods with a higher level of freedom, such as the years of the Courts of Cadiz or the Liberal Triennium, when their ideas normally come to light and become public.

    La clásica visión de un clero gallego comprometido masivamente con la causa absolutista no debe en modo alguno ocultar la existencia de un reducido, aunque activo grupo que además de profesar un liberalismo sin complejos, desempeñará un papel fundamental en la difusión de los nuevos planteamientos. Ateniéndonos al clero diocesano de Santiago, este hecho, aparte de informamos sobre una cierta diversificación ideológica, resulta un valioso testimonio para constatar el impacto de las nuevas ideas sobre sus miembros. Posiblemente el temor a las represalias haya impedido una participación más numerosa o una actividad más intensa por su parte, a la vez que explica que sea durante los períodos de mayor libertad, como los años de las Cortes de Cádiz o el Trienio, cuando aprovechen para salir a la luz y hacer públicas sus ideas.

  18. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

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    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  19. Coherence and health care cost--RCA actuarial study: a cost-effectiveness cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Woody; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most costly health problems in terms of direct health costs, absenteeism, disability, and performance standards. The Reformed Church in America (RCA) identified stress among its clergy as a major cause of higher-than-average health claims and implemented HeartMath (HM) to help its participants manage stress and increase physiological resilience. The 6-week HM program Revitalize You! was selected for the intervention including the emWave Personal Stress Reliever technology. From 2006 to 2007, completion of a health risk assessment (HRA) provided eligible clergy with the opportunity to participate in the HM program or a lifestyle management program (LSM). Outcomes for that year were assessed with the Stress and Well-being Survey. Of 313 participants who completed the survey, 149 completed the Revitalize You! Program, and 164 completed the LSM. Well-being, stress management, resilience, and emotional vitality were significantly improved in the HM group as compared to the LSM group. In an analysis of the claims costs data for 2007 and 2008, 144 pastors who had participated in the HM program were compared to 343 non-participants (control group). Adjusted medical costs were reduced by 3.8% for HM participants in comparison with an increase of 9.0% for the control group. For the adjusted pharmacy costs, an increase of 7.9% was found compared with an increase of 13.3% for the control group. Total 2008 savings as a result of the HM program are estimated at $585 per participant, yielding a return on investment of 1.95:1. These findings show that HM stress-reduction and coherence-building techniques can reduce health care costs.

  20. El sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII. Pervivencias y cambios

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    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Al estudiar el clero secular lo primero que se observa es la importancia que tiene el sistema beneficial en la Iglesia de la época moderna, pues en función del beneficio eclesiástico el clero se jerarquiza y se diferencia, tanto por su cargo como por su condición económica y social. Ante la amplia gama de elementos derivables del estudio de los beneficios eclesiásticos, en el presente trabajo me limito a ofrecer una panorámica general del sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII; es decir, a describir el beneficio eclesiástico y el derecho de presentación, así como su tipología y forma de acceso, para terminar con unas palabras sobre la reforma beneficial que la administración ilustrada proyecta en la segunda mitad del siglo.ABSTRACT: When we start the study of the secular clergy, the first thing we consider is the importance of the beneficial system referred to the Church of the enlightenment age, but on account of the ecclesiastic benefit clergy is distinguished and organized into higher ranks or degrees, as to its ministry and economic and social status. Due to the wide range of elements from the study of the ecclesiastic benefits, at the present written work I try to show a general view of the beneficial system in Spain in the XVIII century; and thus to describe the ecclesiastic benefit and the right of presentation; and also its typology and way of access and to finish with some words concerning the beneficial reform which is arranged in the second half of the century by the enlightened administration.

  1. La retribución a la Residencia Anual de los Canónigos en la Iglesia de Toledo (S. XVI

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    Susana Villaluenga de Gracia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende continuar con el estudio del sistema retributivo del clero catedralicio de Toledo, ahondado esta vez en el vestuario de los canónigos.En la catedral de Toledo, al igual que en otras catedrales, una parte de las rentas eclesiásticas se destinaba al clero catedralicio para cubrir el alimento (refitor y el vestido (vestuario. El primero concernía a la consunción y el segundo a la perfección.El vestuario era la principal renta que recibía un canónigo de la Iglesia de Toledo, haciéndolo en orden a la dignidad conferida. Procedía de los diezmos de pan y vino que se recogían en el arzobispado y remuneraba la residencia anual. Se complementaba con otros recursos como las rentas procedentes del préstamo de Baza y el de Hita.The purpose of this paper is to continue studying the compensation system cathedral clergy of Toledo in the sixteenth century, this time on the vestuario of the canons.In this cathedral, as in one other, a part of the income was allocated to the cathedral clergy to cover the food (refitor and clothing (vestuario. The first one was concerning the consumption and the second one to the perfection.The vestuario was the main income that was receiving a canon of the Church of Toledo, so in order to dignity conferred. It was coming from the tithes of wheat and wine which were collected in the archbishopric of Toledo. Each canon received, together with income from refitor, the vestuario as an incentive for annual residency, along with other additional income from various loans as of Baza and de Hita.

  2. A paradigm shift in German historiography: In the state of Croatia (1941-1945 there was no genocide against the Serbs?

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    Umeljić Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Humboldt University of Berlin, German historian Alexander Korb defended, with the highest grade (summa cum laude, his doctoral thesis in historical studies „In the Shadow of the World War II. Mass violence by the Ustaša against Serbs, Jews and Roma“. His radically new thesis are as follows: 1 in the State of Croatia (1941-1945 „there was no genocide against the Serbs“; 2 clerical component (Croatian Catholic clergy and the Vatican „played no significant role“ in the mass violence against the Serbs in the State of Croatia (1941-1945, so the forced catholicization of the Serbs was „purely secular in character“. Korb, therefore, enters into absolute conflict with the vast majority of previous research papers and their conclusions. Korb’s theses are challenged from three aspects in this analysis: a scientific and historical, b linguistic and philosophical (definitionism theory and c political. Regarding scientific and historical aspects, Korb approached this problem one-sidedly, in a selective way, and from the very beginning drastically reduced i.e. excluded an enormous part of primary historical sources and scientific literature. He excluded all Serbian sources, including testimonies of Serbian survivors and victims, on the grounds that they were either „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, then all testimonies of eye-witnesses from the opressors side - German Nazis and Italian Fascists - with justification that they are manipulated by „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, as well as all primary historical sources and scientific literature which testify of the role of Croatian Roman Catholic clergy and the Vatican, on the basis that they are „anti-clerical“. From linguistic and philosophical aspect, Korb‘s argumentations clearly belong to the principle of „usurpation of power over definitions and psychagogy“ recognized by classical theory of concepts as a convenient

  3. Communities: Development of church-based counselling teams

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    Stella D. Potgieter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care is a biblical mandate to the Church to be involved in the lives of God’s people. A key metaphor used by Jesus to describe his pastoral role was that of a shepherd. Thus, to be God’s shepherds and instruments of healing and transformation in God’s world is an imperative to all people, clergy and laity alike. The brokenness in South African society is strikingly apparent, exacerbated by the effects of exceptionally high criminal behaviour as statistics show. The demand for pastoral care and assistance with various personal problems is on the increase, with many non-church goers turning to churches for help. Also apparent in South Africa is the acute shortage of trained individuals to offer care and counselling. The task of offering care is not the sole responsibility of clergy, as all are called to be shepherds and caregivers. The importance and urgency in training church-based counselling teams cannot be overstated. More so in that we are becoming increasingly aware that not only are individuals in need of care, but whole communities are struggling with trauma and life’s challenges, and often do not know whom to turn to. In pursuance of the realisation that pastoral care is the function and duty of all Christians, this article will delineate in particular an explanation of lay counselling, reasons for its importance including biblical foundations, where and how ordinary South Africans can get involved, and will propose certain models and approaches for getting started. These models will not be discussed in depth, but present an opportunity for the next. Teams for these models consist of professional counsellors, but ought not to be restricted to a select few, as all are called to this special ministry and can be trained for the task, which will include on-going supervision and mentoring. The overall purpose of this article is to highlight the urgency of training lay counsellors and some recommendations will be made how to

  4. Las Órdenes religiosas en espacio urbano colonial - Mendoza (Argentina. El caso de la la Compañía de Jesús

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    Cirvini, Silvia A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the presence and the action of the regular clergy, in particular The Society of Jesus in Mendoza, which was a peripheral city and part of the Spanish empire in South America, from the urban history point of view. We recognize the Society of Jesus as a special and relevant character in Mendocinian colonial times because of the importance of their buildings and properties, their spatial location in the city and their connection with the community and the other members of the regular clergy. The Jesuits were the founders of the first school and the first public library. They were important providers of basic food such as beef and wheat, because they had an efficient network of productive establishments (farms, vineyards and mills devoted to agricultural and livestock farming. These farms were situated not only in the oasis of Mendoza but also in the Uco Valley (which is the oasis of the Tunuyán River.Este artículo propone abordar desde la perspectiva de la historia urbana, la presencia y la acción del clero regular, y en particular la Compañía de Jesús en Mendoza, ciudad periférica del Imperio español en el cono sur latinoamericano. Un recorrido de sus edificios y propiedades, su ubicación espacial en la ciudad, así como las conexiones con otros actores de la vida comunitaria y las otras órdenes religiosas nos permiten reconocer la manera en que la Compañía de Jesús se convirtió en un actor relevante del mundo colonial de Mendoza. Los jesuitas fueron los fundadores del primer colegio y la primera biblioteca pública que tuvo la ciudad, eran proveedores de alimentos básicos como la carne y el trigo ya que poseyeron una eficiente red de establecimientos productivos (haciendas, viñas y molinos dedicados a la actividad agrícola y ganadera, ubicados no sólo en el oasis del Río Mendoza sino también en el Valle de Uco (oasis del Río Tunuyán.

  5. Study on the Missionary Method of the Christ in Henan in the Modern History%试析基督教在近代河南的传教方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓军

    2011-01-01

    In the modern society,after the Christ has been spread to Henan province,the church took a variety of missionary method in order to expand missionary effects,such as center flowering,clergy localization,missionary tour,gathering sermons and medical missionary.Owing to influence of background of western powers invading China and powerful repulsion of Chinese traditional culture,missionary effect isn't significant%基督教在近代传入河南后,为了扩大传教效果采取了多种传教方法,主要有中心开花式、教职人员本土化、巡回传教、聚会讲道以及行医传教等模式。但由于受西方列强侵略中国的时代背景和中国传统文化强大排斥力的影响,传教效果并不显著。

  6. La población de Manila y las capellanías de misas de los españoles: libro de registros, 1642-1672

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    Mesquida Oliver, Juan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of the capellanías of Manila until 1672. The main source for this work is a registry book of capellanías. The quantitative and qualitative information gathered is useful to study the development of this institution, and to learn new insights on the demography, society, culture, and economy of the Spanish population of Manila during most of the seventeenth century. Among the findings of this study, it stands out the efforts carried out and the difficulties found in order to attain a Creole clergy.

    Este estudio se centra en las características de las capellanías de Manila hasta 1672. Para ello se utiliza la documentación proveniente de un libro de registros de capellanías. Además de exponer el desarrollo de esa institución, la información cuantitativa y cualitativa recabada sirve para estudiar aspectos demográficos, sociales, culturales y económicos de la población española de Manila durante una buena parte del siglo XVII. Entre las novedades presentadas sobresalen los esfuerzos realizados y las dificultades encontradas para crear un clero criollo.

  7. Die liminale ruimte vir inkongruensie tussen predikant en lidmaat: ’n Narratief gebaseerde prakties-teologiese ondersoek in gemeentes van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika

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    Hein Delport

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Disagreements between pastors and church members in the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCH require a unique space in the church in terms of a postmodern society. Different perspectives can easily lead to conflict in the Church. Unresolved conflict may jeopardise the work of the clergy in a congregation. In this research, I follow a contextual approach to the pursuit of practical theology. A postfundamental practical theological framework is followed in the research. The social construction discourse and narrative epistemology offer new perspectives for developing a liminal space where more than one perspective can exist. Within a society characterised by secularism and privatisation, I examine the possibility of a space of unity amid diversity in the Church. I involved six fellow researchers who have experienced conflict in a specific context within the Church. We also examined the possibility of an alternative space where moments of communitas can once again occur in these stories. The research found space for this in the description of two metaphors, namely the liminal suspension bridge of grace and the dance of peace. The stories of the fellow researchers are retold within these two metaphors. My research highlights the important contribution of an interdisciplinary conversation in research. In the study, the journey theme plays an important role, and the reader is invited along with the fellow researchers into a (liminal space to explore the conflict between the church minister and the church member.

  8. Die kerke in Rwanda: Skandes en uitdagings - en lesse vir Suid-Afrika 1

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    P. G.R. Meiring

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The churches in Rwanda: Disappointments and challenges -and lessons for South Africa. The author, one of a team of South Africans invited to Rwanda to advise the newly appointed Unity and Reconciliation Commission, gives an overview of the political developments that led to the bloody genocide (February-April 1994 during which more than a million Rwandans died at the hands of their compatriots. The role that the churches played during the crisis was a disappointment to many; the conduct of many of the clergy - who not only condoned what was happening but actively took part in the events - is nothing less than shameful in view of the Gospel. If the churches want to regain their integity, five challenges should be taken seriously: the churches should lead the country in a sincere confession of guilt; the churches should regain their prophetic witness in the country; they should contribute to leadership development and training; the churches shouldplay their part in ministering to the poor and needy, to the traumatized in Rwanda; and, lastly, the churches should act as servants of reconciliation.

  9. L’inspectio di un anonimo investigatore pisano nella prima metà del secolo XII

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    Andrea Puglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and publishes in the Appendix a document kept in the Archive of the Archbishop of Pisa, known until now only in a partial transcript, because was for a long time not available. The relevance of this document lies both in its materials and graphics characteristics , but also in its unique content, which presents a cross section of political and social life of the entourage of Bishops in the city and county in the first half of the Twelfth century. In fact, it shows the different sides of an inquest (inspectio conducted in the diocese of Pisa by an anonymous investigator appointed by the Archbishop of Pisa Hubert in 1137. The numerous stages of the inquest were probably recorded in some files and then, with the help of judges (and law experts and the graphic abilities of the episcopal clergy, were written in an entire parchment, with a clear and fluid book-Caroline and with a good rhetoric form. The goals of this document were surely informative, but we don’t exclude also a memorial and judicial objective. In conclusion, the inspectio give us the opportunity of studying the non-epistolographic practices of medieval communication and allows us to know a pragmatic and non-formal system of document building. This system is out of the field of notarial acts with legal effects (chartae and brevia recordationis and different from the writing of judicial records.

  10. Las iglesias patrimoniales en la Castilla medieval. La iglesia parroquial de San Nicolás de Burgos: institución, ordenanzas y regla de 1408

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    Peñalva Gil, Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new information to better understand the process by which “iglesias patrimoniales” (patrimonial churches: those served by a clergy born within the parish are founded and developed in the context of the late medieval Castilian city. The founding of San Nicolás, a parochial church in today’s province of Burgos, and its role in the ecclesiastical reformation of this district serve as an example. The bishop Juan Cabeza de Vaca initiated such reformation between 1408 and 1413.

    Este artículo aporta datos reveladores sobre el proceso de formación de las iglesias patrimoniales numeradas, en el ámbito de las ciudades castellanas bajomedievales, tomando como ejemplo la ordenación e institución de la iglesia parroquial de San Nicolás de Burgos y su implicación en la reforma eclesiástica burgalesa, emprendida por el obispo don Juan Cabeza de Vaca entre 1408 y 1413.

  11. Comparando dos métodos de estimación del tamaño de las redes personales.

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    McCarty, Christopher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two methods for estimating the size of personal networks using a nationally representative sample of the United States. Both methods rely on the ability of respondents to estimate the number of people they know in specific subpopulations of the U.S. (e.g., diabetics, Native Americans and people in particular relation categories (e.g., immediate family, coworkers. The results demonstrate a remarkable similarity between the average network size generated by both methods (approximately 291. Similar results were obtained with a separate national sample. An attempt to corroborate our estimates by replication among a population we suspect has large networks (clergy, yielded a larger average network size.Extensive investigation into the existence of response effects showed some preference for using certain numbers when making estimates, but nothing that would significantly affect the estimate of network size beyond about 6 percent. We conclude that both methods for estimating personal network size yield valid and reliable proxies for actual network size, but questions about accuracy remain.

  12. Mixing of Man and God—— Images and witch appearance in Sanxingdui artifacts hole%神人以和——三星堆器物坑中的图像与巫仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡绍宗

    2012-01-01

    以考古资料为据,结合历史文献和人类学资料,分析三星堆出土各类图像的类型与系统,讨论各类图像之间的风格关联,试图建构与这一图像系统可能存在的宗教仪式,以及青铜人物图像不同风格的角色对应,藉此说明中国古代社会巫祝等神职人员的身份及社会等级关系。%According to the archaeological data with combination of historical documents and anthropological data, this ar- ticle gives an analysis of the unearthed various image types and the system, and discusses the style association between the vari- ous types of images, trying to construct religious rituals that may exist in this image as well as the role of the different styles of bronze figures image corresponding to the identity and social class relations of the clergy of the ancient Chinese social witchcraft.

  13. Soviet Government and Repressions against Priests in Vladikavkaz (1920-1930s

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    Svetlana A. Khabulova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a repressive character of interrelations between the Soviet Government and Priesthood in Vladikavkaz in 1920-30s. The Church and the Believers experienced the most tragic time when the totalitarian regime came into being in the country in 1920-1930s. The author has proved that the clergy and believers considered by Authorities as a hotbed of opposition and dissidence were subjected to prosecutions. The prosecutions against the Church paved the way for a new political regime, bringing about fear, snitching and spy mania. The human values were replaced by new regime values, the national identity was destroyed and thousands of believers were eliminated.As a result, a good number of cultural values was destroyed. The major part of Russian Intelligentsia was kicked out of the country and deprived of their rights to vote. However, people have managed to preserve religion despite the anti-Church prosecutions of 1920–1930s.It is concluded that that the Soviet Authorities tried to influence on the Church through juridical regulations. Besides, the history of repressions towards the religious communities in Vladikavkaz has been traced.

  14. What to Do When there is Nothing to Do: The psychotherapeutic value of Meaning Therapy in the treatment of late life depression

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    J. H. Morgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic treatment with the goal of cure, of course, is the standard within the healing professions but when we are dealing with late life depression where there is no hope for longevity, the agenda necessarily must shift from cure to care, from treatment with the goal of renewed healthy living to a focus upon the palliative aspects of a limited prognosis. Here, then, the clinician is faced with the challenge of existential intervention with an emphasis upon the “moment” rather than the future. The encroachment of ennui upon the elderly, particularly and especially those who have been actively engaged in a full life of service such as the clergy, physicians, teachers, and attorneys, can be a traumatic and debilitating experience.When hope for the future is not being sought but rather an effective and celebrative address to the existential realities confronting the elderly patient who is facing decline and death, the quest for those “happy moments” conjured in the patient’s memory constitute a promising field of treatment.Geriatric logotherapy is uniquely constructed to do just that. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  15. El clero contestatario de finales del franquismo. El caso Fabara

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    Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Council Vatican II (1962-1965 supposed a very important change in many aspects of catholic faith, included the concept of Church. A part of clergy considered that it was the moment to break with the rigid structures of this institution, based in the importance of hierarchy and order, and it meant an unavoidable conflict with the different ecclesial authorities. In the case of Spain, this problem turned bigger because of the confusion of changes in Catholic Church with the targets for democratization of a society that was under authoritism of Franco’s Regime.El Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965 supuso un extraordinario cambio en muchos aspectos de la fe católica, entre los que debe incluirse el concepto de Iglesia. Un sector del clero consideró que era el momento de romper con las rígidas estructuras de la institución, basadas en la importancia de la jerarquía y el orden, lo que supuso un inevitable conflicto con las diferentes autoridades eclesiales. En el caso de España, este problema adquirió mayor complejidad todavía en la medida que los cambios en el seno de la Iglesia fueron confundidos, en no pocas ocasiones, con los objetivos de democratizar una sociedad que hasta ese momento se encontraba bajo el autoritarismo del Régimen de Franco.

  16. Le clergé et la diffusion du franquisme en Biscaye : un nouveau modèle de prêtre pour un nouveau modèle de société

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    Severiano Rojo Hernandez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize priests susceptible of jeopardizing the establishment of a pro-Franco model of society, and replacing them by clerics whose task was to spread the new ideology.Este artículo estudia la represión franquista en Vizcaya contra el clero nacionalista vasco. Subraya su dimensión y sus objetivos : neutralizar a sacerdotes que pueden perjudicar la instauración del modelo de sociedad franquista y sustituirlos por eclesiásticos encargados de transmitir la nueva ideología.

  17. [Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) : a life with aphrodisiacs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Hatzinger, J

    2009-04-01

    Giacomo Girolamo Casanova was born in Venice, the son of actors, on 2 April 1725. After studying theology and law, he was ordained as an abbé, but after 3 years he left the clergy. In 1742 he graduated with a degree in law but never seriously practiced as an attorney. Occupational episodes included stints as a soldier, secret agent, lottery operator, embassy secretary, and violinist. He became world famous after his escape from "The Leads" (a famous Venetian prison), which he described in detail in his 15-volume, French-language memoirs. Because of his countless romantic adventures, which he also described in great detail, we want to generate a kind of "vita sexualis."His not-so-insignificant medical knowledge, together with his unruly libido as well as his pronounced imagination, led to a more than astonishing career. His experiences and descriptions appear today to be very relevant and testify a great deal about medical laymen's knowledge and ingenuity. For Casanova, the use of different aphrodisiacs or love amulets served only one purpose, and that was to continuously broaden his frivolous adventures.When he died as a result of chronic bladder disease on 4 June 1798 in Bohemia, he left behind - besides the broken hearts of countless women - a fascinating biography that provides a comprehensive and intriguing portrait of the customs of the 18th century.

  18. Más allá de los altares. Un obispo de Felipe V frente al régimen de ingresos parroquiales en Yucatán, 1715−1728

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    Aguirre Salvador, Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is analyzed the management of the bishop of Yucatan, Juan Gómez de Parada, especially his reform to the parochial charges, in the frame of a period of critique to the clergy in the Spanish empire, and especially to the friars, on the part of the new monarchy of Philip V. Though the historiography on the Church of Yucatan already has emphasized the reforms stimulated by the bishop Juan Gómez de Parada, Nevertheless one neither has penetrated into them one nor has linked them to the new ecclesiastic policies of Philip V. Undoubtedly, the government of this bishop was marked by new winds reformists.

    En este artículo se analiza la gestión del obispo de Yucatán, Juan Gómez de Parada, en especial su reforma a los derechos parroquiales, en el marco de un periodo de crítica al clero en el imperio espanol, y en especial a los religiosos, por parte de la nueva monarquía de Felipe V. Aunque la historiografía sobre la Iglesia de Yucatán ya ha destacado las reformas impulsadas por el obispo Juan Gómez de Parada, sin embargo no se ha profundizado en ellas ni se les ha vinculado a las nuevas políticas eclesiásticas de Felipe V. Sin duda, el gobierno de este obispo estuvo marcado por nuevos vientos reformistas.

  19. La crisis de la economía eclesiástica en tiempos de Carlos IV. Algunos apuntes sobre las Diócesis de Toledo y Sevilla

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    Rodríguez López-Brea, Carlos M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It is an irreputable fact that the ecclesiastical economy suffered a hard hit during the reign of Carlos IV. The faud in the collection of tithes, each time more evident and up to a certain point consented by the civil authority, the high donations that the Monarchy demanded from the clergy under the rule of the Papal bulls and the first seizures of land from the Church, created a profound discomfort in the ecclesiastical hierarchy (visible signs in Toledo and Sevilla, the two dioceses ruled by the Cardenal Borbon, the king's cousin, that in a few years became estranged from Carlos' Monarchy and his Minister Godoy.

    Es un hecho innegable que la economía eclesiástica sufrió un duro golpe durante el reinado de Carlos IV. Los fraudes en la recaudación de los diezmos, cada vez más escandalosos, y hasta cierto punto consentidos por la autoridad civil, los elevados donativos que la Monarquía exigía al clero bajo el manto de bulas papales, y las primeras desamortizaciones de tierras de la Iglesia, crearon un profundo malestar en el estamento eclesiástico (bien visible en Toledo y en Sevilla, las dos diócesis regidas por el cardenal Borbón, primo del Rey, que en muy pocos años se distanció de la Monarquía de don Carlos y de su favorito Godoy.

  20. El Cardenal Isidro Gomá y la cuestión vasca

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    Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.

  1. Kalmyk Steppe During the World War I: the Question of the Transition to the Cossack Estate

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    Irina V. Lidzhieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted question of the transition of the population of the Kalmyk steppe to the Cossack estate of the Russian Empire during the World War I. Limited the rights of the Kalmyk people, a permanent loss of their lands, permanent peasant colonization led the Kalmyk society has to come a long way from a complete denial of the transition to the Cossack estate in the XIX century to the only possibility to save his people and culture. Cossack's self-government had a number of advantages over the existing self-government in the Kalmyk steppe, which was legalized in 1847 — the Regulations on the management of the Kalmyk people. And yet, the question of the transition Kalmyks to the Cossack estate during of the World War I, despite the efforts made by both the of intellectuals and clergy was not resolved positively, due to the negative attitude towards this issue by the central and local authorities. And only February revolutions and October revolutions in 1917 opened the way for a positive solution of the transition Kalmyks to the Cossacks, but by the time any other alternatives of autonomization of the Kalmyk people, and idea of the transition the Kalmyks to the Cossack estate of was more irrelevant.

  2. Jongleurs, authors and Mester de Clerecía. Similar topics and discursive strategies in Cantar de mio Cid and Libro de Alexandre

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    Francisco Ramírez Santacruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While many critics (Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Ian Michael and Colin Smith, among others have suggested a likely influence of Cantar de mio Cid on the authorof Libro de Alexandre, until now no comprehensive catalogue of concordances has been prepared in order to corroborate this hypothesis. This paper aims to provide the most extensive series of equivalences between these two works. A detailed three stage analysis of the poems reveals strong connections of both a thematic and formal nature. First, the common binomial expressions and similar phraseology in both texts are studied from a rhetorical point of view. Second, the constant dialogue with the listener - which both works share - represents a similarity of technique, that should not be underestimated.Third and finally, the analogous treatment that both poems give to certain themes (the spoils of war, the function of dreams, the relationship between conquerors and conquered, and the heros journey also reveals an extensive inventory of similarities. This study also confirms that a certain set of poetic habits identified by critics in Libro de Alexandre as a trait common to jongleursis a direct legacy of the Cid, which implies a wide distribution and popularity of the epic poem amongst the clergy. Finally, the results of this comparative analysis show a more intense relationship between the poetics of Spanish epic poetry and mester de clerecía than has been generally acknowledged

  3. Entre el progreso y la tradición: un sermón ilustrado para las exequias de Carlos III

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    Melgosa Oter, Óscar Raúl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analysed the sermon compound and predicated by the prebendary John Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas for the exequies of the king Charles III in the cathedral of Burgos in 1789, the sources and used recourses and structure and content of his preachment. Some years later he was appointed bishop of Guadalajara (Mexico and he could execute some of the «carolinas» reforms eulogized in his sermon, characterized by a progressists tone in socioeconomic and conservative in religious matter, own of the illustrated Spanish clergy in the 18th century.

    En este artículo se analiza el sermón compuesto y predicado por el canónigo Juan Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas para las exequias del rey Carlos III en la catedral de Burgos en 1789, las fuentes y recursos utilizados y la estructura y contenido de su prédica. Años después fue elegido obispo de Guadalajara (México y pudo ejecutar algunas de las reformas carolinas elogiadas en su sermón, caracterizado por un tono progresista en lo socieconómico y conservador en materia religiosa, propio del clero ilustrado español en el siglo XVIII.

  4. Back to the future: The AMA and religion, 1961-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel T; Curlin, Farr A; Wolenberg, Kelly M; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2014-12-01

    U.S. medical scholarship and education regarding religion and spirituality has been growing rapidly in recent years. This rising interest, however, is not new; it is a renewal of significant interweavings that date back to the mid-20th century. In this Perspective, the authors draw attention to the little-known history of organized medicine's engagement with religion from 1961 to 1974. Relying on primary source documents, they recount the dramatic rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion (CMR) at the American Medical Association (AMA). At its height, there were state-level committees on medicine and religion in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and there were county-level committees in over 800 county medical societies. Thousands of physicians attended annual conferences for clinicians and clergy, and direct outreach to patients included a film viewed by millions. The CMR arose in the context of rapid medical advances, the growth of professional chaplaincy, and concern for declining "humanism" in medicine-conditions with parallels in medicine today. The CMR was brought to a puzzling end in 1972 by the AMA's Board of Trustees. The authors argue that this termination was linked to the AMA's long and contentious debate on abortion. They conclude with the story's significance for today's explorations of the intersection of spirituality, religion, and medicine, focusing on the need for mutual respect, transparency, and dialogue around the needs of patients and physicians.

  5. A saint in the history of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Niels Stensen (1638-1686) was born in Copenhagen. He took courses in medicine at the local university under the guidance of Professor Thomas Bartholin and later at Leiden under the tutelage of Franz de la Boë (Sylvius). While in Holland, he discovered the existence of the parotid duct, which was named Stensen's duct or stenonian duct (after his Latinized name Nicolaus Stenon). He also described the structural and functional characteristics of peripheral muscles and myocardium. He demonstrated that muscular contraction could be elicited by appropriate nerve stimulation and by direct stimulation of the muscle itself and that during contraction the latter does not increase in volume. Toward the end of 1664, the Academic Senate of the University of Leiden awarded him the doctor in medicine title. Later, in Florence, he was admitted as a corresponding member in the Academia del Cimento (Experimental Academy) and collaborated with the Tuscan physician Francesco Redi in studies relating to viviparous development. In the Tuscan capital, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and was shortly afterwards ordained in the clergy. After a few years, he was appointed apostolic vicar in northern Germany and died in the small town of Schwerin, capital of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on November 25, 1686. He was beatified on October 23rd, 1988.

  6. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of premarital intervention: moderators of divorce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed.

  7. La problemática del bautismo del ser deforme (monstruo durante la Edad Moderna

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    Flores de la Flor, Mª Alejandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Baptism has always been one of the most important sacraments of the Holy Catholic Church. The administration was made up of a series of complex rituals in which it had to keep in mind various factors, including the soul, considered the main element allowing access to baptism, without it any being could be baptized. The birth of deformed beings (considered monsters generated, therefore, a problem that forced the clergy, in their confessors manuals, to reflect on their souls and their right to be baptized.El bautismo ha sido siempre uno de los más importantes sacramentos de la Santa Iglesia Católica. Su administración lo componían una serie de rituales complejos en los que había tener presente diferentes elementos, entre ellos el alma, considerada el elemento principal que permitía el acceso al bautismo, sin ella ningún ser podía ser bautizado. El nacimiento de los seres deformes (considerados monstruos generó, por tanto, una problemática que obligó a los clérigos, en sus manuales de confesores, a reflexionar sobre sus almas y su derecho al bautismo.

  8. Religion and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos.

  9. Spirituality in nursing: nurses' perceptions about providing spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Providing spiritual care is an important foundation of nursing and is a requirement mandated by accreditation organizations. Spiritual care is essential in all clinical areas but particularly in home care and hospice. Clinicians may be unable to respond to spiritual needs because of inadequate education or the assumption that spiritual needs should be addressed by clergy, chaplains, or other "spiritual" care providers. In reality, clinicians in the home may be in the best position to offer spiritual support when caring for patients at home at end of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine relationships between spirituality and nurses' providing spiritual care. Professional nurses (n = 69) working in 2 large healthcare organizations completed the Perceptions of Spiritual Care Questionnaire. Approximately, 33% of the nurses worked in home care. Significant correlations were found among those nurses whose reported nursing education programs adequately prepared them to meet spiritual needs and taught ways to incorporate spiritual care into practice and those who did not.

  10. The iceperson cometh: cryonics, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G P

    1983-01-01

    The "New Biology" has already made profound impact on the law. Cryonics and genetic engineering represent technological triumphs. The natural, organic process of dying is being replaced by a humanly engineered technological process for living. The dying phase of life is prolonged until biological knowledge is available to reverse the dying phase and restore the living phase. Both cryonics and genetic engineering in their attempts to replace the organic process with the technological process disturb the delicate balance of the triad of life which each individual experiences--faith, health, and justice. Since law is a basic tool to achieve justice among human beings, how should it respond to the health argument of the cryonics' physician who views death as a disease which is curable? How should the law respond to the faith questions surrounding the cryonics patient? What am I? A block of ice. Who am I? A living, comatose patient or a dormant, static body with the possibility of a reverter. Why am I? A new human being now endowed with immortality through the triumph of life over death founded on man's current faith in the God called Technology. Cryonics through its unbalancing of the traditional triad of life poses formidable challenges to the major institutions of faith, health and justice. The practitioners in these institutions: clergy, physicians and lawyers must now reassess the rules of the game of life be they religious, medical or legal. This article offers insights to begin this reassessment.

  11. temples XXI

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    Elena Grigoryeva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People have always built temples. Their diversity is infinite. Majestic cathedrals and mosques made of eternal stones neighbor a cardboard cathedral built by Pritzker laureate Shigeru Ban after the earthquake in New Zealand. Avantgarde experiments of new religions emerging in front of our eyes and no less surprising experiences of Catholic temples are side by side with an age-long strong tradition of Orthodox churches.After seventy years of gap thousands of temples of different confessions have been built and restored in the post-Soviet area. This issue includes projects of new religious buildings in Buryatia and Zabaikalie, Irkutsk and Angarsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuzbass and Altai.The rise of construction of temples raises a lot of questions. Debates on a new appearance of churches develop simultaneously with discussions on the necessity of a new translation of the Bible into the modern language. The Union of Architects of Russia with the support of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church launched a competition inviting ideas for a modern image of an Orthodox temple. The dogmata are unchanged, but the canons can be changed in time, as clergy members say. But how deep can such changes be? In what direction should the temple architecture develop? What is the best way for it to meet the challenges of our time, the changing lifestyle, the new rhythms and means of world perception?Again we fill our journal with questions to think them over together with our clever and nonindifferent reader.

  12. Empowering physicians to respond to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullin, K J; Cosgrove, A

    1992-06-01

    Despite the progress of the last 15 years in combating family violence, some individuals, community agencies and institutions still support a man's "right" to control, and they often disregard the physical violence he uses. Because threats and assault are in fact against the law, a man who physically or sexually assaults his wife or girlfriend couldn't keep doing it without this support from the very people who are supposed to enforce the law and help the victims of crime-namely, police, prosecutors, judges, clergy, psychologists, social workers and doctors. Some let him get away with it, look the other way, or--unsure of what to do to stop it--do nothing at all. Thus, they reinforce his "right" to use force, even if they never say, "Go ahead, hit her." The police officer who walks a man around the block or fails to show up when called, the clergyman who advises a woman to go home and pray, the doctor who gently patches her injuries but avoids asking who inflicted them, all cooperate with the abusive man in several ways. He comes to understand that no one will stop him from doing what he does. He learns that there are no consequences to his actions--even his violent actions. He can beat up "his woman" if he wants to and get away with it.

  13. Thinking beyond Secularism: The Catholic Church and Political Practice in Rural South India

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    Aparna Sundar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article re-opens the debate on secularism in India by looking at a religion and a region that has historically been marginal to this discourse, focusing on the way in which the Catholic Church has historically mediated the relationship between individuals and the state, among the fishing communities of South India. The Catholic Church’s dominant position among the fishing communities, its minority status within India, as well as theological and other shifts that have taken place within the global Church, lead it to articulate a secular, even radical politics as its primary mode of religious engagement. Radical clergy, many from fishing backgrounds, act as both organic and traditional intellectuals in the Gramscian sense, linking the traditional religious concerns of the Church to the secular interests of their parishioners. Likewise, villagers participate in Church-generated associations spaces to secure wider political goals. The paper concludes that certain forms of religious organisation in the public sphere might indeed be compatible with democracy, citizenship, and even secularism.

  14. Congregation-based programs to address HIV/AIDS: elements of successful implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm V; Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2011-06-01

    Religious organizations may be uniquely positioned to address HIV by offering prevention, treatment, or support services to affected populations, but models of effective congregation-based HIV programs in the literature are scarce. This systematic review distils lessons on successfully implementing congregation HIV efforts. Peer-reviewed articles on congregation-based HIV efforts were reviewed against criteria measuring the extent of collaboration, tailoring to the local context, and use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. The effectiveness of congregations' efforts and their capacity to overcome barriers to addressing HIV is also assessed. We found that most congregational efforts focused primarily on HIV prevention, were developed in partnerships with outside organizations and tailored to target audiences, and used CBPR methods. A few more comprehensive programs also provided care and support to people with HIV and/or addressed substance use and mental health needs. We also found that congregational barriers such as HIV stigma and lack of understanding HIV's importance were overcome using various strategies including tailoring programs to be respectful of church doctrine and campaigns to inform clergy and congregations. However, efforts to confront stigma directly were rare, suggesting a need for further research.

  15. Inkâr al-Sunnah pada Aspek Kodifikasi Hadis

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    Zainuddin Mz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One aspect that makes a bunch of people does not believe in the existence and role of sunnah is the delay of codification itself. Peoples also considered that hadith’s codified in various references are not what are worth ascribed to the Prophet, but rather a form of the companions comprehension of the Prophet’s directives and statements. That is why, there are different editorial ranges between one companion to another, even the mutawâtir lafzî was not separated from this editorial differences. This paper high lights how was the process of hadith codification, so that we can find a common points which are closely related to the authenticity and validity of a hadith. Studying on such topic (the process of hadith codification and classification, shows how professional the hadith scholars in memorizing and maintaining Sunnah of the Prophet, to bring the science of isnâd (‘ilm al-isnâd which is never possessed by any other religion. This is the climax of the way clergy maintaining the authenticity of the Prophet sayings. That is, whenever one states todays about a hadith, definitely, its authenticity and validity would be detected through the scienc.

  16. Archetypes and Propaganda

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    Christo Kaftandjiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major archetypes and their application in various mass communications (in propaganda, advertising, journalism, etc. are analyzed in the article. At the beginning the notion “archetype” is defined as matrix in our subconscious that makes us to act a certain way from the standpoint of our greatness. Classification of archetypes is proposed, namely physical (light/darkness; dry/wet; spatial (right/left; up/down; center/periphery; symmetric/asymmetric; inside/outside; biological (man/woman; strong/weak; young/old; beautiful/ugly; big/small; healthy/sick; psychological (honest/villain; social (we/others; freedom/slavery; order/chaos; rich/poor; known/unknown; nature/machine; work/pleasure; cultural (paradise/hell; clean/dirty etc.. The main characteristics of the different archetypes are unconsciousness, mythologicalness and biological, and cultural conditioning. Archetype light/darkness and archetype left/right are analyzed in details on the basis of many examples of various communications and propaganda. The reason for their efficiency and very high spread is not so much in unscrupulous communicators – writers, journalists, propagandists, clergy, politicians, etc., but in the natural predisposition of each of us to this type of communication. Archetypes give us a simple answer to all questions, don’t bother us with mental effforts and fit perfectly to the dark side of our subconscious thinking.

  17. Opposition to Women in Congregational Leadership: A Sociocultural Perspective

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    Solomon Kofi Amoah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made in time past in demonstrating that women are similar to men, there still appear to be a widespread persistent belief that women are indeed inferior to men even until today. What is even worrying is the theological backing that this sociocultural belief of society enjoys. One notices in the literature that God ordains, sanctions, and upholds the spiritual authority of women today as he did in time past as his official spokespersons and leaders of his people. However, the evidence and discussion presented in this paper demonstrate that problems with women being accepted as leaders by congregations, gender differences in pay and promotions, and the experiences and dissatisfaction of women clergy who feel constrained by these gender discrimination is widespread. The paper discusses this phenomenon and presents an often neglected perspective in the discourse – the sociocultural perspective. It interrogates the various stands on women and leadership in congregations. In doing this, the paper explores the position of women in the Old Testament through to the New Testament and the centuries following.

  18. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How and why wealthy suburban congregations are responding to poverty and inequality

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    Nadine F. Bowers du Toit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.

  19. Pastoral care: marketing "high touch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, M

    1986-01-01

    Marketing pastoral care skills is important both within and without the health care organization. To increase administrators' awareness of the value of the pastoral care department, for example, chaplains must be able to demonstrate that their activities can affect the bottom line. They must therefore develop a system of accountability that defines and measures their services in objective terms. Such a system would include the reporting of monthly visit statistics as well as the collection of data from patients and personnel on the adequacy of pastoral care services. Other awareness-building activities could include participation in nursing practice rounds, in-service presentations, involvement in hospital social events, and placement of articles about pastoral care in hospital publications. Activities that would help to foster good community relations and thereby improve census include participation in the area clergy association, work with local church groups that visit the sick and the homebound, providing speakers to community organizations, and sponsoring a memorial Mass for families of patients who have died at the hospital. Pastoral care staff should not feel threatened by the changing health care environment. Instead they must recognize the opportunity it provides to create ways to minister to a new mix of patients and to reach new groups.

  20. Vrome daden en gedachten. Een revisionistische kijk op het katholieke verleden van Nederland

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    A.-L. Van Bruaene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available L. Bogaers, Aards, betrokken en zelfbewust. De verwevenheid van cultuur en religie in katholiek Utrecht, 1300-1600Ch.H., Parker, Faith on the Margins. Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age Pious Deeds and Thoughts. A Revisionist View of the Netherlands’ Catholic PastThis contribution comments upon the renewed interest in the Catholic past of the Netherlands. It discusses two recent books by Llewellyn Bogaers and Charles H. Parker on late medieval and early modern Catholicism, respectively. Both authors reject a teleological conception of history and propose studying the devotion of laymen, laywomen and the clergy from within. Both studies can be considered as part of a wider international – partly anthropologically inspired – trend to reassess the history of Catholicism. The author of this contribution applauds these developments but advocates a stronger integration of the study of religious practices on the one hand, and the study of religious experiences and ideas on the other hand.

  1. [The world of medicine encounters the world of halakha--the great medical halakhist and Israel Prize awardee Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg (1915-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Shenkelowsky, Eliezer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, one of the most important medical halakhists of all time, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg died. He was affectionately known as the Tzitz Eliezer after his monumental halakhic treatise of that name. He was a leading rabbi, a judge on the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem, and an eminent authority on medical halakha. He also served as the rabbi of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem for many years prior to his death. His most important body of work, the Tzitz Eliezer, is a treatise of medical halakhic questions and many consider it as one of the great achievements of halakhic scholarship of the 20th century. Although he has written in all fields of halakha in general and medicine in particular, he is best known for his verdicts on physician responsibility, fertility, abortion, smoking, medicine on the Sabbath, organ transplantation, cosmetic surgery and determination of death. While some of his decisions on medical issues have proven controversial, they reflect scholarship and sensitivity and are respected by ethicists and clergy across the board. In 1976 he received the Israel Prize, the nation's highest honor, for Torah literature. His greatness lay in his ability to connect and gain respect across the board of the worlds of modern medicine and halakhic Judaism. Many of his decisions are today considered as routine and standard operating procedure, but, at the time, his definitions were considered new and original. He will be sorely missed by the medical and halakhic communities.

  2. Spiritual Dryness as a Measure of a Specific Spiritual Crisis in Catholic Priests: Associations with Symptoms of Burnout and Distress

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    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.

  3. Plan de reforma de la iglesia española impulsado por Napoleón Bonaparte

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    Barbastro Gil, Luis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a subject unknown up to the present, the plan of reformation carried out by the Spanish Catholic Church. This plan was promoted by Napoleon Buonaparte in 1808 and put into practice by a team led by Monsignor de Pradt, who was at the basis of the religious policy followed by Buonaparte’s gouvernement. The article analyses the Spanish clergy, and presents the reformation measures that were undertaken, together with a critical assessment of the said reformation.El artículo aborda el plan de reforma de la Iglesia española, desconocido hasta hoy, impulsado por Napoleón Bonaparte en 1808 y elaborado por un equipo dirigido por monseñor de Pradt, base de la política religiosa del gobierno josefino. Al análisis global del clero español le sigue la exposición de las distintas medidas de reforma planteadas en dicho informe, así como una valoración crítica de esta reforma por parte del autor

  4. The bit in the middle: a synthesis of global health literature on policy formulation and adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, David; Buse, Kent; Shiffman, Jeremy; Tanaka, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Policy formulation and adoption are poorly understood phases of the health policy process. We conducted a narrative synthesis of 28 articles on health policy in low- and middle-income countries to provide insight on what kinds of activities take place in these phases, the actors crafting policies and the institutions in which policy making occurs. The narrative synthesis involved an inductive process to identify relevant articles, extract relevant data from text and reach new understandings. We find that actors exercising decision-making power include not just various governmental entities, but also civil society, commissioners, nongovernmental organizations and even clergy. We also find that most articles identified two or more distinct institutions in which policy formulation and adoption occurred. Finally, we identify seven distinct activities inherent in policy formulation and adoption: generation of policy alternatives, deliberation and/or consultation, advocacy of specific policy alternatives, lobbying for specific alternatives, negotiation of policy decisions, drafting or enacting policy and guidance/influence on implementation development. Health policy researchers can draw on these categories to deepen their understanding of how policy formulation and adoption unfolds.

  5. Clerical sexual predators: impact and aftermath

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    Emilio C. Viano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has had a major impact on society’s understanding, approach and effort to protect children.It must be stated and stressed from the beginning that child abuse by the clergy is not limited to the Catholic Church. Clergy, nuns and religious personnel from other denominations, Christian or not, have also been accused and at times convicted of child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Moreover, a substantial amount of abuse has been perpetrated by lay personnel, volunteers, teachers, and auxiliaries working under the aegis of religious organizations and by other children.It must also be stressed that the abuse scandal has not been limited to the United States. The transparency of American society, its powerful media and a strong tradition of investigative journalism have quite simply uncovered it and made it more visible than in other countries.No doubt the story of child sexual abuse by the clergy has been major news in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world for a considerable amount of time now. It has caused debate, discussion and soul-searching on child exploitation issues in many homes, public gatherings, conferences, legislatures, religious events, and the media. The debate has had complex consequences, both positive and negative.Le scandale des abus du clergé dans l'Église Catholique a eu une grande résonance dans l'opinion publique et des conséquences importantes pour ce qui concerne la protéction des enfants.Ce problème n'est pas circonscrit à l'Église Catholique. Clergé, religieuses et autre personnel religieux, chrétien ou appartenant à d'autres confessions, ont été accusés, et parfois condamnés, pour d'abus physiques, psychologiques et sexuels sur enfants. En plus, une nombreuse partie de ces actes ont été perpétrés aussi bien par d'autres enfants que par professionnels laïques, bénévoles, enseignants, auxiliaires qui travaillent sous l'égide d

  6. Examining patterns of political, social service, and collaborative involvement of religious congregations: a latent class and transition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; Houston, Jaclyn D

    2013-06-01

    This investigation examines typologies of congregations based on patterns of congregational political and social service activities and collaborative partners. Based on a latent class analysis of a national random sample of 2,153 congregations, results indicated four distinct types of congregations with unique patterns of political, social service, and collaborative partnerships labeled: (a) Active, (b) Not Active, (c) Social Service Not Political, and (d) Political Not Social Service. Moreover, congregational characteristics such as religious tradition and clergy characteristics predicted membership in certain types. A latent transition analysis using an additional 262 congregations revealed distinct patterns of how congregations changed types across a nine year period. Results showed both congregational continuity (e.g., Not Active congregations remained Not Active) and change (e.g., Active congregations were likely to change type membership). This study advances congregational research by examining congregational types, what predicts certain types, and how congregations change types across time. Implications for future research and partnership with religious congregations also are discussed.

  7. Bonhoeffer in South Africa: Role model and prophet

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    PGJ Meiring

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietrich Bonhoeffer , arguably more than any other European theologian, influenced the way in which South African Christians, clergy and laity alike, have come to see their role in the struggle against apartheid. In his article the author describes the manner in which the German theologian was accepted as a role model by many, and evaluates his influence� in the theological and ethical debates in the country. The aim of the article is to determine whether Bonhoeffer � who was born a hundred years ago, in 1906 � still has a message for us today, in a different time and under different circumstances.� The author� s conclusion is in the affirmative: Bonhoeffer� s message is as powerful as ever . The basic principles in his teaching are as important to us today and tomorrow as they have been in the past.� The author refers to five principles: 'Confessing Christ here and now�, �Putting a spoke in the wheel�, �Learning to see things from below�, �Acknowledging our guilt�, and �Becoming a church for others beyond privilege�.

  8. Rational/Natural Religion and Spinoza

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    Abdullatif Tüzer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tension and enmity between religion and philosophy, as observed through the history of thought, had burst with the Enlightment and contemporary philosophy. On the part of each side, the tension has been intensified and severe due to that they did not recognize each other and also counted each other as incommensurate and refused each other as injurious. The conflict between them has been enormously incited by materialists, positivists and atheists who reduced religion into natural causes or denied it on the grounds of scientific and philosophical reasons. Indeed, what is in question is a quarrel about which camp is to have authority on politics, society, economy, law, aesthetics and epistemology and give shape to individual and society. In this quarrel, some thinkers who are devout and religious but assert that science and reason alone has authority and final judgement on politics, society, etc. and also on religion. These thinkers have been accused of creating their own religions by theologians and clergy. According to these thinkers, authentic religion is not other than one based on wisdom and virtue. This article deals with rational/natural religion represented by the thinkers in question, especially in context of Spinoza's views.

  9. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  10. Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy in the documents of the Russian Federation archives

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    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduced publication of the documents is dedicated to the Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy, which existed in 1947–1948 years. The documents, which were revealed in the State Archive of Rostov weren’t published earlier. In the introduction article and notes were used the documents of the Religious Cults Matters’ Council al the Council of People’s Commissars of USSR and his representatives in Rostov Oblast, Stalingrad Oblast, Astrakhan Oblast, Stavropol Krai and Krasnodar Krai, which are stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and State Archive of Volgograd Oblast. In the documents were reflected the changes in number and geography of the church parishes, deaneries and diocese’s borders, was showed internal church life. The episcopate’s autobiographies are testifying about difficult destiny of the Old-Believers clergy in USSR. Published documents are allowing to add our representation about Old-Believers’ history, about religious situation in the South of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, about the state and confessional policy in USSR in the middle of XX century.

  11. Roe v. Wade. Catholic wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, D

    1998-01-01

    In this commentary, a Roman Catholic professor of moral theory recounts how, during his doctoral work in Rome, he was taught that abortion was intrinsically evil and could never be justified. He was also taught, however, about Probabilism, a Roman Catholic teaching that held that "where there is doubt, there is freedom." In other words, serious doubts based on a person's own insights allow a person moral freedom to choose a course of action in cases of debated moral issues. This moral teaching, a triumph for the rights of personal conscience, which was formulated in the 16th and 17th centuries, has been well-hidden from the laity and neglected by the clergy during the past 100 years. He also learned about Thomas Aquinas who taught that practical moral principals are valid most of the time but can have exceptions depending on circumstances. In addition, early 17th-century church leaders justified abortions performed to save the life of the women. Thus, the Supreme Court's decision in Roe seems to reflect Catholic thinking more accurately than the Vatican's new-found absolutism against abortion.

  12. Para além de Salvador e do Recôncavo baiano: o culto aos santos na América Portuguesa Beyond Salvador and the Recôncavo baiano: cult to the saints in Portuguese America

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    Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.

  13. Incautaciones: aportaciones documentales para un informe del patrimonio eclesiástico en el siglo XIX

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    García Gómez, M. Dolores

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At this article are studied and published the two reports sent in 1869 and 1870 for the confiscation of archives, libraries and objects of art of the clergy. Besides the dispositions of the government, this documentation shows the value of the manuscripts that are preserved in the majority of the Spanish provinces, although their validity are connected with the preparation and the ability of local informants and the facilities they have to accede to the resources.

    En el presente artículo se estudian y publican los dos informes remitidos en 1869 y 1870 para la incautación de archivos bibliotecas y objetos de arte del clero. Además de las disposiciones del gobierno, esta documentación lo que nos permite conocer es el valor de los manuscritos que se conservan en la mayor parte de las provincias españolas, aunque su validez va a estar en función de la preparación y la capacidad de los informantes locales y las facilidades que tienen para acceder a los fondos.

  14. La publicación «Seminario»: un nexo de unión en la diáspora del conflicto civil

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    Casas, Santiago

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The start of the Spanish Civil War lead to the dispersion of the students of the Vitoria seminary through the different fronts of war. To keep the unity of this group of pupils, as well as other members of the Basque clergy, it's founded the publication Seminario at this seminary. This publication tried to get together these dispersed students, fortify them in their beliefs and keep alive an institution affected by this war.

    El inicio de la Guerra Civil española supone que los estudiantes del seminario de Vitoria se dispersen por los diferentes frentes bélicos. Para mantener la unidad de este grupo de alumnos, así como a otros elementos del clero vasco, desde el seminario de Vitoria se crea la publicación Seminario que pretende unir a estos estudiantes dispersos, fortalecerles en sus creencias y mantener viva una institución que se ve afectada por el ambiente bélico del momento.

  15. Republicanismo y rivalidad en el clero: movilización de la protesta anticlerical en Aragón 1900- 1913

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    María Pilar SALOMÓN CHÉLIZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la crisis política del sistema de la Restauración abierta tras el desastre del 98, el republicanismo recurrió al anticlericalismo para movilizar el electorado en favor de su proyecto político. Centrándose en Aragón, este artículo analiza qué sectores sociales formaban parte del movimiento anticlerical en la primera década del siglo XX, cuáles eran los motivos de su rivalidad con el clero y cómo trataron de instrumentalizar el anticlericalismo popular. Este último punto lleva a estudiar los motivos del descontento anticlerical popular y las formas de exteriorizarse la protesta anticlerical popular. Palabras Clave. Crisis de la Restauración, Aragón, Republicanismo, Anticlericalismo. ABSTRACT: In Restoration political crisis opened by 1898 militar disaster, republicanism in Spain appealed to anticlericalism in order to mobilize electorate in favor of his political project. Through Aragon's case, this article analyzes which social sectors took part in the anticlerical movement in XXth-century first decade, why they rivaled Catholic clergy and how they tried to turn to account popular anticlericalism. To answer this last question requires both to deep into the motives for popular anticlerical unrest and into the ways how popular anticlerical protest was exteriorized. Key Words: Crisis of Restoration, Aragón, Republicanism, Anticlericalism.

  16. Trauma and Narrative Wreckage in the Biblical Story of Hagar

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    Charles M. Rix

    2015-01-01

    The story of Hagar (Genesis 16 and 12) figures prominently in Bible's patriarchal narratives of both the elected and rejected with respect to divine promise. As the story of an abused foreign woman cast out into an inhospitable wilderness along with her son, the story raises troubling questions about the portrayal of domestic violence perpetuated by those otherwise celebrated as “faithful” within biblical narratives: Abraham and his wife Sarah. In response to the relative silence on the topic of domestic violence among clergy and leaders of churches, synagogues, and other “sacred spaces”, this paper explores a reading of Hagar's story that reclaims her value as a human being. With the help of post-Shoah reading sensitivities that expose strategies of dehumanization, this reading makes visible the way in which the ancient writer/reactor of Genesis performs as an advocate for Hagar in the face of the abuse heaped upon her. In so doing, Hagar's story is transformed from a narrative about a rejected “other” into one that exposes abuse by the so-called“elected.” Thus read, the story provides support and encouragement for victims in contemporary religious cultures to step forward and tell their stories.

  17. Mayo del 68 y los católicos catalanes

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    Martínez Hoyos, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1968, the catalonian Church lived in a full post-council crisis. The most progressive sections felt themselves disappointed because the expected changes after the Second Vatican Council did not achieve. The parisian events affect this ecclesiastic context, which is accentuated by division and the marxism influence. This article is focused on the responses of Alfonso Carlos Comín, «El Ciervo» magazine and the clergy represented by the «Correspondència» review.En 1968, la Iglesia catalana vivía en plena crisis postconciliar. Los sectores más progresistas se sentían decepcionados porque no se habían producido los cambios que esperaban tras el Vaticano II. Los acontecimientos parisinos inciden sobre este contexto eclesial, marcado por la división y el influjo del marxismo. El artículo se centra en las reacciones de Alfonso Carlos Comín, El Ciervo y el clero representado por la revista Correspondència.

  18. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  19. “El asesinato del Chantre Don Ventura Ferrer. Clérigos y bandos en la Seo valentina seiscentista”

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    Callado Estela, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cathedral clergy did not remain aloof from the factions that drew together a major part of the valencian society during the XVII century. A good example is the case of the precentor Don Ventura Ferrer, who led one of the cathedral sections and who, supported by the Vallterra family, sought the control of the first church of the kingdom. On the opposite side was the group of canons represented by the admiral of Aragón, head of the opposing supporters and liable for the precentor’s murder in 1661. This event revealed the overlapping of the ecclesiastic world and the phenomenon of banditry.El clero de la Seo no fue ajeno a las bandositats que aglutinaron a buena parte de la sociedad valenciana durante el siglo XVII. Lo demuestra el caso del chantre don Ventura Ferrer, líder de una de las facciones catedralicias que, con el apoyo externo del bando de los Vallterra, luchaba por el control de la primera iglesia del reino. Frente a él, el grupo de canónigos patrocinado por el Almirante de Aragón, a la cabeza de la parcialidad contraria y responsable último del asesinato del chantre en 1661, suceso este que pondría al descubierto la imbricación entre el mundo eclesiástico y el fenómeno del bandolerismo.

  20. New-evangelization discourse in ELF immigration encounters: a case study

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    Maria Grazia Guido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This paper investigates how the 'New Evangelization' process in the Roman Catholic Church is enacted through ELF by the Italian clergy offering spiritual and practical assistance to non-western immigrants newly-arrived in Italy. A case study explores how religious discourse reflects the two contact groups' different typological-syntactic, semantic and sociopragmatic features transferred to their respective ELF usage, as well as their different knowledge sustems and community values associated with the religious experience. It is argued that misunderstanding occurs when the clergy's culture-bound patterns of Possible-World Semantics, characterizing the counterfactual logic of their religious/metaphysical discourse in ELF, fail to account for the divergent ways by which non-western immigrants make religious sense of their existence. The conversational analysis shows how the New-Evangelization discourse requires from immigrants the activation of the two 'bimodal' cooperative maxims of 'suspension of disbelief', epistemically inducing them to believe that possible-world representations can be true, and 'experiential pliability', deontically compelling immigrants to adapt their actual-world experience to such counterfactual constructions, even though for the cultures of some African countries which immigrants come from religion is intrinsically connected with the referential domain of the actual world. Recognizing divergent ways of expressing the religious experience in different cultures may help 'new evangelizers' find alternative, 'hybrid' ways of conveying the Word of God through ELF, thus fostering true ecumenical communication.Riassunto - Lo studio esamina come il processo di 'Nuova Evangelizzazione' nella Chiesa Cattolica Romana è messo in atto dal clero italiano attraverso ELF quando offre assistenza pratica e spirituale ad immigrati non-occidentali appena giunti in Italia. Il caso di studio esplora i modi in cui il discorso

  1. Las «misiones interiores» en la campaña de Buenos Aires entre dos siglos: de los Borbones a Rosas

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    Di Stefano, Roberto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The «misiones interiores» were promoted by the political authorities, required by bishops and parsons and carried out by Jesuits, Mercedarios and Franciscans. Both in Europe and America, during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they were conceived as missionary strategies to spread the teachings and the sacraments to areas of weak ecclesiastical presence, and they often sought to pacify the most distant and conflictive communities. The missions were an extraordinary moment of contact with religion, and were planned with a strong pedagogical character, so that the duties of the missionaries meant an important help to the parsons. The «misiones interiores» involved a wide range of actors: parishioners and churchmen, political and religious authorities, regular and secular clergy. This article offers a comparison between the missions developed in the countryside of Buenos Aires in two moments of change in the relationships between regular and secular clergy on one hand, and between the Church and the civil authorities on the other, during the colonial period and Juan Manuel de Rosas’ second period of government. We want to highlight the way in which the civil powers resorted to these missions, and their characteristics in those two different historical contexts, in which the role of the ecclesiastical institutions in the social order and their ties with the civil powers were subject to modifications.Las «misiones interiores» fueron promovidas por las autoridades políticas, requeridas por obispos y párrocos y llevadas a cabo por jesuitas, mercedarios y franciscanos. Tanto en Europa como en América, durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX se plantearon como estrategias misionales para llevar la predicación y los sacramentos a regiones donde la presencia eclesiástica era débil. A menudo se proponían pacificar las comunidades más alejadas y conflictivas. La misión constituía un momento extraordinario de contacto con la

  2. As várias faces da Igreja Católica

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    Luiz Alberto Gómez de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O AUTOR faz um balanço da Igreja Católica nas últimas décadas, fazendo notar diversidades e tensões internas e assinalando sua presença ativa na vida pública brasileira. Examina os vários momentos da relação entre a Igreja e a política. Numa avaliação do momento atual afirma, no sentido contrário de algumas análises, a relevância, ainda hoje, das pastorais sociais e das CEBs. Chama a atenção para uma crise da Igreja no momento presente, em relação a alguns temas que ela mantêm congelados, sobre a mulher, a sexualidade ou o celibato obrigatório dos clérigos. E finaliza com a proposta, atualmente em pauta, de começar o processo de preparação de um futuro concílio.THE AUTHOR purviews the role of the Catholic Church over the last decades, bringing to light its diversities and internal tensions, and highlighting its active presence in Brazilian public life. He examines the various instances of the relationship between the church and politics. Assessing the present time, and going counter to certain analyses, he affirms that social pastoral initiatives and the Grassroots Ecclesiastical Communities are still relevant today. He calls our attention to the ongoing crisis of the Church regarding certain issues that remain "frozen": women, sexuality, and the compulsory celibacy of the clergy. And he ends with the proposal, currently being discussed, to begin preparations for a future council.

  3. De curas, frailes y monjas: disciplina y regulación del comportamiento del clero en el obispado de Calahorra, 1500-1700

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    Catalán Martínez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changing patterns of behavior of the clergy and the homogenization of models of holiness, in the process of transformation of the medieval church in a modern church. The Council of Trent tried to build a new identity for the priests, organized, neat and efficient at the service of the faith that would keep it away from private interests and attitudes, typical of a feudal church. It was necessary to clearly separate the profane and sacred spaces to ensure that the interactions between the two universes were dominated by the verticality. The post-Tridentine church opted for a model of holiness based on the compliance with the standard. The convents became real saints factories advertised through their stories, reinforcing the formation of a spirit identification, in which the church guided the recognition codes and its public excitement.Este trabajo analiza el cambio en las pautas de comportamiento del clero en el proceso de transformación de la iglesia medieval en una iglesia moderna. El concilio de Trento intentó construir una nueva identidad para los sacerdotes, organizada, pulcra y eficiente al servicio de la fe que la alejara de los intereses y actitudes privados, propios de una iglesia feudal. Era necesario separar con claridad los espacios profanos y sagrados hasta lograr que las relaciones entre ambos universos estuviesen dominadas por la verticalidad. La iglesia post-tridentina apostó por un modelo de santidad basado en el acatamiento de la norma. Los conventos se convirtieron en auténticas fábricas de santos que publicitaron a través de sus crónicas, reforzando la formación de un espíritu identificativo, en el que la iglesia marcaba los códigos de reconocimiento y su exaltación pública.

  4. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

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    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  5. Veneration and Wonder—the politics of making art in an Oaxacan village

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    Karin Becker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a 5-year collaboration between the Stockholm-based video artists Performing Pictures and Talleres Comunitarios, a studio based in the Oaxacan town of Santa Ana Zegache where local artisans employ traditional skills in the restoration of religious artifacts. In images and text, we trace the exchange of skills, knowledge, and aesthetic sensibility that took place as these two groups of artists collaborated in producing a series of video animations of venerative objects, against a backdrop of religious, social, and political tensions that characterize everyday life in Zegache. In the article and the accompanying series of three short films, “Wonder & Veneration 1–3” (http://vimeo.com/album/2682070, we examine how the artists negotiate questions of aesthetics and religious belief as their collaboration unfolds within the context of the Zegache community, where the Talleres contribute skills of carpentry and painting, while Performing Pictures provides skills of film, animation and micro-electronics. The processes and practices involved in creating three works provides the framework for this examination: the first, an animation of the Virgin of Guadalupe as she appears to a simple peasant, and the second, produced 2 years later, an animation of Santa Ana, local patron saint and mother of Maria, as she teaches her daughter to read the scriptures. Whereas both figures are central to the syncretic religious belief of southern Mexico with its challenge to the entrenched authority of the hispanicized clergy, the local figure of Santa Ana carries even more complex meanings for the community of Zegache. These meanings are embodied in the third work we examine, a small solar-powered chapel that the artists built to display the Santa Ana animation. With the mayor's support and located at the entrance to the town, the chapel embodies a shift of power away from the church, standing as an example of indigenous empowerment in civil

  6. Escándalos, ruydos, injurias e cochilladas: prácticas de violencia en el clero catedralicio burgalés durante el siglo XV

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    Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work, based mainly on manuscripts and unpublished documents from Burgos Cathedral Archive, is the study and analysis of violence, physical and verbal, among the cathedral clergy of Burgos, emphasizing the individual and collective scale of the conflicts and the variety of their causes. The cathedral chapter of Burgos exercised its jurisdiction by punishing the culprits, favouring reconciliation processes and trying to stop, often unsuccessfully, the conflicts between clergymen that increased during the last decades of the fifteenth century, and that have a close connection with the conflicts which took place between different families and lineages of the urban oligarchy of Burgos during the same period.El objetivo de este trabajo, basado fundamentalmente en fuentes manuscritas e inéditas procedentes del Archivo Catedralicio de Burgos, es el estudio y análisis de la violencia, tanto física como verbal, en el seno del clero catedralicio burgalés, poniendo de relieve la dimensión tanto individual como colectiva de los enfrentamientos y su variada casuística. El cabildo catedralicio burgalés ejerció su jurisdicción imponiendo castigos a los culpables, fomentando fórmulas de reconciliación y tratando de frenar, a menudo sin éxito, unos enfrentamientos entre clérigos que aumentaron durante las últimas décadas del siglo XV, y que guardan un estrecho paralelismo y relación con los conflictos que en la misma época se produjeron entre diferentes familias y linajes de la oligarquía urbana burgalesa.

  7. Reflexiones sobre la controversia clericomasónica en la Restauración y Segunda República

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    José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.

  8. Charity of Kharkov Citizens During the First World War (According to the Materials of Local Newspapers

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    Dyakova Elena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available he author made attempt to show how the journalists reflected in local press the help by Kharkov people to wounded soldiers and refugees during the First World War. In those years the wounded and sick soldiers were evacuated to Kharkov, the enterprises and refugees from western regions of the Russian Empire were transported there as well. All of these required the active help from local residents. A lot of local newspapers wrote about charity of Kharkov people. Such newspapers as Kharkovskie gubernskie vedomosti, Uzhny krai informed daily the readers about the raised sums, the charity events held to help the wounded, refugees and soldiers’ families. During wartime, many of the headlines were devoted to the military actions of the Russians and allied troops. Newspapers reported about money donations to soldiers and their families, refugees and evacuees in the city and the village of Kharkov governorate. The activity of the Red Cross, clergy, workers in hospitals and training of the necessary personnel were highlighted. Local residents who wanted to help but did not have enough money could pay for the treatment of a wounded or sick soldier. Both famous and ordinary people helped the wounded. During the treatment of the soldiers the latest methods of diagnosis were used and financed by the military commission. The priests held all-night service, and students read books and talked about peaceful future. In some hospitals soldiers could watch films. Selfless work played an important role. Local peasant women sewed underwear and warm clothes and sent it to the front. The additional groups in the kindergartens for the soldiers’ children were opened. Ordinary citizens at their own expense.

  9. The Influence of State-Confessional Policy on the Situation of MuslimOrganizations in Western Siberia in 1905 – the beginning of 1917 years

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    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the situation of Muslim communities in Western Siberia in the period between the two Russian revolutions (1905 – the beginning of 1917 years in the framework of the government's state-confessional policy. Based on the analysis of archival documents and legal acts the authors conclude that the attitude of the state towards muslims in the Russian empire, despite all political changes, was based on the attempts to consolidate the indigenous component with the Russian ethnos. The events of 1905 year engendered from the muslim population of the country hope to change their situation, and strengthened the desire to religious autonomy. However, the government continues to build its policy so that controlled virtually all spheres of life of the Muslim community. The events of the First Russian revolution contributed to the birth of activity in the muslim world in defending their rights, which led to the manifestation of some exemptions from the state in relation to the Ummah. It was during this period muslims see an opportunity to assert their rights at the legislative level, form their own political movements and are part of the State Duma. Quite noticeable was the participation of Muslims in the Russian army during the First world war. In this regard not by chance that the muslims received the right to perform prayers and approval of the clergy of the muslim faith to the troops. In this case they were equalized in rights with the regimental priests. At the same time, despite the active position of the muslim community, however, by the beginning of 1917 still have quite a lot of unresolved issues and problems related to the device life of the muslim community. One of the most difficult and unsolved problems remained a problem of national education for the aboriginal population professing islam.

  10. EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND AUSTRIA

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    Necati DEMİR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.

  11. The origins of the plebs Sanctae Agathae. Inscriptions lost and rediscovered on the history of Santhià in the Early Middle Ages

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    Marco Aimone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two fragments of white marble are embedded in the apsis’ wall outside the parish church of St. Agatha in Santhià (near Vercelli, in Piedmont: the first one is engraved with the final part of a dedicatory inscription to a martyr by a clergyman named Vvalpertus (or Alpertus; the second one is a part of a small pillar or a lintel coming from a presbytery enclosure, and is decorated with a motif of intertwined gallons. The inscription stayed in the middle of a pluteus bordered by a carved frame, of which only a part of the lower band survives: the letters and the style of the decorations allow a chronology within the 8th century, while the fragment of pillar is to be traced back to a period between the 8th and the first half of the 9th. Of special interest are the Lombard onomastic of the dedicator and, in the final surviving text, the “signature” of a sculptor, which is present in a second inscription of Lombard age found in Piedmont, adorned with carved decorations as well. The analysis of these artefacts - hitherto unpublished - offered the opportunity to restudy two other inscriptions once existing in the church of St. Agatha, long lost and of uncertain authenticity: all these data allow various deductions about the history of Santhià over the centuries of the early Middle ages, the presence of a clergy in the countryside of the diocese of Vercelli, and the work of sculptors and engravers active between the 8th and 9th century in an area between Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Provence, labelled in the past under the unifying name of “bottega delle Alpi Marittime”.

  12. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

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    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  13. Conversos i jueus: cohesió i solidaritat. Necessitat d’una recerca

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    Hernando, Josep

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion.



    El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.

  14. The Three Estates Model: Represented and Satirised in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales

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    Sadenur Doğan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the ‘Three Estates Model’ of the English medieval society in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Based upon the descriptions and illustrations of the characters, it aims to explore the hierarchal structure of the medieval society which is divided into three main groups or ‘estates’: the ones who pray, the ones who rule and govern, and the ones who work. In the General Prologue, Chaucer gives a series of sketches of the characters that are the representatives of the three estates, and through these depictions he investigates the social characteristics and roles of the medieval people who are expected to speak and behave in accordance with what their social group requires. While presenting Three Estates Model, he employs the tradition of ‘estates satire’ by criticising the social vices resulting from the corruption in this model. Through the characteristics and virtues of the ‘Knight’, the ‘Parson’, and the ‘Plowman’, he demonstrates the perfect integration of the people who belong to chivalry, clergy and the commoners in the medieval English society. Also, by offering contrasting views to these positive traits in the portrayal of almost all of the other characters, as illustrated in the portrayal of the ‘Monk’, the ‘Reeve’, and the ‘Wife of Bathe’ in this paper, he criticises the vices and sins (that are mainly resulted from the religious, financial and moral corruption of the people belonging to the social classes of the Middle Ages.

  15. Information Seeking Behavior of the Ulama in Relation to Preaching and Counseling Roles in Nigeria

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    Adam Gambo Saleh

    2012-11-01

    between demographic factors and search strategies adopted. Finally, the study identified the similarities and differences between the information seeking behaviors of the Christian clergy and the Ulama.

  16. Late Termination of Pregnancy. Professional Dilemmas

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    Isack Kandel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester.This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional.In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality.Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women.Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus.

  17. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

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    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information.

  18. Russian Imperial Principles and Technologies of the Management ofEthno-Confessional Diversity and of the Integration of Traditional Socio-Cultural Systems

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    Igor I. Verniaev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the new monograph by Boris Mironov, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity,” which is devoted to the social history of Russia in the imperial period. One of its main characteristics is its fundamental interdisciplinarity and the use of various research methods and strategies. Mironov synthesizes the approaches of social, economic, political and visual history, social anthropology, historical demography, sociology, political science and psychology. I.I. Verniaev, an ethnographer by profession, views this book through the eyes of an ethnographer and analyzes it from the perspective of social anthropology. In his opinion, Mironov succeeded in deeply analyzing the principles and technologies of management of ethnic and confessional diversity and the transformation of traditional socio-cultural institutions. The article discusses how Mironov identifies and analyzes such imperial principles and technologies of management of ethno-confessional diversity, modernization, and integration of socio-cultural systems as maintaining the status quo, the relative autonomy of ethnic groups in the early stages of incorporation of the national borderlands, ethnic and religious tolerance, the use of intermediate symbiotic (neo-traditional, in terms of ethnography institutions, confessionalization, the predominance of social rather than ethnic assimilation, legitimation and the ennoblement of national elites, their inclusion in the system of governance of the empire, the extension and adaptation of the estate system to include new groups of the population from the national borderlands, the confessionalization of religions, and the empowerment of the clergy through rights and responsibilities in the administrative system. These processes are interpreted in terms of models of traditional societies and cultures developed in modern ethnography, and the manner of their modernization and incorporation into modern society.

  19. The diagnosis of brain death

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    Goila Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Although the widespread use of mechanical ventilators and other advanced critical care services have transformed the course of terminal neurologic disorders. Vital functions can now be maintained artificially for a long period of time after the brain has ceased to function. There is a need to diagnose brain death with utmost accuracy and urgency because of an increased awareness amongst the masses for an early diagnosis of brain death and the requirements of organ retrieval for transplantation. Physicians need not be, or consult with, a neurologist or neurosurgeon in order to determine brain death. The purpose of this review article is to provide health care providers in India with requirements for determining brain death, increase knowledge amongst health care practitioners about the clinical evaluation of brain death, and reduce the potential for variations in brain death determination policies and practices amongst facilities and practitioners. Process for brain death certification has been discussed under the following: 1. Identification of history or physical examination findings that provide a clear etiology of brain dysfunction. 2. Exclusion of any condition that might confound the subsequent examination of cortical or brain stem function. 3. Performance of a complete neurological examination including the standard apnea test and 10 minute apnea test. 4. Assessment of brainstem reflexes. 5. Clinical observations compatible with the diagnosis of brain death. 6. Responsibilities of physicians. 7. Notify next of kin. 8. Interval observation period. 9. Repeat clinical assessment of brain stem reflexes. 10. Confirmatory testing as indicated. 11. Certification and brain death documentation.

  20. El Socialista versus El debate (Enero-Septiembre 1933

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    Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.

  1. FORMATION OF SOCIAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR REVIVAL OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    R. A. Khachidogov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal establishment of the government in the field of Islamic education in the North Caucasus region. It is noted that the establishment of the Russian state did not bring any significant changes in the everyday life of Muslims of the North Caucasus. For the first time on "foreigners" of the state-level education has been fixed 26 March 1870 "Rules", which talked about the struggle "with a tribal organization and Mohammedan civilization, aimed at the Russification of early Muslims and their coalescence with the Russian people." The next step came Nov. 20, 1874 with the approval of the State Supreme Council, which introduced the system of Islamic education in the school accountability department. So finally implement a project of Russification of the Muslim community, which was the most negative factor hindering the mental development of children who are accustomed to speak the mother tongue. Even in 1838, in the report the Minister of War Chernyshev commander of a separate Caucasian Corps, General Golovin wrote that "it is necessary, wherever possible, to establish Muslim schools for the education of the clergy, through which you can act on the minds of the people." Caucasian leaders were in no hurry to close Muslim schools, trying to use them as centers of education spread. During the Caucasian War, the Russian government is trying to pursue such a policy among the Muslims, which would cause the sympathy not only among the common people, but also among the educated elite of the Muslim community in order to drag her to his side. December 18, 1848 Nicholas I approved the "Regulations on the Caucasian school district and the school district, his subordinate", in which the military gymnasium in Ekaterinodar started teacher "Mohammedan law." In 1853 Muslim students of military schools of the empire received an official entitled to exemption from the training sessions in the days of religious feasts and fasts.

  2. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

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    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and

  3. Eta y «la resistencia vasca» durante los últimos años del franquismo en la prensa clandestina del nacionalismo vasco moderado = Eta and the ‘Basque Resistence’ In The Last Years Of Franco’s Regime As Seen Through The Moderate Basque Nationalist Clandestin

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    Macario Hernández Nieto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de Alderdi, OPE y Euzko Deya, periódicos editados durante el Franquismo en Francia por el PNV y el Gobierno Vasco en el exilio, pone de manifiesto que ETA gozaba de alguna consideración en el nacionalismo vasco moderado aunque oficialmente no se respaldara su actividad violenta. ETA era considerada un elemento importante en la lucha que la “resistencia vasca” libraba contra el régimen de Franco. Estos periódicos incluían también dentro de la “resistencia vasca” fuerzas políticas, sindicales, sociales etc., como el clero vasco, en parte afecto al nacionalismo, o partidos y sindicatos antifranquistas, no nacionalistas como el PCE o CC.OO. que promovían la contestación de los trabajadores vascos.The analysis of Alderdi and OPE-Eusko-Deya newspapers published during Franco’s time in France by the PNV and the Basque Government in the exile, reveals that ETA had high esteem among the moderate Basque nationalism although officially its violent activity was not backed. ETA was considered an important element in the struggle that the ‘Basque resistance’ fought against Franco’s Regime. These newspapers also included in the ‘Basque resistance’ political, union, social and cultural forces as the Basque clergy, nationalist, or political parties and unions against Francoism and no nationalistic as PCE or CC.OO. which lead the Basque worker protest.

  4. THE BEGINNING OF ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE LANDS OF THE BLACK SEA COSSACK ARMY IN THE LATE XVIII AND EARLY XIX CENTURIES

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    M. Yu. GOROZHANINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of one of hot topics studying of spiritual culture of the Cossacks is. In work one of the low-studied of the questions connected with the organization of church management in Chernomoriya is considered. Long time researchers bypassed this problem, focusing attention to the post-reform period, as a result the church history of Kuban during the pre-reform period has generated few matters of argument. In work an attempt to light a row from them is made. For the first time on the basis of the source study analysis the reasons of disagreements among researchers in determination of number of temples at the Black Sea Cossacks in are considered to XVIII centuries In article the major factors which have exerted impact on rates of church construction are allocated, local specifics of the organization of church management are designated. The special place is allocated to reconstruction of milestone events in church history of Kuban of the end XVIII centuries – the beginnings of the XIX centuries, the list of the first Cossack huts in which in 1799 is provided. Church service was conducted. In this article the important role of the famous figures of the Black Sea Cossack army in church construction is shown. Works of the wax judge A.A. Golovaty in a church field are lit, the contribution of army archpriests R. Porokhni and K.V. Rossinsky in forming of local clergy is shown, and the attention to its specifics is also specificity.

  5. Gauvain e il corpo smembrato: allegorie nell'«Atre périlleux»

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    Maurizio Virdis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’Atre Périlleux è un romanzo anonimo francese del XIII secolo e fa parte della corrente letteraria che rimettere in questione il romanzo cortese di tradizione chrestieniana. Piú che all’ideologia o alle istanze della classe cavalleresca e della nobiltà minore, il nostro romanzo risponde alle prospettive e alle necessità intellettuali della clergie, che si fa gioco dei valori cavallereschi tradizionali. L’Atre Périlleux è condotto, con toni di humour e una trama complessa, su binari metaletterari e allegorici (di cui il corpo smembrato di Gauvain è il simbolo piú eminente, e si pone come critica della decadenza della società cortese, animato però dal proposito del rinnovamento morale di essa.L’Atre Périlleux is an anonymous French romance of the thirteenth century and it is part of the literary movement that calls into question the tradition of courtly romance dating back to Chrétien de Troyes. More than to the ideology and instances of the class of minor nobility and chivalry, our romance responds to the clergie’s needs and intellectual perspectives, and it mocks the traditional values of chivalry. L’Atre Périlleux is conducted, with a hint of humour and a complicated plot, on metaliterary and allegorical tracks (and Gauvain’s dismembered body is the most prominent symbol of this allegorical tone, so that our romance stands as a critique of courtly society decadence, nevertheless animated by the purpose of its moral renewal.

  6. Beneficios y oficios del clero rural castellano (siglos XIII-XV

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    Martín Martín, José L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the rural clergy through two concepts that define the situation of its members in the middle Ages: beneflcium and officium. The first one is a word of feudal origin to designate the income or remuneration for the office, and we try to clarify it like a previous requirement to obtain the holy orders, the regular and irregular methods to get a beneflcium, the increase of ecclesiastical posts and their economic values. In relationship to the office we confirm that there were many beneficiaries who hardly had any significant ecclesiastical function. Rather, they carried out administrative or private activities, and we find a split between service and remuneration for the office

    En este artículo se estudia el clero rural a través de dos conceptos que definen la situación de sus miembros en la Edad Media: el beneficio y el oficio. El primero es un término de origen feudal que designa la renta o remuneración del cargo, y lo analizamos como requisito para las órdenes sagradas, con otros procedimientos regulares e irregulares empleados para obtener las prebendas, así como el valor económico de éstas. En relación con el oficio se constata que hubo muchos beneficiados que apenas ejercieron funciones eclesiásticas, sino administrativas o de índole privado, y se disoció la labor desarrollada de la remuneración percibida por el beneficio.

  7. Topical issues of labor at the concession enterprises in the USSR

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    Bulatov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1920s in the USSR the total number of workers and employees at the concession enterprises did not exceed 0,7 % from the total number of ones in the country. Sometimes requirements about distribution of the Soviet labor law on all employees of the concession enterprise, irrespective of their nationality or citizenship, caused protests from foreign concessionaires. Economic interests often were behind those protests. Sometimes the Soviet partners made a compromise. The problem of a percentage ratio of the Soviet and foreign workers on concessions was an important one. In contracts, the number of foreigners usually was defined as 1020 percentage (often 15 % from each category of skilled workers. In the Far East of the USSR, the percent of attracted foreign labor was higher (4550 percentage of foreign workers and above. Specific weight of foreign employees at the concession enterprises officially could reach 50 %. There were many so-called «the former people» at the concession enterprises (representatives of the former bourgeoisie, the nobility, clergy, merchants and officers. Because of their origin, they could not get lob at the state enterprises. That is why in the 1920s at some concession enterprises of the USSR there were 30–35 % of workers with the higher education and 50–60 % with a secondary one. However, such high educational level of workers could take place only at the concession enterprises that were settling down in Moscow, Leningrad or in especially large industrial and cultural centers of the European part of the USSR. As a rule, almost at all concessions the average monthly salaries were higher, than at the one-branch state enterprises. For example, at peak of the Soviet concession practice (in 1928, the difference in salaries fluctuated from one to 60 % and tended to increase.

  8. Self-Esteem among Druze Women

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    Awidat Rose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the issue of self-esteem among Druze women in Israel in light of the challenges faced by the passage from traditional to modern society. It explores how gender roles, cultural dimensions, family structure, education and appearance influence women’s self-esteem. Druze women are breaking the traditional boundaries, while at the same time protecting those boundaries and doing their best to ensure that Druze values are carried, by their community, into the future. They are supporting and enabling a different lifestyle and thus encouraging a change in the balance of power between genders; they are undermining the power and authority of the patriarchs themselves, while supporting an increase in women's self-esteem. Although Druze religious law gives women equal rights, the status of women in the Druze family is inferior to that of men. Nevertheless, today, one can see fathers who are encouraging their daughters to pursue higher education while overcoming criticism by the clergy and relatives. In the Israeli setting, Arabs and Druze belong to collectivistic societies and Jews to an individualistic society. Features of an individual’s perceived self-esteem interact with ethnicity; together these play a major role in shaping behavior as well as self-esteem. Still, only a few studies have compared Druze and other cultures with respect to components of self-esteem. Gender-role identity is also positively related to self-esteem. Western culture, and today, also Arab culture relates to thinness as a determinant of good appearance and hence better self-esteem. Druze women's liberation in the last 10 years constitutes one of the Oriental culture’s achievements. However, such an achievement is accompanied by a preoccupation with appearance, confidence and self-esteem. The growing interest in the relationship between cultural factors and self-esteem and body image, and the limited published empirical research on these components among

  9. La intervención de la Real Academia de San Fernando en la protección del patrimonio : la Comisión de Valentín Carderera (1836

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    Rocío Calvo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El pensamiento ilustrado motivó el nacimiento de la conciencia tutelar, en cuya evolución intervinieron de manera activa las Academias, órganos centralizadores de la protección patrimonial. A raíz de la definitiva desamortización del clero regular, la Real Academia de San Fernando desarrolló un papel fundamental en la formulación de su ordenamiento jurídico. Entre las primeras medidas adoptadas destaca el nombramiento de académicos como comisionados que inventariasen, clasificasen y recolectasen los objetos procedentes de las comunidades suprimidas para la formación de los museos públicos. Este estudio aborda tanto la labor llevada a cabo como los resultados obtenidos por Valentín Carderera como comisionado en Castilla la Vieja y el Reino de León.The Enlightenment caused the birth of guardianship awareness. Academies, as centralized institutions for the protection of heritage, were actively involved in its evolution. On the basis of the definitive disentailment of regular clergy property, the Royal Academy of San Fernando played a key role in the development of its legal framework. Concerning the first steps taken, stands out the appointment of academics as commissioners to inventory, classify and collect the objects from the removed communities to be part of the public museums. This study addresses both the work carried out and the results obtained by the commissioner Valentin Carderera in Old Castile and The Kingdom of Leon.

  10. Cofradías y ciudad en la España del siglo XVIII

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    Inmaculada ARIAS DE SAAVEDRA ALÍAS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las cofradías son una creación de la religiosidad popular muy arraigada en la España del Antiguo Régimen, tanto en el mundo urbano como en el rural. No obstante, en las ciudades tuvieron su máximo desarrollo y su manifestación más acabada. En este artículo se estudian las cofradías de las principales ciudades españolas, utilizando la información de una gran encuesta realizada por el gobierno durante el reinado de Carlos III. Aspectos como las diferentes devociones religiosas que fomentaron, o su presencia en parroquias y conventos de órdenes religiosas son analizados. Se presta una gran atención a los rasgos específicos de las cofradías urbanas: presencia de los grupos privilegiados (nobleza y clero y de las elites sociales, importancia de los gremios, creación de nuevos modelos de religiosidad, protagonismo de las cofradías en el culto y fiestas públicas, así como su actuación respecto a los marginados.ABSTRACT: Confraternities are a popular religious creation well established in early modern Spain both in urban and rural areas. Nevertheless, it was in the cities that they had their main growth and they achieved a more perfect status. This paper considers the status of confraternities in the main Spanish cities, according to the report enforced by the government during the reign of Carlos III. Some topics as different religious devotions, in parish churches and monasteries, are analyzed. The paper pays attention to specific features of urban confraternities: privileged people (the nobility and the clergy and social elite, the weight of guilds, the creation of new religious patterns, confraternity realizations into the worship and the public holidays, as well as their activities with regard to the underprivileged.

  11. Anti-Muslim Sentiments and Violence: A Major Threat to Ethnic Reconciliation and Ethnic Harmony in Post-War Sri Lanka

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    Athambawa Sarjoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the military defeat of LTTE terrorism in May 2009, the relationship between ethnic and religious groups in Sri Lanka became seriously fragmented as a result of intensified anti-minority sentiments and violence. Consequently, the ethnic Muslims (Moors became the major target in this conflict. The major objective of this study is to critically evaluate the nature and the impact of the anti-Muslim sentiments expressed and violence committed by the extreme nationalist forces during the process of ethnic reconciliation in post-war Sri Lanka. The findings of the study reveal that, with the end of civil war, Muslims have become “another other” and also the target of ethno-religious hatred and violence from the vigilante right-wing ethno-nationalist forces that claim to be protecting the Sinhala-Buddhist nation, race, and culture in Sri Lanka. These acts are perpetrated as part of their tactics aimed to consolidate a strong Sinhala-Buddhist nation—and motivated by the state. Furthermore, the recourse deficit and lack of autonomy within the organizational hierarchy of the Buddhist clergy have motivated the nationalist monks to engage in politics and promote a radical anti-minority rhetoric. This study recommends institutional and procedural reforms to guide and monitor the activities of religious organizations, parties, and movements, together with the teaching of religious tolerance, as the preconditions for ethnic reconciliation and ethnic harmony in post-war Sri Lanka. This study has used only secondary data, which are analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner.

  12. Doenças de feitiço: as Minas setecentistas e o imaginário das doenças Diseases from witchcraft: eighteenth century Minas Gerais captaincy/Brazil and the imaginary of the diseases

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    André Luís Lima Nogueira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetiva discutir a crença e o consenso em torno da ideia partilhada, entre aqueles que viveram nas Minas no curso do século XVIII, de que determinados indivíduos poderiam, por meio de feitiços, provocar uma série de males. Assim, as doenças de feitiço, conforme aparecem na documentação compulsada, pareciam bastante assíduas. Procurei igualmente analisar como eram descritos tais achaques provocados pelos feitiços: tolhimentos, dores, ligamentos, dentre outros. Estes se faziam presentes tanto nas denúncias levadas ao conhecimento de membros do clero no curso das devassas eclesiásticas (documentação sob a guarda do Arquivo Eclesiástico da Arquidiocese de Mariana como em tratados médicos publicados, sobretudo, nas primeiras décadas do setecentos.This article aims to discuss the belief and the consensus around the idea shared among those who lived in Minas in the course of the eighteenth century that certain individuals could, by spells, cause a variety of ailments. Thus, the spell of illness, as it appears in the documentation compelling seemed very assiduous. I also tried to analyze how they were described such ailments caused by spells: stunting, pain, ligaments, among others. These were present both in the complaints brought to the attention of members of the clergy during the wanton ecclesiastical (documentation in the custody of the ecclesiastical archives of the Archdiocese of Mariana as published in medical treatises, especially in the first decades of the 18th century.

  13. Redes, Reforma y Revolución: Dos franciscanos rioplatenses sobreviviendo al siglo XIX (1800-1830

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    Troisi-Melean, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the first three decades of the 19th century in the Río de la Plata region through the lives of two important Franciscans. Using civil and ecclesiastical documents, sermons and newspapers we will try to identify in which ways, different events changed the lives of two members of the Catholic Church. Two life stories are the windows to analyze the effect of the Bourbon Reforms at a local level, the impact of the revolution inside and outside the convents, the ideological transformation of the Clergy and the different attitudes towards the ecclesiastical reforms of the 1820s.En este trabajo, de carácter exploratorio, he procurado realizar un recorrido histórico de las primeras tres décadas del siglo XIX en el Río de la Plata a través de la vida de dos importantes franciscanos. Usando archivos eclesiásticos y civiles, sermones y diarios, intento identificar de qué manera, diferentes acontecimientos de largo alcance trasformaron las vidas de dos hispanoamericanos. A partir de dos historias de vida pretendo brindar algunas sugerencias sobre el funcionamiento en el ámbito local de las políticas borbónicas, el impacto de la revolución dentro y fuera de los conventos, la transformación ideológica dentro de las Órdenes regulares y las intrincadas redes de relaciones sociales a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  14. Secularización, regalismo y reforma eclesiástica en la España de Carlos III : un estado de la cuestión

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    Carlos María Rodríguez López-Brea

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La España de Carlos III, como el resto de la Europa católica del siglo xviii, fue escenario de interesantes novedades en el panorama religioso. La esfera política luchaba desde hacía tiempo por emanciparse de las tutelas eclesiásticas, pero es sólo en el siglo xviii cuando se puede hablar con propiedad de secularización de la política. En España, el regalismo tradicional adquirió nuevos bríos al mezclarse el sustrato autóctono con las ideas que provenían de Ñapóles y de Francia. Aún así, Carlos III se mostró tan cauteloso en sus relaciones con Roma que, a finales del siglo XVIII, el clero seguía disfrutando en España de unos privilegios más amplios que en la mayor parte de las naciones católicas.Charles III's Spain, like the rest of the catholic Europe in the 18th century, was the stage where interesting changes took place in the religious field. The political sphere fought a long time ago to become independent from the ecclesiastical paternity, but only in the 18th cetury was it possible to talk about secularism in politics. In Spain, the traditional regalism acquired new forcé when the new ideas from Naples and France mixed with a national basis. However, Charles III was so cautious in his relationship with the Román Church that, at the end of the century, the clergy in Spain enjoyed wider privileges than in other European kingdoms.

  15. Los novicios de la compañía de Jesús: La disyuntiva ante el autoexilio y su estancia en Italia

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    Fernández Arrillaga, Inmaculada

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available When, in April of 1767, the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain is ordered, the group of novices who was studying in the recognized Colleges of the Society is tom between following the priests into exile or forgetting their projects and staying in Spanish territory. This work concentrates on the one hand, the reactions of these youths, tempted the representatives of the administration and of the Spanish clergy, which used all the means at their disposal of convincing them for being in Spain and, on the other, the crusading spirit surrounding the decision to defend their vocation and going into voluntary exile into the States of the Pope.

    Cuando, en abril de 1767, se procede a la expulsión de los jesuitas de España, el grupo de novicios que se encontraba en los reconocidos colegios de la Compañía se debate entre el dilema de seguir a estos padres en su exilio o abandonar sus proyectos en la orden de san Ignacio y quedarse en territorio español. En este trabajo se estudian, por una parte, las reacciones de estos jóvenes, tentados por los representantes de la administración y del clero español, que desplegaron un amplio dispositivo con el objetivo de convencerlos para que permanecieran en España y, por otra, el espíritu de cruzada que rodeó la decisión de defender su vocación y autoexiliarse en los Estados Pontificios.

  16. La responsabilità della gerarchia ecclesiastica nel caso degli abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici, fra diritto canonico e diritti statuali

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    Pierluigi Consorti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione.SOMMARIO: 1. Connessioni e distinzioni tra responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica negli ordinamenti religiosi - 2. Responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia ecclesiastica - 3. La responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia nell’ordinamento canonico e sue conseguenze negli ordinamenti statuali - 4. La riparazione del danno ingiusto nel diritto canonico. Responsabilità della gerarchia - 5. La responsabilità penale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici - 6. Responsabilità morale, pastorale e comunionale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici.ABSTRACTCatholic Hierarchy Responsibility in Clerical Sexual Abuse: Between Canon Law and Civil Law This essay aims to demonstrate moral and legal catholic hierarchy responsibility in clerical sexual abuses. Stories about child maltreatment in catholic Church dominated media worldwide. There is no longer any doubt about the need to punish the guilty, both in canon and civil law. It means that they must be punished under criminal law and they must refund victims. However there are divisions about hierarchy responsibility. Some civil courts (eg. in the USA, Canada or Spain attributed to the diocese the obligation to pay damages. These statements are very criticized by the canonists, who contest the equivalence relationship priest-diocese as a business one. So they claim the legal irresponsibility of hierarchy. At the moment this is the position of the Italian courts. The present essay defends the opposite view. The hierarchy has a primary moral responsibility, which obliges both to defend the victims of the abuses committed by the clergy, both the ecclesial community from abusive priests. This moral responsibility translates into a legal one, which requires the hierarchy to refund the victims on the basis of canon law. Therefore, the civil courts may impose diocesan bishops the

  17. Forum-ing: Signature practice for public theological discourse

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    Edward P. Wimberly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a unique model for public theological conversation and discourse, which was developed by the Concerned Black Clergy of Atlanta (CBC. It was a model developed in response to the problems of poverty, homelessness, and the ‘missing and murdered children’ victimised in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States of America in the early 1980s. It was originally organised to respond to the economic, financial, spiritual, emotional, employment, housing and resource needs of the underserved poor. This unique practice is called forum-ing. The forum meets every Monday morning, except when there is a national holiday. It has operated 30 consecutive years. The forum has a series of presentations, including the opening prayer, self-introductions of each person, a report of the executive director, special presentations from selected community groups, reports, and then questions and answers. The end result is that those attending engage in a process of discourse that enables them to internalise new ideas, approaches, and activities for addressing poverty and injustice in the community. Key to forum-ing for the 21st century is that it is a form of public practical theology rooted and grounded in non-violence growing out of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. The overall purpose of this article is to contribute to the effort of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria (South Africa to identify those variables that will assist religious leaders in South Africa to develop public conversational spaces to enhance democratic participation. This article presents one model from the African American community in Atlanta, Georgia. The hope is to lift up key variables that might assist in the practical and pastoral theological conversation taking place in South Africa at present.

  18. Un quirógrafo impugnado. Zamora y la cultura jurídica zamorana a comienzos del siglo XIII

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    Linehan, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Because so soon after it was overtaken by the School of Salamanca, historians have neglected the importance of the Chapter of nearby Zamora in the legal development of early thirtheenth century Spain. In the light of the ambivalent significance of Zamora’s proximity to the kingdom of Portugal in a period of political tension with the papacy, and the role of Zamora’s man at the papal curia, Cardinal Gil Torres, the present study attempts to view that development in terms of its own time, making use of the material evidence in the Vatican and peninsular archives of Zamora’s juristic activity, the level of juristic sophistication revealed by a routine case involving local clergy and laity, and the calculations of the contemporary rulers of León.

    Debido a que muy pronto fue sobrepasada por la Escuela de Salamanca, los historiadores han descuidado la importancia del Capítulo de la cercana Zamora en el progreso jurídico español de los comienzos del siglo XIII. A la luz del ambivalente significado de la proximidad de Zamora al reino de Portugal, en un periodo de tensión política con el papado y del papel desempeñado por el Cardenal zamorano Gil Torres en la curia papal, el presente estudio se propone examinar ese progreso de la actividad jurídica de Zamora durante su tiempo, utilizando para ello los testimonios de los archivos del Vaticano y peninsulares, el nivel de sofisticación jurídica manifestado en un caso rutinario en el que se implicaba un clérigo local y el laicado, así como las astucias de los gobernantes coetáneos de León.

  19. [Presidential address at the 20th Journees sur la Fertilite et l'Orthogenie].

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    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1993-01-01

    Recollections of the author's early experiences in French family planning and reflections on the ethical issues and legal status of new fertility technologies are the major topics of this address. The group that was to become le Mouvement francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF) was founded in 1956 by the author and others and opened its first family planning center in 1961, before contraception became legal. Despite opposition from physicians and Catholic clergy, the MFPF operated 100 centers serving over 100,000 clients by 1965. In 1969 the MFPF began a study of abortion. Despite legalization, the controversy concerning the legitimacy of abortion has not subsided. More recently, the practices of artificial insemination with donor sperm, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and other medically assisted fertility technologies have raised moral, ethical, and legal questions for all societies. The questions range from the legitimacy of gamete donation to the status of unused embryos. The dissociation of different stages of the reproductive process affects concepts of filiation, paternity and maternity. In the absence of appropriate legislation, it has been left largely to the courts to create a new body of law at this frontier. The review of legislation in France, elsewhere in Europe, and in the U.S. concerning contested filiation in cases of artificial insemination, the legitimacy of insemination of a woman after the death of her spouse, the preservation and donation of embryos, surrogate motherhood, the child's rights to information about his biological parents, and other questions indicate that no consensus has yet emerged concerning the admissibility and legitimacy of specific practices. It would be highly desirable for the European countries to adopt a common legislation in these areas.

  20. Sur les Lettres diverses d’Henry Le Bret, éditeur de Cyrano et prévôt de l’église de Montauban

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    Madeleine Alcover

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lettres diverses attributed to Henry Le Bret were published anonymously, without any date nor place of publication. This article deals with three problems : authorship, datation and Le Bret’s direct involvement in its publication.Le Bret’s paternity of Lettres diverses, included the only letter addressed to himself, is proven mainly by his signature found in many of them and by his attested private relationships with the majority of addressees. The publication date is resolved after a meticulous comparison of Lettres diverses and Recueil de quelques discours et lettres écrites à des personnes studieuses sur differentes matieres (1692, in which 15 letters (out of the 64 of Lettres diverses are present with some variations. From an omission in the Recueil I theorized that a great number of pages from a published copy of Lettres diverses were detached/untied and reused as a material hypotext for the Recueil ; this theory is substantiated and confirmed by a lot of informations related to events, books, and people, especially to Bossuet, Queen Marie-Thérèse and the Clergy Assembly of 1665. All these data lead to the conclusion that Lettres diverses were published between 1678 and May 1681, which invalidates all previous datations proposed by Lacroix, Forestié, Cioranescu, and myself in 2004.And finally there is no historical evidence nor objective argument for believing that Le Bret did not want his readers to know that he was responsible for the publication of these letters : the book was obviously destined to a private and chosen group of friends, which was not uncommon in xviith century. In 1692, given his geographic and not so private new public, Le Bret withdrew from Lettres diverses all the ones addressed to his Parisian friends as well as some destined to Toulousan ladies in which good taste was questionable (like his Eloge de la petite vérole, i. e. small-pox.We can now reformulate the bibliographical description of

  1. La secularización de doctrinas en el arzobispado de México: realidades indianas y razones políticas, 1700-1749

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    Aguirre, Rodolfo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work must like objective resist the arguments set out in the meetings of Madrid in charge to discuss the situation of the regular clergy in Indians, previous to the real law of 1749 on secularización of parishes, with the reality of the same in the Mexican region. The meetings, composed by ministers of king and the archbishops of Mexico and Lima, had as it puts to demonstrate the necessity to separate of the parishes to the friars due to the relaxation of his votes and the independence that showed before any authority. However, the reality showed that from 1700, in the archbishopric of Mexico, their prelates had managed to hold to the friars in charge of the parishes of Indians. When comparing the arguments spilled in Madrid and the law of 1749 with the changes happened in the archbishopric of Mexico during first half of century XVIII it is clear that the measures decreed by Fernando VI on the Indian parishes obeyed mainly to external political reasons to the New Spain, than more internal.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo contrastar los argumentos expuestos en las juntas de Madrid encargadas de discutir la situación del clero regular en Indias, previas a la real cédula de 1749 sobre secularización de curatos, con la realidad de los mismos en la región mexicana. Las juntas, compuesta por ministros del rey y los arzobispos de México y Lima, tuvo como meta demostrar la necesidad de separar de los curatos a los frailes debido a la relajación de sus votos y la independencia que mostraban ante cualquier autoridad. No obstante, la realidad mostraba que desde 1700, en el arzobispado de México, sus prelados habían logrado sujetar a los frailes encargados de los curatos de indios. Al comparar los argumentos vertidos en Madrid y la cédula de 1749 con los cambios ocurridos en el arzobispado de México durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII queda claro que las medidas decretadas por Fernando VI sobre las doctrinas indianas

  2. Centros, periferias y redes eclesiásticas en la España del siglo XX

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    José Ramón Rodríguez Lago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del rol desempeñado por las redes eclesiásticas en las relaciones centro-periferia, en un Estado como el español, caracterizado por los debates suscitados en torno a este binomio durante una buena parte del siglo XX, nos adentra en la dimensión alcanzada por la cuestión territorial en la administración de las diócesis y provincias eclesiásticas, la promoción vocacional del clero y la selección de sus más cualificados dirigentes. La acción y el discurso de los órganos pontificios y las diversas instituciones de la Iglesia en España incidirán no sólo en el desarrollo de prácticas pastorales más atentas a las peculiaridades culturales y sociales propias de cada Iglesia local, sino también en la singular trayectoria de los diversos proyectos de construcción nacional que compitieron durante la pasada centuria.      Palabras clave: Vaticano, España, diócesis, provincia eclesiástica, regionalismo, nacionalismo.  _____________ Abstract: The analysis of the role played by the church networks in center-periphery relations in a state such as Spain, characterized by the discussions on this pair at least for most of the 20th century, takes us into the dimension reached by the territorial issue in the administration of dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces, vocational promotion of the clergy and the selection of its most qualified leaders. The action and discourse of the pontifical bodies and several institutions of the Church in Spain will impact not only in pastoral practices more alive to the social and cultural peculiarities, but also in the unique path of various nation-building projects which competed during the last century.      Keywords: Vatican, Spain, dioceses, ecclesiastical provinces, regionalism, nationalism. 

  3. Taxation of Clergymen Revenues from Pastoral Services – an Attempt of Estimation

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    Robert Zieliński

    2013-09-01

    the taxation of personal income obtained from pastoral services. Thus, the present study, summarizing the existing achievements of the Polish doctrine of fi nancial law in this fi eld, constitutes a voice in the discussion on this subject and at the same time puts forward concrete proposals for changes in the current legal regulation of taxation of the clergy, which could serve as an inspiration for the developers of the tax reform in Poland.

  4. Un clérigo muy particular ante los indios de Charcas (Bolivia y su memorial de 1588 recién publicado

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    Albó, Xavier

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent publication of an extensive report to king Philip II, sent to him in 1588 from what is now Bolivia, sheds new light on the evangelization of the native population of the Andes. Both the report and its author, a Spanish priest by the name of Bartolomé Álvarez, are news to scholars. Álvarez wrote more than fifty years after the arrival of the Spaniards in the territory and argued that Andeans had not been effectively converted to Christianity, despite token appearances to the contrary; they rejected Christian indoctrination and sought to free themselves from Spanish rule. For this failure of imperial policy, Álvarez blamed corrupted officials of the viceregal administration. He also blamed the jesuits and the Church authorities, whose ideas about the native population were naive. Only the lower secular clergy, the rural parish priests such as himself, are spared from his criticism, for which he provided a great deal of valuable Information, ethnographic as well as linguistic.La reciente publicación de un largo memorial dirigido a Felipe II en 1588 desde lo que hoy es Bolivia arroja nueva luz sobre el cambio que supuso en los Andes la difusión del cristianismo. Tanto la obra como su autor, un clérigo español llamado Bartolomé Álvarez, eran totalmente desconocidos hasta ahora. Su propósito, más de cincuenta años después de la llegada de los españoles, era demostrar que la población indígena no estaba aún realmente convertida, a pesar de las apariencias; rechazaba el cristianismo y aspiraba a verse libre de la presencia española. Álvarez hace responsable de este fracaso de la política imperial a las corruptelas del régimen virreinal, así como a la ingenua opinión que de los indígenas tenían los jesuitas y las autoridades eclesiásticas. Sólo el bajo clero secular, los doctrineros, como él mismo, se salvan de su censura, en la que incluyó abundante y valiosa información etnográfica y lingüística.

  5. Un modelo funerario del tardogótico castellano: las capillas treboladas

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    Alonso Ruiz, Begoña

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil chapels constitute the most innovative centralized model of all those developed in late-Gothic Spain. The brilliant unfolding of the great funerary chapels covered by astonishing vaults of star-shaped ribs at the end of the 15th and the first decades of the 16th century, created by artists who had emigrated from the other side of the Pyrenees, has long been recognized. Thus arise the great funerary chapels of Toledo or Burgos, in imitation of which appear an endless number of small chapels in churches and monasteries throughout the Peninsula, for all those nobles or ecclesiastics desirous of becoming a part of history. Only a few architects (pertaining to the Segovian region and to the influence of Juan Guas and patrons (belonging to the upper Castillian nobility and high clergy, distanced themselves from this model to venture for the trefoil. The result was a highly homogeneous group of structures errected within a limited span of time.

    Las capillas treboladas constituyen el modelo centralizado más innovador de cuantos se desarrollan en la España tardogótica. Es de sobra conocido el brillante desarrollo de las grandes capillas funerarias cubiertas con asombrosas bóvedas de crucería estrellada a finales del siglo xv y primeras décadas del siglo xvi de manos de artistas llegados de más allá de los Pirineos para renovar nuestro viejo gótico. Así surgen las grandes capillas funerarias de Toledo o Burgos, a semejanza de las cuales se construirán un sinfín de pequeñas capillas en iglesias parroquiales o monasterios por toda la geografía peninsular para todo aquel noble o religioso con pretensiones de pasar a la Historia. Sólo unos pocos arquitectos (vinculados al área segoviana y al influjo de Juan Guas y patronos (de la alta nobleza castellana y del alto clero se alejaron de este modelo para arriesgarse por el trebolado, dando como resultado un conjunto muy homogéneo de construcciones levantadas en un arco de tiempo

  6. Coro de cisnes, cantos de sirenas: una aproximación a la música en los monasterios del Chile colonial Swan Choirs, Siren Songs: An Approach to the Music in the Monasteries of Colonial Chile

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    Alejandro Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora por vez primera la práctica musical en los monasterios de monjas del Chile colonial. Partiendo de la información inédita recopilada en el archivo del Monasterio de La Victoria de Santiago, se analizan aspectos históricos y musicales tales como la imagen de la monja música en la historiografía tradicional y postmoderna; su estatus social en el período colonial; la evolución de las plantillas musicales (instrumentistas y cantoras, con sus correspondientes cambios estilísticos y la injerencia que tenían los músicos ajenos al monasterio. Por último, se cuestiona la supuesta independencia de género de las monjas y se plantea la hipótesis de que las repetidas censuras a sus prácticas artístico-musicales estuvieron motivadas no sólo por propósitos moralizantes, sino también por la necesidad del clero secular y la autoridad civil de limitar el crecimiento de las instituciones monásticas.This is the first study about the musical practice in convents of Colonial Chile on the basis of new data collected in the archive of the convent of La Victoria in Santiago. It considers historical and musical aspects such as the image of the nun musician in traditional and postmodern historiography, her social status during the colonial period, the evolution of music groups (instrumentalists and singers, the stylistic changes associated with them, and the role played by foreign mule musicians in the monastery. Finally, it questions the assumption that nun musicians enjoyed an independence from masculine gender. Furthermore, it puts forward as a hypothesis that the frequent prohibitions of their musical and artistic practices originated not only in moralistic purposes, but also in the need of the secular clergy and civic authorities of limiting the growth of monastic institutions.

  7. The Cracow’s pious laymen or Beghard heretics? From the study on the 14th century Tractatus contra beghardos by Henryk Harrer

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    Tomasz Gałuszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tractatus contra beghardos written by a Chech Dominican Henryk Harrer is a masterpiece of exceptional value for both historians of the medieval heterodox movements as well as for scholars interested in the history of theology and law in the 14th century. The treaty was commissioned by Cracow Dominicans in the years 1328 to 1334. Commissioning the treaty to Henryk Harrer, a stranger expert from the Prague monastery of St. Clemens was dictated by a series of controversies among Cracow clergy around the judgement of conduct of a certain group of people whose religious practices and a way of life stood out from the rest of the congregation. Undertaking the task of writing the treaty Henryk Harrer based his work around three charges pressed against the suspected of heresy: breaking off the Church and establishing an illegal organization (singularitas vite; corrupted attitude towards recognized religious practices (contemptibilitas sacramenti eucharistiae; numerous flaws and perverse disposition (pertinax voluntas. Not only did Harrer decide to comment on all aspects of life of central figures of Contra beghardos but he also honestly mentioned all arguments he was not able to undermine. Despite these objective difficulties, the Czech Dominican was certain that the expertise he came up with was sufficient to link the lay movement with the sect of Beghard Heretics. The author of this study proved that, contrary to Harrer’s keen intention, his Tractatus contra beghardos does not unambiguously show heresy in the Cracow diocese. What is more, the reader, instead of indictment against the conduct of a group of laymen paradoxically received a confirmation of their innocence and orthodoxy. In the light of analysis of the text Contra beghardos, the claim that Beghard Heretics from Harrer’s work turn out to be pious layman, living in communion with the Church, seems to be fully substantiated. Of course their way of life and the practice of asceticism made

  8. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

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    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  9. Lectores y lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires a fines de la época colonial Readers and economic readings in Buenos Aires at the end of the colonial period

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    María Verónica Fernández Armesto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo intenta una primera mirada al mundo de las lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires en los últimos años del período colonial: qué autores circulaban con mayor profusión, cuáles obras se privilegiaban en las bibliotecas privadas y qué público lector se interesaba en ellas, a partir de los inventarios de bibliotecas privadas e, indirectamente, del registro de donaciones de libros a la Biblioteca Pública en los primeros años independientes. Se postula como hipótesis la mayor libertad de que habrían gozado los libros de economía en el Buenos Aires finicolonial, para propiciar la difusión de las nuevas ideas que surgían de la mano de la llamada "Ilustración cristiana". En este contexto, caracterizado por la activa presencia del clero y de los funcionarios de la administración virreinal (es decir, los miembros de los dos poderes, Corona e Iglesia y un sector mercantil cada vez más influyente, se constituyó el público lector de las obras de economía. Por otra parte, el análisis de los inventarios de bibliotecas muestra la frecuencia con que aparecen los autores españoles e italianos que actuaron, ya sea por medio de la traducción, la adaptación o la copia, como intermediarios de otros economistas europeos.The article attempts a first look to the world of the economic readings in Buenos Aires in the last years of the colonial period: which authors circulated more frequently, which books used to be found in the private libraries, and what type of people were interested in them, starting from the inventories of private libraries, and indirectly, from the registration of books donations to Public Library in the first independent years. The postulated hypothesis is that the economics books enjoyed of more freedom in the Buenos Aires late colonial period, propitiating the diffusion of the new ideas of the so-called "Christian Enlightenment». It was in this context, characterized by the active presence of the clergy and the

  10. La canonica di Santa Maria del Fiore e i suoi abitanti nella prima metà del XV secolo

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    Gabriella Battista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the residence of the canons of the Cathedral of Florence in the period covered by The Years of the Cupola with attention both to its architectonic and social-political-cultural aspects in order to define the architectural natural and function of the complex and identify its residents and the circumstances of their common life. Through the systematic study of the documentation regarding the definition and management of the close it is possible to reconstruct the steps in the creation of a new dignified and comfortable cloistered space for the metropolitan clergy: a building complex that was appropriately detached from the new church, which had to remain magnificently free around its entire circumference. This new residence for canons, chaplains and other ecclesiastical collaborators, designed to accommodate the values of residency, common life and discipline, was realized in the tight urban fabric of the medieval city at great cost for the purchase of private real estate which was gradually incorporated into the project according to the predetermined ‘design’. It was defined along lines that remained unchanged until the 19th century following a policy of adapting structures previously destined to civil habitation and enclosing them in a cloistered environment sheltered from urban circulation with a single monumental entrance towards the church and its portal ‘of the Canons’. In order to understand the duties incumbent upon the canons and chaplains it was necessary to examine the synodal constitutions of previous periods. These documents offered a view of the common life in the canonry according to the dictates of the constitutions that regulated discipline: from the assignment of dwellings on the basis of seniority to the designation of places for the sharing of meals and, finally, the necessity of providing small personal spaces for meditation and study. The resident canons belonged to the highest rank of society

  11. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

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    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  12. The process of hispanizaton in early New Spain transformation of collective identities during and after the conquest of Mexico

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    Hinz, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the methods and results of cultural change during the conquest of Mexico and in the early New Spain. It is the attempt to systemize the mechanisms of Christianisation and «Hispanization» — which can be understood as a reciprocal process of the transformation of collective identities. The fact that an indigenous clergy was not created was generally misunderstood as the Nahuas’ incapability to meet to the requirements of Spanish morality and civilization («policía». This had effects on the political as well as on the architectural or historiagraphical spheres. But also the Spaniards and Europeans in general had to question themselves after their contact with the Nahua culture. To be «Spanish» before and after the conquest as well as to be «Spanish» in Spain and in Las Indias did not mean the same.

    Este artículo examina los métodos aplicados, y los resultados surgidos del cambio cultural que ocurrieron con la conquista de México y los comienzos de la Nueva España. Es el intento de sistematizar los mecanismos de la evangelización y la hispanización, comprendida como un proceso recíproco de transformación de las identidades colectivas. El hecho de que no se creara un clero indígena, en general fue malinterpretado como el resultado de una poca capacidad de los nahuas de adaptarse a la civilización («policía» y a la moral española. Esto tuvo efectos tanto en las esferas políticas como arquitectónicas y historiográficas. Pero también los españoles y los demás europeos tuvieron que cuestionar su autognosis después del contacto con la cultura nauahtl. Ser español antes y después de la conquista, no fue lo mismo, como tampoco lo fue ser español en España y en las Indias.

  13. 尼采的晚期著作与欧洲文明危机%Nietzsche’s Later Writings and the Crisis of European Civilization

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    刘小枫

    2015-01-01

    In many later writings of Nietzsche,the main topic is to deal with the crisis of European civilization which he felt,whose characteristic,in the eyes of Nietzsche,is the rise of the liberal philosophy with intellectuals turning into liberalists.“The liberal spirit”is not the real “spirit of freedom”but the slave of “the taste of democracy,”and the liberalists are no more than “Fanatics.”The liberal philosophy symbolizes the degeneration of the tradition of European philosophy,which becomes a theology of the clergy and loses its noble spirit.In his later writings,Nietzsche puts forward the idea of “reevaluating all the values,”which is to reevaluate the universal value of Democracy alleged by the Philosophy of Enlightenment.Nietzsche reiterates that the real and precious universal value is the tradition of classical civilization of the East and West.%尼采的晚期著作有多种,其中心主题是应对尼采所感受到的欧洲文明危机。在尼采看来,欧洲文明危机的表征是“自由主义哲学”的兴起,智识人都变成了“自由主义者”。“自由主义精神”不是真正的“自由精神”,而是“民主品味”的奴仆,自由主义者不过是“狂热分子”,自由主义哲学标志着欧洲哲学传统已经堕落为一种宗教教士的神学,不再具有高贵的精神。尼采在晚期著作中提出“重估一切价值”,实际上是要重估启蒙哲学所宣称的“自由民主”普世价值观。尼采重申,西方和东方的古典文明传统才是真正的而且是珍贵的普世价值。

  14. Pedro Peláez, líder del clero filipino

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    Blanco Andrés, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new information on the creole Filipino, Fr. Pedro Pablo Peláez, who, together with Fr. José Burgos, was the most outstanding clergyman in the nineteenth-century Philippines. It discusses Father Peláez’s previously unknown activities in the cabildo of the Manila Cathedral, where he was its most distinguished member. It analyzes his reformist ideas, and explains his work and strategy to defend the Filipino secular clergy, whose rights were being violated by the royal orders of 1848 and 1861. Against the reactionary religious orders, Peláez had a detailed modus operandi to defend the legitimacy of native priests’ control of parishes. Although his activities were cut short by his unexpected death in the earthquake of June 1863, Peláez served as an inspiration to be emulated.

    En este trabajo se intentan aportar algunas claves y datos inéditos sobre la biografía del presbítero criollo filipino Pedro Pablo Peláez, que es, junto con el P. José Burgos, el eclesiástico más destacado de la iglesia de Filipinas del siglo XIX. El trabajo aborda la totalmente desconocida actividad del P. Peláez en el cabildo de la catedral de Manila, donde acabaría siendo con el tiempo su hombre más insigne. Igualmente se analiza el espíritu e ideario reformista de Peláez y sus trabajos y estrategia para defender al clero secular filipino, cuyos derechos estaban siendo vulnerados por una serie de Reales Órdenes (1848 ó 1861 y la actitud reaccionaria de un sector de las órdenes religiosas. Peláez supo articular un modus operandi minucioso y muy efectivo en torno a la legitimidad de los curas filipinos en la dirección de las parroquias del país. Aunque sus actividades cesaron con su inesperada muerte en el terremoto de junio de 1863, Peláez se convirtió en una inspiración y un modelo a seguir.

  15. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

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    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  16. El caudillo y el párroco: Centralización política y eclesiástica durante la autonomía santafesina. 1815-1852

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    Ignacio Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian las transformaciones que sufrió la estructura eclesiástica santafesina desde el surgimiento de un poder político formalmente autónomo en la provincia hasta la caída del rosismo y la organización constitucional del estado federal a nivel nacional. Se traza en primer lugar un bosquejo de la organización jurisdiccional eclesiástica de la futura provincia a fines del período colonial y se estima numéricamente el clero diocesano y regular que oficiaba en ese espacio. Se analizan luego las modificaciones que produjo el surgimiento de un poder provincial autónomo en las formas del gobierno eclesiástico y se relacionan esas transformaciones con la centralización del poder eclesiástico en la figura del cura párroco de la Matriz santafesina, José de Amenábar. En tercer lugar, se estudia la relación entre el fisco provincial y las rentas eclesiásticas de la provincia. Por último, se sondean los límites de la iglesia provincial en razón de la dependencia jurisdiccional respecto de Buenos Aires.This article deals with the ecclesiastical changes in Santa Fe arisen from its political autonomy in 1815 up to the end of Rosas government and the successive constitutional organization of a federal nation State. The jurisdictional structure of the Catholic Church and the clergy numbers in late-colonial Santa Fe are analyzed in the first place. Secondly, this paper studies the effects of a new autonomous government on ecclesiastical hierarchy and its link with the promotion of José de Amenábar to the highest position in local Church. In the third place the relation between provincial treasury and ecclesiastical financial resources is examined. Finally the bounds of provincial Church autonomy are taken into account considering Buenos Aires jurisdictional and political primacy.

  17. Nursing around the world: a perspective on growing concerns and the shortage of care

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    Vance DE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceThe University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Many of us think of nurses as people who provide direct care to us and our loved ones. And that is true. Images of a selfless person such as Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War running from one wounded soldier to another providing care inspires the imagination of what a nurse is and can be. Based on that image, a nurse is anyone who cares (and from a spiritual or philosophical perspective, that may be true. But nursing as a profession is so much more. nurse is someone with a very selective skill set that can only be developed and honed by intense training, education, and discipline while being used in a proscribed ethical manner. With such a combination of skills, ethics, and caring, nurses are the backbone of health care settings, tending to the individual needs of the patients; however, many nurses also function outside such traditional settings and perform numerous functions. Nurses are educators and provide data to the public designed to improve health literacy and promote physical and mental wellness. Nurses are computer and organizational specialists who provide hospitals and institutions with the technologies for keeping, maintaining, and analyzing records. Nurses are clergy, psychologists, and philosophers providing a direction and a moral compass in how to are for patients and each other. Nurses are researchers investigating everything from developing medication for Alzheimer's disease to improving crop yields to reduce hunger. Finally, nurses are advocates and leaders petitioning for justice and beneficence of all regardless of gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality; and as such, nursing is political and has a global impact. Nursing is global in nature and is facing global, as well as country specific, problems. The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of what

  18. "De contributionibus fiscalibus": els conflictes entre el municipi de Valls i la comunitat de preveres durant el segle XIV

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    Morello i Baget, Jordi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analytical case study of the fiscal controversies which arose in Valls (Camp de Tarragona during the fourteenth century relating to controversies between the municipal officers and the collective of the town's clergy —processes which afford an intimate view both at the general level, of the position of ecclesiastical officials before the imposition of tax, and at the particular level, of the process of formation of the town's financial administration. Thus one observes in great detail various fiscal obligations (both in manner and form of the municipal taxes they paid which were required of this collective. In sum. it can be seen that, to their great advantage, they enjoyed a fiscal status distinct from that of other contributors.[fr] On offre ici un étude des cas, tout analysant, dans une localité comme c'était Valls (Camp de Tarragona, les controversies et problèmes fiscales posées pendant le XIVᵉ siècle entre la municipalité et certain collectif—celle des clercs—, à partir des accords pris, et aussi à partir des sentences promulguées, entre ce collectif et les représentants municipales, ce qui permet connaître assez bien, dans ce cas, quelle était la situation des personnes ecclésiastiques devant l'impôt —à niveau générale— et le processus de formation de leur régime fiscal —à niveau plus particulier—. On peut observer de façon très détaillée toutes les obligations fiscales lesquels pesaient sur les membres de ce collectif, même la forme d'être taxés ainsi comme la taux de participation aux impôts municipales, tout ce qui conformait un status fiscal différentiel -et assez avantageuse- en opposition avec les autres contribuables locales.

  19. Pèlerins français en route pour Rome en 1600 French pilgrims to Rome in 1600

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    Stéphane Gomis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1600, le jubilé universel voit converger vers Rome d’importantes foules pèlerines, au sein desquelles les sujets du roi de France sont assez largement représentés. Dans ce contexte, le journal tenu lors du pèlerinage effectué cette année là par seize prêtres de la région de Dreux dans le diocèse français de Chartres est un document riche d’informations. L’auteur de ce petit livret n’est pas un membre du clergé. En effet, il s’agit du dix-septième pèlerin, parent de l’un des clercs, Laurent Barbereau, notaire de son état. Cette originalité conduit, tout d’abord, à s’interroger sur ce type d’écrit issu du “for privé”; puis, sur les acteurs mis en scène par notre scripteur ainsi que sur la nature de leur quête spirituelle. Enfin, il importe de poser la question de l’organisation et du déroulement d’un tel périple. Au total, guide, aide-mémoire, livre de comptes, le principal objet de ces feuillets est, avant tout, d’être utile.In 1600, the universal jubilee in Rome sees large crowds of pilgrims, in which the subjects of the King of France are fairly well represented. In this context, the diary kept during the pilgrimage that year by sixteen priests from the region of Dreux in the French diocese of Chartres, is a document rich in information. The author of this booklet is not a member of the clergy. Indeed, he is the seventeenth pilgrim, parent of one of the clerics, Laurent Barbereau, a notary by trade. This originality leads to question this kind of writing produced from the first-person writing, the actors directed by our writer as well as the nature of their spiritual quest. Finally, it is important to question the organization and conduct of such a journey. In total, guide, fact sheets, account book, the main purpose of these sheets is, above all, to be useful.

  20. Censura gubernativa, Iglesia e inquisición en el siglo XVIII

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    Caro López, Ceferino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Government censorship in Eighteenth Century Spain was another means of the Spanish Enlightenment policy. Until mid-century both powers of Church and State were balanced; from Charles Ill's reign on the censorship of the Consejo de Castilla tried to control and restrict not only the traditional power of the Inquisition, but also the intellectual output of the country, either ideological —criticism on the Crown's policy— or cultural-publishing religious works. It is important to notice that many members of the clergy collaborated with the State in that task; and also that, after the French Revolution, the Inquisition regained its previous role. In the last decade of the Seventeenth century the irreconcilable clash between the advocates and the critics of the Inquisition became evident.

    La práctica de la censura gubernativa fue, en el siglo XVIII, un instrumento más de la política regalista de la Ilustración española. Si hasta mediados del siglo se mantuvieron estables las relaciones de poder entre Iglesia y Estado, a partir del reinado de Carlos III se nota cómo la censura del Consejo de Castilla intentaba vigilar y limitar no sólo el tradicional poder de la Inquisición, sino también la producción ideológica —crítica a la política de la Corona— y cultural-edición de obras de religión. Es importante observar que muchos hombres de Iglesia colaboraron con el Estado en esas tareas; y también que tras la Revolución Francesa la Inquisición volvió a asumir el papel que había jugado con anterioridad. En el último decenio del Setecientos se pone de manifiesto el enfrentamiento irreconciliable entre los partidarios y los detractores de la Inquisición.

  1. Estado, iglesia y sociedad en la Monarquía Hispana de Carlos IV. Las apreciaciones de un embajador austríaco en Madrid

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    Álvarez Gutiérrez, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing deals with an historiographical analysis of the contents of the diplomatic dispatches sent to Vienna by the imperial ambassador, John Frederick count of Kageneck, accredited at the Court of Charles IV. They concern to the first seven years of that reign (1789-1795. Provide issues, appreciations, and commentaries about the conditions of the contemporaneous Hispanic kingdom in the matter of institutional, administrative, political, economic, social, religious, military affairs, international relations and geostrategical interests. The Austrian diplomat pays much attention to the consequences of the French revolution in Spain; to the measures adopted by the Spanish authorities against the spread of the subversive ideas, as much in the metropolis, as in the overseas dominions, with special reference to the outstanding rôle played by the clergy, as the ideological and moral bulwark against the impetuous attacks of the French revolutionary activity; to the attitude of Spain with regard to the purpose of forming an international coalition against the revolutionary France; and to the later access of Spain in the war against the France of the Convention (1793-1795.

    Este trabajo propone un análisis historiográfico del contenido de los despachos diplomáticos enviados a Viena por el embajador imperial, Juan Federico de Kageneck, acreditado ante la Corte de Carlos IV. Corresponden a los siete primeros años de aquel reinado (1789-1795. Proporcionan datos, apreciaciones y comentarios sobre el estado de la monarquía hispana de la época en sus aspectos institucionales, administrativos, políticos, económicos, sociales, religiosos, militares, relaciones internacionales, e intereses geoestratégicos. El diplomático austríaco dedica atención preferente a las repercusiones de la Revolución francesa en España; a las medidas adoptadas por las autoridades españolas para contrarrestar la difusión de las ideas subversivas, tanto en la

  2. Panfletagem digital – espaço público, comunicação institucional e internet

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    José Aparecido de Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo faz parte de uma pesquisa sobre os espaços de discussão criados, a partir da internet, entre os membros clérigos e leigos da Igreja Metodista, nos meses que antecederam o 18º Concílio Geral, realizado em 2006, conclave que resultou na saída da instituição dos organismos ecumênicos em que atua e que ajudou a fundar. O objetivo consistiu em avaliar as possibilidades e limitações da internet como emergente espaço público ampliado para as instituições. A análise teve como suporte os fundamentos da literatura nos aspectos da história dos meios de comunicação; comunicação política, espaço público e marketing político. O suporte histórico foram os fenômenos da Reforma Protestante e do Movimento Metodista, na Inglaterra do século XVIII. Os resultados permitem inferir que as novas tecnologias apresentam desafios para as instituições como o paradoxo democratização-fragmentação da autoridade. Palavras-chave: Poder e visibilidade; Espaço público; Marketing político; Comunicação institucional; Democratização. Abstract This article is part of a research work on the discussion spaces created by the Internet for the clergy and lay members of the Methodist Church, in the months preceding the 18th General Council, carried out in 2006, and resulting in the institution’s withdrawing from the ecumenical organisms where it worked and which it help founding. The research aimed at evaluating the possibilities and limitations of the Internet as an emerging public space opened to institutions. The analysis was based on the literature concerning the history of communication media; political communication, public space and political marketing. The historical background focused on the phenomena of Protestant Reform and the Methodist Movement in 18th–century England. Results indicate that the new technologies pose challenges to institutions, such as the paradox democratization-fragmentation of

  3. Sotanas, Escaños y sufragios. Práctica política y soportes sociales del neo-catolicismo en las provincias castellano-manchegas (1854-1868

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    Inarejos Muñoz, Juan Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Spanish Constituent assembly of 1854 some previously unknown issues were raised about Church-State relations, including tolerance of worshipping and religious freedom. The clergy, whose interference in political confrontations was nothing new, placed themselves as a majority alongside one of the factions of the Moderate party, which, in a contradictory way, used the new mechanisms of political representation arisen with the representative State of the citizen (The press and Parliamentary representation to fight against liberalism. A defense of Church rights directed towards the sacralization of society was undertaken by the pulpit, the press, the parliamentary tribune and the Printing press. These represented the main lines of an analysis which wakes reference to the provinces that nowadays make up Castilla-La Mancha, where the neocatholic brend had a reasonable electoral support and relied on the ideological, numerical and organizational support provided by the Archbishopric of Toledo and the diocese of Cuenca.En las Cortes Constituyentes de 1854 se plantearon cuestiones hasta entonces inéditas en las relaciones Iglesia-Estado: tolerancia de cultos, libertad religiosa o confesionalidad del Estado. El clero, cuya injerencia en las confrontaciones políticas no era en absoluto novedosa, se posicionó de forma mayoritaria al lado de una de las fracciones del partido moderado que, contradictoriamente, utilizó los nuevos mecanismos de representación política surgidos con el Estado representativo de la ciudadanía (prensa y representación parlamentaria, para combatir el liberalismo. Desde el púlpito, la prensa, la tribuna parlamentaria y la imprenta se emprendió una defensa de los derechos de la Iglesia orientada a la sacralización de la sociedad. Constituyen los principales trazos de un análisis que toma como referente las provincias que en la actualidad constituyen Castilla-La Mancha, donde la corriente neo-católica gozó de un

  4. «Un capellán que sirve la mesa» y otros menesteres. Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII

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    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la ciudad de Burgos, a mediados del siglo XVIII, nueve hogares disponían, entre sus componentes, de un capellán privativo, contratado por el pater-familias a título de «doméstico». Sus quehaceres eran múltiples: dirigir la celebración de actos religiosos, servir la mesa, educar a la progenie, llevar los asuntos de su patrón, etcétera. Muchos de esos hogares tenían, en sus grandes mansiones, oratorio y cochera, donde se guardaban celosamente los menajes sacros y los carruajes. Las razones para contratar capellanes ah hoc son varias, pero una destaca entre las demás. En un siglo caracterizado por la transición desde una religiosidad colectiva, teatralizada, de templo y estridencias en las calles hasta una religiosidad más intimista, doctrinal, hogareña, personal e individualista, se mantenía, alimentaba y/o asalariaba a un clero flotante que servía en exclusiva a los miembros de algunos hogares aristocráticos. Estos hogares disfrutaban, en general, de unos niveles de renta y de fortuna elevados, muy por encima de la inmensa mayoría de los habitantes de la ciudad.ABSTRACT: In the city of Burgos, in the middle of the 18th century, nine homes had, as their members, a private chaplain, contracted by the pater-familias, as household servant. These jobs were of a great variety: to lead the celebration of religious events, to serve meals, to educate offspring, to be in charge of his landlord's bussiness, etcétera. Many of those homes had, in their great mansions, an oratory and a garage, where the sacred items and the carriages were well kept. The reasons to contract chaplains ad hoc are different, but one is the most important. In a century characterized for the changings from a collective religiousness, exaggerated, in churchs and stridency in the streets to a religiousness more intimate, doctrinal, familiar, personal and individualistic, maintained, fed and/or paid a floating clergy who served the members of some

  5. Buddhism and Legal Tradition in Mongolia

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    Mergen S. Ulanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the influence of Buddhism on the legal tradition in Mongolia. The scientific relevance of the study concerning the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal tradition lies in the fact that religion and law are the values and norms that regulate social relations, revealing level and condition of morality of society, determining the system of value coordinates. The analysis of the cultural-historical context of interaction of legal and religious institutions is of particular importance. In this regard, the questions regarding the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal traditions in Mongolia are of special interest. The authors consider such monuments of Mongolian law as the «Great Yasa», the Hutuktay-Sechen’s Law, the Altan Khan’s Code, the «Eighteen steppe laws», the «Ih tsaaz» (the Mongol-Oirat Code of 1640, the «Mongol Tsaadzhin Bichig» («the Mongolian law», the «Khalkha Dzhirum» and modern legislation of Mongolia. A common in the religious studies view on Buddhism as a contemplative religion, indifferent to political-legal issues, is not entirely true. The study showed that Buddhism had a significant influence on the formation of state-legal relations in Mongolia. Inclusion of the Buddhist Canon law in the national legislation contributed to strengthening of the provisions of the world religion in the Mongolian society. As a result it became an important regulator of legal relations. It also contributed to the fact that the Buddhist clergy was beginning to be perceived by the population as an important and integral part of society. After proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic and the subsequent persecution of the Church Buddhism ceased to have any serious impact on the law. In the modern democratic Mongolia the leading role of Buddhism in the country is enshrined in law, and it is regarded as an ideological foundation for preservation of national culture and Mongols

  6. THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE STRENGTHENING OF NATIONAL SECURITY IN TSARIST RUSSIA

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    M. Yu. Gorozhanina

    2016-01-01

    1917, aSpiritual crisis affecting not only the Orthodox flock but also the Church clergy. In General, at this stage in the concept of patriotism may be divided into two aspects: outer – directed at fostering reliable defenders of autocraticRussiaand domestic – presents extensive educational and outreach work in the community, with the aim of preserving the monarchy. 

  7. Caminhos que levam a Roma: recursos culturais e redefinições da excelência religiosa

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    Ernesto Seidl

    2009-06-01

    , how are experienced and perceived the different ways of internationalization of the high clergy and what is the place it takes among the instruments of legitimation within the field of power?

  8. Asturias Enlightenment: The Economic Society of Friends of the Country La ilustración en Asturias: la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País

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    María de los Ángeles FAYA DIAZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Society of Asturias was an instrument of enlightened reformism which should act in a region with severe economic backwardness. Born in 1780 at the initiative of Campomanes, it responds to Matritense model, focusing on economic development and popular education. Designed around the possibilities of development offered by the coal, was finally oriented to promote agricultural growth, according to the interests of the educated elite of Asturias, mainly composed by members of the nobility and clergy. The industrial promotion efforts were focused on the popular industry, centered in the linen, mining and metallurgical techniques, but it met with little success. Because of the existing poverty, the Society developed a new secular charity, while education was limited to a School of Drawing and four sewing schools for women. In short, the Society was unable to lead the region’s economic takeoff, which delayed still several decades.La Sociedad Económica de Asturias fue un instrumento del reformismo ilustrado que tuvo que actuar en una región con grave atraso económico. Nace en 1780 por iniciativa de Campomanes y responde al modelo de la Matritense, centrada en el desarrollo económico y la educación popular. Ideada en torno a las posibilidades que ofrecía el carbón, se termina orientando a impulsar el crecimiento agrario, acorde con los intereses de la élite ilustrada asturiana, integrada por miembros de la nobleza y del clero. Los esfuerzos para el fomento industrial en Asturias estuvieron centrados en la industria popular en torno al lino, así como a los sectores minero y metalúrgico, pronto fracasados. Dada la pobreza existente, la Sociedad desarrolló la nueva beneficencia laica, mientras que la enseñanza quedó limitada a una Escuela de Dibujo y cuatro escuelas de coser para mujeres. En definitiva, la Sociedad fue incapaz de vehicular el despegue económico de la región, que aún tardaría varias décadas.

  9. Dying with dignity in America: the transformational leadership of Florence Wald.

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    Adams, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study are to examine the constructs of transformational leadership as they played out for one nurse who steered significant change in the care of the dying in the United States and to provide deeper insights into how nursing leaders can design and direct meaningful changes in the delivery of health care in turbulent times. A significant problem was identified in how the terminally ill were treated in this country post World War II. The introduction of hospice care in the United States represented a paradigm shift in how the health care community viewed and treated dying patients. Critical to this transformation was the work of Florence Wald, who organized with community leaders, clergy, and other health care providers to create a vision and synergy around palliative care. She was instrumental in opening the first American hospice in 1971 in Connecticut. Within 15 years, there were more than 1,000 hospices in the United States. A single case study design was chosen for this qualitative research grounded in the theory of transformational leadership (J.M. Burns, 1978). The study used narrative inquiry to conduct an in-depth exploration of Florence Wald's transformational leadership and the perceptions of the group of founders she organized to conceptualize, build, and open the first hospice in the United States. The participants chosen for interview were involved directly in the designing, planning, and beginning of the first American hospice. In addition to the seven in-depth interviews conducted in 2007 in Connecticut, this research examined three groups of documents from The Florence and Henry Wald Archives in the Yale University Library. The findings from both interviews and the Yale Archives showed that Florence Wald based her leadership on the strong values of reverence for life and social justice for all. To direct meaningful change, Florence Wald elevated the consciousness of her hospice team by conducting a 2-year research study on the needs

  10. Pela educação lutaremos o bom combate: a instrução operária como um campo de disputas entre católicos e anarquistas na primeira república brasileira - For education will fight the good combat: the workers' education as a field of disputes between catholic

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    Isabel Bilhão, Brasil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo aborda-se o contexto de transformações sócio-educacionais ocorridas ao longo da Primeira República brasileira, quando o crescimento urbano-industrial e o aumento da força organizativa e numérica do operariado começou a se fazer sentir, ensejando o crescimento de disputas de diferentes grupos em torno da educação dos trabalhadores. Observam-se as polêmicas travadas entre integrantes do clero católico e militantes anarquistas pela adesão operária às suas concepções educativas.Palavras-chave: movimento operário, educação, polêmicas, anarquismo, catolicismo. FOR EDUCATION WILL FIGHT THE GOOD COMBAT: THE WORKERS' EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND ANARCHISTS IN THE FIRST BRAZILIAN REPUBLICAbstractThe article addresses the context of social and educational changes that occurred along the Brazilian First Republic, in which urban-industrial growth and increased the organizational and numerical strength of the workers began to be noticeable, increasing disputes of the distinct groups around the workers education. Will observe the polemics between members of the catholic clergy and anarchist militants by the adhesion of the working class to their educational conceptions.Key-words: labour movement, education, polemics, anarchism, catholicism.       POR LA EDUCACIÓN LUCHAREMOS EL BUEN COMBATE: LA INSTRUCCIÓN DE LOS TRABAJADORES COMO UN CAMPO DE DISPUTAS ENTRE LOS CATÓLICOS Y LOS ANARQUISTAS EN LA PRIMERA REPÚBLICA DE BRASILResumenEl artículo aborda el contexto de transformaciones socio educacionales ocurridas a lo largo de la Primera República en Brasil, en el cual el crecimiento urbano-industrial y el aumento de la fuerza organizativa y numérica de los obreros empezaba a ser sentida, intensificando las disputas de distintos grupos alrededor de la educación de los trabajadores. Se observan las polémicas trabadas entre miembros del clero católico y militantes anarquistas por la adhesi

  11. Pro Deo et Patria Prier pour l’Etat en France au XIXe siècle

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    Vincent Petit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Si la France a, par la loi du 9 décembre 1905, adopté « le régime de séparation le plus radical du monde » comme l’écrit l’historien Jean-Marie Mayeur, elle a aussi par la même occasion rompu avec un usage très ancien, celui des prières que l’Eglise (ici, catholique adresse à l’Etat. Les différents régimes politiques qui se sont succédés après la Révolution ont ainsi exigé du clergé et des fidèles qu’ils chantent Domine salvam fac Rempublicam ou salvum fac regem. Seulement les bouleversements politiques, l’affirmation de la souveraineté populaire et la toujours plus croissante dissociation de l’Etat et de l’Eglise ont fait de ce rite un objet de débat, au sein de la communauté nationale comme de la communauté ecclésiale.If, by passing the law of December 9th 1905, France adopted « the most radical system of government in the world which separated the Church and the State », as the historian Jean-Marie Mayeur wrote, it also broke in the process with a very old custom, the one which consisted in the prayers that the Church (in this instance, the Catholic Church addressed to the State. The different political systems that succeeded one another after the French Revolution required the clergy and the congregation to sing Domine salvam fac Rempublicam or salvum fac regem. But the political upheavals, the affirmation of the people’s sovereignty and the ever growing dissociation of the State and the Church turned that rite into an object of debate in the bosom of both the national and the church communities.Si Francia ha adoptado mediante la ley del 9 de diciembre de 1905 « el régimen de separación más radical del mundo » como lo ha escrito el historiador Jean-Marie Mayeur, ha acabado de la misma manera con una costumbre muy antigua, la de las oraciones que la Iglesia (aquí la católica solía dirigir al Estado. Los distintos regímenes políticos que se sucedieron después de la Revoluci

  12. La « marmitte renversée » : construction discursive et fonctionnement argumentatif d’une insulte dans les polémiques des guerres de religion (1560-1600 The “Overturned Pot”: Discursive Construction and Polemic Use of an Insult during the French Religious Wars (1560-1600

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    Paul-Alexis Mellet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article propose de montrer comment le motif de la marmite, courant dans la culture de la Renaissance, se spécialise dans un sens politique pour constituer une insulte dans le contexte précis de la polémique opposant pamphlets catholiques et protestants pendant les guerres de religion. En effet, le motif de la marmite, objet central de la cuisine, condense héritage biblique (Ezechiel XI et XXIV, tradition littéraire (Plaute et culture populaire (telle que Rabelais s’en fait l’écho, pour constituer une critique des présumés péchés du clergé (concupiscence, gourmandise, pacte avec le diable, etc.. A travers l’étude de plusieurs pamphlets (Thomas Beaux-Amis, Théodore de Bèze, etc. se répondant dans le cadre d’une polémique centrée sur les rites chrétiens, nous mettons en évidence la dynamique discursive permettant la réappropriation du motif dans une valeur d’insulte. Nous étudions en particulier les processus argumentatifs utilisés au fil des pamphlets par chaque camp pour renvoyer l’insulte à l’autre. Il est alors possible de suivre le cheminement discursif de la construction d’une insulte. Il s’agit enfin de souligner la force argumentative de l’image satirique dont la fonction est bien sûr pour les deux Eglises de conforter la confession et pour les catholiques d’éviter la conversion au protestantisme.This article shows how the motif of the cooking pot, recurrent in Renaissance culture, was, in the particular context of the polemics which raged between Catholic and Protestant pamphleteers during the French religious wars, converted into an elaborate political insult. A central element of culinary life, the cooking pot was also loaded with biblical heritage (Ezekiel 11 and 24, literary tradition (Plautus and popular culture (such as that propounded by Rabelais, which made of it a concise symbol of the supposed sins of the clergy (concupiscence, gourmandise, pact with the devil, etc.. Through the

  13. ¿Es Chile un país católico? Polémica en torno a un libro del padre Hurtado

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    P. Pedro Espinosa Santander

    2005-01-01

    distance of the poor from the Church and the scarcity of priests. For him there existed a pending task that many avoided: to conquer Chile for Christ. The book and its invitation were welcomed with great enthusiasm, especially by young people, but criticisms of it grew severe on the part of the clergy and lay conservatives. For them, Hurtado's vision was dangerously bitter and ignored the labor that the Church, since colonial times, had put into forming the "soul of Chile". The polemics were basically a criticism that turned a deaf ear towards Hurtado, the national counselor for the youth of Acción Católica. This article shows the polemics surrounding the book and its author, the different actors who intervened and the ecclesial significance of the entire process: Was Chile a Catholic country

  14. Monks' Health: Holistic Health Care Model by Community Participation

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    Decha Buates

    2010-01-01

    , hypertension, high cholesterol and gout. They had behaviors on addicting to cigarette, coffee and energy drink. They had less exercise without annual health checkup. Their cells were non-hygienic with plenty of garbage, foods scrap and joss stick dust. They preferred to have medical care at private clinics than hospitals or public health centers due to long time waiting. There were some protections by local administrative organizations as pets’ vaccination and using Tempos sand granule for eliminating mosquito larva. Severe mental health problems were not found. Conclusion/Recommendations: Related agencies with monks’ holistic health care models by community participation in central region of Thailand were local administrative organizations, communities, government agencies, temples/clergies, provincial office of Buddhism and monks. Important activities were participative operations of all related sectors, monks’ annual health checkup 1-2 times a year, temples medicine cupboard, monk health care fund, pets’ vaccination, temple public health volunteer, monk exercise promotion, temple improvement with the 5-S activity and usage of temple as center for health care development.

  15. The Role of the Clerics and the Religious Forces in the Iranian Movement of Nationalization of Oil Industry

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    Zohreh Salehi Siavoshani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available De 1941 a 1953, a la luz del nuevo clima que se respiraba en el país, el gobierno, la asamblea nacional, las embajadas extranjeras y los militares, el clero y las fuerzas religiosas formaron los nuevos círculos de influencia que podrían jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo socio-político del país.El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar las acciones, las actitudes y el desarrollo interno de los principales grupos religiosos e islámicos de este período, así como su interacción y su impacto en el movimiento de nacionalización de la industria del petróleo. ¿En qué medida las perspectivas y los métodos de estos grupos estaban en consonancia con las demás son alguna de las cuestiones que el autor trata de responder sin tomar parte en cualquiera de ellos, y contra todos las limitaciones impuestas en este trabajo. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de recursos referidos a este tema representa una imagen tridimensional de las actividades de los grupos religiosos y de los clérigos. Sin duda, todos los grupos mencionados anteriormente no fueron de la misma índole, y debido a los puntos de vista heterogéneos y a las tácticas y pactos que entre ellos acordaron hicieron que su perduraran poco tiempo.Palabras clave: Religión, Irán, petróleo, industria, reglas. ______________________________Abstract:From  1941 to 1953, in the light of new atmosphere in post-Reza Shah rule, further to the court, government, the national assembly, foreign embassies and the military men, the clergy and the religious forces were one of the new but influential circles of power playing important role  in the socio political developments and events of the country. The present article seeks to review the actions, attitudes and the inner development of the main religious and Islamic groups of this period, their interaction and their impact on the movement of nationalization of oil industry. To what  extent the outlook and methods of these groups were

  16. Au récit de la maladie et de la mort de ce grand homme. L’art de mourir, d’après une étude comparée des récits de la mort de Michel de Marillac et de celle de François Sublet de Noyers

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    Camille Lefauconnier-Ripoll

    2011-11-01

    in relation to other narratives of death in the same period. In the differences and silences, takes shape in a hollow a (sometimes subversive image of the devout, who is considered in his lifetime almost as a saint due to his faith, and because of it; and this image allows him to dispense with the standards of his social condition – especially through the political disgrace experienced as a liberation. Are these figures exceptions or models of devotion? A fringe of pious devotees, but also secular clergy (including parish priests, in Paris but also in the country, and also often the nuns of the convent from the Counter-Reformation as the Carmelites, told or narrated these deaths, especially in their correspondences, and made them objects of admiration and even reverence. At the crossroads of social, political and religious aspirations, the story of the death of Michel de Marillac like the death of François Sublet de Noyers, is a reflection of cultural circulation of devout spirituality models in the time of the Counter-Reformation.

  17. La mort du prince Henri (†1612 : éthique et rhétorique du deuil dans un cycle de sermons funèbres anglais The prince Henry’s death (†1612 : ethics and rhetoric of bereavement in a cycle of English funeral sermons

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    Paula Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les spécificités thématiques et rhétoriques d’un cycle de sermons de deuil de Daniel Price, prononcés en 1612 à l’occasion de la mort du prince Henri, le fils aîné du roi d’Angleterre, Jacques Ier. Le premier volet expose les caractéristiques du sermon funèbre anglais, un genre de discours fortement codifié, dont les conventions se fixèrent dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle, alors même que le clergé s’efforçait de démontrer la légitimité de la prédication funèbre dans un contexte protestant. À l’aube du XVIIe siècle, les sermons funèbres imprimés se conforment en majorité à un modèle rhétorique bien défini et poursuivent un objectif pastoral double : la commémoration des morts et l’édification des vivants. Vis-à-vis de cette norme, les sermons de Daniel Price présentent des écarts considérables. En effet, ils se consacrent pour l’essentiel à la prise en charge du deuil des fidèles, un choix thématique qui implique une stratégie rhétorique spécifique. Se focalisant sur l’examen de ces caractéristiques, le deuxième volet de l’article montrera que ces textes, s’ils sont peu représentatifs de la pratique homilétique du clergé anglais au moment des funérailles, sont symptomatiques d’un changement culturel qui se dessine en Angleterre à l’aube du XVIIe siècle, et qui se traduit par la valorisation du deuil humain à des fins dévotionnellesThis article examines the thematic and rhetorical specificities of a cycle of funeral sermons preached in 1612 by Daniel Price on the occasion of the death of prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It begins by describing the conventions of the English funeral sermon, which took shape in the second half of the sixteenth century, at a time when the clergy aimed at legitimizing the act of preaching over the dead in a Protestant context. It will be shown that at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the majority of

  18. Ser mãe: o amor materno no discurso católico do século XIX

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    Raquel dos Santos Sousa Lima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa parte do discurso que a Igreja Católica teceu sobre as mulheres, enfatizando o tema da maternidade durante o século XIX. O enfoque parte da Bulla Sylabus (1864, expedida no pontificado de Pio IX, e da encíclica Rerum Novarum (1891, do Papa Leão XIII. Entre a segunda metade do século XIX e a Primeira Guerra Mundial, a Igreja passou pelo processo conhecido como "romanização", caracterizado pela preocupação moral e disciplinar do clero diante de críticas do laicado, além da promoção de ordens e congregações religiosas. O objetivo deste artigo é, portanto, discutir como aquela instituição definiu um papel social feminino vinculado à ideia do amor materno, divulgado como natural e incondicional. A partir da contribuição dos estudos de gênero, aborda a atribuição de características masculinas e femininas para a distinção não apenas biológica entre homens e mulheres. Concluiu-se que, na longa duração, o discurso católico passou de uma postura misógina - de recusa do sexo feminino - à incorporação das mulheres como público essencial para a sustentação do catolicismo diante das propostas de laicização da sociedade ocidental contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Mulheres; Discurso católico; Maternidade; Gênero. AbstractThis paper discusses part of the discourse that the Catholic Church built in order to define woman's role in the 19th century, emphasizing representations of motherhood. The focus starts with Pius IX's Bulla Sylabus (1864 and Pope Lion XIII's Rerum Novarum (1891. Between the second half of the 19th century and World War I, the Catholic Church underwent a process known as "Romanization", characterized by the clergy's moral and disciplinary concern in face of the laity's criticism, and by the promotion of new religious orders and congregations. The paper considers, therefore, how the Catholic Church defined a social female role linked to the idea of maternal love, diffused as

  19. Palliative care situation in Palestinian Authority.

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    Shawawra, Mousa; Khleif, Amal Dweib

    2011-04-01

    available for cancer patients or their families, absence of organizations strategic planning for palliative care, No presence of educational resources for palliative care, No presence of communication or consultation to the clergy man, Absence of bereavement support group, no active follow up for the patient and the family, no standards for palliative care service or training programs in palliative care, no home care service for palliative care, absence of community awareness for palliative care And Absence of national standard for palliative care. The recommendations that we can conclude, depending on the needs assessment that we did, and according to the recommendations that come up through the workshop that was organized by Al-Sadeel Society and was attended by key personnel from the Palestinian MOH who summarized the conclusion, are as follows: 1. The need for better quality care for the cancer patient.2. The need for training of health professionals in palliative care.3. The importance of networking and cooperation between the national NGO's and the MOH.4. The need for public awareness regarding the early detection for cancer especially breast cancer.5. The need for national policy and standards for palliative care and opioids legislations.6. The importance of base line data and research. 7. The need for interdisciplinary team work in the issue of cancer. 8. To involve palliative care education within the curriculum of schools of health professions.

  20. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thykier, C.

    1992-07-01

    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  1. Masonería y política: una nueva cara del rito masonería- revolución. ¿La masonería tiene una ideología y "hace política"? ¿Los políticos fueron y son tales porque fueron masones y los masones siempre fueron hombres que tomaron partido o fueron de partido?

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    Aldo ALESSANDRO MOLA

    2010-02-01

    attributed whith partisan objectives: the struggle against the power of the clergy and religiuous doctrine, against the monarchy (although this is not true for Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Greece and often not true for Italy, Spain and even France, where masonry was pro-Bourbon and pro-Napoleon. Against militarism (although many officers and non-commissioned officers were masons... The authenticity of the objectives of masonic organizations can be verified by analysing whether certain famous masons were only famous or were actually masons as well. As examples of these we have Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, etc. Since it is not a religion, masonry is not politicienne politics, nor a permanent revolution. The choise between «education» and «administrations of needs».

  2. La Galicia que vio nacer y crecer a Gregorio Fernández

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    Saavedra, Pegerto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The great sculptor Gregorio Fernández was born in Galicia; that territory was very different from the city of Valladolid, where he worked and died. Fhe changes caused by the Catholici Reformation progressed slowly and with difficulty en the old Galician Kingdom. The absence of towns prevailed in that period, and most of Glaician people lived in small villages that were far from urban civilization. They were not instructed in Christian doctrine and besides they had their peculiar customs, such as feeding on brown bread and bacon. This cultural and social context generated a negative opinion about Galicia and Galician people in the middle of the XVIth century. Don Diego Samiento de Acuña, first earl of Gondomar, and Don Pedro Fernández de Castro, seventh earl of Lemos, were opposed to this negative opinion, although they had an unfortunate outcome. First, Gondomar -who owned an important library in his house in Valladolid- and his circle wrote spirited chorographical and historiographical works. On the other hand, Gondomar and Lemos presented several claims in the Royal Court from Galician nobility and clergy al the end of XVIth century and at the beginning of the XVIIth century.

    La Galicia en la que nació el formidable escultor Gregorio Fernández tenía poco que ver con la ciudad de Valladolid, en la desarrolló su trabajo y falleció. El viejo Reino gallego era un territorio ruralizado, en el que los cambios ligados a la reforma tridentina avanzaban con lentitud y dificultad. La ausencia de grandes núcleos de población y la rudeza de unos campesinos que vivían en minúsculos asentamientos dispersos, alejados de la civilización por su ignorancia de los rudimentos de la catequesis y por sus costumbres, entre ellas la de alimentarse de pan negro y tocino, son realidades que están en el origen de la caudalosa corriente de tópicos negativos que desde mediados del XVI comenzó a correr sobre el Reino y sus habitantes, y que, con poco

  3. The Relationship Between the Social Transformation and Islamization of West Africa in 14th-18th Centuries%14至18世纪中古后期至近代早期西非社会演进与当地伊斯兰化进程间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张歌

    2014-01-01

    14至18世纪西非经历了帝国的瓦解,国家和社会重新整合的历史过程。在行政机构、经济运作方式、宗教、文化等方面都有了新的发展。中央集权化趋势成为国家政治发展方面的主流,经济、贸易活动的形式更加丰富多样。与此相对应,伊斯兰教和当地传统宗教文化也都有了很大的发展,其中伊斯兰教的发展对西非日后的历史进程影响更加深远。在没有官方支持的情况下,伊斯兰教注重向民间社会的渗透,教团组织开始普及,并在随后与苏菲主义合流,形成了苏菲主义教团,建立起了自己的社会、经济基础,当地伊斯兰文化得到了整理和发展,教士们提出了针对社会问题的改革主张,并在上几内亚地区付诸行动,从理论和实践上为未来的西非历史进程奠定了基础。%West Africa has experienced the disintegration of the empire, The historical process of the state and society integration during this period. There were have new development in the administrative institutions, economic operation mode, religion, culture and other aspects. Centralized trend has become the mainstream in the country's political development and the economic and trade activities in the more diverse form. Under this situation, Islam and local traditional religious culture also has the very big development. Especially the development of Islam more profound influence on the historical process of west Africa. Without official support, Islam started its infiltration to civil society, the religious organizations began to spread, and combined with Sufism during the followed era, formed Sufism Orders, The Orders built up their own social and economic base, advanced the development of local Islamic cultures, Islamic clergies put forward the reform advocates for social problems, and put the action in upper-guinea region. They laid a foundation from the theory and practice for West African

  4. Where is the church on Monday? Awakening the church to the theology and practice of ministry and mission in the marketplace

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    Dion A. Forster

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research by the Call42 group has shown that South African Christians experience that they are not adequately prepared or equipped for Christian living and discipleship in the world of work – here called the marketplace. This article has argued for the importance of a rediscovery of a theology of work that can empower and equip the church and individual Christians for ministry in the marketplace. The article traces why such a theological deficiency exists in the South African church by considering areas such as an inadequate theology of work and mission, a dualism between faith and work, and an unbalanced emphasis on the role of clergy and a lesser focus on the role of the laity in themissio Dei. Having considered these challenges to the mission and theological identity of the church, the article discusses the three general theological views of the church in South Africa as presented by Smit and adapted by Forster. It considers how the church could become an agent of mission and transformation in the marketplace in each of these three forms. The article comes to the conclusion that the church will need to revisit its missional theology, refocuses its efforts on broader society, and empowers and equips its members for ministry in the marketplace in order to be faithful in partnering with God in the missio Dei.Waar is die kerk op Maandag? Ontwaking van die kerk tot die teologie en praktyk vanbediening en sending in die markplein. Onlangse navorsing deur die Call42 groep het bevind dat Suid-Afrikaanse Christene ervaar dat hulle nie voldoende voorbereid en toegerus is vir die Christelike lewe en dissipelskap in die arbeidsmark - hier genoem die markplein – nie. Hierdie artikel poog om aan te toon dat ’n herontdekking van ’n teologie van werk belangrik is ten einde die kerk in die algemeen asook individuele Christene te bemagtig en toe te rus vir die bediening in die markplein. Hierdie artikel poog dus om die kwessie van die sodanige

  5. “Vistiendo las ropas del santo”: Atributos afro en la personalidad de san Baltasar a través de algunos cargos devocionales en su culto en la Argentina

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    Norberto Pablo Cirio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the joy and fun, they celebrate him with music and dance, being some of them from black roots. In this paper I wish to analyze one of these religious principles. So far there isn't any difference between kings and goods, the divine personality has a bipolar behavior that comes to real in a unique entity movable-non movable, thing- human. In this way, being goods also kings and kings also goods, their divine and royal attributes are object of devotion and subordination by their faithful people-subjects. My hypothesis is that that black people could have applied this principle so far they knew that double characteristic of this saint: divine (he is a saint and royal (he is one of the three Wise Men, compatible with their ancestral believes.//Al revisar la historia del culto popular de San Baltazar en Argentina, es posible encontrar sus raíces africanas. A pesar de haber empezado como una devoción impuesta por el clero y la Corona española a mediados del siglo XVIII , los esclavos lograron insertar sus propias tradiciones culturales, produciendo así una suerte de sincretismo sui generis.Hoy en día, dicha tradición está presente en celebraciones religiosas, especialmente en el área devocional. A San Baltazar se le considera el patrón de la alegría y la diversión y sus celebraciones se realizan con música y bailes, algunos de ellos de raíces negras.En este trabajo me propongo analizar uno de los principios de este culto. Como no hay diferencias entre los

  6. Przyczynek do obrazu szlachty Inflant Polskich w łotewskich źródłach i opracowaniach historycznych początku XX w.

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    Beata Biesiadowska-Magdziarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the image of Polish Livonia nobility in the Latvian historical sources and studies of the early Twentieth Century Polish literature devoted to the role of the Poles in shaping Latvian culture presents unanimity as far as the positive role and results of this influence are concerned. However diametrically opposite Latvian perspective particularly clear in the first years of the existence of independent Latvia needs to be highlighted here. Contacts between the Latvians and Poles and their cultures  differed in different parts of Latvia since the beginning of the Polish presence in this country. The period called ‘the Polish times in Latvia’ in Latvian historical sources lasted the longest in Latgale (1561-1772, i.e. in the so called Polish Livonia. The Polish influence on Latvian folk culture was the strongest there. This period, especially the scale of the influence of Polish culture on Latvian native culture as well as general development of this region, was strongly criticized by numerous Latvian historians. The interest of the Polish noblemen in developing Latgale was subjected to criticism, too. Considering these lands as their own the Poles were not interested in propagating national ideas among  local village people who, according to the Polish nobles, were to succumb to complete polonisation. Great influence of the Polish nobility on culture, economy and creating the national identity of the Latgalian Latvians, the policy of the Polish clergy and polonisation of the local people resulted in a negative opinion of the Polish influence in the Latvian lands. The study is an attempt to outline the issue which Polish researchers have not paid attention to so far. Nevertheless, regarding rich material it needs detailed research on a large scale.   Przyczynek do obrazu szlachty Inflant Polskich w łotewskich źródłach i opracowaniach historycznych początku XX w. W literaturze polskiej poświęconej roli Polaków w kszta

  7. MOSCHEI TRANSFORMATE ÎN BISERICI ORTODOXE DUPĂ ANEXAREA BASARABIEI LA IMPERIUL RUS

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    Igor BERCU

    2015-11-01

    southeastern Europe. An important role in these confrontations has played Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire. Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 ended with the signing of the Peace of Bucharest on May 16/28 1812. Following this treaty, the Eastern territory of Moldavia, called in Jassy the territory “beyond the Prut River” was annexed by the Tsarist Empire. The new administration has taken a number of measures which were aimed at strengthening the Tsarist administration in the new acquired territory. An important part of the annexed territory previously have belonged to the so-called Ottoman „re’âyâ”, i.e. territory administered directly by Istanbul which was set up in Moldavia during the late 15th century - beginning of the 18th century. Besides the major issues that had to settle the tsarist administration, there was the issue of status of the so-called pious Muslim properties that were established on the territory of the Ottoman administrative units throughout the centuries. The methods used were simple, but highly effective. Since almost entirely Muslim population left the territory after 1812, the mosques have been transformed to Orthodox churches with the approval of the high clergy and Tsarist civil authorities. On August 21, 1813 the Tsar’s Alexander I Decree established a new „Archdiocese of Chisinau and Hotin” which legalized turning mosques into Christian Orthodox churches, the latter being one of the main methods of imposing Russian spiritual dominance in Bessarabia.

  8. Sāsānilerde Askeri Teşkilat, Silah Teknolojisi ve Savaş Stratejileri Army Organization, Weapon Technology And War Strategies In Sassanid Empire

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    Ulaş Töre SİVRİOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sassanids (224-651 have been the most potent foes of RomanEmpire more than four centuries. On the contrary, their cutting edgeand breakthrough innovations have been inspired by both RomanEmpire and Byzantine. As a result of that influence, Romans havebegun to give much importance to cavalry class more than any time inthe course of Roman Empire. Yet, Sassanids have been militarilyinfluenced by Turkish clans who have been living in the area ofMediterranean and middle Asia prairies, in terms of war tactics andarmed forces.Especially,in development of cavalry class and infoundation of heavy armored cavalry legions; Sassanids have exampledmiddle Asian military organizations. As a consequence of culturalintegrations during late antique age and early medieval era, both longdistant weapons and short distant weapons have emerged in the area offrontal Asian districts. Additionally, Sassanids have been highlydeveloped Empire in comparison with it’s time. Except for their armedforces, strategies of war, innovations in manufacturing weapons;Sassanids have also had jumbled military – bureaucracy class. Forinstance; they have appointed clergy class to the army and due to thefact that they have given importance to religious provocations duringwar time, they have occurred principles of war at the age of MedievalEra in terms of ideology. Archbishops of Sassanids namely Mobedan-ıMobeds have played key points in both military and political issues.Military system of Sassanids, martial bureaucracies , spying and theirpostal service organizations have been influenced and inspired byPersians (present time Iran and those who were rulers of thesurroundings of Iran’s called; Abbasid, Buwayhid, Seljuks, Ghaznavids.Furthermore; both fundamentals of military organizations of theSassanids and their military jargon have been mostly accepted byfurther conqueror governments; for instance, Turkish Muslimgovernments and Muslim Arabs. All in all, martial innovations

  9. Relics, miracles and furta sacra: A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s

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    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one

  10. Terminologia religijna w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców w Polsce i Bułgarii. Zapisy z lat 1969–1973

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    Iryda Grek-Pabisowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious terminology in Russian dialect of Old Believers in Poland and Bulgaria (records from the years 1969–1973 Records of religious terminology in Bulgaria were conducted by the author, records in Poland were done by people from the community of Old Believers as well. The material was collected in three centres of Old Believers in Poland – in Augustów, Suwałki and Mrągowo counties (the Masurian district. The basis for gathering the material was a special questionnaire formulated by the author which contained peculiarities of religion and culture of Old Believers. The questionnaire consists of 220 questions concerning the following topics: sacred buildings, belfry, monastery, cemetary, icons, religious books, Old Believer­ rosary, thurible, candles, a so called podrucznik (i.e. a small cushion used for kneeling and putting hands during bowing, christening, marriage, funeral, ritual food, lent, holidays, names of confessions, clergy, ritual clothes and other names (clergymen and other. The sound of names provided by informants was preserved. The records were done using simplified phonetic transcription. A small dictionary attached to the questionnaire explains less known terms and phrases.   Религиозная терминология в старообрядческих островных говорах в Польше и в Болгарии (записи 1969–1973 годов Записи были проведены автором в старообрядческих деревнях в авгус­товском и мронговском районе (Мазурия в Польше и в варненском и силистерском районе в Болгарии. Материал собирался по особому вопроснику, разработанному с учетом характерных черт старообрядческой религиозной культуры. Учтены следующие

  11. Physician and miracle worker. The cult of Saint Sampson the Xenodochos and his images in eastern Orthodox medieval painting

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    Starodubcev Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    renovated and expanded. Based on some documents issued in the Empire of Nicaea, it may be concluded that the xenon had vast estates. The Crusaders first sacked it, to subsequently use it for their own needs, as they established the Order of Saint Sampson. The hospital soon received many properties in Constantinople and its environs, Hungary and Flanders. It seems that after the liberation of Constantinople, the activities of Saint Sampson’s hospital were ceased and that there was a monastery at its place in the Palaiologan period. Anyway, the reputation of its holy founder persisted throughout the thirteenth century. Constantine Akropolites wrote the already mentioned Hagiography, and in one of his letters he spoke of the Saint, who was also mentioned in a poem by Manuel Philes (died around 1345. In Constantinople, the veneration of Saint Sampson had two centres - the hospital named after him and the church of Saint Mokios, where his leipsana rested. According to the synaxaria of the Typikon of the Great Church and the Church of Constantinople, the feast dedicated to the Saint was celebrated at his xenon. The former text informs us that the service was held by the Patriarch, whereas Symeon Metaphrastes relates that the vigil on the eve of the feast took place over the relics in the church of Saint Mokios. The Patriarch celebrated the feast dedicated to Saint Sampson with hospital clergy in the church within the xenon, both mentioned by Metaphrastes. It was either this church or a shrine from a later period that housed the iconostasis noted down by Constantine Stilbes, an eyewitness of the Latin capture of the Byzantine capital. Written sources and archaeological finds are consistent in that the hospital was located between the churches of Saint Sophia and Saint Irene. However, the first excavations carried out at the site of the xenon were not properly documented, whereas archaeologists involved in further investigations could not rely on reliable data, though they

  12. Zamowy białoruskie oraz inne teksty ludowego lekarowania jako dowód na przenikanie się języków i kultur na obszarze byłego Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

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    Krystyna Szcześniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Belorussian zamowy and other folk medicine texts as evidence for linguistic and cultural permeation in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania This paper presents the lexical material stored in the Belorussian zamowy: names of holidays, prayers, designations of the sacred and clergy portaits, as well as names and nationalities. The documentation, coming from two sets of Belorussian zamowy (addresses given in references, shows clearly that these texts – which usually come with a classic construction, important for those telling them – preserved traces of multilingualism, different religions and dialects, as well as the information about the nationalities residing in the area. Some lexemes (or groups of lexemes mix two or three languages. What is more, it often occurs that literary language and the standard variety (Polish are mixed with Belorussian dialects, which stems from the historical circumstances the area studied. Such information could be preserved in zamowy because słowa or szepty (as they were called had strictly defined structure, and had to include certain lexemes that always came in the same pre-defined order.   Белорусские заговоры и другие тексты народного лечения как свидетельство взаимопроникновения языков на территории бывшего Великого княжества Литовского Статья представляет лексический материал, содержащийся в белoрусских заговорах, который касается названий праздников, молитв, определений изображений святых и священников, а также имен святых и национальностей. Документация, почерпнутая из двух книг белoрусских заговоров, выходные данные к