Yuvarajan, Elil; Stanford, Matthew S
Although congregants often turn to clergy for help in dealing with personal difficulties, including marital problems, substance abuse issues, and mental illness, survivors of sexual assault do not commonly turn to clergy for support or guidance. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, online survey, and semi-structured interviews to determine how clergy perceive sexual assault victimization. The results of this study showed that more blame was assigned to the victim as the relationship with the perpetrator became closer, with the exception of marital rape. This study also found that hostile sexism was a predictor of negative attitudes toward rape victims. PMID:26416842
Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara; Wallace, Amanda; James, John; Moore, H Edgar; Swift, Robin; Toole, David
Research indicating high rates of chronic disease among some clergy groups highlights the need for health programming for clergy. Like any group united by similar beliefs and norms, clergy may find culturally tailored health programming more accessible and effective. There is an absence of research on what aspects clergy find important for clergy health programs. We conducted 11 focus groups with United Methodist Church pastors and district superintendents. Participants answered open-ended questions about clergy health program desires and ranked program priorities from a list of 13 possible programs. Pastors prioritized health club memberships, retreats, personal trainers, mental health counseling, and spiritual direction. District superintendents prioritized for pastors: physical exams, peer support groups, health coaching, retreats, health club memberships, and mental health counseling. District superintendents prioritized for themselves: physical exams, personal trainers, health coaching, retreats, and nutritionists. Additionally, through qualitative analysis, nine themes emerged concerning health and health programs: (a) clergy defined health holistically, and they expressed a desire for (b) schedule flexibility, (c) accessibility in rural areas, (d) low cost programs, (e) institutional support, (f) education on physical health, and (g) the opportunity to work on their health in connection with others. They also expressed concern about (h) mental health stigma and spoke about (i) the tension between prioritizing healthy behaviors and fulfilling vocational responsibilities. The design of future clergy health programming should consider these themes and the priorities clergy identified for health programming. PMID:22694161
Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; McNally, Christopher J.
Among the recommendations possible in assessment of clients' religious beliefs is that of referral to the "friendly clergy." Delineates guidelines for referral as well as ideal characteristics of that spiritual profession. (Author)
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
This article investigates child sexual abuse by Catholic clergy in two jurisdictions, Ireland and the United States. These jurisdictions are selected because most of the research on this topic emanates from the United States and because my own research with Catholic clergy is situated in Ireland. The article begins by taking a critical look at the dominant discourses of child sexual abuse, as these discourses form part of the context in which sexual abuse by Catholic clergy is currently under...
Colburn, Alan; Henriques, Laura
Spurred by students who felt conflicted accepting evolution and the tenets of their faiths, yet knowing their faiths supported science and evolution, we began a study to determine the views clergy espouse on issues related to evolution, creationism, science, and religion. The resulting study included structured interviews with eight clergy and a…
Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny
This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education.
Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny
This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education. PMID:26733448
Nagi, M H; Pugh, M D; Lazerine, N G
The attitudes of a random sample of 614 Catholic and Protestant clergymen from the Cleveland area were analyzed in relation to the following: 1) acceptance of euthanasia; 2) the establishment of legal guidelines; and 3) the similarity between euthanasia and abortion. In general the clergy were not opposed to all forms of euthanasia. They tended to make strong distinctions between passive and active euthanasia. Active euthanasia was highly unacceptable to the clergy, but they viewed passive euthanasia more favorably. There was a definite ranking in priority of the different circumstances under which the termination of life-supporting techniques would be acceptable to the clergy. Also significant was the fact that they did not tend to evaluate the issues surrounding euthanasia completely from a spiritual, or sacred perspective. Both Protestants and Catholics tended to approve of passive euthanasia, but they highly disapproved of active euthanasia. Catholics were significantly more opposed to both forms of euthanasia. In general conservative Protestants were more opposed to passive euthanasia on most dimensions than were Catholics. Both Catholic and Protestant clergy showed fear that official approval of types of euthanasia would spread into abuses. Although spiritually oriented clergy tended to show somewhat less unfavorable views on euthanasia when compared with abortion, generally, appreciable differences or role types on this particular sub-dimension was lacking.
Tanner, Marcus N; Wherry, Jeffrey N; Zvonkovic, Anisa M
Forced termination of clergy is a demeaning and psychologically distressing experience. Clergy who experience a forced termination are subjected to mobbing (psychological harassment) and other activities meant to publicly or privately demean a minister in such a way that they resign their ministry position. In a purposive convenience sample of 55 ministers who had been forcibly terminated, participants scored above the known cut-off score for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and scored high on a measure of burnout and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Forced termination has been anecdotally connected to PTSD and GAD, this project sought to empirically link PTSD and GAD to the forced termination of clergy. This study raises concern for the long-term mental health effects of ministers who have been forcibly terminated and provides implications for future clinical study on this group of clergy. Findings in this research indicate there may be a process to forced termination, which could be developed into a theory on forced termination of clergy. PMID:22278328
Clergy are significant providers of mental health services in the United States. The literature shows disparity between the need of clergy for mental health training and the type of brief training provided through seminar formats. It also indicates that the collaborative professional activities of clinicians and clergy may be enhanced when (1) the…
Wickersham, Mary Eleanor
The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin
The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…
Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.
Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert
This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…
Uecker, Jeremy E.; Lucke, Glenn
This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites—clergy—and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites. PMID:24072933
Barnes, Sandra L
When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.
Full Text Available Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety, past experiences with behavioral health workers, and resources available through their home institutions. Overall, surveyed clergy support collaborations to improve childhood mental health. However, they vary considerably in their confidence with recognizing mental illness in children and perceive significant barriers to collaborating with mental health providers.
This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA) by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is consid...
Muse, Stephen; Love, Milton; Christensen, Kyle
A pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental matched pairs design was used to assess the effectiveness of a week-long multi-therapist intensive outpatient intervention process with clergy suffering from depression and burnout. Participants (n = 23) in the "Clergy in Kairos" program of the Pastoral Institute (Muse in J Pastor Care Couns 61(3):183-195, 2007) constituted the experimental variable. Clergy surveyed from United Methodist and Presbyterian denominations (n = 121) provided a control group from which 23 respondents were selected whose pre-test scores in depression and burnout were statistically equivalent to those in the experimental group. The treatment group consisted of clergy from three denominations who self-selected (or in some cases were referred by denominational officials) into the program. At the outset, clergy in both groups reported equivalent levels of conflict, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and depression. At the 6-months follow-up, clergy in the experimental group showed significant improvement of depression, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization scores. By contrast, there was no change in the burnout and depression scores in the control group at 6-months post-test. Findings suggest the usefulness of a week-long multi-therapist intensive outpatient intervention in reducing burnout and depression. PMID:25682015
Aholou, Tiffiany M Cummings; Gale, Jerry E; Slater, LaTrina M
This exploratory qualitative pilot study examined the extent to which seven African American clergy discussed and promoted sexual health dialogue with couples preparing for marriage. We explored the following topics: (a) clergy perspectives on disclosure; (b) clergy awareness about HIV/AIDS and (c) the extent to which clergy awareness about HIV is translated into their premarital counseling programs. Our results suggest that greater awareness and comfort level with discussions about sexuality mediate the inclusion of sexual health and promotion of HIV testing in premarital counseling. PMID:19495984
Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig
The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.
Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda
This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…
Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.
Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…
Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.No presente trabalho tenciono indagar as causas internas que dirigiram o império marítimo português à decadência. Depois de uma revisitação da historiografia relativa ao declínio do Estado da Índia, procedo a uma análise do triângulo de Monarca-Igreja-Nobreza durante os Descobrimentos e dos seus papéis respectivos no evoluir do Império português. É verificável que a absolutização da Coroa, a sobre-expansão do clero e a potenciação da aristocracia tornaram-se as características mais salientes e duradouras na estrutura social portuguesa depois de o país se lançar nas façanhas marítimas, do que resultou a agricultura prejudicada e indústria atrasada. A predominância dessas três instituições, por um lado, impediu a ascensão da burguesia, assim dificultando a transformação da economia
Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin
Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael
Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526
Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.
This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design…
James, Bawo O; Igbinomwanhia, Nosa G; Omoaregba, Joyce O
The paucity of skilled manpower in sub-Saharan Africa limits the delivery of effective interventions for the mentally ill. Individuals with mental disorders and their caregivers frequently consult clergy when mental symptoms cause distress. There is an urgent need for collaboration with nonprofessionals in order to improve mental health care delivery and close the widening treatment gap. Using a cross-sectional descriptive method, we explored clergy's (Christian and Muslim) aetiological attributions for common mental illness (schizophrenia and depression) from Benin City, Nigeria, as well as their willingness to collaborate with mainstream mental health services. We observed that a majority of clergy surveyed were able to correctly identify mental illnesses depicted in vignettes, embraced a multifactorial model of disease causation, and expressed willingness to collaborate with mental health care workers to deliver care. Clergy with a longer duration of formal education, prior mental health training, and Catholic/Protestant denomination expressed a greater willingness to collaborate. Educational interventions are urgently required to facilitate this partnership. PMID:24599283
Irina Aleksandrovna Strakhova
Full Text Available The article discusses the position of the Orthodox clergy in the territory of Belgorod in 1917-1920, when in the new socio-political and economic situation, the Soviet authorities monitor the activities of the clergy, has limited his rights when liquidated prerevolutionary privilege for the clergy, and church lands transferred to public use than undermined the economic foundation of the church and the deteriorating financial situation of the priests. Also the article highlights recessionary trends in the life of priesthood arose when the Soviet power implemented decrees «On Freedom of Worship, church and religious societies» (1918, "On the separation of church and state and school from church" (1918 , «Enactment of establishment of communities» (1919 as well as in the period of expropriation of church valuables in 1922. The analysis of this issue showed that the Soviet government restricted rights of priesthood, its civil rights and weakened the economic base of the Russian orthodox church and its priesthood financial status. But despite of everything, the orthodox priesthood sought a compromise in creating a new model of relationships between and government and the church after 1917.
Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard
This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. PMID:18161043
Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard
This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the Orthodox Parish Clergy of Romania based on the materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry». The a uthor shows the comparative characteristic of the country and city clergy and considers the level of its education, competency, everyday life and influence on the parish. On the basis of the publications found in «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry» the author analyses widespread among the clergy bribery, drunkenness and dissoluteness. It reveals that the material support and educational process at the seminaries didn't contribute to the increase of the intellectual and moral level of the priests. The article also considers an information about the quantity and the condition of the churches and temples in Romania.
Full Text Available The Priesthood fulfills their mission for Serb people, and therefore shares the fate of people. It recognizes and shares needs, problems and aspirations of Serb nation. So that was the case in the First Serbian Uprising, hence the same needs and aspirations of the Serbian People and Serbian Clergy to get rid of the Ottoman occupation and have their own state in which they would live by their own laws. This paper attempts to show which way the Clergy was engaged to lead to the establishment of Serbian authority, on the ruins of the Ottoman feudal order on the territory of Belgrade Province, and which way was it included in their work. The intention was the attempt to show what was directly done to lead to the establishment of the Serbian State in the making, but also indirectly through mission of priests within the clergy in order to reach this goal. Specifically, the endeavor was to show how the Karlovac Metropolitanate Stevan Stratimirović, the largest and undisputed spiritual authority among the insurgents of Serb Uprising, with his frequent invitations, (including the addressing to individual insurgent commanders in order to respect the law and order contributed to creating an environment for the development and operation of the authority of a new Serb State. It seems that, in literature about history and law, and in historiography in general, such activities that indirectly favored the creation of the state of First Serbian Uprising were not sufficiently addressed. But here, such issues were at least partially indicated.
In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending. Clergy on parole are likely to be prohibited from resuming most pastoral responsibilities on the grounds of high actuarial risk of re-offending, but what limited data are available suggests that priests may have low rates of re-offending. If priests do have low rates of recidivism, what then should the Catholic Church do about priests convicted of child sexual abuse offences who want to return to pastoral work and how might they be managed and monitored? Laicisation of offender priests will inevitably produce ostracism and isolation which are conducive to re-offending. PMID:26939512
Manuel Jesús González Manrique
Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.
Breen, Michael J; McGee, Hannah; O’Boyle, Ciaran; Goode, Helen; Devereux, Eoin
The Sexual abuse of children became a significant public issue in Ireland in the 1990s, with frequent media reports about the issue. In the main these focused on the issue of abuse of children by members of the clergy and religious orders. Headline cases included the abuse perpetrated by Fr Brendan Smyth, a priest of a religious order who was convicted of multiple counts of sexual abuse of children and subsequently died in prison, and Fr Seán Fortune, a diocesan priest, who committed suicide ...
Spraitz, Jason D; Bowen, Kendra N
The sexual abuse problem in the Catholic Church has received considerable attention by the media in recent years and growing attention from empirical researchers. Despite this growth, there is a lack of theoretical research that uses neutralization techniques to examine clergy offending. Using Sykes and Matza's theory, this study examines the techniques of neutralization used by accused priests in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. Priests' personnel files, which were made publicly available by the Archbishop of Milwaukee in July 2013, were analyzed retrospectively through a qualitative content analysis of all direct statements and correspondences from the accused. The findings indicate that many priests denied responsibility or injury in an effort to justify their sexually abusive behaviors, but that no discernible patterns of technique use emerged. The need for continued research using recently released personnel files from other dioceses is also discussed. PMID:25854588
Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira
Full Text Available The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastical discourse searched opposing to their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.
Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.
Linguagem, saberes e mediação sobrenatural: magia, clerezia e intervenção sobre a natureza no cotidiano e nas representações do Ocidente Medieval = Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West
Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira
their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.
¿«Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? La exención del clero de la ciudad de Nápoles entre las finanzas urbanas y fiscalidad papal (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? The exemption of the clergy of the city of Naples between urban finances and papal taxation (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? L’esenzione del clero della città di Napoli tra finanze cittadine e fiscalità papale (1535-1618
Massimo Carlo GIANNINI
Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la construcción de mecanismos de exención del clero de los impuestos sobre el consumo en la ciudad de Nápoles entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de evitar el fraude y contra el pago anual de una suma de dinero, el clero napolitano fue de hecho llamado a pagar los impuestos sobre géneros de amplio consumo. El uso de los fondos de estas «franquicias» pronto se convirtió en objeto de disputa dentro del mismo clero. El Papado rápidamente asumió un papel clave, tanto como fuente de legitimidad de la exacción, cuanto como beneficiario del dinero de las «franquicias» del clero de Nápoles, que fue destinado a la Fabbrica di San Pietro en Roma.The aim of this article is to analyze the construction of mechanisms of exemption of the clergy from excise taxes in the city of Naples between XVIth and XVIIth centuries. In order to avoid fraud and against annual repayment of a sum of money, the Neapolitan clergy was in fact called upon to pay the taxes on certain consumer goods. The use of the proceeds of this «franchigie» soon became the subject of dispute among the clergy. The Papacy quickly assumed a key role, both as legitimizing power for the levy and as the beneficiary of the money of the exemptions of the clergy of Naples, which was allocated for the Fabric of St. Peter’s Church in Rome.Scopo di questo articolo è analizzare la costruzione dei meccanismi di esenzione degli ecclesiastici dalle gabelle nella città di Napoli fra Cinque e Seicento. Al fine di evitare frodi e a fronte del rimborso annuale di una somma di denaro, il clero napoletano era infatti chiamato a pagare le gabelle su alcuni generi di consumo. La destinazione del gettito di tale «franchigia» divenne ben presto oggetto di contrasti all’interno del clero. Il papato assunse ben presto un ruolo chiave, sia come legittimatore del prelievo sia come beneficiario del denaro delle franchigie del clero di Napoli, che furono
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Nagi, Mostafa H.; And Others
Even though Catholic and Protestant clergymen, in about the same proportions, tend to see the terminal patient as competent to make decisions concerning euthanasia, the two groups, strongly agree that neither the individual patient nor the state should be allowed sole responsibility for the decision. (Author)
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David
A rapidly growing literature indicates that supportive social relationships are associated with better physical and mental health. However, this research further reveals that interaction with others may also be conflicted and unpleasant. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate negative interaction that arises within a social context that…
Full Text Available Mesdames et Messieurs les membres du jury, je voudrais commencer mon exposé en vous remerciant très sincèrement d’avoir accepté de lire mon dossier et de le juger en conséquence. Depuis le moment où j’ai connu la composition définitive du Jury de mon Habilitation, j’ai souvent anticipé ce que notre conversation de cet après-midi pourrait être ; tout en la redoutant, car mon travail contient assurément des erreurs et des affirmations discutables, je l’attends depuis longtemps : très rares sero...
Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.
Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…
Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala
Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.
Andrés Eichmann Oehrli
Full Text Available La reflexión sobre el mejor modo de gobernar y de armonizar las potestades civiles y eclesiásticas tuvo particular impulso en La Plata (hoy Sucre, Bolivia, a fines del siglo XVII. El escrito más importante de ese tiempo es un voluminoso tratado del sardo Pedro Frasso, fiscal de dicha Real Audiencia. Algunos de los más encumbrados personajes de la ciudad (entre ellos cinco eclesiásticos elogian a este jurista por medio de cartas que son publicadas en los preliminares de ambos volúmenes del tratado. Me interesa: 1 situar estos paratextos en relación con las controversias en torno al regalismo; 2 delinear el perfil de sus autores; 3 poner a la vista sus argumentos; 4 ensayar respuestas a la pregunta por las motivaciones de su adhesión, así, como por las del silencio de otros.In La Plata (nowadays Sucre, Bolivia, reflections on the best way of governing and harmonizing civil and ecclesiastical authority were of particular interest at the end of the 17Th century. The most important text of that time is a voluminous treatise written by the Sardinian Pedro Frasso, a public prosecutor of the Royal Audience mentioned above. Some of the highest personages of the city (among them five ecclesiastics eulogized this jurist by means of letters published within the preliminaries to the two volumes of the treatise. I would like 1 to situate these paratexts with regard to the controversies about the regalismo; 2 to outline the profile of the authors; 3 to make their argumentation visible; and 4 to explain the motivations of their adhesion while others remained silent.
This article investigates child sexual abuse by Catholic clergy in two jurisdictions, Ireland and the United States. These jurisdictions are selected because most of the research on this topic emanates from the United States and because my own research with Catholic clergy is situated in Ireland. The article begins by taking a critical look at the dominant discourses of child sexual abuse, as these discourses form part of the context in which sexual abuse by Catholic clergy is currently under...
Emilio C. Viano
The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has had a major impact on society’s understanding, approach and effort to protect children.It must be stated and stressed from the beginning that child abuse by the clergy is not limited to the Catholic Church. Clergy, nuns and religious personnel from other denominations, Christian or not, have also been accused and at times convicted of child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Moreover, a substantial amount of abuse has been perpetrated by ...
Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…
Full Text Available ... for depression. Treatment options include counseling, anti-depressant medicine or a combination. Confide in someone you trust, such as a family member, friend or a clergy person. Those close ...
Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P
Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....
Despite the occasional mutterings in the public press and the rare suggestion in the empirical literature, there is no evidence to suggest that Catholic clergy enter clerical and religious life with the purpose of gaining access to children to abuse them. In fact, the most comprehensive research ever carried out on sexual abuse by Catholic clergy, conducted by researchers in the United States (John Jay Study, 2011), reports that whatever else formed the men’s motivation for joining, there is ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.
Sullivan, Greer; Hunt, Justin; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Bryant, Keneshia; Cheney, Ann M.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Reaves, Christina; Sullivan, Steve; Lewis, Caleb; Barnes, Bonita; Barnes, Michael; Hudson, Cliff; Jegley, Susan; Larkin, Bridgette; Russell, Shane; White, Penny; Gilmore, LaNissa; Claypoole, Sterling; Smith, Rev. Johnny; Richison, Ruth
Background The Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program established partnerships between institutional (Department of Veterans’ Affairs [VA] chaplains, mental health providers) and community (local clergy, parishioners) groups to develop programs to assist rural veterans with mental health needs. Objectives Describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program in three Arkansas towns between 2009 and 2012. Methods Researchers identified three rural Arkansas sites, established local advisory boards, and obtained quantitative ratings of the extent to which partnerships were participatory. Results Partnerships seemed to become more participatory over time. Each site developed distinctive programs with variation in fidelity to original program goals. Challenges included developing trust and maintaining racial diversity in local program leadership. Conclusions Academics can partner with local faith communities to create unique programs that benefit the mental health of returning veterans. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of community based programs, especially relative to typical “top-down” outreach approaches. PMID:24859098
Ricardo Arias Trujillo.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the different challenges faced by the Colombian clergy during the 1960s and the way in which it tried to ad-dress them. It starts from the central assumption that the Catholic hierarchy in Colombia wanted to ignore the profound changes occurring in Colombian society and opposed the reorientations stemming from the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965 and the Second Latin American Episcopal Conference (Medellín, 1968. Far from reexamining its traditional positions, the Colombian clergy hardened its intransigent and deep-rooted discourse, and struggled to preserve a series of values and privileges that ever-growing sections of the society deemed anachronistic. In this way, the Colombian clergy, suspicious of any change, delayed its renovation, at least until the 1990s.
COELHO, Maria Helena da Cruz
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main axes of the project DEGRUPE whose principal objective is to study the role of the clergy in the construction of the Iberian monarchies and mobility circuits designed by these protagonists. To fulfill this objective, the interuniversity project team of DEGRUPE opted for a comparative perspective between different kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The second part of this paper consists of a brief analysis of the underlying historiographical framework of the project including mainly research on relationship between clergy and royalty in the middle ages.
Alla V. Shadrina
Full Text Available After 1941, in the Soviet Union, many churches were reopened due to the Great Patriotic War, and as a consequence of it, the clerical social group began to form again. The selected questionnaires of the priests of the Rostov Region published for the first time, show that the clergy of the Rostov Diocese of the 1940s and 1950s was characterized by heterogeneity. The priests who became members of the clergy of that time, in their majority, considered their service as a survival strategy.
During the Enlightenment of eighteenth-century France, the encyclopedists created a systematic compilation of all human knowledge in order to dispel current disinformation imposed by kings and clergy. The resultant Encyclopedie has been considered the turning point of the Enlightenment, where knowledge became power and the power was made…
Alexander, E. Curtis
Reported are the author's personal accounts of a tour of Grenada to determine the extent to which Marxist-Leninist thought was being taught in schools, the relationship between the clergy and the government of Grenada, and whether the new international airport posed a threat to U.S. national security. In the new educational system, a Centre for…
Bergman, Elizabeth J.; Haley, William E.; Small, Brent J.
This study examined the role of psychological distress in the use of bereavement services at six months post-loss by 250 bereaved spouses in the Changing Lives of Older Couples study. Approximately 52% (129) used services, commonly provided by physicians and clergy. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that Black race, higher…
...) Election by a regulated investment company to use taxable years ending on 11-30 or 12-31 for purposes of... section 1402(e) (relating to exemption from social security taxes for certain clergy) Remuneration... group which files a consolidated return for such corporation's taxable year which includes 6-22-84....
Lawson, Kevin E.
In popular understanding, the late Middle Ages has been viewed as a time of relative religious ignorance for both laity and clergy. Recent scholarship is indicating a more knowledgeable and vigorous faith experience in this time period. This article examines the major educational ministry renewal of the church in England following the Fourth…
The Lebanese Shi`ite resistance movement, Hizbullah, is going through a remarkable political and ideological transformation. Hizbullah was founded in 1978 by various sectors of Lebanese Shi`ite clergy and cadres, and with Iranian backing as an Islamic movement protesting against social and politica
The author's examination of Indigenous Theology and the indigenous pastoral is based on several periods of research over the past ten years in both rural and urban areas of Oaxaca state in Mexico, including participant-observation in several different kinds of church-directed settings and activities, and extensive interviews with clergy and…
Nillsen, C.; Earl, J. K.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L.
This study explored whether congruence, calling, job characteristics or personality were better predictors of job satisfaction and tenure. The sample consisted of 1968 employees across four different job roles: sales engineers (N = 309), graphic designers (N = 383), teachers (N = 481) and clergy (N = 795). Data was collected as part of a selection…
... contributions to the history and culture of the United States. Following the colonial migrations, the United... infrastructure. Others assumed positions of leadership. Among those leaders were signers of the Declaration of... and literature. From social activists to business leaders, athletes to clergy, and first responders...
López Ulloa, José Luis
This thesis focuses on the Mexican Revolution and on the opposition strategies followed by the opponents of the revolutionary regime who lived in the region known as Los Altos de Jalisco. In this particular region, the Catholic population, supported by the Clergy, was in constant conflict with the r
Birch, Paul James; Weed, Stan E.; Olsen, Joseph
Community marriage initiatives (CMIs) are designed to strengthen marriage and increase marital stability by addressing relevant laws, policies, and cultural factors. We examined a specific CMI designed to lower divorce rates by establishing a shared public commitment among clergy to strengthen marriage. A mixed-effects general linear model was…
The article discusses choreographer Liz Lerman's work with clergy, faith practitioners, and communities in the merging of religious themes with dance. Throughout the article, Lerman raises questions and provides answers that address her investigation of the power of creativity, prayer, ritual and performance, as well as artistry, spirituality,…
... to become problem drinkers than people with low self-esteem. Where Can I Get Help? If you think you have a drinking problem, get help as soon as possible. The best approach is to talk to an adult you trust. If you can't approach your parents, talk to your doctor, school counselor, clergy member, ...
PhD. Bugiulescu Marin
Full Text Available Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry
Gottlieb, Eli; Wineburg, Sam
We compared how 8 religious believers (historians and clergy) and 8 skeptics (historians and scientists) read a series of documents on 2 topics: the Biblical Exodus and the origins of the first (American) Thanksgiving. Readings by religiously committed historians differed from those of their non-religious peers. Navigating between the competing…
Ross, Linda A.
Spiritual care that enhances patient well-being should be taught to nurses, but it is unclear how or if it is being taught, according to a survey of 685 Scottish nurses. Nurses should be aware of the spiritual dimension of their own lives, have experience and learning from crises, and collaborate with clergy in meeting patients' spiritual needs.…
McKenna, Judy; Miller, Jacque; Curtis, Lisa
Acknowledging the pain and loss senior citizens experience due to fraud, the Denver District Attorney's Office launched a campaign--"Clergy Against Senior Exploitation (CASE)"--to reduce fraud perpetrated on older persons. The thrust of this project was preventing fraud by educating older adults through their religious affiliations in order to…
Stevens, Robert E.; And Others
In a survey, 150 individuals evaluated 7 professions on prestige, honesty and ethical standards, importance to society, and interesting and challenging nature of occupation. Overall, university professors were rated lower than doctors, dentists, pharmacists, and clergy; the same as lawyers; and higher than bankers. Respondent income, age, and…
Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Poul R;
For six centuries the barbers of Europe practiced surgery. In 1215 a papal edict forbade members of the clergy (physicians) from performing surgical procedures as contact with blood was felt to be contaminating to men of the church. Bloodletting and minor surgery was now turned over to the barber...
Stephens, Darryl W.
Clergy often begin their ministerial careers unprepared to handle issues of professional power, sexuality and intimacy, and interpersonal boundaries. In response, denominational bodies and theological schools are seeking together ways to enhance the teaching of "professional sexual ethics"--referring to the integration of professional ethics,…
Хитровська Ю. В.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis of the Rome-Catholic Church political position in the Right-Bank Ukraine to Russian autocracy in the 19th— early 20th ct. For the investigating of this problem author used scientific literature, archives documents and the materials of the periodical press. Rome-Catholic Church in the Right-Bank Ukraine on the whole supported the policy of the autocracy, because the most religion ministers of this confession satisfied social security, which gave them Russian government. But existing of social stratificationon also seriously influenced on their official position , because among clergy of this confession were as hierarchs, as a simple clergy. Their political positions often did not coincide. Church’s hierarchs on the whole supported Russian autocracy. Simple clergy often had another, non-official position, display of opposition. Anti-Catholic Church’s policy of government which played vital importance role in forming of Rome-Catholic clergy political position was also very important in this situation.
Tuttle, Tara M.
The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…
The teaching of the Second Vatican Council on the role of the laity in the Church has re-awakened a renewed participation of the laity in the evangelizing mission of the Church. The lay faithful are now occupying a number of significant positions in the Church and are playing various leadership roles once exclusively played by the clergy and…
Cohall, Kirkpatrick G.; Cooper, Bruce S.
The role of the typical Baptist pastor has evolved well beyond providing spiritual direction. Congregations expect them to fulfill complex leadership roles, similar to those in secular institutions, such as church administrators, political strategists, and social activists. Leadership preparation in seminaries for clergy has not kept up with the…
Describes current efforts undertaken by the Catholic community to prevent alcoholism and drug abuse among young people. Outlines the objectives of such preventive programs and actions currently being taken. Highlights efforts including parent education programs, workshops for teachers, clergy, and community networks. (WL)
PhD. Bugiulescu Marin
Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry
Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.
While much research has outlined the importance of intra-psychic factors in predicting workplace success, it is rare that attention is given to the development of these factors in training for human service professions (e.g. psychology, clergy, nursing). Accordingly, the present study explores differences in self-concept, a key intra-psychic…
McCarthy, Joseph M.
The "Transylvanian School," a group mainly composed of clergy of the Transylvanian Uniate Church, was chiefly responsible for originating and fostering the myth of the Roman origins of the Romanian people, elaborating it in works of history, in schoolbooks, and in grammars and dictionaries. The major figure of the group, Gheorge Sincai, had the…
Teague, James Brian
In 2002, in light of the sexual abuse crisis in the Catholic church, The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops established "The charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" that mandated safe environment training for clergy personnel, and volunteers working in the Catholic church. In this study, under the auspices of a…
Sofronova, Lidia V.; Chugunova, Tatiana G.; Khazina, Anna V.; Babayeva, Anastasiya V.; Shmeleva, Natalia V.
This research was caused by an accidental discovery of a photo reproduction of one unknown in Russia masterpiece of British stained glass art of the Victorian age found on open spaces of the Internet: a full-height portrait of John Colet, a famous member of clergy of the pre-reform period, Erasmus' and Thomas More's friend and mentor. Exquisite…
Full Text Available Earlier studies on mortality in 18th and 19th century Sweden have discussed the validity of cause of death information. The fact that the Swedish clergy historically were responsible for the stipulation and reporting of causes of death has initiated a discussion on the medical competence of the clergy. Other issues concern the level of accomplishment in medical science and the effects of instructions and regulations on cause of death registration. This paper argues that cause of death analyses are quite useful for the understanding of mortality transitions if cause of death information is placed in its proper context and are combined with other kinds of mortality analyses. An awareness of 1 the conditions under which causes of death were stipulated, 2 what regulations were in effect at the particular time, and 3 the environmental and epidemiological changes provides good prerequisites for successful use of cause of death information.
Rebecca Klemme Eliceiri
Full Text Available Theological (seminary and congregational libraries in the Christian and Jewish religious traditions have coexisted in some fashion since their beginnings; however, little research exists regarding the relationship between these related-but-distinct library types. This essay explores the relationship between these types of libraries through a survey of their literatures and available statistics, considering their histories and contexts within the broader religious and library worlds, as well as their current relationship in light of their diverse religious institutions. The roles of these libraries will be examined regarding religious, theological, and information literacies as well as exploring their staffs, their staff's education, funding, library hours, their goals, objectives, and outcomes, particularly regarding the changing landscape of religious and theological education for both clergy and laypeople. It concludes with future possibilities in the religious library world in a congregational landscape that often cannot afford full-time, traditionally-theologically-educated clergy, much less paid congregational librarians.
Sergio Rosas Salas
Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the clergy in Puebla (Mexico in defense of the city during the war with the United States, and their ability to reach agreements with civil authorities in order to protect the civilian population, maintain order despite the military occupation, and maintain religious services as a factor of public tranquility. It argues that, thanks to negotiation and agreement between both powers, devotional practice became a fundamental factor in maintaining order. The research was based on local files and a group of published sources dealing with the relations between the U.S. army and the clergy in Puebla, leading to the conclusion that Catholicism was a factor of cohesion in defending the city.
The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis examines factors relating to youth interest in joining the Navy among the Hispanic population in South-Central Los Angeles, California. The study begins with a comprehensive review of literature on Hispanics of Mexican origin. Informatio on youth interest in the Navy is gleaned from personal interviews with teachers, counselors, JROTC instructors, military recruiters, and local clergy. The results suggest that Hispanic yout...
Robert M. Vanderbeck; Gill Valentine; Kevin Ward; Joanna Sadgrove; Johan Andersson
Recent discussions of the international Anglican Communion have been dominated by notions of a 'crisis' and 'schism' resulting from conflicts over issues of homosexuality. Existing accounts of the Communion have often tended to emphasise the perspectives of those most vocal in the debates (particularly bishops, senior clergy, and pressure groups) or to engage in primarily theological analysis. This article examines the nature of the purported 'crisis' from the perspectives of Anglicans in loc...
Chiung Hwang Chen
In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules), regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas an...
This thesis offers an account of dualist heresy in medieval Aquitaine. The first part asserts that the heresy referred to in early eleventh-century sources was dualist and originated in Balkan Bogomilism. It does this by combining two established methodologies. Through the first, reading the sources in their social context, it finds the poor experiencing increased poverty and oppression, and that some amongst the laity and clergy were observing signs prefiguring The End of historical time. No...
Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance
This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms ...
The Ptolemies, the last Pharaohs, took over a country with a high standing civilization and a mighty clergy, receiving at the same time numerous Greek immigrants. They were able to maintain the control over Greeks and Egyptians by balancing between innovation and tradition and by bargaining with the elite groups (Greek and priestly elite).1 This paper on selling procedures is a test case for this general statement. Evidence of the Egyptian chora will be discussed, constituti...
Steve O. Michael
What constitutes the curricular experience for the award of a baccalaureate degree has never been static and could not have been expected to be if higher education is to fulfill its role to a dynamic society. Since the creation of the modern university, the role of higher education has continued to expand, initially serving to prepare the clergy for the church, later to prepare statesmen, much later to prepare the general citizens for gainful employment. Although performed differently by diff...
Until the Middle Ages the clergy were the most educated class in the history of mankind – science and religion were one. In the Middle Ages, religion distanced itself from the science that led to the rise of materialism, idealism and atheism. Religion is not developed, and science has progressed and today not only confirms the validity of certain religious dogmas, but corrects and clarifies the understanding of a number of religious delusions, including the scientific understanding of the Hol...
I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.
Sharp, Erin Colleen
While there is abundant research and literature on the transition to becoming a mother while working and on mothers and work-life balance, literature on clergy and, in particular, clergywomen and work-life balance is scarce. This study contributes to that literature by utilizing role theory and grounded theory methods to investigate the experience of 12 clergywomen who negotiated maternity leave with their congregations and the implications of that process on how they understood and managed ...
Gielen, Pascal; Laermans, Rudi
With modernity arriving in the world of arts, the clergy and the nobility were deprived from their monopoly in artistic selection. This created a permanent problem within modern art industry very soon. The fact is that the question of what exactly renders art into Art became a favourite mind-bending issue for historians, scientists, philosophers and sociologists of art. The same problem of the discovery of dance talent arose with the 'commencing' of contemprary dance in Flanders. We went out ...
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Contemporary settled democracies, including the United States, England and Wales and Ireland, have witnessed a string of high profile cases of institutional child abuse in both church and state settings. Set against the broader literature on transitional justice, this analysis argues that there are significant barriers to truth recovery within the particular context of historical institutional abuse by the clergy in the Republic of Ireland. In the main, I argue that the frameworks of the inqu...
The past decade (1990s) in Ireland has witnessed numerous high profile child abuse scandals, some involving members of the clergy and others occurring in institutions for children in care. A problem that was once seldom or never discussed is now very much in the public arena. The End of Innocence describes the background to the scandals uncovered during the 1990s and the reactions to them, and then provides a thorough understanding of all the issues surrounding child sexual abuse. Leading pra...
Álvarez Icaza Longoria, María Teresa
Since 1750 Archbishop Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordered the taking place of the transference to clerics from doctrines previously administered by the regular clergy. Several of the secularized curates used to have a vast territory, the Diocesan prelate decided to divide them. As there were more parishes, a higher number of the clerics could have more chance to get accommodation. In addition, argued Rubio, the parishioners were favored because it improved their spiritual administration. The estab...
Full Text Available Th e present work aims to show the main elements of the legal culture of the clergy in the 14th century-Hungary. Th e starting point is the explanation of the notion “legal culture”, the presentation of its three main elements, the legal service at the royal court, the activities of the loca credibilia and of the ecclesiastical courts, the personal legal culture. Th e paper shows not only the connection of the legal culture and the development of the bureaucratic writing, the chancellery, but the eff ects of the university studies as well, its main turning points and periods (Paris, Bologna, Padova, with a special focus on the Angevin era (14th century. We can state that the legal culture of Hungarian clergy underwent several changes in this era. With the laicisation of the bureaucratic activities, the royal court needed representatives who had legal experiences for its international aff airs, thus it favoured the change of the legal culture of the clergy at the court. Th e same period is also very important because of the ecclesiastical and secular justice. Several elements of personal legal culture (e. g. collection are also presented.
Lehlohonolo J. Mathibe
Full Text Available We are born, we touch the lives of others, we die – and then we are remembered. For the purpose of this article, I have assessed from obituaries the average lifespan of the clergy (ministers in the Methodist Church of South Africa (MCSA, who died between 2003 and 2014. These obituaries were published in the Yearbooks of the MCSA from 2004 to 2015. I also give attention to how the deceased ministers are remembered. The average lifespan of Methodist ministers is 72 years, and it is likely to increase to 74 years by 2023. This article discusses the implications of Methodist ministers’ average lifespan and suggests that the clergy should be encouraged and enabled to retire at the age of 60 years. The following 12 themes (or missional lessons, mainly answering the question of how the clergy are remembered, emerged from the qualitative analysis of obituaries: they were gifted preachers of the gospel of Jesus Christ; they lived a balanced life; they were humble servants in Jesus’ vineyard; they were sensitive storytellers with a deep sense of humour; they were community builders; they were leaders and meticulous in administration; they were prayer warriors; they loved and valued education; they were disciplined and principled; they enjoyed music; they worked hard for an everlasting peace on earth; and they were zealous stewards of God’s creation.
Elena CATALÁN MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: A pesar de que teóricamente el clero estaba exento de impuestos, a partir de mediados del siglo XVI se le incluyó entre los contribuyentes habituales de la Hacienda real a través del Subsidio y del Excusado. Sus protestas por tributar en ambas gracias acabaron con la concertación de las mismas en un tanto alzado, fosilizado durante siglo y medio, consiguiendo una estabilidad contributiva que a la larga beneficiaría a la Iglesia. La estabilidad nominal de los impuestos eclesiásticos unido al pago de los mismos en una moneda devaluada con una serie de ventajas adicionales hizo que la carga contributiva descendiera en términos relativos.ABSTRACT: The Spanish clergy was free tax. As from second half of the sixteenth century, the clergy was included between usual taxpayers of Royal Finances through the Subsidio and the Excusado. The clergy's protests finished with compound a tax lump-sum which lay over the one century and half. During seventeenth century, the lump-sum payment, the devaluation to vellón and others advantages in the tax-payment did that the tax pressure would have descended comparatively.
Carbajal López, David
Full Text Available In the 16th century, the Catholic Reformation abolished the kiss of peace among the faithful in the ceremonies of the Mass, establishing instead the Pax-board at solemn Masses, reserved for clergy, sovereign, and magistrates. In the Hispanic world, particularly in the realm of New Spain during the second half of the eighteenth century, Pax became a source of complaints among the clergy, judges, and members of local councils. While bishops and clergy were trying to preserve what they considered a separate and distinctive element of sacred ceremonies and distinctive characteristic of the clerical hierarchy, the civil authorities claimed its presentation based on Patronage on the Church, as well as reasons for public utility.En el siglo XVI, la Reforma católica suprimió el beso de la paz entre los fieles en las ceremonias de la misa, estableciendo en cambio el beso del portapaz en las misas solemnes, reservado para clero, para los soberanos y sus magistrados. En el mundo hispánico y en particular en el reino de Nueva España durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, el portapaz se convirtió por ello en motivo de querellas entre el clero, los magistrados y los miembros de los ayuntamientos. Mientras obispos y canónigos trataban de preservar lo que estimaban un elemento propio de ceremonias sagradas y distintivo de la jerarquía clerical, las autoridades civiles reclamaron su presentación fundados tanto en la regalía del Patronato regio de la Iglesia, como en motivos de utilidad del público.
Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich
Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.
Jane Austen(1775-1817)is one of the greatest of English novelists in the romantic period.In her novels,the life of the gentry,landowners,clergy and officers at the end of the eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth centuries is shown in detail.Jane wrote her works with her usual irony,humor and profound sensitivity to express her standard of values about marriage and other values she recognized.This essay takes her Pride and Prejudice as an example to discuss her standard of values about marriage to reveal her reflection on the society she lives in and her feminist consciousness.
The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust
Borràs Matamoros, Noelia
Charles III's decision to open Alfacs harbour to foreign trade with America.in 1778 led to the development of a series of projects in the area of Ràpita which culminated in the founding of a new village. It was planned the fortification of the bay by building three gun batteries and opening a navigable channel between Ràpita and Amposta to facilitate trade along the Ebre river. Due to the land claims of the peasantry, nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie, the structure of land ownership in ...
The present paper describes the position of catholic, protestant and orthodox Churches concerning the various aspects of organ retrieval and transplantation. The official position of the catholic Church, defined by the pope favors these activities if they respond to strict rules. The absence of magisterium in the protestant and orthodox Churches causes sometimes divergent opinions among the members of the clergy. However, there are convergences between the three religions. Theologians who are in favour of organ transplantation promote organ donation but consider that it is not mandatory. They do not admit the principle of presumed consent and organ commerce is expressly forbidden. PMID:18705602
The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.
Fabricio Lyrio Santos
Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil.
Fabricio Lyrio Santos
Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil
Glenna S. Jackson
Full Text Available In the article the author reflected on her personal and existential experience of a journey to Egypt, and how this highlights radical inclusivity. The article focused on the issues of the violence of poverty, the history of Coptic Christianity and the role of women within this tradition. The article touched on aspects such as ‘women monks’, ecclesiastical hierarchy in modern Coptic Christianity, and the ordination of clergy. It also considered the perspective of ‘social hierarchy’ and ‘spiritual or divine hierarchy’.
Malks, Betty F; Strobel, Donna M; Leung, Yolanda; Court, Michelle Williams; Morris, Janet R; May, Gus; Reeves, Shawna; Davies, Molly; Cartan, Heidi; Philyaw, Meredith L
The authors describe their use of systems change as a means of ameliorating elder abuse. After assessing the needs of their target audiences, projects developed a variety of strategies. These include disseminating promising practices in courts, creating Elder Law Clinics to assist with conservatorships, educating older adults about predatory mortgage lending, building a new response system for complaints of abuse and neglect in unlicensed care facilities, and convening clergy and lay leader groups to learn how faith communities can make a difference in elder abuse and neglect. The authors share tips on replicating their work, describing barriers to implementation and possible solutions.
Norberto Pablo Cirio
Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the jo...
Full Text Available “BLACK MONEY” means “ILLEGAL MONEY”?... “BLACK” means “SINFUL”?... If so… “CARBON MONEY” earned by global national for “CARBON CREDIT” is ILLEGAL?... SINFUL?... The clergy men, Judges, magistrates, who wear long black robes are illegal?... No… No… No… This scientific research focus that the term “MONEY” shall be considered closely associated with “MATTER” of Universe composed of fundamental particles rather than denoting different currency of nations. (e.g BLACK MONEY shall mean BLACK MATTER; WHITE MONEY shall mean WHITE MATTER.
Sergio Alberto Feldman
Full Text Available Isidore of Seville is a Visigothic Bishop of Late Antiquity, author of an exegetical, and theological work, as well as historiography. This article aims to understand the function and purpose of the isidorian historiographic works in the context of the evangelization of the Iberian Peninsula and the quest for legitimization and the strengthening of the Catholic monarchy, having the Church as an ally. The writing of history in Isidore has different motivations, being molded from theological interpretations and intent on generating behavioral models to kings, nobles and clergy, and other social sectors. The pedagogical sense stands, along with the teleological view.
Minow, Martha Louise
Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...
Susana Elsa Aguirre
Full Text Available This paper is concerned to examine the actions of Indian social network caught in the court, either as victims or suspected of a crime, in the campaign and Buenos Aires city in the late colonial period. The aim is to investigate the configuration and the settlement of disputes that involve indigenous, noting both its positioning as the judicial officers, clergy or individuals with certain power at the local level who are involved in these cases. This analysis facilitate the entry into to social interweaving of that time, providing keys to understand it, unveiling a diversity of voices and looks involved in the process of setting and prosecution of crimes
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching suggests that the reading and proclaiming of scripture reflects the psychological type preferences of the reader and preacher. This thesis is examined among a sample of clergy (training incumbents and curates serving in the one Diocese of the Church of England (N = 22. After completing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the clergy worked in groups (designed to cluster individuals who shared similar psychological type characteristics to reflect on and to discuss the Advent call of John the Baptist. The Marcan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the perceiving functions (sensing and intuition in light of its rich narrative. The Lucan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the judging functions (thinking and feeling in light of the challenges offered by the passage. In accordance with the theory, the data confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types, and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.
Gutiérrez Pardina, Jesús
Full Text Available There is a series of western canons, dated between the 5th and 6th centuries dealing with nuptials of clergys' widows. All those laws do not accept those second nuptials and establish a variety of measures against it. These laws are usually related to the eclesiastical rejection of the second nuptials per se, added to mysoginistic attitudes from the clergy. The analysis of the hispanic canons shows that another interpretation is possible, linking them with the history of the formation of the ordo ecclestiasticum in Hispania and the negotiation of its social area.
Existe un conjunto de cánones occidentales, datados entre los siglos V y VI, dedicados las segundas nupcias de la viuda de clérigo. Todos ellos se muestran contrarios a las mismas, regulando una serie de medidas en respuesta. Normalmente se suele ligar estos cánones con el repudio eclesiástico a las segundas nupcias per se y con tendencias clericales misóginas. A partir del estudio de las disposiciones hispanas, es posible otra interpretación de las mismas, vinculándolas a la historia de la formación del ordo ecclestiasticum en Hispania y la negociación de su espacio social.
Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R
Religious congregations are uniquely poised to provide programs to support survivors of violence against women; yet little is known regarding the prevalence of such programs. In this study, we used data from three waves of the National Congregation Study (N = 3334) to examine change across time in the presence of a congregational program to support survivors of sexual assault or domestic violence. We also explored results among different Christian religious traditions across time. Given the gendered nature of this violence, we also tested whether the (a) gender of the head clergy (i.e., religious leader), and (b) ability of women to serve in congregational leadership roles predicted the presence of programs. As points of comparison, we also examined the total number of congregational social service programs and food programs in particular. Overall, we found different patterns of change across religious traditions for the different programs. Moreover, clergy gender and the ability of women to serve in leadership roles predicted the presence of different types of programs. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research also are discussed. PMID:27233477
Full Text Available In the archbishopric of Lima, as well as in others, there is a significant change in the recruitment of secular clergy for parishes towards the end of the 18th century. The lenguaraces, those who know the indigenous language, are granted privilege by favoring that prerequisite above all others. This had notable consequences on their preparation, as well as the social and ethnic background of these priests, who were forced to work with a fragile status, with no possibility of relocation or promotion, all of which led to the appearance of a true lower clergy.En el arzobispado de Lima, como en otros, a finales del siglo XVIII se nota un cambio sustancial en el reclutamiento del clero secular para las doctrinas. Se privilegia entonces a los lenguaraces, conocedores de la lengua indígena, pasando ese requisito por encima de los demás. Eso tuvo consecuencias notables sobre la preparacion pero también el origen social y étnico de esos sacerdotes, obligados a trabajar con estatuto fragilizado, sin posibilidad de promocion ni cambio de destino, desembocando todo eso en la aparicion de un verdadero bajo clero.
Esteban Alemán Ruiz
Full Text Available Las quejas por el crecimiento desproporcionado del clero bajo los AUstrias no fueron privativas de los reinos peninsulares de la Corona de Castilla. En Canarias también las hubo, aunque la voces contrarias d Id proliferación de conventos y monasterios y -en menor medida- a la amorti7ación de la tierra, se escucharon comparativamente tarde (después del primer tercio del XVII y, sobre todo, en la segunda mitad del siglo. Al igual que en otros territorios de la Monarquía hispánica, la crítica procedió del mundo seglar, pero también de dentro del propio estamento eclesiástico. La protesta del primero se organizó en torno a los concejos o cabildos insulares (aunque no faltó la del vecindario sin mediación institucional, a la cabeza de todos el de Tenerife, isla que contaba con el clero secular más numeroso del Archipi6lago y donde se fundó la mayor cantidad -con diferencia- de casas de religión. También el episcopado, el cabildo catedralicio y el clero parroquia se opusieron a lo que entendían como un aumento desmedido de la fundaciones del clero regular, en ocasiones en perfecta sintonía con las autoridades seglares, si bien su comportamiento no se comprende al margen de la conflictividad intestina del estamento (lo cual, sumado a la competencia por la captación de limosnas y rentas, explica las críticas vertidas por unas órdenes religiosas contra otras. El estudio de estas posturas -y de los casos particulares a través de los cuales se manifestaron habitualmente- apenas si puede ser esbozado, dado el estado actual de nuestros conocimientos sobre el tenia. No obstante, todo apunta a que semejante conciencia de saturación obedeció -en parte, al menos- a un crecimiento del clero en las Islas desequilibrado desde los puntos de vista demográfico, económico y espacial.The complaints due to the desproptionate increasement of fhe clergy in the reign of the Spanish Habsburgs were not exclusive of the territories in the mainland of
Ю. В. Хитровська
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.
William Elvis Plata Quezada
Full Text Available Organizing housemaids to form a trade union has been quite a difficult task because of the characteristics of this occupation,the lack of school education of its members, and the traditional undervaluation and disdain such an important activity generates. Not many people are aware of a relatively long history of attempts for organizing these workers and that in the 1940s the foundation of the first domestic service union was set by a Catholic Church initiative through the so-called Catholic Action. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct part of this story, highlighting the paternalistic bias of the organization and, even though the movement had female leadership, activities and development of the union were determined by the support given by the clergy and the ecclesiastical institution. Also, although it was a lay organization in its beginnings, the union served as for the creation of two women religious orders.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.
Kitchen, Katherine A; McKibbin, Christine L; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; Carrico, Catherine P; McConnell, Katelynn A
The purpose of this study was to investigate depression treatment preferences and anticipated service use in a sample of adults aged 55 years or older who reside in rural Wyoming. Sixteen participants (mean age = 59) completed 30- to 60-minute, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative methods were used to characterize common themes. Social/provider support and community gatekeepers were perceived by participants as important potential facilitators for seeking depression treatment. In contrast, perceived stigma and the value placed on self-sufficiency emerged as key barriers to seeking treatment for depression in this rural, young-old sample. Participants anticipated presenting for treatment in the primary care sector and preferred a combination of medication and psychotherapy for treatment. Participants were, however, more willing to see mental health professionals if they were first referred by a clergy member or primary care physician.
Bandak, Andreas; Boylston, Tom
relations among clergy and lay people that amounts to a religious world and a shared tradition. These relations are characterized by correctness and deferral—formal modes of relating to authority that are open-ended and non-definitive and so create room for certain kinds of pluralism, heterodoxy, and dis......This article uses ethnographic studies of Orthodox Christianities as a way to investigate the concept of ‘orthodoxy’ as it applies to religious worlds. Orthodoxy, we argue, is to be found neither in opposition to popular religion nor solely in institu- tional churches, but in a set of encompassing......- sent within an overarching structure of faith and obedience. Attention to the aesthetics of orthodox practice shows how these relations are conditioned in multi-sensory, often non-linguistic ways. Consideration of the national and territorial aspects of Orthodoxy shows how these religious worlds...
Full Text Available The accommodation and management of diversity at congregational levelDiversity is becomming a prominent phenomenon of our society within a postmodern context. Many clergy and church members believe it threatens the peace and stability of churches and local congregations. Seemingly, diversity contributes to the escalation of conflict and the stress levels church leaders are experiencing. This article attempts to analize and describe the phenomenon of diversity from the angles of postmodernity, personality preferences and systems thinking. The research is based upon the hypothesis that diversity does not necessarily threaten the unity of local congregations. The manifestation of unity within diversity is only possible if leaders are sensitized to manage the challenges of pluriformity.
Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H
A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience. PMID:25569780
Jhon Janer Vega Rincón
Full Text Available The article reflects on the priestly ethos implementing a semiotic analysis of discourse and exploring in depth the Actas y Decretos del primer Concilio Provincial Neogranadino 1868, in its provisions concerning the life and honesty of the clergy, particularly as regards the external appearance the priest. It focuses on aspects such as the ecclesiastical tonsure and habit, examining the relationship between the sensible forms and their ideological content. To understand its historical sense analytical findings, interpretations proposes a line-length, in dialogue with the early days of Christianity, the provisions of the Council of Trent and suffered break the regime of visibility to the realization of Vatican II in the twentieth century. It raises thus the proposed traditionalist Catholicism, founded a clerical regime visual rhetoric in which the expressive elements are placed as symbols of transcendent values, thus expressing certain ethical model for the priest, where the external appearance plays a fundamental role.
During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500
In Poland, there is a campaign to criminalise in vitro fertilization, led by the Catholic church. This article explores how this campaign makes "monsters" of IVF children in its discourse, that is, embodiments of "the other" in the sense of Frankenstein's monster. Basing the analysis primarily on Catholic mass media publications, the article investigates the discursive strategies employed to oppose IVF, most notably by the Catholic clergy and activists and journalists associated with the Church. They attribute "monstrosity" to the children in the following ways: physical (possible bodily deformity), psychological (survivor syndrome, identity crisis), social (loneliness, uncertain place in family relations), and ethical (a life burdened with the deaths of many embryos). Although the world of families with IVF does not provide examples of children who could be considered monsters in any of these terms, these arguments have become the primary reasons given for banning IVF.
The "pharmacopoeia or collection of divine remedies found in the documents of an old rural priest after his death" is a publication of nearly 400 pages including a long list of diseases with their associated treatments, followed by several recipes for the day to day life (such as: how to preserve wine, how to produce Champagne's wine, recipes for filler paste, etc.). A last part, very unique, is dedicated to evil spells, i.e. to diseases that do not have natural explanations and for which Saint Benoit's medal works wonders, according to the author. This pharmacopoeia of 1864 is a typical example of "incoherent collection" mentioned by Tardieu in 1862 concerning clergy and pharmacy. It is, from that point of view, the archetype that pharmacists wanted to see disappearing after the law of germinal year XI (1803), but that persisted until the beginning of the XXth century: the illegal practice of pharmacy by priests and nuns. PMID:27281931
Chiung Hwang Chen
Full Text Available In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules, regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas and situates the debate within Taiwan's cultural terrain as well as the worldwide Buddhist feminist movement. I argue that while Zhaohui's call resulted in the abolishment of the rules neither at home nor abroad, it profoundly affected nuns' position in Buddhism and contributed to broader discussions on women and religion. In making this argument, I revisit the impact of Western feminism (and Western Buddhist feminists on Eastern religions and reconsider the tensions this relationship encompasses.
Full Text Available The subject of this paper is usage/misusage of a church music by a portion of clergy: a religious identity is being suppressed while a church music is used as a mean of communication of a national identity. The problem is discussed using the territory of the Belgrade-Karlovac diocese. In the 1990’s many choruses were found that were suppose to perform in church-Slavic and Serbian languages. This music has evoked many different reactions, from delight to banishment until finally it was outlawed on the diocese territory. The mode of singing, present among Serbs in the last hundred years was proclaimed native and original, and therefore as the only mode suitable on liturgies. Thus, an invented tradition takes place, where newer mode of performing and singing becomes older and more Serbian.
Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.
Black, J W
In 1985 the families of 137 passengers killed when a Delta Airlines jet crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport stayed in a secluded hotel while waiting for the victims' bodies to be retrieved and identified. In this protected environment, which the author calls the "libidinal cocoon," the families received intensive nurturing from the author, a Dallas psychiatrist; a team of Red Cross nurses; hotel staff; airline representatives; clergy; and each other. The supportive environment allowed the families to regress safely and to satisfy the basic yearning, intensified in times of personal loss, for an idealized caretaker who will meet all one's needs. The author believes this kind of intervention may be useful in future disasters with massive casualties. PMID:3692459
Pietkiewicz, Igor J; Kołodziejczyk-Skrzypek, Monika
Religious principles and values provide meaning and affect personal identity. They may also conflict with intimate needs and desires. This article examines how gay Catholics manage conflicting areas between their sexual and religious selves. Eight Polish gays with a Catholic background, who identified themselves as strong believers, shared their experiences during semi-structured interviews that were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results showed that internalization of the principles taught by the Roman Catholic Church triggered a conflict when participants became aware of their homosexuality. They used a number of strategies to reconcile conflicting identities, including limiting their religious involvement, questioning interpretation of the doctrine, undermining priests' authority, trying to reject homosexual attraction, putting trust in God's plan, using professional help, and seeking acceptance from clergy. This study alerts mental health professionals to specific risk factors associated with experiencing a religious conflict, and offers guidelines for counseling and further research. PMID:27220312
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Evans, Rebecca
There is growing concern for the health status of clergy in light of recent studies showing high rates of chronic health conditions and obesity. This manuscript examined the health and health behaviors of South Carolinian African Methodist Episcopal (AME) pastors (n = 40). A majority of pastors were overweight or obese (93%) with hypertension (68%); half had two or more chronic health conditions, 35% had high cholesterol, 30% arthritis, and 20% diabetes. On average, pastors had a waist circumference that put them at an increased risk for disease. Yet, with the exception of fruit and vegetable consumption (mean = 3.4 ± 4.0 cups/day), pastors generally engaged in positive health behaviors. Understanding where the greatest needs lie is the first step in developing programs that can improve pastor health, which may ultimately improve the health of their congregations.
Steve O. Michael
Full Text Available What constitutes the curricular experience for the award of a baccalaureate degree has never been static and could not have been expected to be if higher education is to fulfill its role to a dynamic society. Since the creation of the modern university, the role of higher education has continued to expand, initially serving to prepare the clergy for the church, later to prepare statesmen, much later to prepare the general citizens for gainful employment. Although performed differently by different institutions, the mission of a modern university is basically a universal one: to generate knowledge, transmit knowledge, serve as the custodian of the stock of knowledge, and provide service to society. In other words, the role of a university is to create, critique, and transform civilizations.
Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.
Full Text Available The upholding of the privileges of some of the ecclesiastics dependent on the Burgos' Cathedral allows a reflexion to the author about the state of the bishopric in the transition times of Ancien Regime. The request of payment of the horse and mule foods of these people is a way to approach the state of the clergy in the second half of the 18th century.
El mantenimiento de los privilegios de algunos de los eclesiásticos dependientes de la catedral de Burgos permite al autor una reflexión sobre la situación del obispado en la época de transición del Antiguo Régimen. La petición del pago de los alimentos para los caballos y muías de estas personas es una manera para aproximarse a la situación del clero en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.
Moreno Seco, Mónica
Full Text Available This article studies the situation of the Church in the diocese of Orihuela- Alicante during the years of the Spanish transition. Here are watched the differents attitudes of hierarchy, clergy, and the secular movements in view of the new politic situation that was horning in 1975.
Este artículo estudia la situación de la Iglesia en la diócesis de Orihuela- Alicante durante los años de la transición española. En él se observan las distintas actitudes de la jerarquía, el clero y los movimientos seglares ante la nueva situación política que nacía en 1975.
Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies. In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.
Efforts to expand mental health manpower have taken three major directions: (1) increased use of consultation, (2) creating entirely new roles, and (3) offering training to persons engaged in roles or occupations presumably at strategic points of contact between the public and the mental health system. Among such roles are clergy, police, hairdressers, and bartenders. Little effort has been made to analyze systematically this third approach to assess its true utility for mental health service. In this paper the role of the bartender is analyzed along four dimensions: personality component, functional centrality, role distance, and nonperson status. Functional centrality appears as a clear asset. Role distance and nonperson status have mixed value depending on the activity envisioned. These role attributed will be generally incompatible with relationships requiring sustained intimacy but could facilitate initial opening up and revelation of sensitive personal information. The lack of protracted professional socialization poses some risk with respect to obtrussion of personal idiosyncracies. PMID:844291
Bowker, L H; Maurer, L
Knowledge gained from a literature summary was tested against data obtained from a national volunteer sample of 1,000 battered women recruited primarily through solicitation by an advertisement in Woman's Day magazine. In comparison with other help-sources (social service agencies, the clergy, the police, lawyers, women's groups, shelters), medical personnel were found to have been used fairly frequently, but they were seen by the battered women as less effective than any other group. Quotes taken from indepth interviewers with 146 of the battered wives are used to bring life to the comparative statistics. Specific reasons for the low effectiveness ratings of the medical profession are considered, and ways to improve service delivery ratings are discussed.
Utyashev M. M.
Full Text Available The article deals with a unique even within the age of European Enlightenment humanist essence and human rights activity of the great French philosopher, writer, poet Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire. The author focuses his attention on a new aspect of the well-known thinker - the unselfish and persistent protection of victims of religious intolerance, obscurantism, judicial tyranny. According to the author, Voltaire’s advocacy was the result of his political and legal socialization. This idea is supported by the facts of Voltaire’s earlier life: the assistance to the villagers of Ferney, the intercession for the serfs from the oppression of the clergy, the humanist’s poems against tyranny and religious intolerance, against any violence and cruelty. Voltaire’s valuable judgments of natural law, legitimacy, justice and dignity of a person convincingly support the author’s hypothesis.
Manuel Tamayo Hurtado
Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the presence of the evolution in secondary education textbooks used en Chile since 1902 to 2003. Textbooks analysis of secondary education shows the disputes between evolutionisms and their opponents. Members of the clergy participated actively as antievolutionisms and several of the most outstanding evolutionisms were liberal and francmasones. The text of Bernardino Quijada marked a landmark and polarized to those in favor and detractors during half century. The evolutionary subject was reduced in second half of century XX, partly by the development of other biological fields, but also by ideological pressures of preservative religious sectors. During the last reforms, evolutionary theory oscillates between the compulsory and the optative contents of the programs of Chilean secondary education.
Drawing on interviews with the chaplains and archival material from Disaster Chaplaincy Services--NY, this article discusses the formation of the chaplaincy at the Temporary Mortuary at Ground Zero after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. It describes the initial chaplaincy response in New York by local clergy and the SAIR team of the American Red Cross. The first 6 weeks of chaplaincy at Ground Zero are explored highlighting the significant contributions of the Archdiocese of New York and Episcopal Diocese of New York out of St. Paul's Chapel. The mission and impact of the Temporary Mortuary chaplains' ministry of presence and blessing is discussed with some final reflections for the future of Disaster Chaplaincy. PMID:21850560
Full Text Available Around the world, most professional people are requested and expected to participate in continuing training, which is often referred to as �continuing professional development�. Many denominations expect their pastors and other clergy to participate in such training. The Dutch Reformed Church has an official policy, in terms of which it expects such continuing theological training and ministry development of its ordained pastors. The introduction to this article offers some insight into the rationale behind such an expectation. After describing the history and programme of one of the first centres that offers such training, the history and programme of the ecumenical Centre for Contextual Ministry, Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria is described.�
О. В. Мартинюк
Full Text Available ased on the sources of Kyiv, Volhynia and Podolia gubernias, the author analyses actual ways of practicing freedoms of elections, public gatherings and press at the beginning of 1906, before the convocation of First State Duma of Russian Empire. Main question is how different ethnic and social groups used new tools of political modernization. While in Kyiv city and Kyiv gubernia cells of Progressive and Conservative blocks had strong impact on the electoral practices, the main actors of social processes in Volhynia and Podolia gubernias were representatives of traditional social groups, i.e. clergy, burghers, peasants. Scandals regarding isolation of peasant voters in Zhytomyr and Kamianets indicate exacerbating of ethic and social conflict in the process of implementing modern forms of political representation.
Chatters, L M
Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.
Inna I. Yurganova
Full Text Available The article examines, on the basis of the first introduced in the scientific revolution of historical sources, the judicial work of the Yakut diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, as an element of integration of the Orthodox Empire in the suburbs of the Russian statehood, as the Yakut spiritual Consistory, whose terms of reference included the investigation and judicial practice in respect of spiritual and secular persons, acted as one of the elements of the state apparatus. It is defined that the Orthodox population of the region was informed on the rights, showed the number of marriages and divorces, found the most characteristic of the Yakut diocese charge of the parish clergy, consisting in the wedding of a minor, due to the family law traditions of the Yakuts. Identified exceptions to the general rules made at the national legislative level, regarding the application marriage law, taking into account to the specifics of residence in the Far North: the remoteness of the diocese, the significance of its territory, climatic conditions, the difficulties of transportation and the conclusion has been made that the government, recognizing the difficulties of the Ministry, supported Yakut clergy. It is obvious that in connection with the conduct of spiritual justice, the customary law of the Yakuts began to be replaced by Christian Orthodox morals and to the early twentieth century in the area formed the ethno-religious understanding of the family legislation, when at obligatory Church the sanctification of marriage, kept the concept of it as a property transaction and, in general, the local population perceived the laws and customs of Orthodoxy not only through the Christian rituals, but also through the spiritual court , which regulates family and marital relationships.
Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary
Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.
Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.
Full Text Available The Catastro of Ensenada contains, inside the thick volumes of the Respuestas Particulares or Memoriales, a detailed description of the vital parameters of the clergy. The usual formula is to take care of the ecclesiastical with independent housing and to study their professional activities. However, we also discovered the existence of clergy who, by different circumstances, are forced to live under the order of any close relation, within the walls of their own households and under the shadow of their own business. How many are they? What were their household structures? What were their professional activities? What impact did their presence in the household which gave them shelter? What colaciones and streets did they live?.El Catastro de Ensenada contiene, en el interior de los gruesos volúmenes de las Respuestas Particulares o Memoriales, una detallada descripción de los parámetros vitales del clero. La fórmula habitual es ocuparse de los eclesiásticos con vivienda independiente y estudiar sus actividades profesionales. No obstante, también descubrimos la existencia de clérigos que, por diversas circunstancias, estaban obligados a vivir bajo la férula de algún pariente, entre las paredes de sus hogares y a la sombra de sus quehaceres. ¿Cuántos son? ¿En qué estructuras domésticas se albergaban? ¿Cuáles eran sus actividades profesionales? ¿Qué impacto tenía su presencia en los hogares que les daban cobijo? ¿En qué colaciones y calles habitaban?.
Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Al estudiar el clero secular lo primero que se observa es la importancia que tiene el sistema beneficial en la Iglesia de la época moderna, pues en función del beneficio eclesiástico el clero se jerarquiza y se diferencia, tanto por su cargo como por su condición económica y social. Ante la amplia gama de elementos derivables del estudio de los beneficios eclesiásticos, en el presente trabajo me limito a ofrecer una panorámica general del sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII; es decir, a describir el beneficio eclesiástico y el derecho de presentación, así como su tipología y forma de acceso, para terminar con unas palabras sobre la reforma beneficial que la administración ilustrada proyecta en la segunda mitad del siglo.ABSTRACT: When we start the study of the secular clergy, the first thing we consider is the importance of the beneficial system referred to the Church of the enlightenment age, but on account of the ecclesiastic benefit clergy is distinguished and organized into higher ranks or degrees, as to its ministry and economic and social status. Due to the wide range of elements from the study of the ecclesiastic benefits, at the present written work I try to show a general view of the beneficial system in Spain in the XVIII century; and thus to describe the ecclesiastic benefit and the right of presentation; and also its typology and way of access and to finish with some words concerning the beneficial reform which is arranged in the second half of the century by the enlightened administration.
Susana Villaluenga de Gracia
Full Text Available Este artículo pretende continuar con el estudio del sistema retributivo del clero catedralicio de Toledo, ahondado esta vez en el vestuario de los canónigos.En la catedral de Toledo, al igual que en otras catedrales, una parte de las rentas eclesiásticas se destinaba al clero catedralicio para cubrir el alimento (refitor y el vestido (vestuario. El primero concernía a la consunción y el segundo a la perfección.El vestuario era la principal renta que recibía un canónigo de la Iglesia de Toledo, haciéndolo en orden a la dignidad conferida. Procedía de los diezmos de pan y vino que se recogían en el arzobispado y remuneraba la residencia anual. Se complementaba con otros recursos como las rentas procedentes del préstamo de Baza y el de Hita.The purpose of this paper is to continue studying the compensation system cathedral clergy of Toledo in the sixteenth century, this time on the vestuario of the canons.In this cathedral, as in one other, a part of the income was allocated to the cathedral clergy to cover the food (refitor and clothing (vestuario. The first one was concerning the consumption and the second one to the perfection.The vestuario was the main income that was receiving a canon of the Church of Toledo, so in order to dignity conferred. It was coming from the tithes of wheat and wine which were collected in the archbishopric of Toledo. Each canon received, together with income from refitor, the vestuario as an incentive for annual residency, along with other additional income from various loans as of Baza and de Hita.
Full Text Available At the Humboldt University of Berlin, German historian Alexander Korb defended, with the highest grade (summa cum laude, his doctoral thesis in historical studies „In the Shadow of the World War II. Mass violence by the Ustaša against Serbs, Jews and Roma“. His radically new thesis are as follows: 1 in the State of Croatia (1941-1945 „there was no genocide against the Serbs“; 2 clerical component (Croatian Catholic clergy and the Vatican „played no significant role“ in the mass violence against the Serbs in the State of Croatia (1941-1945, so the forced catholicization of the Serbs was „purely secular in character“. Korb, therefore, enters into absolute conflict with the vast majority of previous research papers and their conclusions. Korb’s theses are challenged from three aspects in this analysis: a scientific and historical, b linguistic and philosophical (definitionism theory and c political. Regarding scientific and historical aspects, Korb approached this problem one-sidedly, in a selective way, and from the very beginning drastically reduced i.e. excluded an enormous part of primary historical sources and scientific literature. He excluded all Serbian sources, including testimonies of Serbian survivors and victims, on the grounds that they were either „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, then all testimonies of eye-witnesses from the opressors side - German Nazis and Italian Fascists - with justification that they are manipulated by „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, as well as all primary historical sources and scientific literature which testify of the role of Croatian Roman Catholic clergy and the Vatican, on the basis that they are „anti-clerical“. From linguistic and philosophical aspect, Korb‘s argumentations clearly belong to the principle of „usurpation of power over definitions and psychagogy“ recognized by classical theory of concepts as a convenient
Flores de la Flor, Mª Alejandra
Full Text Available Baptism has always been one of the most important sacraments of the Holy Catholic Church. The administration was made up of a series of complex rituals in which it had to keep in mind various factors, including the soul, considered the main element allowing access to baptism, without it any being could be baptized. The birth of deformed beings (considered monsters generated, therefore, a problem that forced the clergy, in their confessors manuals, to reflect on their souls and their right to be baptized.El bautismo ha sido siempre uno de los más importantes sacramentos de la Santa Iglesia Católica. Su administración lo componían una serie de rituales complejos en los que había tener presente diferentes elementos, entre ellos el alma, considerada el elemento principal que permitía el acceso al bautismo, sin ella ningún ser podía ser bautizado. El nacimiento de los seres deformes (considerados monstruos generó, por tanto, una problemática que obligó a los clérigos, en sus manuales de confesores, a reflexionar sobre sus almas y su derecho al bautismo.
Melgosa Oter, Óscar Raúl
Full Text Available In this article is analysed the sermon compound and predicated by the prebendary John Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas for the exequies of the king Charles III in the cathedral of Burgos in 1789, the sources and used recourses and structure and content of his preachment. Some years later he was appointed bishop of Guadalajara (Mexico and he could execute some of the «carolinas» reforms eulogized in his sermon, characterized by a progressists tone in socioeconomic and conservative in religious matter, own of the illustrated Spanish clergy in the 18th century.
En este artículo se analiza el sermón compuesto y predicado por el canónigo Juan Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas para las exequias del rey Carlos III en la catedral de Burgos en 1789, las fuentes y recursos utilizados y la estructura y contenido de su prédica. Años después fue elegido obispo de Guadalajara (México y pudo ejecutar algunas de las reformas carolinas elogiadas en su sermón, caracterizado por un tono progresista en lo socieconómico y conservador en materia religiosa, propio del clero ilustrado español en el siglo XVIII.
Full Text Available People have always built temples. Their diversity is infinite. Majestic cathedrals and mosques made of eternal stones neighbor a cardboard cathedral built by Pritzker laureate Shigeru Ban after the earthquake in New Zealand. Avantgarde experiments of new religions emerging in front of our eyes and no less surprising experiences of Catholic temples are side by side with an age-long strong tradition of Orthodox churches.After seventy years of gap thousands of temples of different confessions have been built and restored in the post-Soviet area. This issue includes projects of new religious buildings in Buryatia and Zabaikalie, Irkutsk and Angarsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuzbass and Altai.The rise of construction of temples raises a lot of questions. Debates on a new appearance of churches develop simultaneously with discussions on the necessity of a new translation of the Bible into the modern language. The Union of Architects of Russia with the support of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church launched a competition inviting ideas for a modern image of an Orthodox temple. The dogmata are unchanged, but the canons can be changed in time, as clergy members say. But how deep can such changes be? In what direction should the temple architecture develop? What is the best way for it to meet the challenges of our time, the changing lifestyle, the new rhythms and means of world perception?Again we fill our journal with questions to think them over together with our clever and nonindifferent reader.
Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M
This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed.
Full Text Available The start of the Spanish Civil War lead to the dispersion of the students of the Vitoria seminary through the different fronts of war. To keep the unity of this group of pupils, as well as other members of the Basque clergy, it's founded the publication Seminario at this seminary. This publication tried to get together these dispersed students, fortify them in their beliefs and keep alive an institution affected by this war.
El inicio de la Guerra Civil española supone que los estudiantes del seminario de Vitoria se dispersen por los diferentes frentes bélicos. Para mantener la unidad de este grupo de alumnos, así como a otros elementos del clero vasco, desde el seminario de Vitoria se crea la publicación Seminario que pretende unir a estos estudiantes dispersos, fortalecerles en sus creencias y mantener viva una institución que se ve afectada por el ambiente bélico del momento.
Williams, Malcolm V; Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin
Religious organizations may be uniquely positioned to address HIV by offering prevention, treatment, or support services to affected populations, but models of effective congregation-based HIV programs in the literature are scarce. This systematic review distils lessons on successfully implementing congregation HIV efforts. Peer-reviewed articles on congregation-based HIV efforts were reviewed against criteria measuring the extent of collaboration, tailoring to the local context, and use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. The effectiveness of congregations' efforts and their capacity to overcome barriers to addressing HIV is also assessed. We found that most congregational efforts focused primarily on HIV prevention, were developed in partnerships with outside organizations and tailored to target audiences, and used CBPR methods. A few more comprehensive programs also provided care and support to people with HIV and/or addressed substance use and mental health needs. We also found that congregational barriers such as HIV stigma and lack of understanding HIV's importance were overcome using various strategies including tailoring programs to be respectful of church doctrine and campaigns to inform clergy and congregations. However, efforts to confront stigma directly were rare, suggesting a need for further research.
Francisco Ramírez Santacruz
Full Text Available While many critics (Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Ian Michael and Colin Smith, among others have suggested a likely influence of Cantar de mio Cid on the authorof Libro de Alexandre, until now no comprehensive catalogue of concordances has been prepared in order to corroborate this hypothesis. This paper aims to provide the most extensive series of equivalences between these two works. A detailed three stage analysis of the poems reveals strong connections of both a thematic and formal nature. First, the common binomial expressions and similar phraseology in both texts are studied from a rhetorical point of view. Second, the constant dialogue with the listener - which both works share - represents a similarity of technique, that should not be underestimated.Third and finally, the analogous treatment that both poems give to certain themes (the spoils of war, the function of dreams, the relationship between conquerors and conquered, and the heros journey also reveals an extensive inventory of similarities. This study also confirms that a certain set of poetic habits identified by critics in Libro de Alexandre as a trait common to jongleursis a direct legacy of the Cid, which implies a wide distribution and popularity of the epic poem amongst the clergy. Finally, the results of this comparative analysis show a more intense relationship between the poetics of Spanish epic poetry and mester de clerecía than has been generally acknowledged
Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana
Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.
JOHN H. MORGAN
Full Text Available This essay is an exploration into the social inevitabilities of culture shifts within the American Muslim community’s self-understanding of their faith. Rather than a theological explication of the reasons why and why not Islam may or can or will not assimilate in America, our approach will be strictly sociological thereby side-stepping the intricate dialectic of theological niceties in deference to the social realities of culture change. As a social psychologist, my duty is to acknowledge the inevitabilities of behavioral shifts brought about due to social and cultural pressures resulting from immigration into an alien cultural weltanschauung, i.e., worldview. Therefore in this essay, we will explicate the meaning and nature of de-ethnicization and re-enculturation as we endeavor to disentangle religion from culture, recognizing that much of what goes under the flag of religious orthodoxy is really culturally-mandated behavior and worldview. The assimilation process, however, will bear heavily upon the necessity for Muslim clergy in America to become professional by Western standards and we will in the process explore the complexities of religious secularism as a way of becoming an “American” Muslim. Finally, we will suggest liturgical and architectural “adjustments” to Western modes of public worship while indicating linguistic niceties which will prove helpful in the assimilation process which we have chosen here to call the “Islamicization of America”.
Solomon Kofi Amoah
Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made in time past in demonstrating that women are similar to men, there still appear to be a widespread persistent belief that women are indeed inferior to men even until today. What is even worrying is the theological backing that this sociocultural belief of society enjoys. One notices in the literature that God ordains, sanctions, and upholds the spiritual authority of women today as he did in time past as his official spokespersons and leaders of his people. However, the evidence and discussion presented in this paper demonstrate that problems with women being accepted as leaders by congregations, gender differences in pay and promotions, and the experiences and dissatisfaction of women clergy who feel constrained by these gender discrimination is widespread. The paper discusses this phenomenon and presents an often neglected perspective in the discourse – the sociocultural perspective. It interrogates the various stands on women and leadership in congregations. In doing this, the paper explores the position of women in the Old Testament through to the New Testament and the centuries following.
Olson, L M; Reis, J; Murphy, L; Gehm, J H
In-depth structured interviews were conducted with spokespeople for 176 inner-city churches regarding perceptions of existing community problems, number of currently offered church-based social and health programs, and potential interest in church sponsorship of new maternal and child health programs. The sample of respondents represented 78% of the 227 churches located in a low-income, primarily black urban area with 150,000 residents. The typical church participating in the survey was Baptist with a congregation of 100 to 500 people, most of whom were not community residents. The leading community problems identified by the clergy were, in descending order: lack of jobs, teenage pregnancy, gang crime, school drop-outs, and hunger. The perception of community problems matched the church services offered as measured by the number of food and clothing pantries. Few churches had ongoing programs for neighborhood youths. Although many of these same churches expressed interest in expanding services for mothers, adolescents and children, few perceived themselves as having the necessary staff, funds, or technical expertise to conduct such programs. PMID:3235715
Baranov, V S
Conspicuous achievements in the Human Genome Project have already found spectacular implementation in both basic research and practice. The Human Genome Diversity, Functional Genomics, and numerous Social Programmes are under way and they are rapidly expanding the scientific area induced by the Human Genome Project. Its practical implication is mainly confined to molecular medicine and to its quickly growing area Predictive (Preventive) Medicine. The paper briefly considers the existing concepts of molecular genetic tests of "predisposition" genes, including such groups as "environmental" genes and "trigger"-genes to detect subjects highly susceptible to different common multifactorial diseases and the expediency for testing the genes whose mutations cause diseases showing their manifestations at the late stage. Evidence is provided for that there is a progressive increase in population, family, and personal predisposition gene DNA databanks. There is need for close interaction between researchers and all strata of society, including the clergy, governments, political parties, etc. in order to optimize perception of scientific achievements of modern genetics and their effective used for the welfare of mankind. PMID:11247123
Full Text Available The article examines and publishes in the Appendix a document kept in the Archive of the Archbishop of Pisa, known until now only in a partial transcript, because was for a long time not available. The relevance of this document lies both in its materials and graphics characteristics , but also in its unique content, which presents a cross section of political and social life of the entourage of Bishops in the city and county in the first half of the Twelfth century. In fact, it shows the different sides of an inquest (inspectio conducted in the diocese of Pisa by an anonymous investigator appointed by the Archbishop of Pisa Hubert in 1137. The numerous stages of the inquest were probably recorded in some files and then, with the help of judges (and law experts and the graphic abilities of the episcopal clergy, were written in an entire parchment, with a clear and fluid book-Caroline and with a good rhetoric form. The goals of this document were surely informative, but we don’t exclude also a memorial and judicial objective. In conclusion, the inspectio give us the opportunity of studying the non-epistolographic practices of medieval communication and allows us to know a pragmatic and non-formal system of document building. This system is out of the field of notarial acts with legal effects (chartae and brevia recordationis and different from the writing of judicial records.
Martínez Hoyos, Francisco
Full Text Available In 1968, the catalonian Church lived in a full post-council crisis. The most progressive sections felt themselves disappointed because the expected changes after the Second Vatican Council did not achieve. The parisian events affect this ecclesiastic context, which is accentuated by division and the marxism influence. This article is focused on the responses of Alfonso Carlos Comín, «El Ciervo» magazine and the clergy represented by the «Correspondència» review.En 1968, la Iglesia catalana vivía en plena crisis postconciliar. Los sectores más progresistas se sentían decepcionados porque no se habían producido los cambios que esperaban tras el Vaticano II. Los acontecimientos parisinos inciden sobre este contexto eclesial, marcado por la división y el influjo del marxismo. El artículo se centra en las reacciones de Alfonso Carlos Comín, El Ciervo y el clero representado por la revista Correspondència.
Kim, Daniel T; Curlin, Farr A; Wolenberg, Kelly M; Sulmasy, Daniel P
U.S. medical scholarship and education regarding religion and spirituality has been growing rapidly in recent years. This rising interest, however, is not new; it is a renewal of significant interweavings that date back to the mid-20th century. In this Perspective, the authors draw attention to the little-known history of organized medicine's engagement with religion from 1961 to 1974. Relying on primary source documents, they recount the dramatic rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion (CMR) at the American Medical Association (AMA). At its height, there were state-level committees on medicine and religion in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and there were county-level committees in over 800 county medical societies. Thousands of physicians attended annual conferences for clinicians and clergy, and direct outreach to patients included a film viewed by millions. The CMR arose in the context of rapid medical advances, the growth of professional chaplaincy, and concern for declining "humanism" in medicine-conditions with parallels in medicine today. The CMR was brought to a puzzling end in 1972 by the AMA's Board of Trustees. The authors argue that this termination was linked to the AMA's long and contentious debate on abortion. They conclude with the story's significance for today's explorations of the intersection of spirituality, religion, and medicine, focusing on the need for mutual respect, transparency, and dialogue around the needs of patients and physicians.
Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo
Full Text Available Council Vatican II (1962-1965 supposed a very important change in many aspects of catholic faith, included the concept of Church. A part of clergy considered that it was the moment to break with the rigid structures of this institution, based in the importance of hierarchy and order, and it meant an unavoidable conflict with the different ecclesial authorities. In the case of Spain, this problem turned bigger because of the confusion of changes in Catholic Church with the targets for democratization of a society that was under authoritism of Franco’s Regime.El Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965 supuso un extraordinario cambio en muchos aspectos de la fe católica, entre los que debe incluirse el concepto de Iglesia. Un sector del clero consideró que era el momento de romper con las rígidas estructuras de la institución, basadas en la importancia de la jerarquía y el orden, lo que supuso un inevitable conflicto con las diferentes autoridades eclesiales. En el caso de España, este problema adquirió mayor complejidad todavía en la medida que los cambios en el seno de la Iglesia fueron confundidos, en no pocas ocasiones, con los objetivos de democratizar una sociedad que hasta ese momento se encontraba bajo el autoritarismo del Régimen de Franco.
Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel
Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.
Cucino, Claudia; Sonnenberg, Amnon
The epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer has remained poorly understood. The occupational distribution of this cancer may provide clues about its yet unknown etiology. Data files from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the United States offer a unique source to study causes of death, broken down by occupation and industry. The number of deaths from esophageal cancer was retrieved from the computerized US vital statistics. Mortality by occupation or industry was expressed as standardized proportional mortality ratio (PMR), adjusted by age, gender, and ethnicity. Between 1991 and 1996, 63,717 subjects died from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mortality was particularly high among nonwhites and men. The industrial and the occupational distributions shared a similar pattern. Mortality from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma occurred more frequently among subjects exposed to silica dust, such as brickmasons and stonemasons, concrete and terrazzo finishers, roofers, and construction laborers. It was also high in such industries as unspecified machinery or manufacturing and such occupations as unspecified material handlers, janitors, or cleaners. It was low in industries and occupations associated with agriculture, clergy, work in religious organizations, and textiles. In conclusion, mortality from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be low in occupations associated with less consumption of alcohol and tobacco. It was high among occupations potentially associated with exposure to silica dust and chemical solvents or detergents. PMID:11911344
Emilio C. Viano
Full Text Available The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has had a major impact on society’s understanding, approach and effort to protect children.It must be stated and stressed from the beginning that child abuse by the clergy is not limited to the Catholic Church. Clergy, nuns and religious personnel from other denominations, Christian or not, have also been accused and at times convicted of child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Moreover, a substantial amount of abuse has been perpetrated by lay personnel, volunteers, teachers, and auxiliaries working under the aegis of religious organizations and by other children.It must also be stressed that the abuse scandal has not been limited to the United States. The transparency of American society, its powerful media and a strong tradition of investigative journalism have quite simply uncovered it and made it more visible than in other countries.No doubt the story of child sexual abuse by the clergy has been major news in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world for a considerable amount of time now. It has caused debate, discussion and soul-searching on child exploitation issues in many homes, public gatherings, conferences, legislatures, religious events, and the media. The debate has had complex consequences, both positive and negative.Le scandale des abus du clergé dans l'Église Catholique a eu une grande résonance dans l'opinion publique et des conséquences importantes pour ce qui concerne la protéction des enfants.Ce problème n'est pas circonscrit à l'Église Catholique. Clergé, religieuses et autre personnel religieux, chrétien ou appartenant à d'autres confessions, ont été accusés, et parfois condamnés, pour d'abus physiques, psychologiques et sexuels sur enfants. En plus, une nombreuse partie de ces actes ont été perpétrés aussi bien par d'autres enfants que par professionnels laïques, bénévoles, enseignants, auxiliaires qui travaillent sous l'égide d
María Pilar SALOMÓN CHÉLIZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la crisis política del sistema de la Restauración abierta tras el desastre del 98, el republicanismo recurrió al anticlericalismo para movilizar el electorado en favor de su proyecto político. Centrándose en Aragón, este artículo analiza qué sectores sociales formaban parte del movimiento anticlerical en la primera década del siglo XX, cuáles eran los motivos de su rivalidad con el clero y cómo trataron de instrumentalizar el anticlericalismo popular. Este último punto lleva a estudiar los motivos del descontento anticlerical popular y las formas de exteriorizarse la protesta anticlerical popular. Palabras Clave. Crisis de la Restauración, Aragón, Republicanismo, Anticlericalismo. ABSTRACT: In Restoration political crisis opened by 1898 militar disaster, republicanism in Spain appealed to anticlericalism in order to mobilize electorate in favor of his political project. Through Aragon's case, this article analyzes which social sectors took part in the anticlerical movement in XXth-century first decade, why they rivaled Catholic clergy and how they tried to turn to account popular anticlericalism. To answer this last question requires both to deep into the motives for popular anticlerical unrest and into the ways how popular anticlerical protest was exteriorized. Key Words: Crisis of Restoration, Aragón, Republicanism, Anticlericalism.
Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I
Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos.
Francoeur, Richard B; Burke, Nancy; Wilson, Alicia M
Spiritual values and beliefs of patients and families influence resilience during chronic illness and shape patient choices during advance care planning. The spiritual needs of Baby Boomers will be more diverse than previous generations, in connection with the questioning, experimental mind-set of this group and the fact that it includes a higher proportion of immigrant populations outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Social workers are trained explicitly to intervene with diverse populations and are well positioned to offer spiritual support in ways that do not necessarily conform to traditional religions. To the extent of their individual expertise and competence, social workers should assess and provide spiritual care to clients, including those who either are underserved or prefer not to seek assistance from clergy or chaplains because they feel alienated from religious institutions and representatives. They should also be aware of ethical dilemmas in consulting with spiritual care professionals in developing spiritual interventions. Social work education should address clients' humanistic and existential concerns, beliefs and behaviors of the major religions, and forms of nontraditional religious and spiritual experiences; it should also provide experiential opportunities for engaging with grief and earlier advance care planning. There should be attention to different theodical perspectives of the major religions regarding the problem of good and evil, which may preoccupy even clients who no longer participate in organized religion, because these unresolved existential issues may weaken client coping with chronic conditions and may diminish clarity and self-awareness for engaging authentically and effectively in advance care planning. PMID:27187806
Kim, Daniel T; Curlin, Farr A; Wolenberg, Kelly M; Sulmasy, Daniel P
U.S. medical scholarship and education regarding religion and spirituality has been growing rapidly in recent years. This rising interest, however, is not new; it is a renewal of significant interweavings that date back to the mid-20th century. In this Perspective, the authors draw attention to the little-known history of organized medicine's engagement with religion from 1961 to 1974. Relying on primary source documents, they recount the dramatic rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion (CMR) at the American Medical Association (AMA). At its height, there were state-level committees on medicine and religion in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and there were county-level committees in over 800 county medical societies. Thousands of physicians attended annual conferences for clinicians and clergy, and direct outreach to patients included a film viewed by millions. The CMR arose in the context of rapid medical advances, the growth of professional chaplaincy, and concern for declining "humanism" in medicine-conditions with parallels in medicine today. The CMR was brought to a puzzling end in 1972 by the AMA's Board of Trustees. The authors argue that this termination was linked to the AMA's long and contentious debate on abortion. They conclude with the story's significance for today's explorations of the intersection of spirituality, religion, and medicine, focusing on the need for mutual respect, transparency, and dialogue around the needs of patients and physicians. PMID:24979288
Full Text Available This article re-opens the debate on secularism in India by looking at a religion and a region that has historically been marginal to this discourse, focusing on the way in which the Catholic Church has historically mediated the relationship between individuals and the state, among the fishing communities of South India. The Catholic Church’s dominant position among the fishing communities, its minority status within India, as well as theological and other shifts that have taken place within the global Church, lead it to articulate a secular, even radical politics as its primary mode of religious engagement. Radical clergy, many from fishing backgrounds, act as both organic and traditional intellectuals in the Gramscian sense, linking the traditional religious concerns of the Church to the secular interests of their parishioners. Likewise, villagers participate in Church-generated associations spaces to secure wider political goals. The paper concludes that certain forms of religious organisation in the public sphere might indeed be compatible with democracy, citizenship, and even secularism.
以考古资料为据，结合历史文献和人类学资料，分析三星堆出土各类图像的类型与系统，讨论各类图像之间的风格关联，试图建构与这一图像系统可能存在的宗教仪式，以及青铜人物图像不同风格的角色对应，藉此说明中国古代社会巫祝等神职人员的身份及社会等级关系。%According to the archaeological data with combination of historical documents and anthropological data, this ar- ticle gives an analysis of the unearthed various image types and the system, and discusses the style association between the vari- ous types of images, trying to construct religious rituals that may exist in this image as well as the role of the different styles of bronze figures image corresponding to the identity and social class relations of the clergy of the ancient Chinese social witchcraft.
Irina V. Lidzhieva
Full Text Available This article is devoted question of the transition of the population of the Kalmyk steppe to the Cossack estate of the Russian Empire during the World War I. Limited the rights of the Kalmyk people, a permanent loss of their lands, permanent peasant colonization led the Kalmyk society has to come a long way from a complete denial of the transition to the Cossack estate in the XIX century to the only possibility to save his people and culture. Cossack's self-government had a number of advantages over the existing self-government in the Kalmyk steppe, which was legalized in 1847 — the Regulations on the management of the Kalmyk people. And yet, the question of the transition Kalmyks to the Cossack estate during of the World War I, despite the efforts made by both the of intellectuals and clergy was not resolved positively, due to the negative attitude towards this issue by the central and local authorities. And only February revolutions and October revolutions in 1917 opened the way for a positive solution of the transition Kalmyks to the Cossacks, but by the time any other alternatives of autonomization of the Kalmyk people, and idea of the transition the Kalmyks to the Cossack estate of was more irrelevant.
Whilst pastoral work is aimed at the consciousness of men, the duty of the psychotherapist is to turn the subconscious into the conscious. After clarifying the situation in his inner world the patient should be able to take free decisions. The psychotherapist is not responsible for the decision made by the person, which means that the conscious area is the responsibility of the individual. The psychotherapist must not manipulate the conscious parts just as the clergy must not manipulate the subconscious. So whilst there is a difference in both areas that must be maintained, that difference is less than the two have in common. The common aim or goal is: 1. The basis of both areas is a 'Socratic optimism' rooted in the fact that pastoral work and psychotherapy want the person to discover his or her own truth which cannot be told to him or her. However, it can be found by the person with assistance. 2. Both are characterised by a pragmatic individualism that says that it is worth listening to a single person for days, weeks, months or years until it is ascertained what the soul suffers from. 3. Both are convinced that the truth of a person cannot be described in moral categories. Social and ethical standards don't help but they may reflect the symptoms and the distress of the person. 4. Taking into consideration the dimension of the subconscious in pastoral duty as well, human decisions and activity can be understood much better. PMID:10544459
Mackenbach, J P
Late-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death as it was perceived by the works' commissioners or executers. The social hierarchy in these dances of death is mostly based on the scheme of the three orders of the feudal society; variations relate to the inclusion of female characters, new occupations, and non-Christian characters. Many dances of death contain severe judgments on highplaced persons and thus seem to be expressions of a desire for greater social equality. However, a more thorough analysis reveals that the equality of all before death that these dances of death proclaimed held nothing for the poor but only threatened the rich. Because of a lack of reliable data, it is not yet completely clear whether during the late Middle Ages all were indeed equally at risk for premature mortality. Available evidence, however, suggests that the clergy and nobility actually had a higher life expectancy than people placed lower in the social hierarchy. Despite modern changes in the perception of, and knowledge about, social inequality and mortality, these dances of death still capture the imagination, and they suggest that the phenomenon of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality could be used more to emphasize contemporary moral messages on social inequality. PMID:7661241
Three years ago St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, made a commitment to strengthen its community relationships and reaffirm its mission of serving those in need by following the Catholic Health Association's Social Accountability Budget. While implementing the program, administrators were surprised to learn the hospital was already participating in many community programs for which it received little or no reimbursement. They also discovered that the hospital had no formal, written charity care policy even though St. John provided more than $14 million in uncompensated care annually. To learn what the needs of the surrounding community were, the hospital went to the clergy, who overwhelmingly identified the needs of the elderly as the number-one priority. A close second was supporting the basic family unit. Other concerns included basic family needs, safe neighborhoods and schools, and teen pregnancy. Although the hospital realized it could not do all that was needed, it felt obliged to be a leader in seeing that the needs were met and drew up a community benefit plan that documented the problems and the solutions. The hospital did what it could and worked with other organizations to address needs such as housing for the elderly, affordable and accessible healthcare, neighborhood improvement and safety, and family services. PMID:10131088
Leeb, R T; Fluke, J D
Application of epidemiologic surveillance to child abuse and neglect (CAN) presents specific challenges related to varying definitions and incident reporting. Definitions of abuse and neglect differ within and across countries, obscuring estimates of the true magnitude of the problem. Definitions also vary depending on the nature of the child protection system. Countries may lack legal or social systems with specific responsibility for responding to and recording reports of CAN, particularly countries where populations are remote or in flux (e.g. due to conflict). Underreporting of CAN results in underestimates of prevalence. Violence by caregivers toward children is often known only to the perpetrator, and depending on the developmental capacity of the child, the victim. Further, CAN cases may be reported to a wide variety of sentinels (e.g. educators, clergy, physicians, law enforcement, child welfare), or may not be reported to any official source at all. Social stigma and unintended consequences of reporting, as well as cultural and political barriers, also impact reporting both within communities and globally. PMID:26605561
The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders
Raj C Shah
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of initiating medications with anticholinergic activity on the cognitive functions of older persons. METHODS: Participants were 896 older community-dwelling, Catholic clergy without baseline dementia. Medication data was collected annually. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale was utilized to identify use of a medication with probable or definite anticholinergic activity. Participants had at least two annual cognitive evaluations. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 10 years, the annual rate of global cognitive function decline for never users, prevalent users, and incident users was -0.062 (SE = 0.005, -0.081(SE = 0.011, and -0.096 (SE = 0.007 z-score units/year, respectively. Compared to never users, incident users had a more rapid decline (difference = -0.034 z-score units/year, SE = 0.008, p<0.001 while prevalent users did not have a significantly more rapid decline (p = 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Older persons initiating a medication with anticholinergic activity have a steeper annual decline in cognitive functioning than those who are not taking these medications.
Providing spiritual care is an important foundation of nursing and is a requirement mandated by accreditation organizations. Spiritual care is essential in all clinical areas but particularly in home care and hospice. Clinicians may be unable to respond to spiritual needs because of inadequate education or the assumption that spiritual needs should be addressed by clergy, chaplains, or other "spiritual" care providers. In reality, clinicians in the home may be in the best position to offer spiritual support when caring for patients at home at end of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine relationships between spirituality and nurses' providing spiritual care. Professional nurses (n = 69) working in 2 large healthcare organizations completed the Perceptions of Spiritual Care Questionnaire. Approximately, 33% of the nurses worked in home care. Significant correlations were found among those nurses whose reported nursing education programs adequately prepared them to meet spiritual needs and taught ways to incorporate spiritual care into practice and those who did not.
Smith, G P
The "New Biology" has already made profound impact on the law. Cryonics and genetic engineering represent technological triumphs. The natural, organic process of dying is being replaced by a humanly engineered technological process for living. The dying phase of life is prolonged until biological knowledge is available to reverse the dying phase and restore the living phase. Both cryonics and genetic engineering in their attempts to replace the organic process with the technological process disturb the delicate balance of the triad of life which each individual experiences--faith, health, and justice. Since law is a basic tool to achieve justice among human beings, how should it respond to the health argument of the cryonics' physician who views death as a disease which is curable? How should the law respond to the faith questions surrounding the cryonics patient? What am I? A block of ice. Who am I? A living, comatose patient or a dormant, static body with the possibility of a reverter. Why am I? A new human being now endowed with immortality through the triumph of life over death founded on man's current faith in the God called Technology. Cryonics through its unbalancing of the traditional triad of life poses formidable challenges to the major institutions of faith, health and justice. The practitioners in these institutions: clergy, physicians and lawyers must now reassess the rules of the game of life be they religious, medical or legal. This article offers insights to begin this reassessment.
Severiano Rojo Hernandez
Full Text Available Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize priests susceptible of jeopardizing the establishment of a pro-Franco model of society, and replacing them by clerics whose task was to spread the new ideology.Este artículo estudia la represión franquista en Vizcaya contra el clero nacionalista vasco. Subraya su dimensión y sus objetivos : neutralizar a sacerdotes que pueden perjudicar la instauración del modelo de sociedad franquista y sustituirlos por eclesiásticos encargados de transmitir la nueva ideología.
Charles M. Rix
The story of Hagar （Genesis 16 and 12） figures prominently in Bible＇s patriarchal narratives of both the elected and rejected with respect to divine promise. As the story of an abused foreign woman cast out into an inhospitable wilderness along with her son, the story raises troubling questions about the portrayal of domestic violence perpetuated by those otherwise celebrated as “faithful” within biblical narratives： Abraham and his wife Sarah. In response to the relative silence on the topic of domestic violence among clergy and leaders of churches, synagogues, and other “sacred spaces”, this paper explores a reading of Hagar＇s story that reclaims her value as a human being. With the help of post-Shoah reading sensitivities that expose strategies of dehumanization, this reading makes visible the way in which the ancient writer/reactor of Genesis performs as an advocate for Hagar in the face of the abuse heaped upon her. In so doing, Hagar＇s story is transformed from a narrative about a rejected “other” into one that exposes abuse by the so-called“elected.” Thus read, the story provides support and encouragement for victims in contemporary religious cultures to step forward and tell their stories.
Fullin, K J; Cosgrove, A
Despite the progress of the last 15 years in combating family violence, some individuals, community agencies and institutions still support a man's "right" to control, and they often disregard the physical violence he uses. Because threats and assault are in fact against the law, a man who physically or sexually assaults his wife or girlfriend couldn't keep doing it without this support from the very people who are supposed to enforce the law and help the victims of crime-namely, police, prosecutors, judges, clergy, psychologists, social workers and doctors. Some let him get away with it, look the other way, or--unsure of what to do to stop it--do nothing at all. Thus, they reinforce his "right" to use force, even if they never say, "Go ahead, hit her." The police officer who walks a man around the block or fails to show up when called, the clergyman who advises a woman to go home and pray, the doctor who gently patches her injuries but avoids asking who inflicted them, all cooperate with the abusive man in several ways. He comes to understand that no one will stop him from doing what he does. He learns that there are no consequences to his actions--even his violent actions. He can beat up "his woman" if he wants to and get away with it.
García Gómez, M. Dolores
Full Text Available At this article are studied and published the two reports sent in 1869 and 1870 for the confiscation of archives, libraries and objects of art of the clergy. Besides the dispositions of the government, this documentation shows the value of the manuscripts that are preserved in the majority of the Spanish provinces, although their validity are connected with the preparation and the ability of local informants and the facilities they have to accede to the resources.
En el presente artículo se estudian y publican los dos informes remitidos en 1869 y 1870 para la incautación de archivos bibliotecas y objetos de arte del clero. Además de las disposiciones del gobierno, esta documentación lo que nos permite conocer es el valor de los manuscritos que se conservan en la mayor parte de las provincias españolas, aunque su validez va a estar en función de la preparación y la capacidad de los informantes locales y las facilidades que tienen para acceder a los fondos.
Full Text Available Tension and enmity between religion and philosophy, as observed through the history of thought, had burst with the Enlightment and contemporary philosophy. On the part of each side, the tension has been intensified and severe due to that they did not recognize each other and also counted each other as incommensurate and refused each other as injurious. The conflict between them has been enormously incited by materialists, positivists and atheists who reduced religion into natural causes or denied it on the grounds of scientific and philosophical reasons. Indeed, what is in question is a quarrel about which camp is to have authority on politics, society, economy, law, aesthetics and epistemology and give shape to individual and society. In this quarrel, some thinkers who are devout and religious but assert that science and reason alone has authority and final judgement on politics, society, etc. and also on religion. These thinkers have been accused of creating their own religions by theologians and clergy. According to these thinkers, authentic religion is not other than one based on wisdom and virtue. This article deals with rational/natural religion represented by the thinkers in question, especially in context of Spinoza's views.
Skowronski, G A
Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position. PMID:26126073
Peitzman, Steven J
The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship. PMID:14523261
J. H. Morgan
Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic treatment with the goal of cure, of course, is the standard within the healing professions but when we are dealing with late life depression where there is no hope for longevity, the agenda necessarily must shift from cure to care, from treatment with the goal of renewed healthy living to a focus upon the palliative aspects of a limited prognosis. Here, then, the clinician is faced with the challenge of existential intervention with an emphasis upon the “moment” rather than the future. The encroachment of ennui upon the elderly, particularly and especially those who have been actively engaged in a full life of service such as the clergy, physicians, teachers, and attorneys, can be a traumatic and debilitating experience.When hope for the future is not being sought but rather an effective and celebrative address to the existential realities confronting the elderly patient who is facing decline and death, the quest for those “happy moments” conjured in the patient’s memory constitute a promising field of treatment.Geriatric logotherapy is uniquely constructed to do just that. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Great achievements for public health in this century include penicillin, oral contraception, vaccination and transplantation, but the greatest contribution to the health of Norwegians may have been made by social security and the welfare state policies. The beneficial effects of social security include: less social inequality, a factor which in itself makes for better health, some degree of financial security for people who are ill and unable to support themselves or their families, universal availability of medical and health services. This paper explores the ideas and sources from which present-day social security legislation stems. The emergence of state based welfare legislation was inspired by developments in Germany under Bismarck; accident insurance for industrial workers was the first to be introduced in 1894. Several periods of active social security legislation followed at times when labour unions and socialist ideas were strong, supported, to some degree, by radical clergy and public health doctors. Social democratic governments, inspired by the British Beveridge plan towards the end of World War II, took the lead during the long post-war period until the mid 1970s. The Scandinavian model of social security is based on universal coverage and a single payer system. However, since the 1980s, as in other countries of Northern Europe, the social security system has come under pressure from market liberalism. Now at the turn of the century, increasing social inequalities cause some concern for the future of the welfare state. PMID:10827494
Rodríguez López-Brea, Carlos M.
Full Text Available It is an irreputable fact that the ecclesiastical economy suffered a hard hit during the reign of Carlos IV. The faud in the collection of tithes, each time more evident and up to a certain point consented by the civil authority, the high donations that the Monarchy demanded from the clergy under the rule of the Papal bulls and the first seizures of land from the Church, created a profound discomfort in the ecclesiastical hierarchy (visible signs in Toledo and Sevilla, the two dioceses ruled by the Cardenal Borbon, the king's cousin, that in a few years became estranged from Carlos' Monarchy and his Minister Godoy.
Es un hecho innegable que la economía eclesiástica sufrió un duro golpe durante el reinado de Carlos IV. Los fraudes en la recaudación de los diezmos, cada vez más escandalosos, y hasta cierto punto consentidos por la autoridad civil, los elevados donativos que la Monarquía exigía al clero bajo el manto de bulas papales, y las primeras desamortizaciones de tierras de la Iglesia, crearon un profundo malestar en el estamento eclesiástico (bien visible en Toledo y en Sevilla, las dos diócesis regidas por el cardenal Borbón, primo del Rey, que en muy pocos años se distanció de la Monarquía de don Carlos y de su favorito Godoy.
Nadine F. Bowers du Toit
Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.
Strous, Rael D; Shenkelowsky, Eliezer
Recently, one of the most important medical halakhists of all time, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg died. He was affectionately known as the Tzitz Eliezer after his monumental halakhic treatise of that name. He was a leading rabbi, a judge on the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem, and an eminent authority on medical halakha. He also served as the rabbi of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem for many years prior to his death. His most important body of work, the Tzitz Eliezer, is a treatise of medical halakhic questions and many consider it as one of the great achievements of halakhic scholarship of the 20th century. Although he has written in all fields of halakha in general and medicine in particular, he is best known for his verdicts on physician responsibility, fertility, abortion, smoking, medicine on the Sabbath, organ transplantation, cosmetic surgery and determination of death. While some of his decisions on medical issues have proven controversial, they reflect scholarship and sensitivity and are respected by ethicists and clergy across the board. In 1976 he received the Israel Prize, the nation's highest honor, for Torah literature. His greatness lay in his ability to connect and gain respect across the board of the worlds of modern medicine and halakhic Judaism. Many of his decisions are today considered as routine and standard operating procedure, but, at the time, his definitions were considered new and original. He will be sorely missed by the medical and halakhic communities.
Full Text Available The possession cults in Ethiopia, linked to traditional beliefs and practiced in brotherhoods of believers who lean to the Christian Orthodox religion and Islam are multifaceted experiences, both ancient and well-established throughout the country but are difficult to access by Western scholars due to their esoteric character, the disapproval of the Orthodox clergy and the ambiguous relationship with the state power. The author draws on her experience in the field conducted between 2008 and 2009, carried out in some villages of Wollo, in the northern highlands. The essay manages to convey feelings and emotions experienced in person while attending the ceremonies of possession (hadra at the home of the healer known as Ali, together with the later study of the recording of the event. Some fragments of the dialogues between the bale-zar and his followers / patients are reported and included in the text, to outline the roles and voices of the actors involved – human or otherwise – in the performative structure of the ceremonies.
Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.
In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.
Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.
Full Text Available Dietrich Bonhoeffer , arguably more than any other European theologian, influenced the way in which South African Christians, clergy and laity alike, have come to see their role in the struggle against apartheid. In his article the author describes the manner in which the German theologian was accepted as a role model by many, and evaluates his influence� in the theological and ethical debates in the country. The aim of the article is to determine whether Bonhoeffer � who was born a hundred years ago, in 1906 � still has a message for us today, in a different time and under different circumstances.� The author� s conclusion is in the affirmative: Bonhoeffer� s message is as powerful as ever . The basic principles in his teaching are as important to us today and tomorrow as they have been in the past.� The author refers to five principles: 'Confessing Christ here and now�, �Putting a spoke in the wheel�, �Learning to see things from below�, �Acknowledging our guilt�, and �Becoming a church for others beyond privilege�.
In the modern society,after the Christ has been spread to Henan province,the church took a variety of missionary method in order to expand missionary effects,such as center flowering,clergy localization,missionary tour,gathering sermons and medical missionary.Owing to influence of background of western powers invading China and powerful repulsion of Chinese traditional culture,missionary effect isn＇t significant%基督教在近代传入河南后,为了扩大传教效果采取了多种传教方法,主要有中心开花式、教职人员本土化、巡回传教、聚会讲道以及行医传教等模式。但由于受西方列强侵略中国的时代背景和中国传统文化强大排斥力的影响,传教效果并不显著。
Paul L. Hover
Full Text Available This overview, the second article in an exploratory study of the information seeking (IS behavior of a group of eighty-four reference librarians from Egypt and the USA, is intended to assist readers less familiar with Islamic history to better understand cross-cultural influences on Arab IS behavior. A description of pre-Islamic poetry and orality precedes a discussion of the importance of the Koran and Islamic traditions on the development of a religious, scribal society. Oral transmission of mysteries omitted from texts leads to procedures in establishing the authenticity of scholarly works, which result in high standards of manuscript production. Reasons for Muslim resistance to the printing press are discussed, followed by a chronicle of European invasions that eventually convince Islamic authorities of the need to adopt printing to resist colonial pressure. The early years of publishing see the emergence of distinct centers of publishing in Egypt and Lebanon, and reasons for the quick acceptance of lithography are examined. The acceptance of printing by Muslim clergy marks the beginning of religious publishing. The Arab Awakening is a movement to compel the general Arabic population to take notice of public dialogue in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The role of printing in the age of self-rule leads to a discussion of current information dissemination in Arab countries. Memorization, orality, Arabic as a linguistic vehicle, illiteracy, and the Arabization of science are discussed as issues in the transmission of knowledge in the modern Middle East.
Full Text Available In this paper we compare two methods for estimating the size of personal networks using a nationally representative sample of the United States. Both methods rely on the ability of respondents to estimate the number of people they know in specific subpopulations of the U.S. (e.g., diabetics, Native Americans and people in particular relation categories (e.g., immediate family, coworkers. The results demonstrate a remarkable similarity between the average network size generated by both methods (approximately 291. Similar results were obtained with a separate national sample. An attempt to corroborate our estimates by replication among a population we suspect has large networks (clergy, yielded a larger average network size.Extensive investigation into the existence of response effects showed some preference for using certain numbers when making estimates, but nothing that would significantly affect the estimate of network size beyond about 6 percent. We conclude that both methods for estimating personal network size yield valid and reliable proxies for actual network size, but questions about accuracy remain.
Harper, D C; Wadsworth, J S
Structured direct interviews of 43 adults with mental retardation were conducted to evaluate how they express grief and deal with loss. In addition, 100 providers, social workers, and clergy were surveyed to assess their views of how adults with mental retardation cope and respond during a grief situation. Adults with moderate to severe mental retardation display grief responses similar to all adults: a mixture of sadness, anger, anxiety, confusion, and pain. Individuals continue to experience emotional turmoil 1 year beyond the initial death and personal loss. Caregivers and professionals were mixed on how long a grief reaction continues before it can be viewed as dysfunctional. Intense behaviors, such as self-injury, were noted by respondents in 10-15% of grief reactions. Ability to "feel" or display emotional behavior during grief is not contingent only on a conceptual level. Common reactions include a depressive response (crying, fatigue, sleep disruption, loss of appetite) of moderate intensity. Adults with significant mental retardation verbalized an understanding of the irreversibility of death, and their responses reflect personal beliefs as well. An unknown group of these adults may have been exhibiting a depressive disorder. PMID:8210608
Barbastro Gil, Luis
Full Text Available This article deals with a subject unknown up to the present, the plan of reformation carried out by the Spanish Catholic Church. This plan was promoted by Napoleon Buonaparte in 1808 and put into practice by a team led by Monsignor de Pradt, who was at the basis of the religious policy followed by Buonaparte’s gouvernement. The article analyses the Spanish clergy, and presents the reformation measures that were undertaken, together with a critical assessment of the said reformation.El artículo aborda el plan de reforma de la Iglesia española, desconocido hasta hoy, impulsado por Napoleón Bonaparte en 1808 y elaborado por un equipo dirigido por monseñor de Pradt, base de la política religiosa del gobierno josefino. Al análisis global del clero español le sigue la exposición de las distintas medidas de reforma planteadas en dicho informe, así como una valoración crítica de esta reforma por parte del autor
Di Stefano, Roberto
Full Text Available The «misiones interiores» were promoted by the political authorities, required by bishops and parsons and carried out by Jesuits, Mercedarios and Franciscans. Both in Europe and America, during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they were conceived as missionary strategies to spread the teachings and the sacraments to areas of weak ecclesiastical presence, and they often sought to pacify the most distant and conflictive communities. The missions were an extraordinary moment of contact with religion, and were planned with a strong pedagogical character, so that the duties of the missionaries meant an important help to the parsons. The «misiones interiores» involved a wide range of actors: parishioners and churchmen, political and religious authorities, regular and secular clergy. This article offers a comparison between the missions developed in the countryside of Buenos Aires in two moments of change in the relationships between regular and secular clergy on one hand, and between the Church and the civil authorities on the other, during the colonial period and Juan Manuel de Rosas’ second period of government. We want to highlight the way in which the civil powers resorted to these missions, and their characteristics in those two different historical contexts, in which the role of the ecclesiastical institutions in the social order and their ties with the civil powers were subject to modifications.Las «misiones interiores» fueron promovidas por las autoridades políticas, requeridas por obispos y párrocos y llevadas a cabo por jesuitas, mercedarios y franciscanos. Tanto en Europa como en América, durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX se plantearon como estrategias misionales para llevar la predicación y los sacramentos a regiones donde la presencia eclesiástica era débil. A menudo se proponían pacificar las comunidades más alejadas y conflictivas. La misión constituía un momento extraordinario de contacto con la
Maria Grazia Guido
Full Text Available Abstract - This paper investigates how the 'New Evangelization' process in the Roman Catholic Church is enacted through ELF by the Italian clergy offering spiritual and practical assistance to non-western immigrants newly-arrived in Italy. A case study explores how religious discourse reflects the two contact groups' different typological-syntactic, semantic and sociopragmatic features transferred to their respective ELF usage, as well as their different knowledge sustems and community values associated with the religious experience. It is argued that misunderstanding occurs when the clergy's culture-bound patterns of Possible-World Semantics, characterizing the counterfactual logic of their religious/metaphysical discourse in ELF, fail to account for the divergent ways by which non-western immigrants make religious sense of their existence. The conversational analysis shows how the New-Evangelization discourse requires from immigrants the activation of the two 'bimodal' cooperative maxims of 'suspension of disbelief', epistemically inducing them to believe that possible-world representations can be true, and 'experiential pliability', deontically compelling immigrants to adapt their actual-world experience to such counterfactual constructions, even though for the cultures of some African countries which immigrants come from religion is intrinsically connected with the referential domain of the actual world. Recognizing divergent ways of expressing the religious experience in different cultures may help 'new evangelizers' find alternative, 'hybrid' ways of conveying the Word of God through ELF, thus fostering true ecumenical communication.Riassunto - Lo studio esamina come il processo di 'Nuova Evangelizzazione' nella Chiesa Cattolica Romana è messo in atto dal clero italiano attraverso ELF quando offre assistenza pratica e spirituale ad immigrati non-occidentali appena giunti in Italia. Il caso di studio esplora i modi in cui il discorso
Full Text Available The author continues his study of the functions of religion. The ﬁrst section is devoted to a description of the various approaches to a functional analysis of religion suggested by members of the Bielefeld School of Sociology (Franz-Xaver Kaufmann, Hans Küng, Niklas Luhmann, by Thomas O’Dea, as well as by Russian experts: Yablokov, Tokarev, and Kagarov. In this context, the author studies the question regarding the functionality speciﬁc to religion, particularly in relation to magic. The author suggests that the post-modern paradigm allows him to deﬁne and describe a new and speciﬁc function of religion: that of culpabilisation. In order to explain and better deﬁne this function (that of sensing or placing guilt, the author turns to a study of the origins of the feelings of guilt and the way guilt is deﬁned by semantics and metaphysics. Guilt feelings are described in the works of some of the foremost experts in the ﬁ eld of twentieth century philosophy and theology: René Girard (anthropologist, Gilles Deleuse and Paul Ricoeur (philosophers, Karl Rahner (theologian and Julia Kristeva (semiotician, together with concepts drawn from Freud (psycho-analytics and Pitirim Sorokin (sociology. All these are representative of the post-modern paradigm and worked in the ﬁelds of classical or non-classical paradigms. The author concludes that religious culpabilisation precedes the institution of organized religion and the setting apart of a priesthood or professional clergy. Its development is set along the following logical chain of the development of phenomena: Soteriology — Eschatology — Hamartology — Theodicy — Culpabilisation.
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the first three decades of the 19th century in the Río de la Plata region through the lives of two important Franciscans. Using civil and ecclesiastical documents, sermons and newspapers we will try to identify in which ways, different events changed the lives of two members of the Catholic Church. Two life stories are the windows to analyze the effect of the Bourbon Reforms at a local level, the impact of the revolution inside and outside the convents, the ideological transformation of the Clergy and the different attitudes towards the ecclesiastical reforms of the 1820s.En este trabajo, de carácter exploratorio, he procurado realizar un recorrido histórico de las primeras tres décadas del siglo XIX en el Río de la Plata a través de la vida de dos importantes franciscanos. Usando archivos eclesiásticos y civiles, sermones y diarios, intento identificar de qué manera, diferentes acontecimientos de largo alcance trasformaron las vidas de dos hispanoamericanos. A partir de dos historias de vida pretendo brindar algunas sugerencias sobre el funcionamiento en el ámbito local de las políticas borbónicas, el impacto de la revolución dentro y fuera de los conventos, la transformación ideológica dentro de las Órdenes regulares y las intrincadas redes de relaciones sociales a ambos lados del Atlántico.
Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge
Full Text Available The aim of this work, based mainly on manuscripts and unpublished documents from Burgos Cathedral Archive, is the study and analysis of violence, physical and verbal, among the cathedral clergy of Burgos, emphasizing the individual and collective scale of the conflicts and the variety of their causes. The cathedral chapter of Burgos exercised its jurisdiction by punishing the culprits, favouring reconciliation processes and trying to stop, often unsuccessfully, the conflicts between clergymen that increased during the last decades of the fifteenth century, and that have a close connection with the conflicts which took place between different families and lineages of the urban oligarchy of Burgos during the same period.El objetivo de este trabajo, basado fundamentalmente en fuentes manuscritas e inéditas procedentes del Archivo Catedralicio de Burgos, es el estudio y análisis de la violencia, tanto física como verbal, en el seno del clero catedralicio burgalés, poniendo de relieve la dimensión tanto individual como colectiva de los enfrentamientos y su variada casuística. El cabildo catedralicio burgalés ejerció su jurisdicción imponiendo castigos a los culpables, fomentando fórmulas de reconciliación y tratando de frenar, a menudo sin éxito, unos enfrentamientos entre clérigos que aumentaron durante las últimas décadas del siglo XV, y que guardan un estrecho paralelismo y relación con los conflictos que en la misma época se produjeron entre diferentes familias y linajes de la oligarquía urbana burgalesa.
An evaluation of the Jamaican Women's Center Programme by the Population Council of New York found that 55% of teenage mothers in Jamaica returned to school in Kingston and 73% in the Mandeville branch following their pregnancies and exposure to the program. Only 15% who were not exposed to the program returned to school. The Sister School Workshop Program on Teenage Pregnancy provides knowledge instead of the myth and fantasy given by parents and clergy. Continuing education is particularly important for those with low self-esteem. The Center also provided knowledge about contraception. The findings were that contraceptive use was 89% among program graduates and 81% among nonprogram persons. In addition to the higher % of usage, there were differences in methods used. Center users preferred the IUD and pills, while nonprogram persons favored pills and injections. Subsequent pregnancies were much higher among nonprogram persons at 39%, while for program participants 15% at Kingston and 8% from the Mandeville Center had subsequent pregnancies within 3 years. The creation of the Jamaican Women's Center in 1978 has also promoted continuing education during pregnancy. Assistance is also provided to those reentering the school system after giving birth. The financial cost has been reasonable at J$3500 program year/woman and nursery facility costs at J$664/child/year. Other services to former students include counseling and school visits and occasionally financial aid amounts J$176/woman/year. Rural outreach averages J$336/woman/year. The identifiable weakness was in preparation of these girls for employment. It is suggested that additional efforts be made to provide wider and more marketable skills to meet local needs. There is also a need to provide linkage with other skills training programs and small business groups in order to expand labor force opportunities for these women. PMID:12285431
My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While education
Martín Martín, José L.
Full Text Available In this article we analyze the rural clergy through two concepts that define the situation of its members in the middle Ages: beneflcium and officium. The first one is a word of feudal origin to designate the income or remuneration for the office, and we try to clarify it like a previous requirement to obtain the holy orders, the regular and irregular methods to get a beneflcium, the increase of ecclesiastical posts and their economic values. In relationship to the office we confirm that there were many beneficiaries who hardly had any significant ecclesiastical function. Rather, they carried out administrative or private activities, and we find a split between service and remuneration for the office
En este artículo se estudia el clero rural a través de dos conceptos que definen la situación de sus miembros en la Edad Media: el beneficio y el oficio. El primero es un término de origen feudal que designa la renta o remuneración del cargo, y lo analizamos como requisito para las órdenes sagradas, con otros procedimientos regulares e irregulares empleados para obtener las prebendas, así como el valor económico de éstas. En relación con el oficio se constata que hubo muchos beneficiados que apenas ejercieron funciones eclesiásticas, sino administrativas o de índole privado, y se disoció la labor desarrollada de la remuneración percibida por el beneficio.
A rising movement within Islam is to turn back to Islamic values and to inject them into everyday life. Another movement gaining popularity is a campaign to grant women improved status. The two movements argue about how to interpret the prerogatives and duties of women addressed in the Koran. The tension between the two movements often threatens social harmony. Muslim communities have different laws and regulations to protect females and to nurture their lives, but they often cause inequalities and become obsolete or impractical. For example, in Malaysia, Muslim women can be theologians and teachers, but not clergy. Many think that Islam prevents them from divorce and allows their husbands to abuse them. Perhaps all leading Islamic scholars should meet to discuss and then agree on Koranic interpretations that would regulate all aspects of social interaction. They must abhor any violation of basic rights, e.g., denying education to females. Any answers to gender inequalities within Islam must be based in Muslim realities. In Malaysia, Sisters of Islam, a Muslim professional group, want a comprehensive gender policy that considers contemporary realities and Muslim culture. They point out that past interpretations of laws may no longer be pertinent, especially since women did not work outside the home in the 7th century. A male Muslim made a commentary that Allah's message does not change over time, but its form may change according to the needs and exigencies of the time. Thus, Islamic leaders can invoke new decrees to conform to modern situations. Pakistanis have done so with usury laws to allow a modern banking system to operate properly. Muslim women are in the forefront of the debate and try to change the system from within while preserving harmony. Men must remember that everyone is equal before God. PMID:12287494
Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the ‘Three Estates Model’ of the English medieval society in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Based upon the descriptions and illustrations of the characters, it aims to explore the hierarchal structure of the medieval society which is divided into three main groups or ‘estates’: the ones who pray, the ones who rule and govern, and the ones who work. In the General Prologue, Chaucer gives a series of sketches of the characters that are the representatives of the three estates, and through these depictions he investigates the social characteristics and roles of the medieval people who are expected to speak and behave in accordance with what their social group requires. While presenting Three Estates Model, he employs the tradition of ‘estates satire’ by criticising the social vices resulting from the corruption in this model. Through the characteristics and virtues of the ‘Knight’, the ‘Parson’, and the ‘Plowman’, he demonstrates the perfect integration of the people who belong to chivalry, clergy and the commoners in the medieval English society. Also, by offering contrasting views to these positive traits in the portrayal of almost all of the other characters, as illustrated in the portrayal of the ‘Monk’, the ‘Reeve’, and the ‘Wife of Bathe’ in this paper, he criticises the vices and sins (that are mainly resulted from the religious, financial and moral corruption of the people belonging to the social classes of the Middle Ages.
Catalán Martínez, Elena
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changing patterns of behavior of the clergy and the homogenization of models of holiness, in the process of transformation of the medieval church in a modern church. The Council of Trent tried to build a new identity for the priests, organized, neat and efficient at the service of the faith that would keep it away from private interests and attitudes, typical of a feudal church. It was necessary to clearly separate the profane and sacred spaces to ensure that the interactions between the two universes were dominated by the verticality. The post-Tridentine church opted for a model of holiness based on the compliance with the standard. The convents became real saints factories advertised through their stories, reinforcing the formation of a spirit identification, in which the church guided the recognition codes and its public excitement.Este trabajo analiza el cambio en las pautas de comportamiento del clero en el proceso de transformación de la iglesia medieval en una iglesia moderna. El concilio de Trento intentó construir una nueva identidad para los sacerdotes, organizada, pulcra y eficiente al servicio de la fe que la alejara de los intereses y actitudes privados, propios de una iglesia feudal. Era necesario separar con claridad los espacios profanos y sagrados hasta lograr que las relaciones entre ambos universos estuviesen dominadas por la verticalidad. La iglesia post-tridentina apostó por un modelo de santidad basado en el acatamiento de la norma. Los conventos se convirtieron en auténticas fábricas de santos que publicitaron a través de sus crónicas, reforzando la formación de un espíritu identificativo, en el que la iglesia marcaba los códigos de reconocimiento y su exaltación pública.
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
Full Text Available The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion. El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.
The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion.
El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.
Starcher, Rachael W.; Eicher, Jennifer L.; Wilcox, Sara
Background Translating evidence-based, community-delivered, fall-prevention exercise programs into new settings is a public health priority. Community Context Older adults (aged ≥65 y) are at high risk for falls. We conducted a community engagement project in West Virginia to evaluate the adoption of a tai chi exercise program, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, by rural faith-based organizations (FBOs) and exercise instructors by recruiting 20 FBOs and 20 or more exercise instructors and by obtaining input from key stakeholders (representatives of FBOs, community representatives, exercise instructors) regarding potential barriers and facilitators to program adoption. Methods We used both multistage, purposeful random sampling and snowball sampling to recruit FBOs and exercise instructors in 7 West Virginia counties. Two forums were held with stakeholders to identify barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We calculated separate adoption rates for organizations and exercise instructors. Outcome It took up to 3 months to recruit each FBO with an adoption rate of 94%. We made 289 telephone calls, sent 193 emails and 215 letters, distributed brochures and flyers to 69 FBOs, held 118 meetings, and made 20 trips over a period of 31 days (8,933 miles traveled). Nineteen of 22 trained exercise instructors started classes, an instructor adoption rate of 86%. Key issues regarding adoption were the age requirement for participants, trust, education, and competing priorities. Interpretation Although we had recruitment challenges, our adoption rates were similar to or higher than those reported in other studies, and the objectives of the community engagement project were met. Clustering the FBOs and having them located closer geographically to our location may have reduced our resource use, and using a recruitment coordinator from the local community may have enabled us to gain the trust of congregants and clergy support. PMID:27418214
Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione.SOMMARIO: 1. Connessioni e distinzioni tra responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica negli ordinamenti religiosi - 2. Responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia ecclesiastica - 3. La responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia nell’ordinamento canonico e sue conseguenze negli ordinamenti statuali - 4. La riparazione del danno ingiusto nel diritto canonico. Responsabilità della gerarchia - 5. La responsabilità penale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici - 6. Responsabilità morale, pastorale e comunionale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici.ABSTRACTCatholic Hierarchy Responsibility in Clerical Sexual Abuse: Between Canon Law and Civil Law This essay aims to demonstrate moral and legal catholic hierarchy responsibility in clerical sexual abuses. Stories about child maltreatment in catholic Church dominated media worldwide. There is no longer any doubt about the need to punish the guilty, both in canon and civil law. It means that they must be punished under criminal law and they must refund victims. However there are divisions about hierarchy responsibility. Some civil courts (eg. in the USA, Canada or Spain attributed to the diocese the obligation to pay damages. These statements are very criticized by the canonists, who contest the equivalence relationship priest-diocese as a business one. So they claim the legal irresponsibility of hierarchy. At the moment this is the position of the Italian courts. The present essay defends the opposite view. The hierarchy has a primary moral responsibility, which obliges both to defend the victims of the abuses committed by the clergy, both the ecclesial community from abusive priests. This moral responsibility translates into a legal one, which requires the hierarchy to refund the victims on the basis of canon law. Therefore, the civil courts may impose diocesan bishops the
R. A. Khachidogov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal establishment of the government in the field of Islamic education in the North Caucasus region. It is noted that the establishment of the Russian state did not bring any significant changes in the everyday life of Muslims of the North Caucasus. For the first time on "foreigners" of the state-level education has been fixed 26 March 1870 "Rules", which talked about the struggle "with a tribal organization and Mohammedan civilization, aimed at the Russification of early Muslims and their coalescence with the Russian people." The next step came Nov. 20, 1874 with the approval of the State Supreme Council, which introduced the system of Islamic education in the school accountability department. So finally implement a project of Russification of the Muslim community, which was the most negative factor hindering the mental development of children who are accustomed to speak the mother tongue. Even in 1838, in the report the Minister of War Chernyshev commander of a separate Caucasian Corps, General Golovin wrote that "it is necessary, wherever possible, to establish Muslim schools for the education of the clergy, through which you can act on the minds of the people." Caucasian leaders were in no hurry to close Muslim schools, trying to use them as centers of education spread. During the Caucasian War, the Russian government is trying to pursue such a policy among the Muslims, which would cause the sympathy not only among the common people, but also among the educated elite of the Muslim community in order to drag her to his side. December 18, 1848 Nicholas I approved the "Regulations on the Caucasian school district and the school district, his subordinate", in which the military gymnasium in Ekaterinodar started teacher "Mohammedan law." In 1853 Muslim students of military schools of the empire received an official entitled to exemption from the training sessions in the days of religious feasts and fasts.
Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.
Full Text Available Syed Khurram AzmatTechnical Services and Research and Metrics, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Sindh, PakistanPurpose: Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan.Materials and methods: A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin.Results: Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders' perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly noteworthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs.Conclusion: It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general.Keywords: religious leaders/community imams/clergyman, health professionals, social workers
Full Text Available L’Atre Périlleux è un romanzo anonimo francese del XIII secolo e fa parte della corrente letteraria che rimettere in questione il romanzo cortese di tradizione chrestieniana. Piú che all’ideologia o alle istanze della classe cavalleresca e della nobiltà minore, il nostro romanzo risponde alle prospettive e alle necessità intellettuali della clergie, che si fa gioco dei valori cavallereschi tradizionali. L’Atre Périlleux è condotto, con toni di humour e una trama complessa, su binari metaletterari e allegorici (di cui il corpo smembrato di Gauvain è il simbolo piú eminente, e si pone come critica della decadenza della società cortese, animato però dal proposito del rinnovamento morale di essa.L’Atre Périlleux is an anonymous French romance of the thirteenth century and it is part of the literary movement that calls into question the tradition of courtly romance dating back to Chrétien de Troyes. More than to the ideology and instances of the class of minor nobility and chivalry, our romance responds to the clergie’s needs and intellectual perspectives, and it mocks the traditional values of chivalry. L’Atre Périlleux is conducted, with a hint of humour and a complicated plot, on metaliterary and allegorical tracks (and Gauvain’s dismembered body is the most prominent symbol of this allegorical tone, so that our romance stands as a critique of courtly society decadence, nevertheless animated by the purpose of its moral renewal.
Edward P. Wimberly
Full Text Available This article introduces a unique model for public theological conversation and discourse, which was developed by the Concerned Black Clergy of Atlanta (CBC. It was a model developed in response to the problems of poverty, homelessness, and the ‘missing and murdered children’ victimised in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States of America in the early 1980s. It was originally organised to respond to the economic, financial, spiritual, emotional, employment, housing and resource needs of the underserved poor. This unique practice is called forum-ing. The forum meets every Monday morning, except when there is a national holiday. It has operated 30 consecutive years. The forum has a series of presentations, including the opening prayer, self-introductions of each person, a report of the executive director, special presentations from selected community groups, reports, and then questions and answers. The end result is that those attending engage in a process of discourse that enables them to internalise new ideas, approaches, and activities for addressing poverty and injustice in the community. Key to forum-ing for the 21st century is that it is a form of public practical theology rooted and grounded in non-violence growing out of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. The overall purpose of this article is to contribute to the effort of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria (South Africa to identify those variables that will assist religious leaders in South Africa to develop public conversational spaces to enhance democratic participation. This article presents one model from the African American community in Atlanta, Georgia. The hope is to lift up key variables that might assist in the practical and pastoral theological conversation taking place in South Africa at present.
Fernández Arrillaga, Inmaculada
Full Text Available When, in April of 1767, the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain is ordered, the group of novices who was studying in the recognized Colleges of the Society is tom between following the priests into exile or forgetting their projects and staying in Spanish territory. This work concentrates on the one hand, the reactions of these youths, tempted the representatives of the administration and of the Spanish clergy, which used all the means at their disposal of convincing them for being in Spain and, on the other, the crusading spirit surrounding the decision to defend their vocation and going into voluntary exile into the States of the Pope.
Cuando, en abril de 1767, se procede a la expulsión de los jesuitas de España, el grupo de novicios que se encontraba en los reconocidos colegios de la Compañía se debate entre el dilema de seguir a estos padres en su exilio o abandonar sus proyectos en la orden de san Ignacio y quedarse en territorio español. En este trabajo se estudian, por una parte, las reacciones de estos jóvenes, tentados por los representantes de la administración y del clero español, que desplegaron un amplio dispositivo con el objetivo de convencerlos para que permanecieran en España y, por otra, el espíritu de cruzada que rodeó la decisión de defender su vocación y autoexiliarse en los Estados Pontificios.
Full Text Available This article examines a 5-year collaboration between the Stockholm-based video artists Performing Pictures and Talleres Comunitarios, a studio based in the Oaxacan town of Santa Ana Zegache where local artisans employ traditional skills in the restoration of religious artifacts. In images and text, we trace the exchange of skills, knowledge, and aesthetic sensibility that took place as these two groups of artists collaborated in producing a series of video animations of venerative objects, against a backdrop of religious, social, and political tensions that characterize everyday life in Zegache. In the article and the accompanying series of three short films, “Wonder & Veneration 1–3” (http://vimeo.com/album/2682070, we examine how the artists negotiate questions of aesthetics and religious belief as their collaboration unfolds within the context of the Zegache community, where the Talleres contribute skills of carpentry and painting, while Performing Pictures provides skills of film, animation and micro-electronics. The processes and practices involved in creating three works provides the framework for this examination: the first, an animation of the Virgin of Guadalupe as she appears to a simple peasant, and the second, produced 2 years later, an animation of Santa Ana, local patron saint and mother of Maria, as she teaches her daughter to read the scriptures. Whereas both figures are central to the syncretic religious belief of southern Mexico with its challenge to the entrenched authority of the hispanicized clergy, the local figure of Santa Ana carries even more complex meanings for the community of Zegache. These meanings are embodied in the third work we examine, a small solar-powered chapel that the artists built to display the Santa Ana animation. With the mayor's support and located at the entrance to the town, the chapel embodies a shift of power away from the church, standing as an example of indigenous empowerment in civil
Full Text Available Because so soon after it was overtaken by the School of Salamanca, historians have neglected the importance of the Chapter of nearby Zamora in the legal development of early thirtheenth century Spain. In the light of the ambivalent significance of Zamora’s proximity to the kingdom of Portugal in a period of political tension with the papacy, and the role of Zamora’s man at the papal curia, Cardinal Gil Torres, the present study attempts to view that development in terms of its own time, making use of the material evidence in the Vatican and peninsular archives of Zamora’s juristic activity, the level of juristic sophistication revealed by a routine case involving local clergy and laity, and the calculations of the contemporary rulers of León.
Debido a que muy pronto fue sobrepasada por la Escuela de Salamanca, los historiadores han descuidado la importancia del Capítulo de la cercana Zamora en el progreso jurídico español de los comienzos del siglo XIII. A la luz del ambivalente significado de la proximidad de Zamora al reino de Portugal, en un periodo de tensión política con el papado y del papel desempeñado por el Cardenal zamorano Gil Torres en la curia papal, el presente estudio se propone examinar ese progreso de la actividad jurídica de Zamora durante su tiempo, utilizando para ello los testimonios de los archivos del Vaticano y peninsulares, el nivel de sofisticación jurídica manifestado en un caso rutinario en el que se implicaba un clérigo local y el laicado, así como las astucias de los gobernantes coetáneos de León.
Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel
Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.
José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.
Álvarez Icaza Longoria, María Teresa
Full Text Available Since 1750 Archbishop Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordered the taking place of the transference to clerics from doctrines previously administered by the regular clergy. Several of the secularized curates used to have a vast territory, the Diocesan prelate decided to divide them. As there were more parishes, a higher number of the clerics could have more chance to get accommodation. In addition, argued Rubio, the parishioners were favored because it improved their spiritual administration. The establishment of these boundaries was sometimes done with the consensus of several actors involved, but in other cases it involved conflicts that could represent a number of major obstacles in the process of creating new parishes.
A partir de 1750 el arzobispo Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordenó que se llevara a cabo la transferencia a clérigos de doctrinas hasta entonces administradas por el clero regular. Varios de los curatos secularizados tenían un territorio muy amplio; el prelado diocesano tomó la decisión de dividirlos. Al existir más parroquias tenían ocasión de conseguir acomodo mayor número de clérigos; además, argumentaba Rubio, los feligreses se veían beneficiados porque mejoraba su administración espiritual. El establecimiento de estas demarcaciones a veces fue realizado con el consenso de los diversos actores involucrados, pero en otras implicó conflictos que pudieron representar obstáculos importantes en el proceso de creación de nuevas sedes parroquiales.
Full Text Available Tractatus contra beghardos written by a Chech Dominican Henryk Harrer is a masterpiece of exceptional value for both historians of the medieval heterodox movements as well as for scholars interested in the history of theology and law in the 14th century. The treaty was commissioned by Cracow Dominicans in the years 1328 to 1334. Commissioning the treaty to Henryk Harrer, a stranger expert from the Prague monastery of St. Clemens was dictated by a series of controversies among Cracow clergy around the judgement of conduct of a certain group of people whose religious practices and a way of life stood out from the rest of the congregation. Undertaking the task of writing the treaty Henryk Harrer based his work around three charges pressed against the suspected of heresy: breaking off the Church and establishing an illegal organization (singularitas vite; corrupted attitude towards recognized religious practices (contemptibilitas sacramenti eucharistiae; numerous flaws and perverse disposition (pertinax voluntas. Not only did Harrer decide to comment on all aspects of life of central figures of Contra beghardos but he also honestly mentioned all arguments he was not able to undermine. Despite these objective difficulties, the Czech Dominican was certain that the expertise he came up with was sufficient to link the lay movement with the sect of Beghard Heretics. The author of this study proved that, contrary to Harrer’s keen intention, his Tractatus contra beghardos does not unambiguously show heresy in the Cracow diocese. What is more, the reader, instead of indictment against the conduct of a group of laymen paradoxically received a confirmation of their innocence and orthodoxy. In the light of analysis of the text Contra beghardos, the claim that Beghard Heretics from Harrer’s work turn out to be pious layman, living in communion with the Church, seems to be fully substantiated. Of course their way of life and the practice of asceticism made
Full Text Available David E VanceThe University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Many of us think of nurses as people who provide direct care to us and our loved ones. And that is true. Images of a selfless person such as Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War running from one wounded soldier to another providing care inspires the imagination of what a nurse is and can be. Based on that image, a nurse is anyone who cares (and from a spiritual or philosophical perspective, that may be true. But nursing as a profession is so much more. nurse is someone with a very selective skill set that can only be developed and honed by intense training, education, and discipline while being used in a proscribed ethical manner. With such a combination of skills, ethics, and caring, nurses are the backbone of health care settings, tending to the individual needs of the patients; however, many nurses also function outside such traditional settings and perform numerous functions. Nurses are educators and provide data to the public designed to improve health literacy and promote physical and mental wellness. Nurses are computer and organizational specialists who provide hospitals and institutions with the technologies for keeping, maintaining, and analyzing records. Nurses are clergy, psychologists, and philosophers providing a direction and a moral compass in how to are for patients and each other. Nurses are researchers investigating everything from developing medication for Alzheimer's disease to improving crop yields to reduce hunger. Finally, nurses are advocates and leaders petitioning for justice and beneficence of all regardless of gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality; and as such, nursing is political and has a global impact. Nursing is global in nature and is facing global, as well as country specific, problems. The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of what
Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after
Full Text Available En 1600, le jubilé universel voit converger vers Rome d’importantes foules pèlerines, au sein desquelles les sujets du roi de France sont assez largement représentés. Dans ce contexte, le journal tenu lors du pèlerinage effectué cette année là par seize prêtres de la région de Dreux dans le diocèse français de Chartres est un document riche d’informations. L’auteur de ce petit livret n’est pas un membre du clergé. En effet, il s’agit du dix-septième pèlerin, parent de l’un des clercs, Laurent Barbereau, notaire de son état. Cette originalité conduit, tout d’abord, à s’interroger sur ce type d’écrit issu du “for privé”; puis, sur les acteurs mis en scène par notre scripteur ainsi que sur la nature de leur quête spirituelle. Enfin, il importe de poser la question de l’organisation et du déroulement d’un tel périple. Au total, guide, aide-mémoire, livre de comptes, le principal objet de ces feuillets est, avant tout, d’être utile.In 1600, the universal jubilee in Rome sees large crowds of pilgrims, in which the subjects of the King of France are fairly well represented. In this context, the diary kept during the pilgrimage that year by sixteen priests from the region of Dreux in the French diocese of Chartres, is a document rich in information. The author of this booklet is not a member of the clergy. Indeed, he is the seventeenth pilgrim, parent of one of the clerics, Laurent Barbereau, a notary by trade. This originality leads to question this kind of writing produced from the first-person writing, the actors directed by our writer as well as the nature of their spiritual quest. Finally, it is important to question the organization and conduct of such a journey. In total, guide, fact sheets, account book, the main purpose of these sheets is, above all, to be useful.
José Aparecido de Oliveira
Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo faz parte de uma pesquisa sobre os espaços de discussão criados, a partir da internet, entre os membros clérigos e leigos da Igreja Metodista, nos meses que antecederam o 18º Concílio Geral, realizado em 2006, conclave que resultou na saída da instituição dos organismos ecumênicos em que atua e que ajudou a fundar. O objetivo consistiu em avaliar as possibilidades e limitações da internet como emergente espaço público ampliado para as instituições. A análise teve como suporte os fundamentos da literatura nos aspectos da história dos meios de comunicação; comunicação política, espaço público e marketing político. O suporte histórico foram os fenômenos da Reforma Protestante e do Movimento Metodista, na Inglaterra do século XVIII. Os resultados permitem inferir que as novas tecnologias apresentam desafios para as instituições como o paradoxo democratização-fragmentação da autoridade. Palavras-chave: Poder e visibilidade; Espaço público; Marketing político; Comunicação institucional; Democratização. Abstract This article is part of a research work on the discussion spaces created by the Internet for the clergy and lay members of the Methodist Church, in the months preceding the 18th General Council, carried out in 2006, and resulting in the institution’s withdrawing from the ecumenical organisms where it worked and which it help founding. The research aimed at evaluating the possibilities and limitations of the Internet as an emerging public space opened to institutions. The analysis was based on the literature concerning the history of communication media; political communication, public space and political marketing. The historical background focused on the phenomena of Protestant Reform and the Methodist Movement in 18th–century England. Results indicate that the new technologies pose challenges to institutions, such as the paradox democratization-fragmentation of
Ramón SÁNCHEZ GONZÁLEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El clero capitular toledano en la Edad Moderna apenas ha sido estudiado, a pesar de su doble condición de élite eclesiástica y de miembro de la Sede Primada de las Españas. Con este trabajo se intenta poner de relieve sus ideas religiosas y sus actitudes ante un hecho tan trascendental en el hombre como es la muerte. Situado en el contexto de la Castilla postridentina y barroca, profundamente impregnada de religiosidad y de una nueva estética puesta a su servicio, se hace un análisis, desde una metodología propia de la historia de las mentalidades, basado fundamentalmente en los testamentos de dignidades, canónigos y racioneros, sobre las cuestiones más relevantes en relación con los acontecimientos que giran en torno a ese último momento, tanto los que tienen que ver con la salvación de su alma —exequias, honras fúnebres, misas, sufragios...— como aquellos otros más profanos que aluden a herederos, auxilio de familiares y deudos o destino de sus bienes.ABSTRAT: The chapter clergy of Toledo in early modern age has scarcely been in spite of its dual status as eclesiastical elite and member of the Primate See of Spain. The present study aims to bring to ligth their reluigious ideas and attitudes to such a transcendental matter for mankind as death. Situated in the context of baroque Castile in the period following the Council of Trent, deeply steeped in religious beliefs and purveyed of new aesthetics, an analysis is made following the methodology characteristic of the history of mentalities, bared fundamentally on the wills of dignataries, canons and prebendaries, of the most relevant questions with regard to the events surrounding the last moment, both those concerned with the saving of the sould —obsequies, last honours, masses, intercession...—, and those pertaining to mose secular aspect —heirs, provision for relatives and the destiny of belongings.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora por vez primera la práctica musical en los monasterios de monjas del Chile colonial. Partiendo de la información inédita recopilada en el archivo del Monasterio de La Victoria de Santiago, se analizan aspectos históricos y musicales tales como la imagen de la monja música en la historiografía tradicional y postmoderna; su estatus social en el período colonial; la evolución de las plantillas musicales (instrumentistas y cantoras, con sus correspondientes cambios estilísticos y la injerencia que tenían los músicos ajenos al monasterio. Por último, se cuestiona la supuesta independencia de género de las monjas y se plantea la hipótesis de que las repetidas censuras a sus prácticas artístico-musicales estuvieron motivadas no sólo por propósitos moralizantes, sino también por la necesidad del clero secular y la autoridad civil de limitar el crecimiento de las instituciones monásticas.This is the first study about the musical practice in convents of Colonial Chile on the basis of new data collected in the archive of the convent of La Victoria in Santiago. It considers historical and musical aspects such as the image of the nun musician in traditional and postmodern historiography, her social status during the colonial period, the evolution of music groups (instrumentalists and singers, the stylistic changes associated with them, and the role played by foreign mule musicians in the monastery. Finally, it questions the assumption that nun musicians enjoyed an independence from masculine gender. Furthermore, it puts forward as a hypothesis that the frequent prohibitions of their musical and artistic practices originated not only in moralistic purposes, but also in the need of the secular clergy and civic authorities of limiting the growth of monastic institutions.
Alonso Ruiz, Begoña
Full Text Available Trefoil chapels constitute the most innovative centralized model of all those developed in late-Gothic Spain. The brilliant unfolding of the great funerary chapels covered by astonishing vaults of star-shaped ribs at the end of the 15th and the first decades of the 16th century, created by artists who had emigrated from the other side of the Pyrenees, has long been recognized. Thus arise the great funerary chapels of Toledo or Burgos, in imitation of which appear an endless number of small chapels in churches and monasteries throughout the Peninsula, for all those nobles or ecclesiastics desirous of becoming a part of history. Only a few architects (pertaining to the Segovian region and to the influence of Juan Guas and patrons (belonging to the upper Castillian nobility and high clergy, distanced themselves from this model to venture for the trefoil. The result was a highly homogeneous group of structures errected within a limited span of time.
Las capillas treboladas constituyen el modelo centralizado más innovador de cuantos se desarrollan en la España tardogótica. Es de sobra conocido el brillante desarrollo de las grandes capillas funerarias cubiertas con asombrosas bóvedas de crucería estrellada a finales del siglo xv y primeras décadas del siglo xvi de manos de artistas llegados de más allá de los Pirineos para renovar nuestro viejo gótico. Así surgen las grandes capillas funerarias de Toledo o Burgos, a semejanza de las cuales se construirán un sinfín de pequeñas capillas en iglesias parroquiales o monasterios por toda la geografía peninsular para todo aquel noble o religioso con pretensiones de pasar a la Historia. Sólo unos pocos arquitectos (vinculados al área segoviana y al influjo de Juan Guas y patronos (de la alta nobleza castellana y del alto clero se alejaron de este modelo para arriesgarse por el trebolado, dando como resultado un conjunto muy homogéneo de construcciones levantadas en un arco de tiempo
María Verónica Fernández Armesto
Full Text Available El artículo intenta una primera mirada al mundo de las lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires en los últimos años del período colonial: qué autores circulaban con mayor profusión, cuáles obras se privilegiaban en las bibliotecas privadas y qué público lector se interesaba en ellas, a partir de los inventarios de bibliotecas privadas e, indirectamente, del registro de donaciones de libros a la Biblioteca Pública en los primeros años independientes. Se postula como hipótesis la mayor libertad de que habrían gozado los libros de economía en el Buenos Aires finicolonial, para propiciar la difusión de las nuevas ideas que surgían de la mano de la llamada "Ilustración cristiana". En este contexto, caracterizado por la activa presencia del clero y de los funcionarios de la administración virreinal (es decir, los miembros de los dos poderes, Corona e Iglesia y un sector mercantil cada vez más influyente, se constituyó el público lector de las obras de economía. Por otra parte, el análisis de los inventarios de bibliotecas muestra la frecuencia con que aparecen los autores españoles e italianos que actuaron, ya sea por medio de la traducción, la adaptación o la copia, como intermediarios de otros economistas europeos.The article attempts a first look to the world of the economic readings in Buenos Aires in the last years of the colonial period: which authors circulated more frequently, which books used to be found in the private libraries, and what type of people were interested in them, starting from the inventories of private libraries, and indirectly, from the registration of books donations to Public Library in the first independent years. The postulated hypothesis is that the economics books enjoyed of more freedom in the Buenos Aires late colonial period, propitiating the diffusion of the new ideas of the so-called "Christian Enlightenment». It was in this context, characterized by the active presence of the clergy and the
Morelló Baget, Jordi
Full Text Available This article reviews the position of the secular clerical community established in the town of Reus since its creation in 1326. To begin with, there is a focus on the different income sources perceived by this community, with reference to both certain parish rights, and the benefits granted to each clergyman and the income collected from the town for anniversaries or masses for the deceased. However, the main issue covered concerns this group's tax duties with the town. This involves chronologically tracking the definition process for the tax system of this group based on statements and /or judicial sentences issued throughout the 14th century. This paper moreover examines the situation of the local clergy with regard to material goods, based on the assets noted in some tax records. Finally, there is an analysis of the degree of clerical involvement in the town government, particularly with regard to income stemming from certain taxes. The appendix includes some interestingordinacions, or ordainments from the 15th century that reveal the inner workings of this community.
En aquest article es revisa la situació de la comunitat de religiosos seculars instituïda a Reus des del moment de la seva creació, l´any 1326. En primer Hoc, s'estudien els diferents tipus de renda percebuts per la dita comunitat, tant les procedents de determinats drets parroquials com les dels beneficis adjudicats a cada religiós i els censals cobrats del municipi, a compte d'aniversaris o misses de difunts. Amb tot, el principal tema tractat es refereix a les obligacions fiscals d'aquesta comunitat envers el municipi, la qual cosa implica fer un seguiment cronològic al procés de definició del règim fiscal d’aquesta col lectiu a partir d'agunes concòrdies i/o sentencies judicials emeses durant el segle XIV. Sanalitza, així mateix, la situació patrimonial dels religiosos locals, prenent com a punt de partida els bens que consten en alguns registres
Álvarez Gutiérrez, Luis
Full Text Available This writing deals with an historiographical analysis of the contents of the diplomatic dispatches sent to Vienna by the imperial ambassador, John Frederick count of Kageneck, accredited at the Court of Charles IV. They concern to the first seven years of that reign (1789-1795. Provide issues, appreciations, and commentaries about the conditions of the contemporaneous Hispanic kingdom in the matter of institutional, administrative, political, economic, social, religious, military affairs, international relations and geostrategical interests. The Austrian diplomat pays much attention to the consequences of the French revolution in Spain; to the measures adopted by the Spanish authorities against the spread of the subversive ideas, as much in the metropolis, as in the overseas dominions, with special reference to the outstanding rôle played by the clergy, as the ideological and moral bulwark against the impetuous attacks of the French revolutionary activity; to the attitude of Spain with regard to the purpose of forming an international coalition against the revolutionary France; and to the later access of Spain in the war against the France of the Convention (1793-1795.
Este trabajo propone un análisis historiográfico del contenido de los despachos diplomáticos enviados a Viena por el embajador imperial, Juan Federico de Kageneck, acreditado ante la Corte de Carlos IV. Corresponden a los siete primeros años de aquel reinado (1789-1795. Proporcionan datos, apreciaciones y comentarios sobre el estado de la monarquía hispana de la época en sus aspectos institucionales, administrativos, políticos, económicos, sociales, religiosos, militares, relaciones internacionales, e intereses geoestratégicos. El diplomático austríaco dedica atención preferente a las repercusiones de la Revolución francesa en España; a las medidas adoptadas por las autoridades españolas para contrarrestar la difusión de las ideas subversivas, tanto en la
Caro López, Ceferino
Full Text Available Government censorship in Eighteenth Century Spain was another means of the Spanish Enlightenment policy. Until mid-century both powers of Church and State were balanced; from Charles Ill's reign on the censorship of the Consejo de Castilla tried to control and restrict not only the traditional power of the Inquisition, but also the intellectual output of the country, either ideological —criticism on the Crown's policy— or cultural-publishing religious works. It is important to notice that many members of the clergy collaborated with the State in that task; and also that, after the French Revolution, the Inquisition regained its previous role. In the last decade of the Seventeenth century the irreconcilable clash between the advocates and the critics of the Inquisition became evident.
La práctica de la censura gubernativa fue, en el siglo XVIII, un instrumento más de la política regalista de la Ilustración española. Si hasta mediados del siglo se mantuvieron estables las relaciones de poder entre Iglesia y Estado, a partir del reinado de Carlos III se nota cómo la censura del Consejo de Castilla intentaba vigilar y limitar no sólo el tradicional poder de la Inquisición, sino también la producción ideológica —crítica a la política de la Corona— y cultural-edición de obras de religión. Es importante observar que muchos hombres de Iglesia colaboraron con el Estado en esas tareas; y también que tras la Revolución Francesa la Inquisición volvió a asumir el papel que había jugado con anterioridad. En el último decenio del Setecientos se pone de manifiesto el enfrentamiento irreconciliable entre los partidarios y los detractores de la Inquisición.
Full Text Available This article examines the methods and results of cultural change during the conquest of Mexico and in the early New Spain. It is the attempt to systemize the mechanisms of Christianisation and «Hispanization» — which can be understood as a reciprocal process of the transformation of collective identities. The fact that an indigenous clergy was not created was generally misunderstood as the Nahuas’ incapability to meet to the requirements of Spanish morality and civilization («policía». This had effects on the political as well as on the architectural or historiagraphical spheres. But also the Spaniards and Europeans in general had to question themselves after their contact with the Nahua culture. To be «Spanish» before and after the conquest as well as to be «Spanish» in Spain and in Las Indias did not mean the same.
Este artículo examina los métodos aplicados, y los resultados surgidos del cambio cultural que ocurrieron con la conquista de México y los comienzos de la Nueva España. Es el intento de sistematizar los mecanismos de la evangelización y la hispanización, comprendida como un proceso recíproco de transformación de las identidades colectivas. El hecho de que no se creara un clero indígena, en general fue malinterpretado como el resultado de una poca capacidad de los nahuas de adaptarse a la civilización («policía» y a la moral española. Esto tuvo efectos tanto en las esferas políticas como arquitectónicas y historiográficas. Pero también los españoles y los demás europeos tuvieron que cuestionar su autognosis después del contacto con la cultura nauahtl. Ser español antes y después de la conquista, no fue lo mismo, como tampoco lo fue ser español en España y en las Indias.
Blanco Andrés, Roberto
Full Text Available This article provides new information on the creole Filipino, Fr. Pedro Pablo Peláez, who, together with Fr. José Burgos, was the most outstanding clergyman in the nineteenth-century Philippines. It discusses Father Peláez’s previously unknown activities in the cabildo of the Manila Cathedral, where he was its most distinguished member. It analyzes his reformist ideas, and explains his work and strategy to defend the Filipino secular clergy, whose rights were being violated by the royal orders of 1848 and 1861. Against the reactionary religious orders, Peláez had a detailed modus operandi to defend the legitimacy of native priests’ control of parishes. Although his activities were cut short by his unexpected death in the earthquake of June 1863, Peláez served as an inspiration to be emulated.
En este trabajo se intentan aportar algunas claves y datos inéditos sobre la biografía del presbítero criollo filipino Pedro Pablo Peláez, que es, junto con el P. José Burgos, el eclesiástico más destacado de la iglesia de Filipinas del siglo XIX. El trabajo aborda la totalmente desconocida actividad del P. Peláez en el cabildo de la catedral de Manila, donde acabaría siendo con el tiempo su hombre más insigne. Igualmente se analiza el espíritu e ideario reformista de Peláez y sus trabajos y estrategia para defender al clero secular filipino, cuyos derechos estaban siendo vulnerados por una serie de Reales Órdenes (1848 ó 1861 y la actitud reaccionaria de un sector de las órdenes religiosas. Peláez supo articular un modus operandi minucioso y muy efectivo en torno a la legitimidad de los curas filipinos en la dirección de las parroquias del país. Aunque sus actividades cesaron con su inesperada muerte en el terremoto de junio de 1863, Peláez se convirtió en una inspiración y un modelo a seguir.
María de los Ángeles FAYA DIAZ
Full Text Available The Economic Society of Asturias was an instrument of enlightened reformism which should act in a region with severe economic backwardness. Born in 1780 at the initiative of Campomanes, it responds to Matritense model, focusing on economic development and popular education. Designed around the possibilities of development offered by the coal, was finally oriented to promote agricultural growth, according to the interests of the educated elite of Asturias, mainly composed by members of the nobility and clergy. The industrial promotion efforts were focused on the popular industry, centered in the linen, mining and metallurgical techniques, but it met with little success. Because of the existing poverty, the Society developed a new secular charity, while education was limited to a School of Drawing and four sewing schools for women. In short, the Society was unable to lead the region’s economic takeoff, which delayed still several decades.La Sociedad Económica de Asturias fue un instrumento del reformismo ilustrado que tuvo que actuar en una región con grave atraso económico. Nace en 1780 por iniciativa de Campomanes y responde al modelo de la Matritense, centrada en el desarrollo económico y la educación popular. Ideada en torno a las posibilidades que ofrecía el carbón, se termina orientando a impulsar el crecimiento agrario, acorde con los intereses de la élite ilustrada asturiana, integrada por miembros de la nobleza y del clero. Los esfuerzos para el fomento industrial en Asturias estuvieron centrados en la industria popular en torno al lino, así como a los sectores minero y metalúrgico, pronto fracasados. Dada la pobreza existente, la Sociedad desarrolló la nueva beneficencia laica, mientras que la enseñanza quedó limitada a una Escuela de Dibujo y cuatro escuelas de coser para mujeres. En definitiva, la Sociedad fue incapaz de vehicular el despegue económico de la región, que aún tardaría varias décadas.
Lubowich, Donald A.
My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith
Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la ciudad de Burgos, a mediados del siglo XVIII, nueve hogares disponían, entre sus componentes, de un capellán privativo, contratado por el pater-familias a título de «doméstico». Sus quehaceres eran múltiples: dirigir la celebración de actos religiosos, servir la mesa, educar a la progenie, llevar los asuntos de su patrón, etcétera. Muchos de esos hogares tenían, en sus grandes mansiones, oratorio y cochera, donde se guardaban celosamente los menajes sacros y los carruajes. Las razones para contratar capellanes ah hoc son varias, pero una destaca entre las demás. En un siglo caracterizado por la transición desde una religiosidad colectiva, teatralizada, de templo y estridencias en las calles hasta una religiosidad más intimista, doctrinal, hogareña, personal e individualista, se mantenía, alimentaba y/o asalariaba a un clero flotante que servía en exclusiva a los miembros de algunos hogares aristocráticos. Estos hogares disfrutaban, en general, de unos niveles de renta y de fortuna elevados, muy por encima de la inmensa mayoría de los habitantes de la ciudad.ABSTRACT: In the city of Burgos, in the middle of the 18th century, nine homes had, as their members, a private chaplain, contracted by the pater-familias, as household servant. These jobs were of a great variety: to lead the celebration of religious events, to serve meals, to educate offspring, to be in charge of his landlord's bussiness, etcétera. Many of those homes had, in their great mansions, an oratory and a garage, where the sacred items and the carriages were well kept. The reasons to contract chaplains ad hoc are different, but one is the most important. In a century characterized for the changings from a collective religiousness, exaggerated, in churchs and stridency in the streets to a religiousness more intimate, doctrinal, familiar, personal and individualistic, maintained, fed and/or paid a floating clergy who served the members of some
sedative in a half of patients and morphine only in 40% of the cases. Patients mainly died for acute respiratory failure (55% or infective complications (34%, almost all under mechanical ventilation. Only a minority of them (28% reported to have had a discussion about end-of-life care with their physician; palliative/end of life decisions were taken in 13% of the cases. Sustaining figures such as psychologist (17% or clergy (13% were marginally required. Conclusions The current data have confirmed that, also in a Rehabilitative Respiratory setting, quality of end-of-life care and patient-physician communication need further improvement.
, how are experienced and perceived the different ways of internationalization of the high clergy and what is the place it takes among the instruments of legitimation within the field of power?
Inarejos Muñoz, Juan Antonio
Full Text Available In the Spanish Constituent assembly of 1854 some previously unknown issues were raised about Church-State relations, including tolerance of worshipping and religious freedom. The clergy, whose interference in political confrontations was nothing new, placed themselves as a majority alongside one of the factions of the Moderate party, which, in a contradictory way, used the new mechanisms of political representation arisen with the representative State of the citizen (The press and Parliamentary representation to fight against liberalism. A defense of Church rights directed towards the sacralization of society was undertaken by the pulpit, the press, the parliamentary tribune and the Printing press. These represented the main lines of an analysis which wakes reference to the provinces that nowadays make up Castilla-La Mancha, where the neocatholic brend had a reasonable electoral support and relied on the ideological, numerical and organizational support provided by the Archbishopric of Toledo and the diocese of Cuenca.En las Cortes Constituyentes de 1854 se plantearon cuestiones hasta entonces inéditas en las relaciones Iglesia-Estado: tolerancia de cultos, libertad religiosa o confesionalidad del Estado. El clero, cuya injerencia en las confrontaciones políticas no era en absoluto novedosa, se posicionó de forma mayoritaria al lado de una de las fracciones del partido moderado que, contradictoriamente, utilizó los nuevos mecanismos de representación política surgidos con el Estado representativo de la ciudadanía (prensa y representación parlamentaria, para combatir el liberalismo. Desde el púlpito, la prensa, la tribuna parlamentaria y la imprenta se emprendió una defensa de los derechos de la Iglesia orientada a la sacralización de la sociedad. Constituyen los principales trazos de un análisis que toma como referente las provincias que en la actualidad constituyen Castilla-La Mancha, donde la corriente neo-católica gozó de un
José Ramón Rodríguez Lago
Full Text Available El análisis del rol desempeñado por las redes eclesiásticas en las relaciones centro-periferia, en un Estado como el español, caracterizado por los debates suscitados en torno a este binomio durante una buena parte del siglo XX, nos adentra en la dimensión alcanzada por la cuestión territorial en la administración de las diócesis y provincias eclesiásticas, la promoción vocacional del clero y la selección de sus más cualificados dirigentes. La acción y el discurso de los órganos pontificios y las diversas instituciones de la Iglesia en España incidirán no sólo en el desarrollo de prácticas pastorales más atentas a las peculiaridades culturales y sociales propias de cada Iglesia local, sino también en la singular trayectoria de los diversos proyectos de construcción nacional que compitieron durante la pasada centuria. Palabras clave: Vaticano, España, diócesis, provincia eclesiástica, regionalismo, nacionalismo. _____________ Abstract: The analysis of the role played by the church networks in center-periphery relations in a state such as Spain, characterized by the discussions on this pair at least for most of the 20th century, takes us into the dimension reached by the territorial issue in the administration of dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces, vocational promotion of the clergy and the selection of its most qualified leaders. The action and discourse of the pontifical bodies and several institutions of the Church in Spain will impact not only in pastoral practices more alive to the social and cultural peculiarities, but also in the unique path of various nation-building projects which competed during the last century. Keywords: Vatican, Spain, dioceses, ecclesiastical provinces, regionalism, nationalism.
丝绸之路,某种程度上可看成是"绿洲之路".在丝绸之路经济带战略下现代绿洲已成为参与东、西经贸,科技,文化等合作交往的主体之一.其主要结构与功能随之转变(发展):按绿洲特点进一步完善交通运输、网络和通讯系统,促进交往;在发展持续高效绿洲农业的基础上,不断提高农业、工业、商贸等各业生产力,建立新型产业经营体系,推进农业现代化、新型工业化,为满足人们日益丰富的物质生活需求及对外合作交流提供基础;加强新型城镇化建设,促进经济、文化发展及社会稳定,进一步增强现代绿洲功能;发展多元文化,丰富人们生活;迎接新形势所带来的资源环境可持续发展面临的挑战,促进现代绿洲全面发展.%The Silk Road to some degree is also regarded as the road of oasis. The main function of the traditional ancient Silk Road oasis is to provide food, water and rest for the passing-by trade caravan, clergy, and officials and so on. But today modern oasis plays a main role in the trade between the east and the west, communication and cooperation of science and technology and culture. With the social development and the change of productivity and production relationship, the traditional planting has changed into modern comprehensive agriculture. The main structures and functions of modern oasis turn into constructing perfect transportation system, network and communication system to promote communication among people, into improving the productivity of modern oasis agriculture, industry and commerce continually based on sustainable and high efficient development of agriculture, into constructing new industry system and promoting the modernization of agriculture and new industrialization, to provide the material basis for people's material, living standard and communication; into strengthening new oasis urbanization to provide better service to people in town and country and developing
La mort du prince Henri (†1612 : éthique et rhétorique du deuil dans un cycle de sermons funèbres anglais The prince Henry’s death (†1612 : ethics and rhetoric of bereavement in a cycle of English funeral sermons
Full Text Available Cet article examine les spécificités thématiques et rhétoriques d’un cycle de sermons de deuil de Daniel Price, prononcés en 1612 à l’occasion de la mort du prince Henri, le fils aîné du roi d’Angleterre, Jacques Ier. Le premier volet expose les caractéristiques du sermon funèbre anglais, un genre de discours fortement codifié, dont les conventions se fixèrent dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle, alors même que le clergé s’efforçait de démontrer la légitimité de la prédication funèbre dans un contexte protestant. À l’aube du XVIIe siècle, les sermons funèbres imprimés se conforment en majorité à un modèle rhétorique bien défini et poursuivent un objectif pastoral double : la commémoration des morts et l’édification des vivants. Vis-à-vis de cette norme, les sermons de Daniel Price présentent des écarts considérables. En effet, ils se consacrent pour l’essentiel à la prise en charge du deuil des fidèles, un choix thématique qui implique une stratégie rhétorique spécifique. Se focalisant sur l’examen de ces caractéristiques, le deuxième volet de l’article montrera que ces textes, s’ils sont peu représentatifs de la pratique homilétique du clergé anglais au moment des funérailles, sont symptomatiques d’un changement culturel qui se dessine en Angleterre à l’aube du XVIIe siècle, et qui se traduit par la valorisation du deuil humain à des fins dévotionnellesThis article examines the thematic and rhetorical specificities of a cycle of funeral sermons preached in 1612 by Daniel Price on the occasion of the death of prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It begins by describing the conventions of the English funeral sermon, which took shape in the second half of the sixteenth century, at a time when the clergy aimed at legitimizing the act of preaching over the dead in a Protestant context. It will be shown that at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the majority of
P. Pedro Espinosa Santander
distance of the poor from the Church and the scarcity of priests. For him there existed a pending task that many avoided: to conquer Chile for Christ. The book and its invitation were welcomed with great enthusiasm, especially by young people, but criticisms of it grew severe on the part of the clergy and lay conservatives. For them, Hurtado's vision was dangerously bitter and ignored the labor that the Church, since colonial times, had put into forming the "soul of Chile". The polemics were basically a criticism that turned a deaf ear towards Hurtado, the national counselor for the youth of Acción Católica. This article shows the polemics surrounding the book and its author, the different actors who intervened and the ecclesial significance of the entire process: Was Chile a Catholic country
in relation to other narratives of death in the same period. In the differences and silences, takes shape in a hollow a (sometimes subversive image of the devout, who is considered in his lifetime almost as a saint due to his faith, and because of it; and this image allows him to dispense with the standards of his social condition – especially through the political disgrace experienced as a liberation. Are these figures exceptions or models of devotion? A fringe of pious devotees, but also secular clergy (including parish priests, in Paris but also in the country, and also often the nuns of the convent from the Counter-Reformation as the Carmelites, told or narrated these deaths, especially in their correspondences, and made them objects of admiration and even reverence. At the crossroads of social, political and religious aspirations, the story of the death of Michel de Marillac like the death of François Sublet de Noyers, is a reflection of cultural circulation of devout spirituality models in the time of the Counter-Reformation.
by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.
Full Text Available Decadent authors writing about the past share a common artistic practice: revisionist creativity. I argue in my Zoom sur les décadents that this particular type of creativity uses as its main device recombination of legends, myths, and historical events. Historical, cultural or religious figures are reexamined and shown in a new unexpected light. I show in my book how Villiers de Isle-Adam conflates two crucial battles of the Ancient world: Marathon (490 BC and Thermopiles (480 BC in ashort story called "Impatience de la foule." The final result of Villiers's telescoping of separate historical events is a seamless narrative. In Hugues Rebell's "Une Saison à Baia," Saint Paul attempts to convert Roman patricians who mock his incoherent speeches. In "La Gloire de Judas," Bernard Lazare departs from the Gospels and tells the tragic story of Judas whose betrayal made the salvation of the human race possible. In Lazare's short story, Judas is a self-effacing figure who doesn't act on his own but on Jesus Christ's specific order, who sworns him into secrecy.Common in French decadent fiction, religious revisionism was largely tolerated in the secular Third Republic. Whereas censorship was quick to punish naturalist authors writing about debauched clergy in contemporary France (e.g. Louis Deprez and Henry Fèvre's Autour d'un clocher decadent authors reinventing ancient religious stories and retelling the life of catholic saints enjoyed a relative freedom ofexpression.It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and
Pela educação lutaremos o bom combate: a instrução operária como um campo de disputas entre católicos e anarquistas na primeira república brasileira - For education will fight the good combat: the workers' education as a field of disputes between catholic
Isabel Bilhão, Brasil
Full Text Available Neste artigo aborda-se o contexto de transformações sócio-educacionais ocorridas ao longo da Primeira República brasileira, quando o crescimento urbano-industrial e o aumento da força organizativa e numérica do operariado começou a se fazer sentir, ensejando o crescimento de disputas de diferentes grupos em torno da educação dos trabalhadores. Observam-se as polêmicas travadas entre integrantes do clero católico e militantes anarquistas pela adesão operária às suas concepções educativas.Palavras-chave: movimento operário, educação, polêmicas, anarquismo, catolicismo. FOR EDUCATION WILL FIGHT THE GOOD COMBAT: THE WORKERS' EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND ANARCHISTS IN THE FIRST BRAZILIAN REPUBLICAbstractThe article addresses the context of social and educational changes that occurred along the Brazilian First Republic, in which urban-industrial growth and increased the organizational and numerical strength of the workers began to be noticeable, increasing disputes of the distinct groups around the workers education. Will observe the polemics between members of the catholic clergy and anarchist militants by the adhesion of the working class to their educational conceptions.Key-words: labour movement, education, polemics, anarchism, catholicism. POR LA EDUCACIÓN LUCHAREMOS EL BUEN COMBATE: LA INSTRUCCIÓN DE LOS TRABAJADORES COMO UN CAMPO DE DISPUTAS ENTRE LOS CATÓLICOS Y LOS ANARQUISTAS EN LA PRIMERA REPÚBLICA DE BRASILResumenEl artículo aborda el contexto de transformaciones socio educacionales ocurridas a lo largo de la Primera República en Brasil, en el cual el crecimiento urbano-industrial y el aumento de la fuerza organizativa y numérica de los obreros empezaba a ser sentida, intensificando las disputas de distintos grupos alrededor de la educación de los trabajadores. Se observan las polémicas trabadas entre miembros del clero católico y militantes anarquistas por la adhesi
, hypertension, high cholesterol and gout. They had behaviors on addicting to cigarette, coffee and energy drink. They had less exercise without annual health checkup. Their cells were non-hygienic with plenty of garbage, foods scrap and joss stick dust. They preferred to have medical care at private clinics than hospitals or public health centers due to long time waiting. There were some protections by local administrative organizations as pets vaccination and using Tempos sand granule for eliminating mosquito larva. Severe mental health problems were not found. Conclusion/Recommendations: Related agencies with monks holistic health care models by community participation in central region of Thailand were local administrative organizations, communities, government agencies, temples/clergies, provincial office of Buddhism and monks. Important activities were participative operations of all related sectors, monks annual health checkup 1-2 times a year, temples medicine cupboard, monk health care fund, pets vaccination, temple public health volunteer, monk exercise promotion, temple improvement with the 5-S activity and usage of temple as center for health care development.
Masonería y política: una nueva cara del rito masonería- revolución. ¿La masonería tiene una ideología y "hace política"? ¿Los políticos fueron y son tales porque fueron masones y los masones siempre fueron hombres que tomaron partido o fueron de partido?
Aldo ALESSANDRO MOLA
attributed whith partisan objectives: the struggle against the power of the clergy and religiuous doctrine, against the monarchy (although this is not true for Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Greece and often not true for Italy, Spain and even France, where masonry was pro-Bourbon and pro-Napoleon. Against militarism (although many officers and non-commissioned officers were masons... The authenticity of the objectives of masonic organizations can be verified by analysing whether certain famous masons were only famous or were actually masons as well. As examples of these we have Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, etc. Since it is not a religion, masonry is not politicienne politics, nor a permanent revolution. The choise between «education» and «administrations of needs».
La « marmitte renversée » : construction discursive et fonctionnement argumentatif d’une insulte dans les polémiques des guerres de religion (1560-1600 The “Overturned Pot”: Discursive Construction and Polemic Use of an Insult during the French Religious Wars (1560-1600
Full Text Available L’article propose de montrer comment le motif de la marmite, courant dans la culture de la Renaissance, se spécialise dans un sens politique pour constituer une insulte dans le contexte précis de la polémique opposant pamphlets catholiques et protestants pendant les guerres de religion. En effet, le motif de la marmite, objet central de la cuisine, condense héritage biblique (Ezechiel XI et XXIV, tradition littéraire (Plaute et culture populaire (telle que Rabelais s’en fait l’écho, pour constituer une critique des présumés péchés du clergé (concupiscence, gourmandise, pacte avec le diable, etc.. A travers l’étude de plusieurs pamphlets (Thomas Beaux-Amis, Théodore de Bèze, etc. se répondant dans le cadre d’une polémique centrée sur les rites chrétiens, nous mettons en évidence la dynamique discursive permettant la réappropriation du motif dans une valeur d’insulte. Nous étudions en particulier les processus argumentatifs utilisés au fil des pamphlets par chaque camp pour renvoyer l’insulte à l’autre. Il est alors possible de suivre le cheminement discursif de la construction d’une insulte. Il s’agit enfin de souligner la force argumentative de l’image satirique dont la fonction est bien sûr pour les deux Eglises de conforter la confession et pour les catholiques d’éviter la conversion au protestantisme.This article shows how the motif of the cooking pot, recurrent in Renaissance culture, was, in the particular context of the polemics which raged between Catholic and Protestant pamphleteers during the French religious wars, converted into an elaborate political insult. A central element of culinary life, the cooking pot was also loaded with biblical heritage (Ezekiel 11 and 24, literary tradition (Plautus and popular culture (such as that propounded by Rabelais, which made of it a concise symbol of the supposed sins of the clergy (concupiscence, gourmandise, pact with the devil, etc.. Through the
Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen
Cultural and political contexts are important in determining the ways in which communities respond to volcanic eruptions. Understanding the manner in which communities and the State apparatus have coped with historic eruptions can provide insights into how responses have influenced vulnerability and resilience. The 1906 eruption of Vesuvius is well suited for such a study as it was one of the first major eruptions in which there was a significant element of State control, and this worked alongside more traditional pre-industrial responses. This eruption was extensively reported in the regional, national and international press and in archives which include still photography. One feature is the rich archive of material published in English language newspapers of record which are analysed fully in the paper for the first time. Many of these data sources are now accessible on-line. The eruption started on April 4th with mild explosive activity and the eruption of lava from 5th to 7th April. On the night of the 7th/8th, activity intensified when a vigorous lava fountain inclined obliquely to the north east, deposited a thick layer of tephra on the towns of Ottaviano and San Giuseppe. This led to roof collapse and a large number of fatalities. There was increased lava emission and a flow progressed south through the outskirts of Boscotrecase cutting the Circumvesuviana railway line and almost reaching Torre Annunziata. Following April 8th the eruption declined and ended on April 21st. In the initial responses to the eruption pre-industrial features were prominent, with the local communities showing social cohesion, self-reliance and little panic. A more negative aspect was the traditional religious response that involved the use of liturgies of divine appeasement and which included the use of saintly relics and images. There is interesting evidence, however, that this coping strategy was driven by the populace rather than by the clergy. The inhabitants of San Giuseppe
Dion A. Forster
Full Text Available Recent research by the Call42 group has shown that South African Christians experience that they are not adequately prepared or equipped for Christian living and discipleship in the world of work – here called the marketplace. This article has argued for the importance of a rediscovery of a theology of work that can empower and equip the church and individual Christians for ministry in the marketplace. The article traces why such a theological deficiency exists in the South African church by considering areas such as an inadequate theology of work and mission, a dualism between faith and work, and an unbalanced emphasis on the role of clergy and a lesser focus on the role of the laity in themissio Dei. Having considered these challenges to the mission and theological identity of the church, the article discusses the three general theological views of the church in South Africa as presented by Smit and adapted by Forster. It considers how the church could become an agent of mission and transformation in the marketplace in each of these three forms. The article comes to the conclusion that the church will need to revisit its missional theology, refocuses its efforts on broader society, and empowers and equips its members for ministry in the marketplace in order to be faithful in partnering with God in the missio Dei.Waar is die kerk op Maandag? Ontwaking van die kerk tot die teologie en praktyk vanbediening en sending in die markplein. Onlangse navorsing deur die Call42 groep het bevind dat Suid-Afrikaanse Christene ervaar dat hulle nie voldoende voorbereid en toegerus is vir die Christelike lewe en dissipelskap in die arbeidsmark - hier genoem die markplein – nie. Hierdie artikel poog om aan te toon dat ’n herontdekking van ’n teologie van werk belangrik is ten einde die kerk in die algemeen asook individuele Christene te bemagtig en toe te rus vir die bediening in die markplein. Hierdie artikel poog dus om die kwessie van die sodanige
Norberto Pablo Cirio
Full Text Available Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the joy and fun, they celebrate him with music and dance, being some of them from black roots. In this paper I wish to analyze one of these religious principles. So far there isn't any difference between kings and goods, the divine personality has a bipolar behavior that comes to real in a unique entity movable-non movable, thing- human. In this way, being goods also kings and kings also goods, their divine and royal attributes are object of devotion and subordination by their faithful people-subjects. My hypothesis is that that black people could have applied this principle so far they knew that double characteristic of this saint: divine (he is a saint and royal (he is one of the three Wise Men, compatible with their ancestral believes.//Al revisar la historia del culto popular de San Baltazar en Argentina, es posible encontrar sus raíces africanas. A pesar de haber empezado como una devoción impuesta por el clero y la Corona española a mediados del siglo XVIII , los esclavos lograron insertar sus propias tradiciones culturales, produciendo así una suerte de sincretismo sui generis.Hoy en día, dicha tradición está presente en celebraciones religiosas, especialmente en el área devocional. A San Baltazar se le considera el patrón de la alegría y la diversión y sus celebraciones se realizan con música y bailes, algunos de ellos de raíces negras.En este trabajo me propongo analizar uno de los principios de este culto. Como no hay diferencias entre los
丝绸之路,某种程度上可看成是"绿洲之路".在丝绸之路经济带战略下现代绿洲已成为参与东、西经贸,科技,文化等合作交往的主体之一.其主要结构与功能随之转变(发展):按绿洲特点进一步完善交通运输、网络和通讯系统,促进交往;在发展持续高效绿洲农业的基础上,不断提高农业、工业、商贸等各业生产力,建立新型产业经营体系,推进农业现代化、新型工业化,为满足人们日益丰富的物质生活需求及对外合作交流提供基础;加强新型城镇化建设,促进经济、文化发展及社会稳定,进一步增强现代绿洲功能;发展多元文化,丰富人们生活;迎接新形势所带来的资源环境可持续发展面临的挑战,促进现代绿洲全面发展.%The Silk Road to some degree is also regarded as the road of oasis. The main function of the traditional ancient Silk Road oasis is to provide food, water and rest for the passing-by trade caravan, clergy, and officials and so on. But today modern oasis plays a main role in the trade between the east and the west, communication and cooperation of science and technology and culture. With the social development and the change of productivity and production relationship, the traditional planting has changed into modern comprehensive agriculture. The main structures and functions of modern oasis turn into constructing perfect transportation system, network and communication system to promote communication among people, into improving the productivity of modern oasis agriculture, industry and commerce continually based on sustainable and high efficient development of agriculture, into constructing new industry system and promoting the modernization of agriculture and new industrialization, to provide the material basis for people's material, living standard and communication; into strengthening new oasis urbanization to provide better service to people in town and country and developing
14至18世纪西非经历了帝国的瓦解，国家和社会重新整合的历史过程。在行政机构、经济运作方式、宗教、文化等方面都有了新的发展。中央集权化趋势成为国家政治发展方面的主流，经济、贸易活动的形式更加丰富多样。与此相对应，伊斯兰教和当地传统宗教文化也都有了很大的发展，其中伊斯兰教的发展对西非日后的历史进程影响更加深远。在没有官方支持的情况下，伊斯兰教注重向民间社会的渗透，教团组织开始普及，并在随后与苏菲主义合流，形成了苏菲主义教团，建立起了自己的社会、经济基础，当地伊斯兰文化得到了整理和发展，教士们提出了针对社会问题的改革主张，并在上几内亚地区付诸行动，从理论和实践上为未来的西非历史进程奠定了基础。%West Africa has experienced the disintegration of the empire, The historical process of the state and society integration during this period. There were have new development in the administrative institutions, economic operation mode, religion, culture and other aspects. Centralized trend has become the mainstream in the country's political development and the economic and trade activities in the more diverse form. Under this situation, Islam and local traditional religious culture also has the very big development. Especially the development of Islam more profound influence on the historical process of west Africa. Without official support, Islam started its infiltration to civil society, the religious organizations began to spread, and combined with Sufism during the followed era, formed Sufism Orders, The Orders built up their own social and economic base, advanced the development of local Islamic cultures, Islamic clergies put forward the reform advocates for social problems, and put the action in upper-guinea region. They laid a foundation from the theory and practice for West African
Zohreh Salehi Siavoshani
Full Text Available De 1941 a 1953, a la luz del nuevo clima que se respiraba en el país, el gobierno, la asamblea nacional, las embajadas extranjeras y los militares, el clero y las fuerzas religiosas formaron los nuevos círculos de influencia que podrían jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo socio-político del país.El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar las acciones, las actitudes y el desarrollo interno de los principales grupos religiosos e islámicos de este período, así como su interacción y su impacto en el movimiento de nacionalización de la industria del petróleo. ¿En qué medida las perspectivas y los métodos de estos grupos estaban en consonancia con las demás son alguna de las cuestiones que el autor trata de responder sin tomar parte en cualquiera de ellos, y contra todos las limitaciones impuestas en este trabajo. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de recursos referidos a este tema representa una imagen tridimensional de las actividades de los grupos religiosos y de los clérigos. Sin duda, todos los grupos mencionados anteriormente no fueron de la misma índole, y debido a los puntos de vista heterogéneos y a las tácticas y pactos que entre ellos acordaron hicieron que su perduraran poco tiempo.Palabras clave: Religión, Irán, petróleo, industria, reglas. ______________________________Abstract:From 1941 to 1953, in the light of new atmosphere in post-Reza Shah rule, further to the court, government, the national assembly, foreign embassies and the military men, the clergy and the religious forces were one of the new but influential circles of power playing important role in the socio political developments and events of the country. The present article seeks to review the actions, attitudes and the inner development of the main religious and Islamic groups of this period, their interaction and their impact on the movement of nationalization of oil industry. To what extent the outlook and methods of these groups were
The aims of this study are to examine the constructs of transformational leadership as they played out for one nurse who steered significant change in the care of the dying in the United States and to provide deeper insights into how nursing leaders can design and direct meaningful changes in the delivery of health care in turbulent times. A significant problem was identified in how the terminally ill were treated in this country post World War II. The introduction of hospice care in the United States represented a paradigm shift in how the health care community viewed and treated dying patients. Critical to this transformation was the work of Florence Wald, who organized with community leaders, clergy, and other health care providers to create a vision and synergy around palliative care. She was instrumental in opening the first American hospice in 1971 in Connecticut. Within 15 years, there were more than 1,000 hospices in the United States. A single case study design was chosen for this qualitative research grounded in the theory of transformational leadership (J.M. Burns, 1978). The study used narrative inquiry to conduct an in-depth exploration of Florence Wald's transformational leadership and the perceptions of the group of founders she organized to conceptualize, build, and open the first hospice in the United States. The participants chosen for interview were involved directly in the designing, planning, and beginning of the first American hospice. In addition to the seven in-depth interviews conducted in 2007 in Connecticut, this research examined three groups of documents from The Florence and Henry Wald Archives in the Yale University Library. The findings from both interviews and the Yale Archives showed that Florence Wald based her leadership on the strong values of reverence for life and social justice for all. To direct meaningful change, Florence Wald elevated the consciousness of her hospice team by conducting a 2-year research study on the needs
Full Text Available A contribution to the image of Polish Livonia nobility in the Latvian historical sources and studies of the early Twentieth Century Polish literature devoted to the role of the Poles in shaping Latvian culture presents unanimity as far as the positive role and results of this influence are concerned. However diametrically opposite Latvian perspective particularly clear in the first years of the existence of independent Latvia needs to be highlighted here. Contacts between the Latvians and Poles and their cultures differed in different parts of Latvia since the beginning of the Polish presence in this country. The period called ‘the Polish times in Latvia’ in Latvian historical sources lasted the longest in Latgale (1561-1772, i.e. in the so called Polish Livonia. The Polish influence on Latvian folk culture was the strongest there. This period, especially the scale of the influence of Polish culture on Latvian native culture as well as general development of this region, was strongly criticized by numerous Latvian historians. The interest of the Polish noblemen in developing Latgale was subjected to criticism, too. Considering these lands as their own the Poles were not interested in propagating national ideas among local village people who, according to the Polish nobles, were to succumb to complete polonisation. Great influence of the Polish nobility on culture, economy and creating the national identity of the Latgalian Latvians, the policy of the Polish clergy and polonisation of the local people resulted in a negative opinion of the Polish influence in the Latvian lands. The study is an attempt to outline the issue which Polish researchers have not paid attention to so far. Nevertheless, regarding rich material it needs detailed research on a large scale. Przyczynek do obrazu szlachty Inflant Polskich w łotewskich źródłach i opracowaniach historycznych początku XX w. W literaturze polskiej poświęconej roli Polaków w kszta
évelopper entre 1380 et 1430 des images de l’Immaculée Conception.Whilst the issue of the theological debate on the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin is well-known for the 15th century in France, the contemporary devotion of laymen for the feast of the Conception is not as much documented. Yet, from the time of Charles V of France, several sources indicate that Kings of France and their circle get interested by this new belief. When the Dominican Jean de Monzon preaches against the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin in the University of Paris in 1387, Charles VI decides to dismiss his dominican confessor and not to choose him any more in this order. Theologians in favour of the Immaculate Conception, such as Michel de Creney, Pierre d’Ailly or Jean Gerson, members of the secular clergy and trained in the College de Navarre in Paris, spread their influence at the French court in the beginning of the 15th century. If the context seemed to be at the royal court in favour of the new belief yet greatly disputed, were artists working for the King or his family encouraged to develop images representing the Immaculate conception of the Virgin? Several elements can make think so. A new iconographical cycle on the Virgin’s Infancy is created in Books of Hours commissioned by the powerful laymen of the time. It shows the episode of the Golden Gate linked to the Virgin’s Annunciation. The Virgin represented as the Woman of the Apocalypse is more and more painted, in manuscripts as well as in small devotional panels made for Jean de Berry or Louis d’Orléans. Those new themes seem to indicate, more by the connexion with the favourable context than by their intrisic meaning, that artists commissioned by the King or “Princes des Fleurs de Lys” created between 1380 and 1430 images representing the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin.
李有福; 姜泓; 甘培春; 李生梅; 鲁青; 丁生荣; 魏生英; 安永清; 李增月; 何多龙; 李勇; 张发荣
Objective To investigate epidemical situation of drinking-tea fluomsis in Qinghai province, in order to understand diet structure to provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control and the scientific research. Methods In 2007, according to "Scheme for Survey on Epidemical Drinking-tea Fluorosis", we carried out an customized investigation in 28 counties, 3 townships sampled in each county, 2 villages in each township, 50 adults and 50 school-age children in each village; at same time, 1 monk temple was sampled in each county, 50 clergy adults and 50 children in each temple. Then we investigated the resident income, the diet structure, the brick tea consumption and so on, and applied Dean method to diagnose dental fluorosis. The patient number estimated based on the survey result. Results ①Yeady per capita income of people was mostly 500 - ,结合青海省具体情况对28个县进行调查,每个县抽查3个乡、1个镇,每个乡(镇)抽查2个行政村(居委会),每个村(居委会)抽查50名成人、50名学龄儿童;同时每个县抽查1座寺院,每座寺院抽查成人僧侣50名、儿童僧侣50名.人户调查居民经济收入、饮食结构、砖茶消耗量等.对全部调查对象用Dean法诊断氟斑牙,对同仁、达日、互助县和隆务寺16岁以上成人用200 mA X线机拍片诊断氟骨症,并用调查结果估算全省饮茶型氟中毒的患病人数.结果 ①居民家庭年人均收入大部分在500～<1000元,其次在1000～<3000元;牧业区居民经济收入略高于农业区、半农半牧区和城镇居民.②居民饮食结构,牧业区及半农半牧区主食以面粉为主,其次是糌粑及大米;农业区及城镇主食以面粉为主,其次是大米及糌杷;各地区副食均为肉制品占多数,其次为奶制品,蛋类比例很小.③经常食用的蔬菜为土豆、白菜及青椒,每日食用的家庭占62.82%(6497/10 343);水果以苹果、梨及橘子为主,每月食用不足10次的家庭占75
imperative to be addressed by all parties, especially the Muslim community in Indonesia. Therefore, social responsibility is not only on the government but also religious. In other words, peace-conflict societies also rely on contributions creation of a peaceful religious people, including the Muslims in this country. Robert N. Bellah, a sociologist of religion from the United States, said that through the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia, Islam has become a huge multicultural civilization, mighty and awesome to sur pass the greatness of the country the birth of Islam, the Arabian Peninsula. In this context, tolerance and mutual respect for religious differences, as revealed Wilfred Cantwell Smith, needs to be maintained and cultivated. Third, religious norms. As a noble teachings of religion would be a strong foundation for the clergy in general to create conditions so that no profanity. In this case, religious inter pretations is not expected based solely on the text, but also the context of that text can be captured according mean age meaning. The debate between the flow taaqquli are based on the power ratio/reason and the flow of taabbudi which relies on aspects of the text has been represented by two streams, namely Mutazilah and Ashariyah, the lessons of the past can be very interesting. Keywords: Islam, Multicultural.
Full Text Available The representation of legitimacy in Sassanian coins (Kavad I and Zamasp erasIn each era, social, cultural and political aspects, and their changes have a prominent role on the creation of the Governmental artworks that tries to act as a public media to show their power and legitimacy trends. This study wishes to survey the symbols of Sassanian coins and the role of this visual media from the power and legitimacy point of view during Kavad I (r. 488-531 AD and Zamasp (r. 496-499 AD eras, as a challenging period of the Sassanid dynasty. We try to show how Sassanid kings used artworks, especially coins, because of their spreads to transfer their legitimacy messages, thus they used it as the most principal media to show the power and its changes to publics. The result shows the changes during the first reign of Kavad I and after his deposing by clergies due to supporting the Mazdakites doctrine, raise of Zamasp to the throne and the second reign of Kavad I that they used various icons and symbols rooted in Zoroastrian beliefs to show their power and legitimacy according to condition changes. The emphasis of Kavad I on astrologic signs as the symbol of charisma and, in contrast, the representation of Zamasp, the successor of Kavad I after deposing, in the form of receiving diadem as a sign of his superiority and power, and the reuse of traditional symbols of legitimacy by Kavad I in the combination of diadem as the representation of his legitimacy after his second reign are some documents of visual changes of this challenging period. Wizerunkowa legitymizacja władzy na monetach Sasanidów (za Kavada i za I ZamaspaW każdej epoce zmienne czynniki społeczne, kulturowe i polityczne mają istotne znaczenie dla tworzenia dzieł sztuki, które w sferze publicznej mają się stać nośnikiem legitymizowania przez sprawujących rządy ich władzy politycznej. Celem niniejszego studium jest zbadanie symboli przedstawionych na monetach bitych przez w
Ulaş Töre SİVRİOĞLU
Full Text Available Sassanids (224-651 have been the most potent foes of RomanEmpire more than four centuries. On the contrary, their cutting edgeand breakthrough innovations have been inspired by both RomanEmpire and Byzantine. As a result of that influence, Romans havebegun to give much importance to cavalry class more than any time inthe course of Roman Empire. Yet, Sassanids have been militarilyinfluenced by Turkish clans who have been living in the area ofMediterranean and middle Asia prairies, in terms of war tactics andarmed forces.Especially,in development of cavalry class and infoundation of heavy armored cavalry legions; Sassanids have exampledmiddle Asian military organizations. As a consequence of culturalintegrations during late antique age and early medieval era, both longdistant weapons and short distant weapons have emerged in the area offrontal Asian districts. Additionally, Sassanids have been highlydeveloped Empire in comparison with it’s time. Except for their armedforces, strategies of war, innovations in manufacturing weapons;Sassanids have also had jumbled military – bureaucracy class. Forinstance; they have appointed clergy class to the army and due to thefact that they have given importance to religious provocations duringwar time, they have occurred principles of war at the age of MedievalEra in terms of ideology. Archbishops of Sassanids namely Mobedan-ıMobeds have played key points in both military and political issues.Military system of Sassanids, martial bureaucracies , spying and theirpostal service organizations have been influenced and inspired byPersians (present time Iran and those who were rulers of thesurroundings of Iran’s called; Abbasid, Buwayhid, Seljuks, Ghaznavids.Furthermore; both fundamentals of military organizations of theSassanids and their military jargon have been mostly accepted byfurther conqueror governments; for instance, Turkish Muslimgovernments and Muslim Arabs. All in all, martial innovations
Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one
southeastern Europe. An important role in these confrontations has played Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire. Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 ended with the signing of the Peace of Bucharest on May 16/28 1812. Following this treaty, the Eastern territory of Moldavia, called in Jassy the territory “beyond the Prut River” was annexed by the Tsarist Empire. The new administration has taken a number of measures which were aimed at strengthening the Tsarist administration in the new acquired territory. An important part of the annexed territory previously have belonged to the so-called Ottoman „re’âyâ”, i.e. territory administered directly by Istanbul which was set up in Moldavia during the late 15th century - beginning of the 18th century. Besides the major issues that had to settle the tsarist administration, there was the issue of status of the so-called pious Muslim properties that were established on the territory of the Ottoman administrative units throughout the centuries. The methods used were simple, but highly effective. Since almost entirely Muslim population left the territory after 1812, the mosques have been transformed to Orthodox churches with the approval of the high clergy and Tsarist civil authorities. On August 21, 1813 the Tsar’s Alexander I Decree established a new „Archdiocese of Chisinau and Hotin” which legalized turning mosques into Christian Orthodox churches, the latter being one of the main methods of imposing Russian spiritual dominance in Bessarabia.
Full Text Available Belorussian zamowy and other folk medicine texts as evidence for linguistic and cultural permeation in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania This paper presents the lexical material stored in the Belorussian zamowy: names of holidays, prayers, designations of the sacred and clergy portaits, as well as names and nationalities. The documentation, coming from two sets of Belorussian zamowy (addresses given in references, shows clearly that these texts – which usually come with a classic construction, important for those telling them – preserved traces of multilingualism, different religions and dialects, as well as the information about the nationalities residing in the area. Some lexemes (or groups of lexemes mix two or three languages. What is more, it often occurs that literary language and the standard variety (Polish are mixed with Belorussian dialects, which stems from the historical circumstances the area studied. Such information could be preserved in zamowy because słowa or szepty (as they were called had strictly defined structure, and had to include certain lexemes that always came in the same pre-defined order. Белорусские заговоры и другие тексты народного лечения как свидетельство взаимопроникновения языков на территории бывшего Великого княжества Литовского Статья представляет лексический материал, содержащийся в белoрусских заговорах, который касается названий праздников, молитв, определений изображений святых и священников, а также имен святых и национальностей. Документация, почерпнутая из двух книг белoрусских заговоров, выходные данные к