WorldWideScience

Sample records for clergy

  1. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  2. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  3. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

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    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  4. Training Community Clergy in Serious Illness: Balancing Faith and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Sarah E; Weissman, Ross; Chow, Vinca; Smith, Patrick T; Slack, Bethany; Voytenko, Vitaliy; Balboni, Tracy A; Balboni, Michael J

    2018-06-06

    Community-based clergy are highly engaged in helping seriously ill patients address spiritual concerns at the end of life (EOL). While they desire EOL training, no data exist in guiding how to conceptualize a clergy-training program. The objective of this study was used to identify best practices in an EOL training program for community clergy. As part of the National Clergy Project on End-of-Life Care, the project conducted key informant interviews and focus groups with active clergy in five US states (California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas). A diverse purposive sample of 35 active clergy representing pre-identified racial, educational, theological, and denominational categories hypothesized to be associated with more intensive utilization of medical care at the EOL. We assessed suggested curriculum structure and content for clergy EOL training through interviews and focus groups for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Thematic analysis identified key themes around curriculum structure, curriculum content, and issues of tension. Curriculum structure included ideas for targeting clergy as well as lay congregational leaders and found that clergy were open to combining resources from both religious and health-based institutions. Curriculum content included clergy desires for educational topics such as increasing their medical literacy and reviewing pastoral counseling approaches. Finally, clergy identified challenging barriers to EOL training needing to be openly discussed, including difficulties in collaborating with medical teams, surrounding issues of trust, the role of miracles, and caution of prognostication. Future EOL training is desired and needed for community-based clergy. In partnering together, religious-medical training programs should consider curricula sensitive toward structure, desired content, and perceived clergy tensions.

  5. How Community Clergy Provide Spiritual Care: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Clergy End-of-Life Education.

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    LeBaron, Virginia T; Smith, Patrick T; Quiñones, Rebecca; Nibecker, Callie; Sanders, Justin J; Timms, Richard; Shields, Alexandra E; Balboni, Tracy A; Balboni, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Community-based clergy are highly engaged in helping terminally ill patients address spiritual concerns at the end of life (EOL). Despite playing a central role in EOL care, clergy report feeling ill-equipped to spiritually support patients in this context. Significant gaps exist in understanding how clergy beliefs and practices influence EOL care. The objective of this study was to propose a conceptual framework to guide EOL educational programming for community-based clergy. This was a qualitative, descriptive study. Clergy from varying spiritual backgrounds, geographical locations in the U.S., and race/ethnicities were recruited and asked about optimal spiritual care provided to patients at the EOL. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, and analyzed following principles of grounded theory. A final set of themes and subthemes were identified through an iterative process of constant comparison. Participants also completed a survey regarding experiences ministering to the terminally ill. A total of 35 clergy participated in 14 individual interviews and two focus groups. Primary themes included Patient Struggles at EOL and Clergy Professional Identity in Ministering to the Terminally Ill. Patient Struggles at EOL focused on existential questions, practical concerns, and difficult emotions. Clergy Professional Identity in Ministering to the Terminally Ill was characterized by descriptions of Who Clergy Are ("Being"), What Clergy Do ("Doing"), and What Clergy Believe ("Believing"). "Being" was reflected primarily by manifestations of presence; "Doing" by subthemes of religious activities, spiritual support, meeting practical needs, and mistakes to avoid; "Believing" by subthemes of having a relationship with God, nurturing virtues, and eternal life. Survey results were congruent with interview and focus group findings. A conceptual framework informed by clergy perspectives of optimal spiritual care can guide EOL educational programming for clergy. Copyright

  6. Predicting Burnout, Conflict Management Style, and Turnover among Clergy

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    Beebe, Ronald S.

    2007-01-01

    Typically, the literature on clergy burnout employs an individual model and describes the pastoral role from the perspective of multiple demands or offers prescriptions for recovery. Although some literature examines the systemic nature of clergy burnout, little attention is paid to the internal psychological dynamics surrounding social…

  7. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  8. Applying Attention Restoration Theory to Understand and Address Clergy's Need to Restore Cognitive Capacity.

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    Gill, Chelsea; Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2018-02-06

    Attention Restoration Theory is applied to explore the causes and consequences of mental fatigue in clergy and suggest practical interventions to restore cognitive wellbeing. Previous research has investigated the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of clergy, but has largely neglected clergy cognitive wellbeing. Due to the demanding nature of their work, clergy are particularly susceptible to mental fatigue and depletion of their capacity to maintain attention. Symptoms include inability to focus attention, inhibit distractions, make decisions or solve problems. Mental fatigue can be overcome, and cognitive capacity restored, by spending time in restorative environments that allow directed attention to rest.

  9. Exodus of clergy: The role of leadership in responding to the call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaders play an important role in clergy's response to their call. Toxic leadership, also known as the dark side of leadership, negatively influences their decision to remain in full-time pastoral ministry. There is a shortage of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and a distribution or displacement challenge facing the ...

  10. The Influence of Work-Related Stressors on Clergy Husbands and Their Wives.

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    Morris, Michael Lane; Blanton, Priscilla White

    1994-01-01

    Assessed predictive power of 5 work-related stressors identified in clergy family literature on criterion variables of marital, parent, and life satisfaction among 272 clergy husbands and their wives from 6 denominations. Findings supported hypotheses that work-related stressors were inversely related to marital, parental, and life satisfaction…

  11. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

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    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  12. Could Clergy serve as a Resource in the Management Alcohol Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria, heavy alcohol consumption as well as alcohol related problems are rapidly increasing. Individuals with substance related problems do not present to medical services early and may seek alternative sources of care such as the clergy. The clergy may be uniquely positioned as an easily accessible ...

  13. Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy.

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    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David

    2013-12-01

    The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health.

  14. “Give us this day our daily bread” – Clergy's lived religion in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to reflect on how clergy, working in Pretoria central areas, live out (the external dimension) and experience (the internal dimension) their faith in their everyday life. Thirteen clergy were briefly interviewed on an individual basis and then asked to keep a diary for two months. Four of the interviewed ...

  15. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

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    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  16. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  17. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter's Thesis.

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    Uecker, Jeremy E; Lucke, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites-clergy-and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites.

  18. Closeness to God among those doing God's work: a spiritual well-being measure for clergy.

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    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.

  19. The appreciation of the spiritual in mental illness: a qualitative study of beliefs among clergy in the UK.

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    Leavey, Gerard

    2010-09-01

    Clergy in the UK continue to provide health and social care services. However, collaboration between mental health services and clergy may be problematic, particularly in the resolution of conflicting beliefs and therapeutic modalities. For example, belief in demonic possession and other supernatural causes of mental illness, which are contentious among secular medical practitioners, remain prevalent in many ethnoreligious communities. Thus, interpretations of illness by clergy within health systems may be crucial to appropriate intervention for people with mental illness. However, clergy conceptualizations of suffering also reveal something about the secularization within religious institutions through the despiritualization of particular phenomena. This paper on Christian clergy beliefs and attitudes to supernatural explanations, describes how the negotiation of such beliefs are complex and often equivocal among mainstream clergy but integral to the Pentecostal churches and evangelical clergy in the mainstream, institutional churches. These beliefs and their implications for collaboration with psychiatry are discussed in the context of a rapidly changing religious and cultural landscape.

  20. An Experimental Comparative Study of Clergies and Academics’ View on Religiosity Criteria

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    Seyed Hossein Serajzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper clergies and academics' View on Religiosity Criteria will study and compare. Religiosity criterion is considered as the principle based on which the extent of religiosity of people is evaluated.Based on the sociological theories of Weber, Stark and Girth about the relationship between religious understandings of different groups and their social status and situations and on the basis of secularization theories, and also considering the fact that clergies and academics enjoy different social characteristics, particularly with regard to their relation with academic institutions and modern values, it was hypothesized that clergies and academics criteria for religiosity vary and academics put more focus on general moral aspects and less emphasis on ritualistic, collective and juridical aspects of religiosity.For this aim, three samples of clergies, academics and academic clergies compared by conducting a questionnaire in which the respondents decided on the significance of the items of a multidimensional religiosity scale. The data revealed that academics and clergies emphasized differently on various aspects of religiosity. While clerics focused on all aspects and dimensions of religiosity, academics put primarily stress on moral aspects of religiosity and put less stress on collective rituals. The diversity could be explained based on the differences of social situation and educational tradition of clergies and academics.

  1. Comprehending and Rehabilitating Roman Catholic Clergy Offenders of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Many have studied Roman Catholic clergy who have sexually abused children, but the range of investigations remains disconnected. This article brings together various disciplinary perspectives to form a comprehensive view. A review of the literature is first undertaken to comprehend how clergy offenders have been conceptualized in psychosocial, sociocultural, and moral-religious studies. These perspectives are then used as a foundation for examining how these clergy can be rehabilitated. Three rehabilitative modalities--psychological treatment, rehabilitation through restorative justice, and ritual healing--are explored. The article concludes with a discussion of the insights gained from the literature review and how the modalities can be advanced in an interdependent and considered approach.

  2. A Pilot Survey of Clergy Regarding Mental Health Care for Children

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    Leigh Blalock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety, past experiences with behavioral health workers, and resources available through their home institutions. Overall, surveyed clergy support collaborations to improve childhood mental health. However, they vary considerably in their confidence with recognizing mental illness in children and perceive significant barriers to collaborating with mental health providers.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Utilization of Prayer and Clergy Counseling by Infertile US Women Desiring Pregnancy.

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    Collins, Stephen C; Kim, Soorin; Chan, Esther

    2017-11-29

    Religion can have a significant influence on the experience of infertility. However, it is unclear how many US women turn to religion when facing infertility. Here, we examine the utilization of prayer and clergy counsel among a nationally representative sample of 1062 infertile US women. Prayer was used by 74.8% of the participants, and clergy counsel was the most common formal support system utilized. Both prayer and clergy counsel were significantly more common among black and Hispanic women. Healthcare providers should acknowledge the spiritual needs of their infertile patients and ally with clergy when possible to provide maximally effective care.

  4. Emotional Eating Mediates the Relationship Between Role Stress and Obesity in Clergy.

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    Manister, Nancy N; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between role stress, emotional eating, and obesity in clergy. A random sample of United States Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy who met the study criteria (N = 430), response rate 38%, completed the Role Stress and Emotional Eating Behavior Scales, and self-reported height and weight for Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation. Obesity was high (81.4% overweight/obese, 36.7% obese), and emotional eating partially mediated the relationship between role stress and obesity. This study tested relations of the Neuman Systems Model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with mental illness. ... in the care and pathways to orthodox mental health services of the mentally ill. ... that our mental hospitals seem more like prisons than where the mentally ill ...

  6. «School» educational level of provincial Russian Town’s clergy (Rzhev and Ostashkov

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    Matison Andrei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available History of clergy position candadates’ education in two towns of Tver province -Rzhev and Ostashkov - is covered in the present article. Questions in consideration are as follows: total number of clergymen, that attended special training, or missed it completely, how different amount of classes attended at seminary or religious school influence service position occupation and overall career advancement.

  7. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

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    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  8. Demand, Support, and Perception in Family-Related Stress among Protestant Clergy.

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    Lee, Cameron; Iverson-Gilbert, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Studies of clergy have emphasized the effects of stressors inherent to the profession and the impact of these on the minister's personal and family life. A model of family stress was employed to extend the focus to include three classes of variables: demands, social support, and perception. Results indicated that perception variables are more…

  9. Clergy, nobility and crown in Decadência

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    Yi Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.No presente trabalho tenciono indagar as causas internas que dirigiram o império marítimo português à decadência. Depois de uma revisitação da historiografia relativa ao declínio do Estado da Índia, procedo a uma análise do triângulo de Monarca-Igreja-Nobreza durante os Descobrimentos e dos seus papéis respectivos no evoluir do Império português. É verificável que a absolutização da Coroa, a sobre-expansão do clero e a potenciação da aristocracia tornaram-se as características mais salientes e duradouras na estrutura social portuguesa depois de o país se lançar nas façanhas marítimas, do que resultou a agricultura prejudicada e indústria atrasada. A predominância dessas três instituições, por um lado, impediu a ascensão da burguesia, assim dificultando a transformação da economia

  10. Confessional Records as a Source of the History of the Pskov Church and Clergy of the 1727-1762

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    Postnikov Arsenii

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of the article is to introduce of the new mass sources for the research of the Pskov church and clergy into the scientific circulation. The work is based on the Pskov confessional records of the 1727–1762, kept in State Archive of the Pskov Region (SAPR, for the first time raised in full amount for research. The general historiography on the subject as well as history of introduction of the confessional records into church usage are presented in the article. Results of systematization of the confessional records given have afforded to defi ne the cast of the functioning parishes in Pskov. As a whole it was identified 597 confessional records of 57 “Pskov Town” churches for the period of research. They contain the extensive knowledge on the personnel of Church clergy and the number of white clergy in Pskov during the first decades of the synod period in the Russian Orthodox Church history. On their basis it is possible to find out about the time and periods of clergy personnel’s service in every temple, about movements by the “ladder of ranks”, that shows life path of the clergy representatives in the years when there was no service records and clergy accounts, containing biography data. The remarkable feature of the confessional records is that they are the fi rst source to appear by time where with the highest degree of completeness the people “spiritual and their household” were taken into account. There are data given here about all members of the priesthood and clergy families and their age (including female part, that opens the wide opportunities for reconstruction of the clergy representatives’ genealogies and study of the spiritual estate as a whole. Refs 16 names.

  11. Seeking and Accepting: U.S. Clergy Theological and Moral Perspectives Informing Decision Making at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin J; Chow, Vinca; Enzinger, Andrea C; Lam, Tai-Chung; Smith, Patrick T; Quiñones, Rebecca; Baccari, Andrew; Philbrick, Sarah; White-Hammond, Gloria; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy A; Balboni, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    People with serious illness frequently rely on religion/spirituality to cope with their diagnosis, with potentially positive and negative consequences. Clergy are uniquely positioned to help patients consider medical decisions at or near the end of life within a religious/spiritual framework. We aimed to examine clergy knowledge of end-of-life (EOL) care and beliefs about the role of faith in EOL decision making for patients with serious illness. Key informant interviews, focus groups, and survey. A purposive sample of 35 active clergy in five U.S. states as part of the National Clergy End-of-Life Project. We assessed participant knowledge of and desire for further education about EOL care. We transcribed interviews and focus groups for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Clergy had poor knowledge of EOL care; 75% desired more EOL training. Qualitative analysis revealed a theological framework for decision making in serious illness that balances seeking life and accepting death. Clergy viewed comfort-focused treatments as consistent with their faith traditions' views of a good death. They employed a moral framework to determine the appropriateness of EOL decisions, which weighs the impact of multiple factors and upholds the importance of God-given free will. They viewed EOL care choices to be the primary prerogative of patients and families. Clergy described ambivalence about and a passive approach to counseling congregants about decision making despite having defined beliefs regarding EOL care. Poor knowledge of EOL care may lead clergy to passively enable congregants with serious illness to pursue potentially nonbeneficial treatments that are associated with increased suffering.

  12. Work-related psychological health among clergy serving in the Presbyterian Church (USA) : testing the idea of balanced affect

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew; Robbins, Mandy; Wulff, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory (FBI) conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. In a random sample of 744 clergy (539 clergymen and 205 clergywomen) serving in The Presbyterian Church (USA), negative affect was assessed by the Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry (SEEM) and positive affect was assessed by the Satisfaction in Ministry Scale (SIMS). At the ...

  13. African American Clergy Perspectives About the HIV Care Continuum: Results From a Qualitative Study in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Parker, Sharon; McCoy, Katryna; Monger, Mauda; Bender, Melverta; Poceta, Joanna; Harvey, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; Johnson, Kendra; Ransome, Yusuf; Sutten Coats, Cassandra; Chan, Phil; Mena, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Mississippi has some of the most pronounced racial disparities in HIV infection in the country; African Americans comprised 37% of the Mississippi population but represented 80% of new HIV cases in 2015. Improving outcomes along the HIV care continuum, including linking and retaining more individuals and enhancing adherence to medication, may reduce the disparities faced by African Americans in Mississippi. Little is understood about clergy's views about the HIV care continuum. We assessed knowledge of African American pastors and ministers in Jackson, Mississippi about HIV and the HIV care continuum. We also assessed their willingness to promote HIV screening and biomedical prevention technologies as well as efforts to enhance linkage and retention in care with their congregations. Four focus groups were conducted with 19 African American clergy. Clergy noted pervasive stigma associated with HIV and believed they had a moral imperative to promote HIV awareness and testing; they provided recommendations on how to normalize conversations related to HIV testing and treatment. Overall, clergy were willing to promote and help assist with linking and retaining HIV positive individuals in care but knew little about how HIV treatment can enhance prevention or new biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Clergy underscored the importance of building coalitions to promote a collective local response to the epidemic. The results of this study highlight important public health opportunities to engage African American clergy in the HIV care continuum in order to reduce racial disparities in HIV infection.

  14. Assessing clergy work-related psychological health : reliability and validity of the Francis Burnout Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Laycock, Patrick; Crea, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory (FBI) conceptualised good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. In the FBI negative affect is assessed by the Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry (SEEM) and positive affect is assessed by the Satisfaction in Ministry Scale (SIMS). In support of the idea of balanced affect, previous work had shown a significant interaction between the effe...

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Social Support and Clergy Family Stress among Korean-American Baptist Pastors and Their Wives

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    Shin, Min Young

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The first problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the clergy family stress scores as measured by the Clergy Family Inventory (CFLI) and the specified predictor variables of social support among Korean-American Baptist pastors. The specified predictor variables included tangible support, appraisal support,…

  16. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

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    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  17. How do clergy in the Afrikaans-speaking churches deal with sexuality and HIV prevention in young people? Is the message clear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta C. van Dyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how clergy are dealing with HIV prevention and sexuality education of young people in their congregations. An electronic questionnaire was filled in by 142 clergy from white Afrikaans-speaking churches in the Reformed tradition. Results showed that 77% clergy believed that unmarried young people in their congregations are sexually active. More than 85% clergy agreed that it is the task of the church to provide sexuality and HIV prevention education to young congregants. However, not many clergy (13% offered HIV prevention programmes for young people in their own congregations. The main HIV prevention message 85% of clergy were prepared to share with young congregants was �abstinence only� or �your body is the temple of God�. Only 15% clergy (significantly more female clergy were prepared to offer comprehensive sexuality education (abstinence PLUS programmes. The HIV prevention message of the church should at least be in line with the lived experiences and reality of its youth in today�s society. The church can no longer afford to alienate young people through moralism only. She needs an approach that satisfies both morality and reality.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has implications for the fields of psychology, HIV and AIDS research and pastoral care. It challenges the way the church prepares young people to cope with HIV in a modern society and suggests change in terms of a greater participation in the sexuality education of young people.

  18. Preparing for Rural Ministry: A Qualitative Analysis of Curriculum Used in Theological Education to Prepare Clergy for Ministry in a Rural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Kenneth Mark

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of rural clergy through their educational preparation is important. Unfortunately, there is lack of research and understanding about the educational preparation of clergy to work in rural communities. This qualitative content analysis of course descriptions, goals and objectives and an analysis of the content covered in the…

  19. A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of an RCT in Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Turner, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Gary G; Yao, Jia; Li, Xiang-Fang; Eagle, David E; Meyer, Rachel A; Williams, Redford B; Swift, Robin Y; Moore, H Edgar; Kolkin, Melanie A; Weisner, Carl C; Rugani, Katherine M; Hough, Holly J; Williams, Virginia P; Toole, David C

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of a 2-year, multicomponent health intervention (Spirited Life) targeting metabolic syndrome and stress simultaneously. An RCT using a three-cohort multiple baseline design was conducted in 2010-2014. Participants were United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, U.S., in 2010, invited based on occupational status. Of invited 1,745 clergy, 1,114 consented, provided baseline data, and were randomly assigned to immediate intervention (n=395), 1-year waitlist (n=283), or 2-year waitlist (n=436) cohorts for a 48-month trial duration. The 2-year intervention consisted of personal goal setting and encouragement to engage in monthly health coaching, an online weight loss intervention, a small grant, and three workshops delivering stress management and theological content supporting healthy behaviors. Participants were not blinded to intervention. Trial outcomes were metabolic syndrome (primary) and self-reported stress and depressive symptoms (secondary). Intervention effects were estimated in 2016 in an intention-to-treat framework using generalized estimating equations with adjustment for baseline level of the outcome and follow-up time points. Log-link Poisson generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for binary outcomes; mean differences were used for continuous/score outcomes. Baseline prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.9% and depression was 11.4%. The 12-month intervention effect showed a benefit for metabolic syndrome (PR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79, 0.94, pstress scores. The Spirited Life intervention improved metabolic syndrome prevalence in a population of U.S. Christian clergy and sustained improvements during 24 months of intervention. These findings offer support for long-duration behavior change interventions and population-level interventions that allow participants to set their own health goals. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01564719. Copyright

  20. Missed Opportunities: Early Attempts to Obtain Bukovynian Orthodox Clergy for the Ukrainian Pioneers of Alberta

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    Jaroslaw Ihor Balan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Immigration from the Austro-Hungarian crown land of Bukovyna to the Canadian West was initiated in 1897-98, continuing thereafter until the outbreak of the First World War. Comprised mostly of ethnic Ukrainians, but including a small number of Romanians and families of mixed marriages, the peasant farmers from Bukovyna took out homesteads alongside the fledgling colony established northeast of Edmonton a few years earlier by Ukrainians from Galicia. An immediate concern of the settlers was the lack of any priests to serve their pastoral needs and to provide leadership for the communities that they were struggling to establish in challenging circumstances in the New World. Although itinerant priests dispatched by the Russian Orthodox mission based in San Francisco began visiting the Ukrainian settlers in Alberta beginning in July 1897 at the request of Russophiles among the first Galician homesteaders, the new arrivals from Bukovyna found them to be less than satisfactory because of linguistic and cultural differences. Almost immediately, the Bukovynians began appealing to the Orthodox Church in Bukovyna for clergy who could speak the Bukovynian Ukrainian dialect and “Wallachian,” so that they would not be dependent on priests from the Russian Mission. Despite numerous requests sent to the Metropolitanate of Bukovyna over the course of the next decade and a half—not only from Alberta, but also from other Bukovynian colonies in Canada—no Ukrainian clergy were ever assigned by church officials in Chernivtsi to serve the Orthodox faithful overseas. Drawing on archival sources, press reports and secondary sources, this article reconstructs these efforts by the pioneer era Ukrainian settlers from Bukovyna to obtain Orthodox clergy from their native land, at the same time suggesting reasons for their failure.

  1. Exodus of clergy: The role of leadership in responding to the call

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    Shaun Joynt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaders play an important role in clergy’s response to their call. Toxic leadership, also known as the dark side of leadership, negatively influences their decision to remain in full-time pastoral ministry. There is a shortage of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and a distribution or displacement challenge facing the Protestant church. This shortage adversely affects the future of the church as clergy play an integral part in the preparation of congregants for their works of service (Eph 4:11–12. The purpose of this study was to discover what factors were involved in clergy’s response to the call to full-time pastoral ministry. A practical theological grounded theory approach was used to discover the properties of the category ‘leadership’. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were coded using Glaser and Strauss’s grounded theory methodology. The category of ‘leadership’ includes properties such as favouritism, leaders abdicating responsibilities, leaders taking no action/being inactive, leaders ‘labeling’ subordinates, leaders’ ‘unethical’ behaviour, nepotism, poor conflict handling, poor handling of multi-racial issues, being placed on a pedestal, affirming subordinates and autocratic leadership style. Osmer’s descriptive-empirical task was used as a practical theological lens through which to view the category ‘leadership’. The results indicated three responses by clergy to the call to full-time pastoral ministry: not being called in the first place, a dual call (being bi-vocational or ‘seasonal’ and being called but leaving anyway because of, among other factors, toxic leadership. A steward leadership approach is recommended in response to the dark side of leadership.

  2. People of clergy origin among the elite of Russian Empire (XVIII - first quarter of XIX century

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    Feofanov Aleksandr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present article mechanisms of penetration of persons of clergy origin into the elite of Russian Empire in XVIII - fi rst quarter of XIX century is to be analysed. The term «elite» means the military and state «generals», which achieved 1-5 ranks under the Table of Ranks. We found an extremely small number of people of clergy origin among the elite of Russian Empire. What hindered the advancement of clergy? The author proposes that the significance of the Table of Ranks and of the system of promotion in rank as a social elevator for persons of not-noble origin was overpriced, and also highlights the inertia of pre-Petrine localism. The system of matrimonial ties and of patronage to relatives backed by the economic power based on large land ownership allowed boyar aristocracy get a strong position and high ranks among the new elite during the reforms of Peter the Great. Therefore it was quite difficult for people of clergy and else not-noble origin to achieve high ranks. In addition the Church administration cared about its own personnel and resisted moving of talented seminarists to the civil service. The analysis of the data shows that patronage was one of the decisive factors of vertical social mobility for persons of clergy origin. Many former seminarists entered the civil service, but three cases of seven mentioned in the article are connected with military service. Everyone was under patronage of a powerful authority, often serving as an aide-decamp or a secretary. There were two barriers: the rejection of aristocracy to the priests’ sons and the corporatism of Church administration and education and in general the closedness of clergy of the Synodal period

  3. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

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    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  4. The Bible and evolution: Opinions amongst southern African clergy and theologians from the Reformed church tradition

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    Peet J. van Dyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the present study were to determine the opinions of southern African clergy and theologians (from the Reformed church tradition about evolution and faith and to assess their degree of knowledge regarding the biological theory of evolution. A total of 1720 structured electronic questionnaires were sent out via email to all clergy belonging to the �Nederduitse Gereformeerde� and �Hervormde� churches, of which 89 were received back. The SPSS 20 statistical program was used to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of these data. Most participants were positive about the theory of biological evolution, but expressed the belief that evolution should be seen as a process guided by God. However, most participants failed to appreciate the fact that this view was contrary to the non-teleological nature of the biological theory of evolution and failed to distinguish between what should be accepted in faith and what can be demonstrated or �proved� (e.g. as is common in intelligent design circles. Many participants were not clear about the finer aspects of evolutionary theory and therefore often believed common misconceptions about it. In conclusion, one could say that participants were positive about evolution and, at least nominally, agreed with non-fundamentalist views of the Bible.

  5. 'I think you just learnt as you went along' - community clergy's experiences of and attitudes towards caring for dying people: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhead, Andrew; Speck, Peter; Selman, Lucy

    2016-07-01

    Spiritual distress is a factor associated with poor outcomes at the end of life. Timely interventions, assessing and meeting spiritual distress, among patients are contained within nationally agreed guidance. Community clergy are well placed to work alongside healthcare professionals and chaplains to meet spiritual needs. Qualitative interviews among Christian clergy in two South East London boroughs and a self-completed Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Fourteen clergy were interviewed from six Christian denominations. Participants described their experiences of ordination training and how helpful this had been for their work among Christian communities. Respondents were invited to discuss their knowledge of and involvement with palliative care services. Each interviewee also accounted for their understanding of pastoral care and spiritual care and considered whether any differences existed between these terms and, if so, what they were. Overall, clergy lacked any detailed formal training and had little experience of working with or relating to palliative care providers. Recommendations are made to improve educational opportunities and working relationships. Creating opportunities for clergy and palliative care staff to meet and undertake shared training will enhance the quality and level of care for people dying at home who wish to receive spiritual support. Enabling clergy to develop links with local palliative care centres will enhance confidence for both clergy and staff. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Clergy as collaborators in the delivery of mental health care: an exploratory survey from Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bawo O; Igbinomwanhia, Nosa G; Omoaregba, Joyce O

    2014-08-01

    The paucity of skilled manpower in sub-Saharan Africa limits the delivery of effective interventions for the mentally ill. Individuals with mental disorders and their caregivers frequently consult clergy when mental symptoms cause distress. There is an urgent need for collaboration with nonprofessionals in order to improve mental health care delivery and close the widening treatment gap. Using a cross-sectional descriptive method, we explored clergy's (Christian and Muslim) aetiological attributions for common mental illness (schizophrenia and depression) from Benin City, Nigeria, as well as their willingness to collaborate with mainstream mental health services. We observed that a majority of clergy surveyed were able to correctly identify mental illnesses depicted in vignettes, embraced a multifactorial model of disease causation, and expressed willingness to collaborate with mental health care workers to deliver care. Clergy with a longer duration of formal education, prior mental health training, and Catholic/Protestant denomination expressed a greater willingness to collaborate. Educational interventions are urgently required to facilitate this partnership. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Ministry-Related Burnout and Stress Coping Mechanisms Among Assemblies of God-Ordained Clergy in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visker, Joseph D; Rider, Taylor; Humphers-Ginther, Anastasia

    2017-06-01

    Clergy members suffering from burnout face both personal and professional complications. This study assessed occupational burnout and stress coping mechanisms among ministers affiliated with the Assemblies of God, a denomination that has received little attention in previous burnout-related studies. A cross-sectional design was employed using two instruments with acceptable psychometric properties. Approximately 65 % of those surveyed were either suffering from burnout or on the verge of burnout. Statistical differences in coping mechanism use were found between those who were and were not experiencing some level of burnout. The results of this study add to the existing understanding of occupational burnout among clergy members and ways in which burnout may be alleviated.

  8. The science of clergy work-related psychological health, stress, burnout and coping strategies : introduction to the special section

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this special section of Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion is to provide a forum for examples of current scientific research examining work-related psychological health, stress, burnout and coping strategies among clergy. The collection, comprising three qualitative studies and seven quantitative studies, draws on the work of four established research groups which are making a scientific impact in that area (two in the USA, one in the UK, and one in Australia)....

  9. God and Genes in the Caring Professions: Clinician and Clergy Perceptions of Religion and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Virginia L; Johnson, Rolanda L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how care providers’ perceptions of religion and genetics affect interactions with patients/parishioners. This study investigates clinicians’ and clergy’s perceptions of and experiences with religion and genetics in their clinical and pastoral interactions. An exploratory qualitative study designed to elicit care providers’ descriptions of experiences with religion and genetics in clinical or pastoral interactions. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with members of the caring professions: physicians, nurses, and genetics counselors (clinicians), ministers and chaplains (clergy). Preliminary analysis of qualitative data is presented here. Preliminary analysis highlights four positions in professional perceptions of the relationship between science and faith. Further, differences among professional perceptions appear to influence perceptions of needed or available resources for interactions with religion and genetics. Clinicians’ and clergy’s perceptions of how religion and genetics relate are not defined solely by professional affiliation. These non-role-defined perceptions may affect clinical and pastoral interactions, especially regarding resources for patients and parishioners. PMID:19170091

  10. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [The Royal College of Medicine, the apothecaries and the unlawful pharmaceutical activity of members of clergy, in Lorraine in the second part of the XVIIIth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Every regular text relative to pharmaceutical activities is very precise about the prohibition of "public" exercise of pharmacy, and generally all medical activity, by members of clergy. However, the examination of archives demonstrates that violations of the law are constant, in spite of judicial procedures and sentences. Secular clergy is certainly very implicated, but its activity of preparation and distribution of drugs seems to be relatively discreet. Oppositely, the members of regular clergy open almost community pharmacies in towns and are competitors with apothecaries. Among them, in Lorraine, the most important are Jesuits and sisters in charge of charity houses and hospitals. Jesuits have no diplomas but their installations are very correctly organized. On the contrary, sisters are often poorly proper in pharmacy and their dispensaries appear to be badly managed with drugs of mediocre quality and poorly stored.

  12. The Orthodox Clergy of Romania in the Second Half of the ХІХ Century (on the Materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry»

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    Vera Tserkovnaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the Orthodox Parish Clergy of Romania based on the materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry». The a uthor shows the comparative characteristic of the country and city clergy and considers the level of its education, competency, everyday life and influence on the parish. On the basis of the publications found in «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry» the author analyses widespread among the clergy bribery, drunkenness and dissoluteness. It reveals that the material support and educational process at the seminaries didn't contribute to the increase of the intellectual and moral level of the priests. The article also considers an information about the quantity and the condition of the churches and temples in Romania.

  13. The clergy and social mobility: the phenomenon of «raznochintsy» as the subject of social studies

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    Feofanov Aleksandr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the concept of “raznochintsy” is to be analysed. The author concludes that the “raznochintsy” cannot be considered as a kind of specific social layer. This name is assigned to a variety of categories of the population, and only one thing combines these categories in common - the opposition to other groups, whether nobles, merchants and clergy, depending on the situation, time and place. “raznochintsy” represent the phenomenon of language and social consciousness. Understanding “raznochintsy” as educated simpletons («radical intellectuals of not-noble origin» comes from Herzen and was canonized in Soviet historiography by authority of Lenin. In this definition the emphasis was placed on the opposition to the government, no gentry origin, revolutionary democracy. In modern historiography “raznochintsy” considered as a social group, located at the junction of the main classes (nobility, clergy, townspeople and peasants. “Raznochintsy” were first of all outsiders, marginals. The very first legal mention of “raznochintsy” (1701 determined them by the method of exclusion, as those who were not under the authority of the church offi ce. In the confessional statements “raznochintsy” could refer to nobles (! and domestic peasants, farmers (not included in other categories of the rural population, craft students and merchants. “Raznochintsy” in educational system were determined by opposition to other groups of students. For secular (Moscow University, this group were the nobles. In the religious schools (Kyiv-Mohyla, Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy it was usual to determine “raznochintsy“ by contrast to natives of the clergy, so in the same number of “raznochintsy” nobles may be included.

  14. Activity of Russian Orthodox clergy in establishing parochial schools in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the XX century

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    Ikonnikov Sergei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses activity of parish clergy of Voronezh Diocese in the area of national education in the second half of XIX and the beginning of the XX century. On the basis of archival and published sources the author have made a thorough research on the contribution of Orthodox clergy to improving the literacy rate of population through establishment of church schools on the example of Voronezh Diocese. Overwhelming quantity of peasants had absolutely no education then. Deep-rooted superstitions and prejudices were widespread among the population of Voronezh region. Local selfgovernment institutions carried out establishing national schools, but their eff orts were not suffi cient. Moreover, teachers of national schools weren’t loyal to the traditional orthodox values, preferring to teach children new “progressive” ideas. Church authorities made deacon a staff member in tructure of Russian orthodox parishes to provide more eff ective work. In 1884, government of Alexander III appealed to the church to make better contribution to national education among peasant population of the Empire. The clergy were aware of importance of the newly established responsibilities and actively engaged in the work on opening church schools. Local pastors conducted the work to raise awareness of importance of basic ducation among peasants. This article analyzes the work of Voronezh Diocese Clergy on development church schools, discusses both the positive aspects of activity of parochial clergy and obvious defects. The author comes to the conclusion that the priests had made a signifi cant contribution to the development of public education despite the lack of support from the state, the rejection of church schools by zemstvo and the diffi culties associated with poor economic standing of the clergy.

  15. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PARISH CLERGY IN CIRCUMSTANCES OF GOVERNMENTALIZING OF ORTHODOX CHURCH IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF 19 TH CENTURY

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    Светлана Геннадиевна Зубанова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the experience of the Russian empire of the 19 th century in creating the conditions for social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The author describes such types of the Russian Orthodox Church activities aimed at helping those in need as helping the poor, coordinating the work of poor-houses, collecting donations, supporting parochial schools, poor houses, orphanages, hospitals, construction and reconstruction of churches. The author analyzes the role of the parochial patronages in the charity and social service activities, as well as in the moral and spiritual education of the population. The work of the well-known members of the clergy which forms a part of the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian history in general is given as an example of the above mentioned activities. The article extensively covers the responsibilities of parish priests, the difficulties which they come across, and highlights the reasons for the negative attitude towards the clergy in the late 19 th - early 20 th centuries. The author summarizes the historical lessons of the social activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article provides grounds for the opinion that the social activities of the Church should not interfere with its main religious functions, and the partnership of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in the social projects should contribute to the improvement of people’s life and their moral and spiritual growth.

  16. Image of the clergy in the cinema of the conquest of Mexico: the Black Legend in the “Nuevo Mundo” of Gabriel Retes

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    Manuel Jesús González Manrique

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.

  17. Pilgrimage to Wellness: An Exploratory Report of Rural African American Clergy Perceptions of Church Health Promotion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A.; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl LeMay; Ellison, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Churches serve a vital role in African American communities and may be effective vehicles for health promotion in rural areas where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited than other communities. Endorsement by church leadership is often necessary for the approval of programs and activities within churches; however, little is known about how church leaders perceive their respective churches as health promotion organizations. The purpose of this exploratory pilot was to report perceptions of church capacity to promote health among African American clergy leaders of predominantly African American rural churches. The analysis sample included 27 pastors of churches in Eastern NC who completed a survey on church health promotion capacity and perceived impact on their own health. Capacities assessed included perceived need and impact of health promotion activities, church preparedness to promote health, health promotion actions to take, and the existence and importance of health ministry attributes. The results from this pilot study indicated a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Conducting health programs, displaying health information, collaborations within the church (i.e., kitchen committee working with the health ministry), partnerships outside of the church, and funding were most commonly reported needed capacities. Findings from this exploratory work lay the foundation for the development of future, larger observational studies that can specify some of the key factors associated with organizational change and ultimately health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157

  18. Evangelical Work of Islamic Clergy in Mid-Volga Region. 1945–1980 (Based on Tatar ASSR and Penza Region data

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    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article one of the most important activities of attendants of an Islamic cult – reading sermons in the 1940–1980th on the example of the Tatar ASSR and the Penza region (contents change depending on changes in social and economic life of the Soviet and world community, «modernization» of actually Islamic dogma, reflection in sermons of social and moral problems of the Soviet society, an identification of the religious and communistic principles of morals, etc. is characterized; the social and demographic characteristic of Muslim clergy is given; actions of the Soviet authorities concerning followers of Islam at regional level are analyzed

  19. Saints and sinners: training Papua New Guinean (PNG) Christian Clergy to respond to HIV and AIDS using a model of care.

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    Benton, Kerry William Kim

    2008-09-01

    Papua New Guinea has experienced a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Christian Churches have played a vital role in responding to HIV, through community support, encouragement and social change. Strong, effective Church leadership can help create safe environments of care and support for those infected and for prevention of HIV. Method A series of trainings in capacity development for clergy were undertaken by the National AIDS Council Secretariat (NACS)/National HIV/AIDS Support Project (NHASP). Results A model "Church's Response to HIV and AIDS in a Care Continuum" was developed to assist the training. This paper discusses the model and the lessons learned.

  20. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

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    Räihä Antti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  1. Features of investgation of the NKVD against the clergy during the «Great terror» 1937–1938s

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    Shchelkunov Anton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches the problem of falsification of investigations by the NKVD during the «Great Terror» without the involvement of those arrested. Dominates the view, according to which the investigative and prosecutorial decisions were fabricated by means of tortures and cruel treatment to prisoners. At the same time, there is reason to suppose that along with this practice a huge mass of people was condemned without a call in for questioning, without a confrontation, etc. Investigative materials were falsifi ed as well as signatures of people of under investigation; solutions of «triples» were passing absentia. Facts that would directly confi rm such a hypothesis can be found in the fi rst place among the memories of the victims of mass repression. In general, there are two major factors that pushed the Bolsheviks leadership to the complete destruction of the Church and religion. First is that the Church and the faithful were perceived by the party leadership as a potential «fifth column», which destruction was of their direct task. The second factor was purely ideological — the Bolsheviks sincerely believed in socialism as an ideal social structure of society. So, religion didn’t fit into their model of an ideal socialist society. Tactic of continuous strangulation in 1920–1930 didn’t produce expected results. Thus decisive actions were accepted. The Church became one of main objects of the terror during mass political reprisals 1937– 1938 .Guilt of the clergy was very obvious for the NKVD. For the NKVD priest who didn’t waive of his rank, publicly acknowledged their hostility to Soviet power. Their guilt didn’t require evidence, requires only compliance with formalities.

  2. La culture juridique des hommes d’Église en Anjou et dans le Maine (XIVe – début XVIe siècles - The Legal Culture of the Clergy in Anjou and Maine (from the 14th to the Early 16th Centuries

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    MATZ, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.

  3. MINANGKABAU CLERGIES AND THE WRITING OF HADITH

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    Jannatul Husna bin Ali Nuar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the barns in the Islamic scholars throughout Indonesian archipelago, many Minangkabau scientists in the field of hadith had born figures spelled out with no exception. Trend of works by scholars of Minang in the field of hadith had also shown its own special evidences. Not only the work of translation and Sharh were generated, but also the original works in the field of hadith even drafted in Arabic. The main purpose of this article is to introduce a number of works on hadith and the science of hadith generated by the egg heads of Minangkabau, typically in the 20th century. As for example, Professor Mahmud Yunus, Engku Mudo Zainuddin Hamidy, Ustaz Fachruddin Husain Datuk Majo Indo, Professor Zainal Abidin Ahmad, Buya Mawardi and Ustaz Muhammad Oemar Bakry Besar Datuk Tan. This study inspired cutting-edge scholars, even if they were graduates of local Surau and Madrasah, glorious hadith’s books of high-value compilation were published similar to the context of riwayah-dirayah hadith, fiqh al-hadith or mushthalah hadith. The works were worthy triggers the spirit and inspiration of Muslim intellectuals today for innovation and transformation. In addition, the recent Muslim intellectual were exposed to a lot of formal higher education and academic degree holders, to be more productive in the delivering of similar treasury with the supports of sophisticated modern technology. Above all, the triggers should have been for the sake of preserving the writings of hadith in this beloved country

  4. CLERGY AND CROWN IN PERNAMBUCO CAPITANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia Almoêdo de Assis

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relations between the Catholic Church and the Portuguese absolutist state within the scope of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, seeking to reveal the contradictions contained in the bulge of these relations and their repercussion in the colonial daily life.

  5. ¿«Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? La exención del clero de la ciudad de Nápoles entre las finanzas urbanas y fiscalidad papal (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? The exemption of the clergy of the city of Naples between urban finances and papal taxation (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? L’esenzione del clero della città di Napoli tra finanze cittadine e fiscalità papale (1535-1618

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Carlo GIANNINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la construcción de mecanismos de exención del clero de los impuestos sobre el consumo en la ciudad de Nápoles entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de evitar el fraude y contra el pago anual de una suma de dinero, el clero napolitano fue de hecho llamado a pagar los impuestos sobre géneros de amplio consumo. El uso de los fondos de estas «franquicias» pronto se convirtió en objeto de disputa dentro del mismo clero. El Papado rápidamente asumió un papel clave, tanto como fuente de legitimidad de la exacción, cuanto como beneficiario del dinero de las «franquicias» del clero de Nápoles, que fue destinado a la Fabbrica di San Pietro en Roma.The aim of this article is to analyze the construction of mechanisms of exemption of the clergy from excise taxes in the city of Naples between XVIth and XVIIth centuries. In order to avoid fraud and against annual repayment of a sum of money, the Neapolitan clergy was in fact called upon to pay the taxes on certain consumer goods. The use of the proceeds of this «franchigie» soon became the subject of dispute among the clergy. The Papacy quickly assumed a key role, both as legitimizing power for the levy and as the beneficiary of the money of the exemptions of the clergy of Naples, which was allocated for the Fabric of St. Peter’s Church in Rome.Scopo di questo articolo è analizzare la costruzione dei meccanismi di esenzione degli ecclesiastici dalle gabelle nella città di Napoli fra Cinque e Seicento. Al fine di evitare frodi e a fronte del rimborso annuale di una somma di denaro, il clero napoletano era infatti chiamato a pagare le gabelle su alcuni generi di consumo. La destinazione del gettito di tale «franchigia» divenne ben presto oggetto di contrasti all’interno del clero. Il papato assunse ben presto un ruolo chiave, sia come legittimatore del prelievo sia come beneficiario del denaro delle franchigie del clero di Napoli, che furono

  6. Implications of Methodist clergies' average lifespan and missional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... they were sensitive storytellers with a deep sense of humour; they were community builders; they were leaders and meticulous in administration; they were prayer warriors; they loved and valued education; they were disciplined and principled; they enjoyed music; they worked hard for an everlasting peace on earth; and ...

  7. Sibling Incest in a Clergy Family: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Jocelyn; Hoey, Helen

    1994-01-01

    A case study is presented of a female adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse where the perpetrator was her older brother. The family dynamics are described, emphasizing the physically absent father (a clergyman), the emotionally distant mother, and the surrogate parent status of the perpetrator. The individual's efforts to receive appropriate…

  8. Attitudes of Catholic and Protestant Clergy Toward Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Even though Catholic and Protestant clergymen, in about the same proportions, tend to see the terminal patient as competent to make decisions concerning euthanasia, the two groups, strongly agree that neither the individual patient nor the state should be allowed sole responsibility for the decision. (Author)

  9. Peter and Louise: Being Clergy in a Secularized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie

    2016-01-01

    of a continuum of churches, with the very ecclesial at one end and the very societal at the other. Both Louise and Peter experience the pressure of simultaneous expectations from the church as an institution, the church as a community, and the society in which they are embedded. Understanding how Peter......’ doctrines on what it means to be a true church. Together, these implicit and explicit theologies (Percy 2010) will inform us about the ecclesiologies of the churches today; how they are being the church. The analysis will explain some of the differences between these two majority churches and how...

  10. Adverse tax rulings affect exemptions for clergy and religious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, J A

    1986-12-01

    Recent court cases illustrate the federal government's changing position toward automatic tax exemptions for members of religious institutes who are employed outside their institute. Before 1977, the IRS seemed inclined to assume that members acted as agents for their institute and that their income would not be taxable. In Fogarty v. U.S. the court ruled that a priest's income from a university teaching position was taxable because he was not acting as an agent for the Jesuits. In Schuster v. Commissioner, the court held for the government, stating that the "triangle relationship" among employee, outside third-party employer, and principal/religious institute was insufficient to warrant the necessary agency relationships. Samson v. U.S. questioned whether Sr. Mary K. Samson's county hospital work constituted "employment" for FICA tax purposes. The court concluded the tax was assessable on her wages because she was a county employee. It denied a rehearing after a dissenting judge concluded that past rulings were inconsistent and had little bearing on FICA taxation. The legal view of religious tax exemption is much narrower than 10 years ago. Catholic institutes must closely analyze the relationship between their members and outside third-party employers to avoid taxation. They must legally assert their control over their members' actions before the employment is in effect.

  11. Implications of Methodist clergies' average lifespan and missional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... The author of Genesis 5 paid meticulous attention to the lifespan of several people ... of Southern Africa (MCSA), and to argue that memories of the ... average ages at death were added up and the sum was divided by 12 (which represents the 12 ..... not explicit in how the departed Methodist ministers were.

  12. Exodus of clergy: The role of leadership in responding to the call

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... side of leadership, also referred to as toxic leadership (Veldsman 2016b), contributes to the decision ...... and (4) a strategic task that asks 'how might we respond? ... difference between the way in which business and secular.

  13. A Conversational Model for Qualitative Research: A Case Study of Clergy and Religious Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Daniel; Wicks, Don A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative research interview as a conversation designed to gain understanding of the world of research informants. It illustrates the potential of the qualitative research interview when the researcher is able to enter into and maintain a conversation with the research informant as an insider in the latter's community.…

  14. “give us this day our daily bread” – clergy's lived religion in pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Marlize Rabe, Department of Sociology, University of South Africa. E-mail: ..... in the church, ranging from one who had just recently started a career in the church to one ..... abolished! Men so easily become slaves of drugs…because we are.

  15. The attitudes of clergy in Benin City, Nigeria towards persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Clinical Services, Federal Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria ... Their attitudes concerning mental illnesses would influence community mental health ... distributed to ministers at convenient group meetings, e.g..

  16. Perception of Nigerian clergy about HIV/AIDS and their involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for poor information of some congregations were chiefly failure of the church to pay attention to their need for information and lack of appropriate personnel to disseminate the information. Premarital screening for intending couples was carried out by majority (93.8%) of the priests while only 46 (40.4%) ran a ...

  17. Spirituality as a Component in a Treatment Program for Sexually Addicted Roman Catholic Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patricia E.

    1997-01-01

    A treatment program that integrates spirituality and therapy for sex abusers who are Roman Catholic priests or brothers is described. Selections from an interview with the program director cover definitions, philosophy, women as therapists, daily activity, candidates, and the spiritual dimension. Measures of success and after-care are discussed.…

  18. Exodus of clergy: The role of leadership in responding to the call

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... It is a great privilege to contribute, as a former doctoral student, to this Yolanda Dreyer Festschrift ... grounded theory approach was used to discover the properties of the category 'leadership' ... for Applied Research in the Apostolate 2015; cf. .... groups: trait, behaviour, contingency, and power and influence.

  19. Assessing Gender Differences in the Relationship between Negative Interaction with the Clergy and Health among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    A rapidly growing literature indicates that supportive social relationships are associated with better physical and mental health. However, this research further reveals that interaction with others may also be conflicted and unpleasant. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate negative interaction that arises within a social context that…

  20. Conflicts between Laity and Clergy, Power and Social Relationships in the Kingdom of León. Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the model elaborated by Patrick Geary for understanding conflict in medieval society, focusing our study on the Kingdom of León. Through the analysis of the conflicts between the Benedictine monastery of Sahagún and local laity during the 11th and 12th centuries, we will evaluate two ideas underlying that model: first, the conception of conflict as a mechanism for the regulation of social relationships; second, the ahistorical nature of disputes, uncoupled from the processes of social change in which they take place.

  1. Clergy of the Mind: Alvin S. Johnson, William S. Learned, the Carnegie Corporations, and the American Library Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Joyce M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early twentieth century, Alvin Johnson and William S. Learned produced two separate but related studies relative to the donations of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) to public library construction. These reports became means for the planned disassociation of the philanthropic organization from its historical relationship with…

  2. An African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. General ..... It also projects the clergy's ego at the expense of Christ's identity. ... Failure to .... Firstly, leadership success between the clergy and the elders.

  3. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  4. Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olendzki, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.

  5. The Clergy of the Archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins in Aid of the Jewish Nation ... during the Years of the German Occupation from 1941–1944. An Outline of the Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chajko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the German occupation, large numbers of Poles were actively involved in assisting the persecuted Jews. Among the Poles who extended help were also priests from the Archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins. This article addresses their assistance and protection of the many Jews who were being persecuted by the German Army. Certainly, it does not exhaust the subject, but constitutes some contribution to ongoing research. It is not an easy undertaking, since the sources are extremely scanty, and the search for any information is both a time and labor consuming occupation. Still, given the information gathered here, we are given an opportunity to discern a certain image of clergymen who unhesitatingly sacrificed themselves to save the lives of people who were followers of a different faith. Two priests laid down their lives in the process.

  6. JUST 27 No. 3 December 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... eral, and Global Evangelical Church (Ghana) in particular. They will become aware of the vari- ous demographic factors which influence job satisfaction of clergy. This awareness will help them to take steps necessary to increase the level of satisfaction of clergy. The following recommendations are based.

  7. Jesuits, propaganda and faith healing in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1570s the structure of the Catholic Church had collapsed in the Dutch Republic, but soon after 1580 a process of reconstruction set in. At first exorcism and other types of faith healing were deployed by both secular and regular Catholic clergy. In time the secular clergy became less willing

  8. A Cook, A Cardinal, His Priests, and the Press: Deviance as a Trigger for Intermedia Agenda Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses content analysis to examine the changes in trends in the aftermath of deviant acts by individual members of the clergy, given that such acts are "triggering events" for further negative stories. Finds strong media agenda-setting effects of the negative triggering events on subsequent coverage of the clergy in general. (SR)

  9. An African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approach employed is an African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in which the clergy's leadership has been likened to that of Jesus. The presence of many distracting agents did not perturb Jesus' ministry instead, he remained focused. Conclusively, it is observed that the clergy often face conflict within the ...

  10. Altruism” And “Strategic Game” In Post-Genocide Interpersonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahavugimana

    For example, in extremist media like RTLM and Kangura, the so-called. Tutsi intelligence ... justice and peace workers and Catholic clergy members. The analysis of .... game expected a reduction of the punishment or a release from prison.

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's ... Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff ...

  12. TEACHING SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS IN AKWA jBOM STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viewpoint of Akwa lbom State education administrators, teachers, parents, clergy, and community leaders living in the United. States and Nigeria ... home have a cooperative job to do. .... in the school curriculum - as a separate course, part.

  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Specific Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions ... DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Access and Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient Safety Organizations Administrative Clinical Quick Links ...

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing ... the Brain" (18.9 MB) Close Video Help Problems viewing videos in pop up windows? See our ...

  15. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may feel alone, scared or different from the person you were before you learned you had heart ... as a family member, friend or a clergy person. Those close to you may already know you' ...

  16. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Working with Families PTSD Consultation For Specific Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications ...

  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ... Type List of Materials By Type Assessments Continuing Education Handouts Manuals Mobile Apps Publications Toolkits Videos Web ...

  18. End of Life (Supporting a Terminally Ill Loved One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clergy may also be of great help if religion is important to the patient. You can encourage ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  20. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Common Problems Family and Friends PTSD and Communities Paginas en Espanol Apps, Videos and More Mobile ... VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education ...

  1. Teen Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Take a close look at your own attitudes and habits. Do you spend your last dollar ... your community who can help, including pediatricians, counselors, teachers, and elders or clergy. Compulsive gambling is like ...

  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD Consultation For Specific Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy ... Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search ...

  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request Form List of All Measures Treatment Treatment Overview Early Intervention ... and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s ...

  4. VOL 6. NO. 1 2015 EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    Keywords: Job satisfaction, clergy, extrinsic motivation, extrinsic factors ... woman's work conditions and rewards are inferior to those of a man in comparable positions (a ... that they have embraced the need to professionalize their systems.

  5. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search ...

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  7. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  8. ULAMA DAN POLITIK Tinjauan Peran Abdurrahman Wahid Dalam Perpolitikan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Yusalia

    2015-08-01

    In the era of reform, Gus Dur precisely into the active region of practical politics by founding the National Awakening Party. Until eventually became president of Indonesia. Abdurrahman, the more shows that the activity of the clergy, as a religious leader, can not be separated from the role in the political realm. Indonesia's political and has its own distinctive characteristics, namely the dynamics and patterns have a close relationship between the clergy and politics

  9. The Role of Religious Leaders in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsushi Hirono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.

  10. Psychiatry in the Deep South: a pilot study of integrated training for psychiatry residents and seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. From 2005 to 2008, PGY-2 general-psychiatry residents and PGY-5 child-psychiatry residents (N=30) participated alongside psychology interns (N=13) and seminary students (N=41). The intervention consisted of two 3-hour sessions. Measurements addressed demographics, participants' spirituality, and attitudes toward mental illness, mental-health practitioners, and clergy. The psychiatry residents' knowledge regarding the training of clergy was significantly increased by the training sessions. The seminary students' attitudes and knowledge of psychiatry/psychology changed significantly in a positive direction. This pilot course had a positive impact on both groups of participants. This model could be modified for other psychiatry programs, to include clergy students of different religious faiths as relevant to the demographics of the training location.

  11. 10-Year Study of Christian Church Support for Domestic Violence Victims: 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zust, Barbara; Flicek, Breanna; Moses, Katie; Schubert, Courtney; Timmerman, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    Religious beliefs play a significant role in the lives of victims of domestic violence. Victims find strength in their faith and would rather endure the violence at all costs to keep a family or a marriage together, than to compromise their faith by leaving. This 10 -year study explored the climate of support for victims of domestic violence among Christian clergy and church members between 2005 and 2015. Using a convenience sample, surveys were sent out to congregations in the Upper Midwest in 2005 and 2015. The survey included demographics; two items measuring perception of domestic violence in the congregation andcommunity; six Likert Scale items regarding agreement with statements concerning leaving an abusive marriage; four 'Yes-No' items regarding the impact of faith in leaving, support of the congregation, community resources,and clergy as counselors. The clergy's survey had the same questions, plus open-ended questions about their skills in counseling victims, their congregation's support for victims, community resources, and beliefs that could impact a victim's choice in leaving. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple frequencies, and bivariate correlations. Narrative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results of this study indicated that change is slow. Members want their clergy to become more educated in counseling and in speaking about domestic violence from the pulpit. Clergy felt comfortable in making referrals for professional counseling, while the majority of members would prefer counseling with their pastor if they were in a violent relationship. Both clergy and members want to create a safe and supportive environment for victims/survivors of violent relationships. Findings from this study exemplify the need for pastors to remove the silence about domestic violence in their congregations and address the misunderstood social religious beliefs that may bind a victim to the violence.

  12. Project DEGRUPE: Goals and Historiographical Contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COELHO, Maria Helena da Cruz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main axes of the project DEGRUPE whose principal objective is to study the role of the clergy in the construction of the Iberian monarchies and mobility circuits designed by these protagonists. To fulfill this objective, the interuniversity project team of DEGRUPE opted for a comparative perspective between different kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The second part of this paper consists of a brief analysis of the underlying historiographical framework of the project including mainly research on relationship between clergy and royalty in the middle ages.

  13. Dimensions of Religion, Depression Symptomatology, and Substance Use Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Bryant, Keneshia J.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a relationship between depression, substance use, and religiosity but, few have investigated this relationship in a community sample of drug-using African Americans. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of religion (positive and negative religious coping, private and public religious participation, religious preference, and God-based, clergy-based, and congregation-based religious support), depression symptomatology, and substance use among 223 African American cocaine users. After controlling for gender, employment, and age, greater congregation-based support and greater clergy-based support were associated with fewer reported depressive symptoms. Additionally, greater congregation-based support was associated with less alcohol use. PMID:24564561

  14. Education in Grenada--Marxism or Pan-Africanism? [and] Churches in Grenada: Doing Theology in the Struggles of the People. [and] Grenada's New Airport: A Treat or a Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E. Curtis

    Reported are the author's personal accounts of a tour of Grenada to determine the extent to which Marxist-Leninist thought was being taught in schools, the relationship between the clergy and the government of Grenada, and whether the new international airport posed a threat to U.S. national security. In the new educational system, a Centre for…

  15. Exploring the role of the church as a 'reformation agency' in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-17

    Mar 17, 2017 ... South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the ... corruption in the history of the Church which spearheaded ... On the contrary, let us direct our attention to the next phase of ... summarises the Reformed ecclesiology vision: .... the enduring aspects of the clergy role: pointing to God's.

  16. Between "Veritas" and "Communitas": Epistemic Switching in the Reading of Academic and Sacred History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eli; Wineburg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    We compared how 8 religious believers (historians and clergy) and 8 skeptics (historians and scientists) read a series of documents on 2 topics: the Biblical Exodus and the origins of the first (American) Thanksgiving. Readings by religiously committed historians differed from those of their non-religious peers. Navigating between the competing…

  17. Female Aspirants to the Roman Catholic Priesthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celmer, Virginia; Winer, Jane L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated Holland vocational-personality types, job satisfaction, and psychological dysfunction among 85 parish priests, 55 nonparish priests, and 235 women who aspire to, but are barred from, ordination in the Roman Catholic Church. Found women's Holland-type code was most similar to code of clergy member as assigned by Dictionary of Holland…

  18. The Intersection of Dominican Values and Women's and Gender Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Tara M.

    2016-01-01

    The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…

  19. A Qualitative Phenomenological Analysis Exploring Digital Immigrants' Use of Church-Based Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Kealey, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Individuals and societies have traditionally sought answers to important questions in life through religion. In the 21st century, physical churches with clergy are no longer the sole source of spiritual answers or knowledge. Since the late 1960s, church attendance has been declining. Church leaders have begun to implement new methods such as using…

  20. Safe Environment Training: Effects on Catholic Schoolteachers' and Administrators' School Security and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, James Brian

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, in light of the sexual abuse crisis in the Catholic church, The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops established "The charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" that mandated safe environment training for clergy personnel, and volunteers working in the Catholic church. In this study, under the auspices of a…

  1. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  2. Reaching a Decision to Change Vocation: A Qualitative Study of Former Priests' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietkiewicz, Igor J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of Roman Catholic clergy who relinquish the priesthood. Ten former priests participated in semi-structured interviews that were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Overall, the study found that priests experienced needs and aspirations conflicting with their social role and the…

  3. 38 CFR 3.304 - Direct service connection; wartime and peacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anxiety without an identifiable cause; or unexplained economic or social behavior changes. VA will not... clergy. Evidence of behavior changes following the claimed assault is one type of relevant evidence that may be found in these sources. Examples of behavior changes that may constitute credible evidence of...

  4. 77 FR 66443 - Renewal of the Defense Health Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Academia; Health Care Finance/Economics; Health Care Policy/Executive Leadership; and Patient Care. The... at least one of the following disciplines: Clergy, DoD leadership, Human Research Protection... formal bioethics or medical ethics training or experience. The Subcommittee, when tasked according to DoD...

  5. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-08

    Feb 8, 2012 ... question the value of human life when the quality of life is faltering. They confront us with the ... interaction, of interpretation, of balance between values and identity of parents ... encounter in their work environment and how often are ... ethics, ministers/clergy and bioethics, empirical research, questionnaire ...

  6. Teaching Professional Sexual Ethics across the Seminary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Darryl W.

    2013-01-01

    Clergy often begin their ministerial careers unprepared to handle issues of professional power, sexuality and intimacy, and interpersonal boundaries. In response, denominational bodies and theological schools are seeking together ways to enhance the teaching of "professional sexual ethics"--referring to the integration of professional ethics,…

  7. Understanding Child Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help of a trained professional. When needed, a mental health professional trained in evidence-based trauma treatment can help children and families cope and move toward recovery. Ask your pediatrician, family physician, school counselor, or clergy member for a referral. Visit ...

  8. An Inquiry into the Selection and Spiritual Formation of Catholic Public School Lay Principals in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domfeh-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of the Second Vatican Council on the role of the laity in the Church has re-awakened a renewed participation of the laity in the evangelizing mission of the Church. The lay faithful are now occupying a number of significant positions in the Church and are playing various leadership roles once exclusively played by the clergy and…

  9. What Do You Stand for? A Kid's Guide to Building Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Espeland, Pamela, Ed.

    This book focuses on encouraging children to see the value in developing values, not because of any current fashion or political trend, but because honesty, empathy, integrity, and other core values are necessary to form the confident and capable good neighbors, teachers, businesspeople, politicians, and clergy of tomorrow. The book assumes that…

  10. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Home PTSD Overview PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  11. Personal Capacity Building for the Human Services: The Roles of Curriculum and Individual Differences in Predicting Self-Concept in College/University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    While much research has outlined the importance of intra-psychic factors in predicting workplace success, it is rare that attention is given to the development of these factors in training for human service professions (e.g. psychology, clergy, nursing). Accordingly, the present study explores differences in self-concept, a key intra-psychic…

  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search Using the PILOTS Database What is PILOTS? Quick Search Tips Modify ...

  13. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? An Examination of Calling, Congruence, Job Design and Personality as Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillsen, C.; Earl, J. K.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether congruence, calling, job characteristics or personality were better predictors of job satisfaction and tenure. The sample consisted of 1968 employees across four different job roles: sales engineers (N = 309), graphic designers (N = 383), teachers (N = 481) and clergy (N = 795). Data was collected as part of a selection…

  14. Positive Psychology in Jewish Education: Gratitude in the School and Synagogue Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Eliezer; Schnall, David

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly growing area of study for research psychologists, and more recently for school psychologists and educators as well. Yet religious education researchers and practitioners have yet to embrace this exciting new field. The current article introduces positive psychology to clergy and educators in religious institutions.…

  15. Matouš Konečný a jeho podíl na výchově a vzdělávání bratrských duchovních na počátku 17. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Just, Jiří

    -, č. 18 (2016), s. 75-88 ISSN 1802-2502 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08740S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Matouš Konečný * education of clergy * protestant ecclesiastical administration * Matthias Martini * gymnasium illustre in Bremen * peregrinatio academica * protestant schoolbooks * Bohemian Brethren Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. The ‘Orthodoxy’ of Orthodoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas; Boylston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    relations among clergy and lay people that amounts to a religious world and a shared tradition. These relations are characterized by correctness and deferral—formal modes of relating to authority that are open-ended and non-definitive and so create room for certain kinds of pluralism, heterodoxy, and dis...... of faith and deferral are also political worlds....

  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff ... Type List of Materials By Type Assessments Continuing Education Handouts Manuals Mobile Apps Publications Toolkits Videos Web Links Advanced Search About Us ...

  18. THE MAKING OF A COUNSELOR, STEP ONE--RE-EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIEFFER, KENNETH F.

    A CATHOLIC PRIEST DESCRIBES HIS MOVE FROM THE ADVICE GIVING TECHNIQUES INCULCATED IN SEMINARY TRAINING TO SERIOUS CONSIDERATION OF COUNSELING THEORIES. HISTORICALLY, THE CLERGY HAS BEEN SUSPICIOUS OF PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH THEORIES. A PATERNAL, AUTHORITARIAN APPROACH TO THE PARISHIONER'S PROBLEMS HAS BEEN THE PRACTICE. THE SECOND VATICAN…

  19. Anti-Clericalism and Educational Reform in the French Third Republic: A Retrospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keylor, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the educational reform movement in France during the late nineteenth century which produced one of the most tightly organized, centrally controlled, and pedagogically effective models of elementary education in the world, with emphasis on the role of the Catholic clergy and attempts of the republican regime to uproot clerical influence in…

  20. Adel en heerlijkheden in Québec: De opkomst en het voortleven van een sociale groep en een feodaal instituut (ca. 1600-- 2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, S.W.; Grenier, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of French Canada started in the late sixteenth century. In Québec a seigneurial system was implemented, dominated by nobles. Not all seigneurs were noble though. A few of the bigger seigneuries belonged to the clergy and others to non- noble bourgeois families or even farmers. In

  1. Entre aromas de incienso y pólvora : Los Altos de Jalisco, México, 1917-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Ulloa, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Mexican Revolution and on the opposition strategies followed by the opponents of the revolutionary regime who lived in the region known as Los Altos de Jalisco. In this particular region, the Catholic population, supported by the Clergy, was in constant conflict with the

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 651 - 700 of 1125 ... Vol 19, No 3 (2013), Participation in sport and the perceptions of quality of life of ... 2011: September Supplement, Perceived benefits and barriers to ... visitors on sustainable tourism practices in an urban nature reserve: The ... lifestyle – and psychological well-being constructs among clergy, Abstract.

  3. Metamorphoses of Visualisation: Experiences of Interpreting Stained-Glass Artworks of Anglican Emmanuel College Chapel of Cambridge University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronova, Lidia V.; Chugunova, Tatiana G.; Khazina, Anna V.; Babayeva, Anastasiya V.; Shmeleva, Natalia V.

    2016-01-01

    This research was caused by an accidental discovery of a photo reproduction of one unknown in Russia masterpiece of British stained glass art of the Victorian age found on open spaces of the Internet: a full-height portrait of John Colet, a famous member of clergy of the pre-reform period, Erasmus' and Thomas More's friend and mentor. Exquisite…

  4. A Hundred Years of Theological Training in the Apostolic Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anointing of the Holy Spirit” and the ministry of each member of the assembly. Leadership was developed through the local church as the body of Christ and there were no distinctions between clergy and laity. All who were saved were expected (and ...

  5. 75 FR 18749 - National D.A.R.E. Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Americans face pressures to engage in violent activities, drug use, and other harmful behavior. Today, we reaffirm our commitment to empowering our children to resist violence and substance abuse. Drug dependence... violence and gang activity reach our neighborhoods. It takes parents, guardians, educators, clergy, law...

  6. 78 FR 78374 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Proposed... physicians, medical students, and social workers) and non-traditional (e.g., clergy, and alternative health... gains/changes as a result of training attendance. The multi-site data collection design uses a two...

  7. 75 FR 79011 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... physicians, medical students, and social workers) and non-traditional (e.g., clergy, and alternative health... gains/changes as a result of training attendance. The multi-site data collection design uses a two...-7285. Dated: December 13, 2010. Elaine Parry, Director, Office of Management, Technology and Operations...

  8. 75 FR 35819 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Proposed..., nurses, primary care physicians, medical students, and social workers) and non-traditional (e.g., clergy..., skill and attitude gains/changes as a result of training attendance. The multi-site data collection...

  9. Congregationalist Richard Cordley and the Impact of New England Cultural Imperialism in Kansas, 1857-1904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    As a major social force throughout the nineteenth century, religion proved an important factor in the settlement of the American West. Yet the idea of a religious figure as a western hero has never emerged in the popular culture adaptations of the Western, since the clergy are usually portrayed as gentle, "soft," or even somewhat…

  10. [Religious and pharmacie in France after the french révolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The Germinal an XI law is supposed to close a period of time where several people were allowed to prepare and deliver drugs. Concerning clergy, this law will not be totally applied. Several priests and religious, during the XIXe century, will create and distribute pharmaceutical products. Oudin, Cottance and Chaupitre, all priests, are a few of key examples. L'abbé Perdrigeon was a priest that discover his calling to cure by treating Napoleon III's soldiers during 1870 war. It remains form it the so-called "Contrecoups de l' Abbé Perdrigeon ", product still commercialized. The present publication describes the legal and cultural feature in which illegal exercise of Pharmacy and Medicine took place by clergy, and the reasons why priests and nuns wanted to pursue this usage until the 1941 law.

  11. Romanian Orthodox Priests on the World War I Fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Cotan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the World War II which brought a series of ideologies, such as Nazism and communism as reasons of outbreak, the World War I used religious themes in its propagandistic message, namely the idea to defend the homeland and faith. Religion was present in the propaganda promoted on the fronts of the Great War, and the military clergy – Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox – supported it. The military clergy have morally supported the soldiers in the trenches, most of them coming from the peasantry and labor still attached to the Christian values. This study is trying to present the efforts of the Romanian military priests enrolled in the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian armies for spiritually helping the Romanian militaries.

  12. An Invisible Wall: The Relationship Between Congregational and Seminary Libraries in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Klemme Eliceiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theological (seminary and congregational libraries in the Christian and Jewish religious traditions have coexisted in some fashion since their beginnings; however, little research exists regarding the relationship between these related-but-distinct library types. This essay explores the relationship between these types of libraries through a survey of their literatures and available statistics, considering their histories and contexts within the broader religious and library worlds, as well as their current relationship in light of their diverse religious institutions. The roles of these libraries will be examined regarding religious, theological, and information literacies as well as exploring their staffs, their staff's education, funding, library hours, their goals, objectives, and outcomes, particularly regarding the changing landscape of religious and theological education for both clergy and laypeople.  It concludes with future possibilities in the religious library world in a congregational landscape that often cannot afford full-time, traditionally-theologically-educated clergy, much less paid congregational librarians.

  13. Religión, guerra y ciudad: clero y gobierno local en Puebla durante la guerra con Estados Unidos (1847-1848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rosas Salas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the clergy in Puebla (Mexico in defense of the city during the war with the United States, and their ability to reach agreements with civil authorities in order to protect the civilian population, maintain order despite the military occupation, and maintain religious services as a factor of public tranquility. It argues that, thanks to negotiation and agreement between both powers, devotional practice became a fundamental factor in maintaining order. The research was based on local files and a group of published sources dealing with the relations between the U.S. army and the clergy in Puebla, leading to the conclusion that Catholicism was a factor of cohesion in defending the city.

  14. Social Relationships in the Church during Late Life: Assessing Differences between African Americans, Whites, and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans.

  15. Reimaging The Chaplain Corps For The Force Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    also wear “two hats” as military officers and ordained clergy--those set apart for a sacred duty. Their role as religious leaders obliges them to...competencies found in Joint Publication 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, of religious support and religious advisement. Regarding religious ...support, the transformation will including moving from HC members serving as the terminal end of ministry to managers of religious support. As for

  16. Negative Attitudes of Jews Regarding to Islam and Muslims throughout the History

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Yiğitoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The topic of this article is the Jewish world’s common view regarding Islam, its Prophet and Muslims dating back from the emergence of Islam to the present day. In this sense, the study sheds light on the history of Jewish thought. Although this investigation cannot be described as a complete analysis on history of thought, the examples which I provide through this article such as negative behaviors of Jewish clergy and other members of Jewish community regarding Islam and Muslims...

  17. Against all odds: Alphaeus Zulu and racism in church and society

    OpenAIRE

    Simangaliso Kumalo, R; Mbaya, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the response of Bishop Alphaeus Hamilton Zulu to the racism that was prevalent in both the church and society when he was elected as the first African Bishop of the Anglican Church in South Africa. Clergy, especially bishops, are by virtue of their ecclesial positions expected to transcend racial prejudices, to embrace all members of their churches and to transform their churches to multi-racial ones. This means that they have to deal with racial stereotypes both within ...

  18. The magazine „Kishinyovskie Eparkhial′nye Vedomosti” („Chisinau Diocesan Journal”) as a means of advertising (1867-1917)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Serjant

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this article relates to the area of advertising. It reflects the implementation of advertising in the official religious magazines; in this case we are talking about the magazine „Kishinyovskie Eparkhial′nye Vedomosti" („Chisinau Diocesan Journal"). This Bessarabian periodical was published for more than 50 years. Its publication was an important event in the spiritual life of the entire diocese and clergy. Advertisements were placed in the informal part of the publication. Inves...

  19. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  20. Psychosociální stav pracovníků Hospice sv. Jana N. Neumanna v Prachaticích

    OpenAIRE

    LEVÁ, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with psycho-social condition of people working in the Hospice of St Jan N. Neumann in Prachatice. The work is aimed at hospice workers who are exposed to load situations which are typical for providing accompaniment for the dying. Hospice care needs the admittance of a multidisciplinar team. It requires cooperation of physicians, nurses, hospital attendants, psychologists, socal workers, clergies. Family and volunteers should also be included. The theoretical part is ...

  1. Romanian-Bulgarian Religious Relations during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Cotan

    2015-01-01

    After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of t...

  2. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  3. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    which 10 seats are elected by Kuchi nomads ) and a selected 102 seat upper house (Meshrano Jirga, House of Elders). The upper house is selected as...Ghazni; 9 in Badakhshan, Konduz, and Faryab; 8 in Helmand; and 2 to 6 in the remaining provinces. Ten are reserved for Kuchis ( nomads ). Afghanistan...Islamic clergy. One of his vice presidential running mates was Ismail Khan, a faction leader discussed above. The ticket polled in the single digits

  4. Work-related psychological health among clergywomen in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...

  5. Sedlčanský vikariát, jeho duchovenstvo a správa v letech 1860–1870

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zouzal, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, [0] (2017), s. 33-58 ISSN 1211-5169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17092S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Church history, 19th century * Catholic clergy * Czech Lands Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  6. Memoranda by A.P. Uspensky to the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian government

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This publication offers a previously unknown memoranda by representative of the diocesan assembly of deputies of the clergy and laity of the Tomsk diocese A. P. Uspensky, addressed to the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian government in July 1918. A.P. Uspensky solicited for formation of the Ministry of confessions in the Provisional Siberian government. Memoranda are initiative documents to the Statute on the Chief Administration of religious denominations adopted by the Council...

  7. Buddhism in the Astrakhan territory: stages of the historical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Курапов

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In authors article are considered the basic stages of distribution of the Buddhism on the Bottom Volga region, within the limits of the Astrakhan province. Analysed characteristic features of historical development of a Buddhist community (sangha at Kalmyks, participation of Buddhist clergy in political life of region. Determined and considered specificity of interaction of a Buddhist community with secular authorities of region and national elite.

  8. Ungusobaba [you are our father]: The life of an Anglican bishop, Lawrence Bekisisa Zulu (1937-2013†)

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaya, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to document the role that Lawrence Bekisisa Zulu played in the Anglican Church in South Africa (ACSA), particularly in the dioceses of Zululand and Swaziland, as a bishop. It records the life story of Zulu as a leader whose gifts as a pastor, teacher and priest enriched the lives of many clergy and lay people. That Zulu was entrusted with leadership positions in three dioceses, also suggests the strength of his moral authority and spirituality. The study demonstrates how the ...

  9. El fin de un privilegio: la contribución eclesiástica a la Hacienda Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CATALÁN MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A pesar de que teóricamente el clero estaba exento de impuestos, a partir de mediados del siglo XVI se le incluyó entre los contribuyentes habituales de la Hacienda real a través del Subsidio y del Excusado. Sus protestas por tributar en ambas gracias acabaron con la concertación de las mismas en un tanto alzado, fosilizado durante siglo y medio, consiguiendo una estabilidad contributiva que a la larga beneficiaría a la Iglesia. La estabilidad nominal de los impuestos eclesiásticos unido al pago de los mismos en una moneda devaluada con una serie de ventajas adicionales hizo que la carga contributiva descendiera en términos relativos.ABSTRACT: The Spanish clergy was free tax. As from second half of the sixteenth century, the clergy was included between usual taxpayers of Royal Finances through the Subsidio and the Excusado. The clergy's protests finished with compound a tax lump-sum which lay over the one century and half. During seventeenth century, the lump-sum payment, the devaluation to vellón and others advantages in the tax-payment did that the tax pressure would have descended comparatively.

  10. La culture juridique des clercs dans le Royaume de Hongrie sous les rois angevins au XIVe siècle - Judical Culture of Clerics in the Medieval Hungarian Kingdom under the Angevin Kings (14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS, Gergely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Th e present work aims to show the main elements of the legal culture of the clergy in the 14th century-Hungary. Th e starting point is the explanation of the notion “legal culture”, the presentation of its three main elements, the legal service at the royal court, the activities of the loca credibilia and of the ecclesiastical courts, the personal legal culture. Th e paper shows not only the connection of the legal culture and the development of the bureaucratic writing, the chancellery, but the eff ects of the university studies as well, its main turning points and periods (Paris, Bologna, Padova, with a special focus on the Angevin era (14th century. We can state that the legal culture of Hungarian clergy underwent several changes in this era. With the laicisation of the bureaucratic activities, the royal court needed representatives who had legal experiences for its international aff airs, thus it favoured the change of the legal culture of the clergy at the court. Th e same period is also very important because of the ecclesiastical and secular justice. Several elements of personal legal culture (e. g. collection are also presented.

  11. “The same love, the same faith, the same tears”: ecclesial initiatives about the cult of Our Lady of El Quinche to defend the Republic of the Sacred Heart, Ecuador (1883-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Vizuete Marcillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the conflict between church and state in the 19th century, the clergy and laymen tried to defend the establishment where the church had hegemony over the state and society. Between 1883 and 1889, Ecuador experienced some ecclesial initiatives to defend which stood for the idea of a Republic of the Sacred Heart. This article studies the case of Our Lady of El Quiche, a colonial massive cult, which was part of a process of re-appropriation and reinterpretation of its history. It also suffered a process of spreading and strengthening of its cult, linking with the image of the Republic, political conflicts and the power of the church. Between politics and religion, the discourses and practices of the clergy and the faithful show the intention of the church to shore up its own idea of a catholic Republic and an organized society. In this article, the use of manuscripts and printed sources give information to contrast multiple voices and multiple religious acts which performed a new local Mariology about El Quinche and a reaction to a context in which the religious hegemony and the participation of the clergy in politics were questioned; meanwhile the relations inside the church were recomposing.

  12. An African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in relation to conflict and leadership in pastoral ministry: The Cameroonian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbengu D. Nyiawung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of ministry is an intricate issue which involves the combination of individual efforts from diverse backgrounds. This diversity has been a breeding ground for conflict between the clergy and all the stakeholders involved in parish administration. This article attempted to highlight some of these conflicts, using the Presbyterian Church in Cameroon as a case study. The approach employed is an African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in which the clergy’s leadership has been likened to that of Jesus. The presence of many distracting agents did not perturb Jesus’ ministry instead, he remained focused. Conclusively, it is observed that the clergy often face conflict within the ministry because they ignore the fact that (1 they are expected to know their mission better than anyone else; (2 the diverse backgrounds of their followers are potential causes of conflict; and (3 there are several distracting agents within the ministry. In short, Jesus’ model of conflict management is recommended to the clergy for an effective pastoral ministry.

  13. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

    2014-04-01

    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  14. The interpretation of the Battle of Leipzig (October 16–19, 1813 in the German patriotic sermon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.

  15. Capacity building among african american faith leaders to promote HIV prevention and vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Lewis, Cindi A; Bunce, Catherine A; Wakefield, Steven; Thomas, Weldon G; Sanders, Edwin; Keefer, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    In light of the increasing rates of HIV infection in African Americans, it is essential that black faith leaders become more proactive in the fight against the epidemic. The study aim was to engage faith leaders in a sustainable partnership to increase community participation in preventive HIV vaccine clinical research while improving their access to and utilization of HIV/AIDS prevention services. Leadership Development Seminars were adapted for faith leaders in Rochester, NY, with topics ranging from the importance of preventive HIV vaccine research to social issues surrounding HIV/AIDs within a theological framework. Seminars were taught by field-specific experts from the black community and included the development of action plans to institute HIV preventive ministries. To assess the outcome of the Seminars, baseline and post-training surveys were administered and analyzed through paired sample t Tests and informal interviews. 19 faith leaders completed the intervention. In general, the majority of clergy felt that their understanding of HIV vaccine research and its goals had increased postintervention. A critical outcome was the subsequent formation of the Rochester Faith Collaborative by participating clergy seeking to sustain the collaborative and address the implementation of community action plans. Providing scientific HIV/AIDS knowledge within the context of clergy members' belief structure was an effective method for engaging black Church leaders in Rochester, NY. Collaborative efforts with various local institutions and community-based organizations were essential in building trust with the faith leaders, thereby building bridges for better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, including HIV vaccine research.

  16. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust

  17. Iranian Foreign Policy Toward the Gulf After Khomeini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Smented History . Frederick, Maryland: University Publications ofAmerica, 1980. Banisadr, Abolhassan. The Fundamental Principles and Precepts of Islamic Government. Lexington, Kentucky: Mazda Publications, 1981. .2 28 a ...regimes. Rule in Iran changed from a monarchy to rule by Iran’s clergy--for the first time in its history . The Islamic Republic’s principles were...Throughout its history , the appearance of a strong ruler resulted in the consolidation of Iran’s territorial integrity and enabled Iran to assert its

  18. Anatomy of a pressure group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    Budiansky reports on the past and present activities of environmental activist Jeremy Rifkin and his campaign to restrict genetic engineering research. Rifkin, whose recent suit halted a University of California field test involving genetically altered bacteria, is often able to produce affidavits signed by well-known scientists to support his position. Other researchers are concerned that Rifkin's actions, such as his June 1983 petition calling for a ban on engineering of human germ cells and an accompanying letter signed by prominent clergy, will politicize the issues and hamper sensible regulation.

  19. Eski Türklerin Dini

    OpenAIRE

    UĞURLU, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Shamanism which is a religion of the Turks, or the idea that is the oldest religion of the Turks, is an incorrect assumption that has engaged the academic circles for a long time. Yet, the belief system which is known as Shamanism, is a system that has not yet occurred BC. As can be understood in the studies, shamanism applied in their regions of Turks and surrounding communities, in Central Asia only after 11th century, and it is a belief system held by therapeutic-the clergy called Shaman o...

  20. Terror Sting Operations in the Muslim Community - Developing Recommendations for Improving Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    elaborate scheme, saying, “We got pulled into a political game . The case was directed, produced, and scripted by the FBI, and all they needed were puppets...youth participate, and the games have been covered by major news networks and continue to grow in popularity.134 In addition, the NYPD’s Clergy...Greenwald, Glenn. “The FBI Again Thwarts Its Own Terror Plot.” Salon , September 29, 2011. http://www.salon.com/2011/09/29/fbi_terror/. Gruen

  1. «Ovelhas de tão pouca lã» : a transformação das aldeias indígenas em paróquias no período pombalino (Bahia, 1758

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    Fabricio Lyrio Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil

  2. «Ovelhas de tão pouca lã» : a transformação das aldeias indígenas em paróquias no período pombalino (Bahia, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lyrio Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil.

  3. Igreja e italianidade: Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1945

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    Paulo César Possamai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the position adopted by the catholic clergy concerning the italianità policy among the Italian immigrants in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. While the Carlists protected the Italian nationalism among the colonists and were inclined to a good relationship between the Catholic Church and the Kingdom of Italy, to the Capuchins the italianità was useful to preserve the catholic faith among the colonists, although they also supported the conservative point of view of the Vatican, that the liberal Italian State was the usurper of the papacy lands.

  4. Pedagogy and Purpose: Moral Imagination and the Teaching of Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2016-04-01

    This essay is an exploration of the development of moral imagination as an important outcome in the teaching of medial ethics. It is contextualized within the growth of professionalism and pays attention to the formation of character of physicians in their formal training and in the first phase of their careers. Issues around formation as it is understood historically in the vocation of the clergy are also considered. Finally, there is discussion of the place rites of passage as they figure in the lives of those who teach medical ethics.

  5. Una fuente para el estudio de la geografía eclesiástica de Galicia en la Baja Edad Media: las tasaciones del subsidio y la décima

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Bertomeu, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    The most important tax that Galician clergy must confront in late Middle Ages is the decimal, delivered initially to the Pontificate and afterwards to the royal chambre, which became the revenue called in the century XV «decima y subsidio del clero». The payment that the diocesan representative does to the papal or royal collector is the final point of a process whose details are described here for the case of the Galician churches. This charge, which envolves all the dioce...

  6. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  7. Feminine anthroponyms in 13th-century Scotland: the Ragman Roll (1296

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    Valeria Di Clemente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The documents known as Ragman Roll collect the fealty oaths sworn and the homages rendered by Scottish nobility, clergy, landowners and burgesses to Edward I Plantagenet after the English invasion of Scotland in the spring and summer of 1296. These documents record personal names and surnames of ca. 1800 people, being a precious source for the study of Scottish anthroponymy in the second half of the 13th century. This paper focuses on the feminine anthroponyms occurring in the Ragman Roll, on their form and on their historical-etymological and cultural background.

  8. “Wearing the Clothing of the Saint". Afro Characteristics in the Personality of San Baltazar through some Rites in his Cult in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cirio, Norberto Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism. Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the j...

  9. “Vistiendo las ropas del santo”: Atributos afro en la personalidad de san Baltasar a través de algunos cargos devocionales en su culto en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Pablo Cirio

    2003-01-01

    Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the jo...

  10. Half a Century of Life Don Khutor: the Parish Chronicle of St. Panteleimon• s Church of Khutor Letovskiy, Stanitsa Kremenskaia, Ust`-Medveditskaya District, Troops of the Don Region (1873-1929

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    Ageev Evgenii, priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article puts forward into scientific circulation a valuable source on the history of the parish life of the late 19th — early 20th century on the Don — the parish chronicle found in one of the investigations of the repressed clergy. This chronicle is unique high temporal coverage, from 1873 to 1929, it includes the years of revolution, Civil war on the Don and the first post-revolutionary decade. The author gives a brief overview of the history of the chronicle, the characteristics of its six authors — rural priests. The first thirty years were marked by the construction and decoration of the church and the absence of conflict. The early twentieth century was marked by the confl icts of the parishioners with the clergy. In the chronicle it was described the hardships of the lives of ordinary Cossacks, the scourge of Civil war, the famine of the early 1920s. In the postwar years there has been growing discontent of the parishioners by the activities of the Soviet government: tax policy, anti-religious propaganda and oppression of the clergy, beginning with collectivization. Narratives are rural priests, and it refl ects their own perception of the key events of the age. The author in the article examines the attitude of the parishioners to the Church, their perception of current events, participation in parish life. He concludes on a high degree of involvement of Cossacks in the Church life, the importance of the Church in their daily lives. The facts given in the article, suggest the sustainability of the parish farm, the community was able to survive in the turmoil of the Civil war. Forced destruction of parish life in the years of collectivization destroyed the community and has led to the degradation and disappearance of rural settlement. The last author of the chronicle was repressed, he and those arrested with him the clergy and parishioners were accused of preparing an armed uprising. The chronicle shows that this

  11. Las "tomas" de colegios durante la República Liberal, 1936 - 1942: parte de la estructura discursiva de la Violencia.

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    Thomas J. Williford.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available After the 1935 elections, in which Conservative electoral abstention resulted in a completely Liberal government, the dream of secular public education animated Colombian Liberals. In various municipalities, Liberal leaders ended contracts with the Catholic clergy to operate schools in public buildings; the seizures of these schools became acts of political theater, with mutual accusations between the parties of armed plots inspired by the Spanish Civil War. These seizures would become part of the discursive structure of the protagonists of La Violencia in the 1940s and 1950s, justifying for them the massacres of members of the opposite party.

  12. A contemporary priest: profession or divine service

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    E. M. Morosov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Russian Orthodox Church strategy with regard to forming core competence of modern Orthodox clergy for educative and social work. The question about the Church demand for a new generation of clergymen able to combine spiritual life with continuous intellectual and cultural development is raised. It is settled on the basis of combining professional competence and the idea of service. The moving trends of spiritual education reform directed at training a well-qualified priest capable of solving conventional spiritual and new tasks of vicarial service are considered.

  13. Identification of Strategies to Facilitate Organ Donation among African Americans using the Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L.; Mannon, Elinor C.; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. Results In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants’ reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). Conclusions These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one’s death

  14. Memoranda by A.P. Uspensky to the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian government

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    Sukhanov Aleksandr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication offers a previously unknown memoranda by representative of the diocesan assembly of deputies of the clergy and laity of the Tomsk diocese A. P. Uspensky, addressed to the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian government in July 1918. A.P. Uspensky solicited for formation of the Ministry of confessions in the Provisional Siberian government. Memoranda are initiative documents to the Statute on the Chief Administration of religious denominations adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Russian government on December 27, 1918.

  15. Die akkommodering en bestuur van diversiteit in gemeenteverband

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    T.F.J. Dreyer

    2006-10-01

    Diversity is becomming a prominent phenomenon of our society within a postmodern context. Many clergy and church members believe it threatens the peace and stability of churches and local congregations. Seemingly, diversity contributes to the escalation of conflict and the stress levels church leaders are experiencing. This article attempts to analize and describe the phenomenon of diversity from the angles of postmodernity, personality preferences and systems thinking. The research is based upon the hypothesis that diversity does not necessarily threaten the unity of local congregations. The manifestation of unity within diversity is only possible if leaders are sensitized to manage the challenges of pluriformity.

  16. Seeing the world through the eyes of Andries van Aarde: Radical inclusivity

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    Glenna S. Jackson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author reflected on her personal and existential experience of a journey to Egypt, and how this highlights radical inclusivity. The article focused on the issues of the violence of poverty, the history of Coptic Christianity and the role of women within this tradition. The article touched on aspects such as ‘women monks’, ecclesiastical hierarchy in modern Coptic Christianity, and the ordination of clergy. It also considered the perspective of ‘social hierarchy’ and ‘spiritual or divine hierarchy’.

  17. Reading and proclaiming the Advent call of John the Baptist: An empirical enquiry employing the SIFT method

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    Leslie J. Francis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching suggests that the reading and proclaiming of scripture reflects the psychological type preferences of the reader and preacher. This thesis is examined among a sample of clergy (training incumbents and curates serving in the one Diocese of the Church of England (N = 22. After completing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the clergy worked in groups (designed to cluster individuals who shared similar psychological type characteristics to reflect on and to discuss the Advent call of John the Baptist. The Marcan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the perceiving functions (sensing and intuition in light of its rich narrative. The Lucan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the judging functions (thinking and feeling in light of the challenges offered by the passage. In accordance with the theory, the data confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types, and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.

  18. Hacia un nuevo clero en los Andes a finales del siglo XVIII: la ordenación A título de lengua en el Arzobispado de Lima

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    Lavallé, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the archbishopric of Lima, as well as in others, there is a significant change in the recruitment of secular clergy for parishes towards the end of the 18th century. The lenguaraces, those who know the indigenous language, are granted privilege by favoring that prerequisite above all others. This had notable consequences on their preparation, as well as the social and ethnic background of these priests, who were forced to work with a fragile status, with no possibility of relocation or promotion, all of which led to the appearance of a true lower clergy.En el arzobispado de Lima, como en otros, a finales del siglo XVIII se nota un cambio sustancial en el reclutamiento del clero secular para las doctrinas. Se privilegia entonces a los lenguaraces, conocedores de la lengua indígena, pasando ese requisito por encima de los demás. Eso tuvo consecuencias notables sobre la preparacion pero también el origen social y étnico de esos sacerdotes, obligados a trabajar con estatuto fragilizado, sin posibilidad de promocion ni cambio de destino, desembocando todo eso en la aparicion de un verdadero bajo clero.

  19. Gender, religion, and the experience of suffering: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2013-12-01

    This article explores how gender and religious belief come together in an elderly woman's experience of suffering. It is based on qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in a group of community-dwelling elders (80+) living in a North American city. We use the case study method to introduce themes that show suffering's uniqueness to the individual whose narrative we report, as well as similarity to themes that emerged in other participants' narratives. In this case, an elderly woman's gender and religious identities merge in her stories of suffering, which include the memory of a childhood disability and an incident of clergy abuse that occurred 70 years previously. A key finding in this paper is that key themes in her story of suffering, which are disablement and clergy abuse, resonate to the general themes of suffering found in our study, which are (1) threats to personal identity; (2) loss of a valued item, quality, or relationship; and (3) a lack of control over self or the circumstances of life.

  20. A IGREJA E O ESCÂNDALO DA PEDOFILIA

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    Luís Corrêa Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O escândalo da pedofilia envolvendo o clero católico teve uma enorme repercussão na mídia. Para além de fatos pontuais amplamente noticiados, há uma realidade social da Igreja, do clero e da sociedade contemporânea que se manifesta, onde os agentes estão interligados e interagindo, e podem ser melhor conhecidos. Avaliam-se a dimensão do escândalo, desdobramentos e consequências, polêmicas que se seguiram, e a pertinência de medidas adotadas. ABSTRACT: The pedophilia scandal involving the Catholic clergy had a huge impact in the media. Beyond specific events widely reported, there is a social reality of the Church, the clergy and of contemporary society which is manifested, where the agents are interconnected and interacting, and may be better known. The extent of the scandal, developments and consequences, controversy that followed, and adequacy of measures taken are evaluated.

  1. Сharitable activities of Alexander Andreevich Zhelobovskiy

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    Zhukova Lekkha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to charitable works of Alexander Andreevich Zhelobovskiy, and his participation in various charitable General communities. He was the first Russian protopresbyter of the military clergy and did much to shape the staff of experienced and knowledgeable priests who actively worked not only to ensure religious worship in the army, but also for the Patriotic upbringing of soldiers. In these purposes and based on personal beliefs, Zhelobovskiy set up several scholarships for talented students studying in the Theological Academies. In addition, Zhelobovskiy made a great contribution to provision of pensions little-haves elderly priests, as well as to their widows and orphans. To help the poor, by Zhelobovskiy’s own money was built candle factory, profit from which amounted to “orphan’s capital”. The scope of the paper includes the activities of the first Russian protopresbyter of the military clergy on the planting and construction of military and regimental churches in various cities. Until 1901 military churches were required to actively participate in the search of philanthropists. One of the themes of this article is the charity organization and own philanthropy activities Zhelobovskiy during the Russo-Japanese war. Special attention is paid to the contribution of Zhelobovskiy in the case of charity on his «small Motherland». Where Zhelobovskiy not only built the temple, but also established the hospice and also did much to Belozersky spiritual school.

  2. Tamgha and the Struggle against It: On the History of Medieval Turkic-mongol Taxation System

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    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Turkic-Mongol taxation institute of tamgha widely used in the Mongol Empire since the first half of the 13th century. Author characterizes the etymology of this term, its meanings, legal regulation of levy and rates, evolution of the tax in different states – successors of the Mongol Empire (the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, etc. as well as in these states even after fall of Chinggisid dynasties (such as Iran under Safavids, Central Asia under Timurids. As the author supposes, the long-term use of tamgha allows us to talk about the vitality and effectiveness of Chinggisid legal tradition, which survived after the end of “Chinggisid age”. Even the rulers and dynasties, which positioned themselves as rivals of Chinggisids, used tamgha in their taxation system. This tax was also borrowed by the Russians and was used for a long time becoming a base for custom system in Russia. Other subjects of the research are the struggle of Islamic theologians and jurists against tamgha in different countries of Inner Asia and reasons for this struggle. The author attempts to clarify reasons of this struggle, strict position of clergy against tamgha and measures of rulers who did not want to be in trouble with clergy, but at the same time tried to save tamgha as effective and profitable tax.

  3. The attempt to legalize the church administration of the Leningrad’s diocese in 1926 as the prehistory of the “josephite-alexis” division

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    Mazyrin Aleksandr, priest

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the failed attempt to organize and legalize the Leningrad’s diocesan administration of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1926. At the suggestion of OGPU the group of Leningrad’s clergy has propounded legalization. Bishop Alexius (Simanskiy became the leader of the group in the summer of 1926. The initiative group’s activity aroused suspicion of the part of the Leningrad clergy assuring a top church management to transfer bishop Alexey to another diocese and to appoint Joseph (Petrovyh to be a Leningrad metropolitan. The conflict situation was complicated by the provocative politics of a state authority. It prevented metropolitan Joseph from carrying out his duties of ruling archbishop and, on the contrary, permitted the initiative group to hold a meeting led by bishop (archbishop Alexius. All attempts of church workers to find the unconflicted way out were unsuccessful. The author analyses arguments of supporters and opponents of the diocesan legalization, estimates the correlation between personal and based on principles motives. He investigates the position of church authority represented by metropolitan Sergey (Stragorodskiy. The author considers either side was not unjust one in the Leningrad church collision in 1926. Only the politics of the soviet power that used legalization as the demoralization’s instrument of the Church was defi nitely malicious.

  4. Jurisdicción episcopal y violencia en el clero diocesano burgalés durante el siglo XV

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    Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed, in a selective way, the different kinds of violence in the diocesan clergy of Burgos during fifteen century: violence from clergymen against laymen, between the clergymen and from laymen against clergymen. All these situations were reported to the episcopal justice of Burgos. The different cases of violence were blows, slaps and attacks with knifes and swords, taking place homicides sometimes. Definitely, the aforementioned cases show strong social tensions, internal and external, affecting in a local level the rural clergy in the diocese of Burgos.En este trabajo se realiza un análisis selectivo de las diferentes formas de presencia de la violencia en el clero diocesano burgalés durante el siglo XV. Violencia de los clérigos hacia los laicos, entre los propios clérigos y de los laicos contra los clérigos, situaciones todas ellas que fueron denunciadas ante la justicia episcopal burgalesa. Las manifestaciones de violencia fueron desde simples golpes, bofetadas y pedradas hasta ataques con cuchillos y espadas, no faltando algún caso de homicidio, todo lo cual, en definitiva, viene a ser una clara muestra de las fuertes tensiones sociales, tanto internas como externas, que a nivel local afectaban al clero rural en la diócesis de Burgos.

  5. How Antisemitic was the Political Catholicism in Croatia-Slavonia around 1900?

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    Marija Vulesica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the Croatian-Slavonian parliamentary elections in 1897, two oppositional parties formed the so called United Opposition which was backed by large segments of the clergy. Afraid, variously, of liberalism, the Hungarian church reforms, the ideas of social democracy and the demands for secularization, the United Opposition chose antisemitism as a political means. Supported by the Catholic paper (Katolički list and its editor in chief Stjepan Korenić, who openly called for the clergy to organize politically, they blamed Jews for all the putative threats of the modern world. For the first time an election campaign in Croatia-Slavonia had open antisemitic traits. The author shows the impact of antisemitic ideas within some parts of the Croatian opposition since the 1880s, including political Catholicism and the United Opposition, down to the turn of the century. The paper considers in addition the role of the Catholic newspaper and the press in general in the antisemitic campaign in 1897, as well as in the distribution of antisemitic ideas in the 1880s and 1890s in the Habsburg crownland Croatia-Slavonia.

  6. Liquidation of the Belarusian Renovationist Church in 1934–1938

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    Baranenko Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process of liquidation in 1934-1938 of the Belarusian Renovationist Church as a religious community having its hierarchical and organisational structure. The study is based on a complex of legal archival documents. The aim of the paper is to describe the activity of renovationist institutions in the territory of the BSSR in the absence of a collective form of government of the Russian Orthodox (Renovationist Church during the period of “independent clerical government”. The paper also gives statistics on the clergy and Orthodox ecclesiastical institutions of the BSSR in the 2nd half of the 1930s. It also discusses forms of adaptation of Orthodox clergy to prohibitions and limitations imposed by the state during the period of the “Great Purge”. The main conclusion of the paper is that the reason for the disappearance of Church Renovationism in the BSSR was the oppressive politics of the Soviet government against the Belarusian Renovationist Church fi gures.

  7. УЧАСТЬ ПРЕДСТАВНИКІВ РИМО-КАТОЛИЦЬКОГО КЛІРУ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОЇ УКРАЇНИ В РЕВОЛЮЦІЙНО-ДЕМОКРАТИЧНИХ ТА ЛІБЕРАЛЬНИХ ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯХ у другій половині XIX — на початку XX ст.

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    Ю. В. Хитровська

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.

  8. Holiness as friendship with Christ: Teresa of Avila

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    Tara K. Soughers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa of Avila, writing in the 16th century when ideas of holiness often excluded women and lay people, developed a radically inclusive understanding of holiness as friendship with Christ. Her idea also allowed for degrees of holiness, from those who completed only the necessary church requirements of confession and absolution all the way up to those who had a friendship that was modelled upon the relationship in the Song of Songs. It was a definition of holiness applicable to men and women, clergy, members of religious orders, and lay people. In addition, her understanding of holiness did not distinguish the holiness of ordinary lay people from that of the great saints of previous generations, for friendship with Christ was open to all.

  9. Predicting help-seeking behavior: The impact of knowing someone close who has sought help.

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    Disabato, David J; Short, Jerome L; Lameira, Diane M; Bagley, Karen D; Wong, Stephanie J

    2018-02-15

    This study sought to replicate and extend research on social facilitators of college student's help seeking for psychological problems. We collected data on 420 ethnically diverse college students at a large public university (September 2008-May 2010). Students completed a cross-sectional online survey. We found that students who were aware of close others' (eg, family, friends) help seeking were two times more likely to have sought formal (eg, psychologist) and informal (eg, clergy) help themselves. Tests of moderation revealed the incremental effect (ie, controlling for help-seeking attitudes, internalizing symptoms, cultural demographics) of close others' formal help seeking was strong and significant for men (R 2 = 0.112), while it was negligible and nonsignificant for women (R 2 = .002). We discuss the importance for students-particularly men-to learn about close others' help seeking for facilitating their own help seeking during times of distress.

  10. Religiousness and suicide in a nationally representative sample of Trinidad and Tobago adolescents and young adults.

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    Toussaint, Loren; Wilson, Colwick M; Wilson, Leon C; Williams, David R

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines religiousness and its connection to suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts among Trinidad and Tobago adolescents and young adults. Data are from Trend Research Empowering National Development on adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (N = 4448). Religious affiliation, self-perceived religiousness, attendance at religious services, prayer frequency, socio-demographic variables, and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were assessed. Compared to nonreligious, Catholics (OR 0.63, p religious services was related to lower likelihood of thinking about suicide (OR 0.94, p Religiousness may offer benefits for adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago by reducing the likelihood that they engage in suicide thoughts and behaviors. Results may hold implications for counselors, clergy, teachers, and others working with adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago.

  11. [Legal secrecy: abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970].

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    Marchand-Arias, R E

    1998-03-01

    The essay discusses abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970, concentrating in its legal status as well as its social practice. The research documents the contradictions between the legality of the procedure and a social practice characterized by secrecy. The essay discusses the role of the Clergy Consultation Service on Abortion in promoting the legal practice of absortion in Puerto Rico. It also discusses the ambivalent role of medical doctors who, despite being legally authorized to perform abortions to protect the life and health of women, refused to perform the procedure arguing abortion was illegal. The essay concludes with a brief discussion on perceptions of illegality regarding abortion, emphasizing the contradictions between the practice of abortion and that of sterilization in Puerto Rico.

  12. Piedecuesta, Floridablanca and Bucaramanga: Catholic intransigence scenarios in Santander, 1930-1931

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    Ivonne Vanessa Calderón Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief investigation of the phenomenon of clerical belligerence in Santander and political participation of priests in election debates that led to the return of liberalism during 1930 and 1931. Based on the study of Catholicism religious currents, shown by the case of three priests, how they lived radicalization of traditionalist Catholicism in Santander with the launch of Catholicism intransigent openly confronted liberalism in the region. This starts by presenting the response of the clergy to the return of the liberals in 1930 and then outlines the actions of the pastors in the electoral debate on 1 February 1931. Finally the time shows that amid the strong liberalization of Santander were very specific cases of clerical violence that tracks arguing the primacy of the Catholic intransigence

  13. Effects of the Scopes trial. Was it a victory for evolutionists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, J V; Miller, P D

    1974-09-06

    Readers may choose their own villain in the story we have told. Like us, some will find the greatest culpability in the scientific community itself, for the large-scale failure to pay attention to the teaching of science in the high schools. Others will blame the textbook authors and publishers for pursuing sales rather than quality. Some will attach blame to the politicians who exploited antievolution sentiment to get into, or remain, in office. Others will blame the conservative Protestant clergy. Some may blame the whole educational system for failing to teach Americans how to evaluate evidence. And many will blame the evolutionists for bringing the matter up in the first place. But whatever the lesson one wishes to draw from the history of biology textbooks since the Scopes trial, we think the story itself is worth knowing. That the textbooks could have downgraded their treatment of evolution with almost nobody noticing is the greatest tragedy of all.

  14. Persecution of believers as a systemic feature of the Soviet regime

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    Soskovets Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the anti-religious policy of the Soviet Union adopted in relation to believers and religious organizations. The reasons for the persecution of religion, churches and believers, such as the conceptual framework of Marxist ideology, desire for total power, and creation of an ideocratic state are analyzed. The main stages of the anti-religious campaign led by the Bolshevik government are determined. Major anti-religious practices, such as legal restriction of all forms of religious life, discrimination against the clergy and believers, atheist education and anti-religious propaganda work are studied. It may be concluded that persecution of believers is a systemic feature of a totalitarian regime.

  15. Five loaves and two fishes: An empirical study in psychological type and biblical hermeneutics among Anglican preachers

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    Leslie J. Francis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The sensing, intuition, feeling and thinking (SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching has its roots in three fields: a theology of individual differences situated within the doctrine of creation, an application of Jungian psychological-type theory and empirical observation. The present study tested the empirical foundations for this method by examining the psychological-type profile of two groups of Anglican preachers (24 licensed readers in England and 22 licensed clergy in Northern Ireland and by examining the content of their preaching according to their dominant psychological-type preferences. These data provided further support for the psychological principles underpinning the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching.

  16. Educating the Global Scholar: Toward a Globally Oriented Institution

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    Steve O. Michael

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available What constitutes the curricular experience for the award of a baccalaureate degree has never been static and could not have been expected to be if higher education is to fulfill its role to a dynamic society. Since the creation of the modern university, the role of higher education has continued to expand, initially serving to prepare the clergy for the church, later to prepare statesmen, much later to prepare the general citizens for gainful employment. Although performed differently by different institutions, the mission of a modern university is basically a universal one: to generate knowledge, transmit knowledge, serve as the custodian of the stock of knowledge, and provide service to society. In other words, the role of a university is to create, critique, and transform civilizations.

  17. Hospital and asylum visiting in historical perspective: themes and issues.

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    Mooney, Graham; Reinarz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Compared to doctors, patients and institutions, visitors are an understudied constituency in medical history. The collection of essays in this book situates the historical practice of hospital and asylum visiting in broad social, cultural and geographical perspectives. This introduction loosely categorises visitors into four groups: patient visitors, including family and friends; public visitors, such as entertainers, tourists and the clergy, who have no direct formal ties with the institution or the patients; house visitors involved with the management and government of the hospital; and official visitors, who have inspectorial responsibilities. Discussion of the wider historical significance of visiting draws attention to issues such as urban governance, philanthropy, the public sphere, civil society and citizenship.

  18. The counterfeit nephew of the Pope. A plot against the Bishop of Puebla during the expulsion of the Jesuits

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    Gabriel Torres Puga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1767, an ex-Jesuit and an Italian adventurer met in the Episcopal jail in Puebla. The grievances of the former, a staunch critic of Bishop Francisco Fabián y Fuero, found a means of expression in the illusions of the latter, who pretended to be the Pope’s nephew. The result was a strange plan that took on a “seditious” character as it combined with the gossip surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits. This article uses a variety of legal documents and secret investigations to reconstruct this history of lies, intrigue and the desire for critical expression, providing an opportunity to reflect on the dissent of the American clergy during a time in which royalty and censorship were being redefined.

  19. Colonial museology and the Buddhist chronicles of Sri Lanka: agency and negotiation in the development of the palm-leaf manuscript collection at the Colombo Museum.

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    Jonathan Sweet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The roles of colonial museums in South Asia have been understood in terms of the dissemination of museology within the British Empire. This has often underplayed the participation of local intellectuals in the formation of museum collections, and thus has not recognized their agency in the creation of knowledge and of longstanding cultural assets. This article addresses this in part through an historical case study of the development of the palm-leaf manuscript collection at the Colombo Museum in nineteenth century Ceylon. The article focuses on the relationships between Government aims, local intellectuals and the Buddhist clergy. I argue that colonial museology and collecting activity in Ceylon ought to be understood as a negotiated process and a number of reasons for this are discussed. This article contributes to an area of museological research that is exploring the roles of indigenous actors in colonial collecting and museum practice in South Asia and broader geographical contexts.

  20. [The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanski, Luís Cláudio P; Gomes, Flávio

    2012-12-01

    These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters) and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.

  1. Iglesia y transición en la diócesis de Orihuela-Alicante

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    Moreno Seco, Mónica

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the situation of the Church in the diocese of Orihuela- Alicante during the years of the Spanish transition. Here are watched the differents attitudes of hierarchy, clergy, and the secular movements in view of the new politic situation that was horning in 1975.

    Este artículo estudia la situación de la Iglesia en la diócesis de Orihuela- Alicante durante los años de la transición española. En él se observan las distintas actitudes de la jerarquía, el clero y los movimientos seglares ante la nueva situación política que nacía en 1975.

  2. Church and Society. The Role of Religious Journals in the Difusion of the Biblical Element within the Historical Banat area. 1867-1918

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    Alin Cristian Scridon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The church press published important documents regarding the religious life of Romanians from Transylvania and Banat. This publication also included details regarding the religious life of the school from Banat. The Biserica şi Şcoala magazinewas published in the western historical Banat, in Arad. This was possible due to the fact that Timisoara, the most important city in Banat, had a Romanian Orthodox Deanery that was dependent on the Diocese of Arad, before the establishment of the Diocese of Timisoara in 1939.The Caransebes Diocese’ magazine Foaia Diecezană (The Diocesan Sheet provided the clergy and the faithful with information on Christian spirituality. Along the aforementioned magazines, there were a few newspapers which have enriched this field's literature. Based on those covered by the study, we find that the media made an overwhelming contribution to the dissemination of the biblical information during that particular period of time.

  3. Why support a women's medical college? Philadelphia's early male medical pro-feminists.

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    Peitzman, Steven J

    2003-01-01

    The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship.

  4. Passages from the book Itinerary for Parish Priests of Indians, by Peña Montenegro (1668, contained in a 17th Century Jesuit manual of penitence from the Amazon

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    Vitor Manoel Marques da Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of the article is to transcribe and analyse the final passage of an anonymous manuscript manual of penitence in circulation in missions of Pará in 1751. The manual was written in Tupi, but the conclusion is in Portuguese. The missionary addresses himself to other confessors recounting the difficulties encountered in confessing Indians and suggesting solutions for the clergy to save their consciences. The author of the manual of penitence was influenced intellectually by the book Itinerary for Parish Priests of Indians, by Alonso de la Peña Montenegro, archbishop of Quito, published in 1668. The manuscript is to be found in the National Library of Rio de Janeiro. The transcription is annotated with references to the book by the archbishop of Quito.

  5. El hábito no hace al monje. Reflexiones histórico-semióticas sobre la ética sacerdotal tradicionalista

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    Jhon Janer Vega Rincón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the priestly ethos implementing a semiotic analysis of discourse and exploring in depth the Actas y Decretos del primer Concilio Provincial Neogranadino 1868, in its provisions concerning the life and honesty of the clergy, particularly as regards the external appearance the priest. It focuses on aspects such as the ecclesiastical tonsure and habit, examining the relationship between the sensible forms and their ideological content. To understand its historical sense analytical findings, interpretations proposes a line-length, in dialogue with the early days of Christianity, the provisions of the Council of Trent and suffered break the regime of visibility to the realization of Vatican II in the twentieth century. It raises thus the proposed traditionalist Catholicism, founded a clerical regime visual rhetoric in which the expressive elements are placed as symbols of transcendent values, thus expressing certain ethical model for the priest, where the external appearance plays a fundamental role.

  6. Teaching evolution in Chile. History of a conflict documented in textbooks of secondary education

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    Manuel Tamayo Hurtado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the presence of the evolution in secondary education textbooks used en Chile since 1902 to 2003. Textbooks analysis of secondary education shows the disputes between evolutionisms and their opponents. Members of the clergy participated actively as antievolutionisms and several of the most outstanding evolutionisms were liberal and francmasones. The text of Bernardino Quijada marked a landmark and polarized to those in favor and detractors during half century. The evolutionary subject was reduced in second half of century XX, partly by the development of other biological fields, but also by ideological pressures of preservative religious sectors. During the last reforms, evolutionary theory oscillates between the compulsory and the optative contents of the programs of Chilean secondary education.

  7. Semi-renovationism in the Russia Orthodox Church in the middle of 1920-s.: toward the question about the church policy’s estimate of bishop Irenaeus (Shulgin of Elabuga and bishop Alexiy (Kuznetsov of Sarapulsk

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    Zimina Nina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the activity of the St. Petersburg Department of the Moscow Society for Religious education, targeted to give the western Christians the knowledge about the affairs’ state of the Eastern Church. The author identifies the literature published and translated by Russian theologians and members of clergy for western Christians from 1871 to 1880. She describes the work’s methods of the Department. The response of western theologians was the publication of works about the Eastern Church. Members of the St. Petersburg Department managed to fulfill designated tasks despite the short period of activity. They illuminated as much as possible the state of the contemporary Church, a church history and theology and assisted western and east Christians in the dialog’s development.

  8. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior.

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    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes.

  9. The 6th branch of the Secret Department of the Аll-Russian Extraordinary Commission (the work with churchmen and sectarians: questions on organizational and personnel policy»

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    Mihail Y. Krapivin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the creation of a special structural subdivision of the Central office of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (VCheka organized for targeted agent-operative work among "hostile elements" of the Orthodox clergy and contre-revolutionary religious sectarianism. Sources covering the initial period of operation of the "Church" office Secret operative / the Secret Department (SD of the VCheka was preserved very little, although the amount of work they carried out was great. On the basis of all available documentary material the authors describe the organizational structure of the special Secret Department of the VCheka, which initially received the number "7" in November 1920 and then – the number "6" in November 1921. The authors try to reconstruct the stages of creation and development of the special Secret Department (its reorganization, renaming, personal appointees of the governing composition, etc. in chronological sequence.

  10. A rural African American faith community's solutions to depression disparities.

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    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Los [anti]silenos de Erasmo y el Lazarillo de Tormes

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    Marco Antonio Coronel Ramos

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a reading of El Lazarillo de Tormes from the perspective of the spiritual movements in Spain during the 16th century. From this perspective, the novel may be related to other works of reform of Christianity which arose within the Catholic Church. Thus the author of  El Lazarillo is related to those moralists who, in line with the Erasmianism, called for raising the moral level and training of the clergy. Taking into account these assumptions, El Lazarillo is studied as a narrative recreation of what Erasmus called antisileni. In this sense the novel reflects the importance which reverse values have acquired in the 16th century society, whereas in a deeper reading, it would be considered a knock on the conscience of the reader to persuade him to live with the true Christian virtues.

  12. “Through the Letter Sent with my Envoys to Kiev” St. Dimitry`s of Rostov Contacts with Kiev and Chernigov in 1701–1709

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    Krylov Aleksei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines st. Dimitry’s of Rostov contacts with Kiev and Chernigov in 1701–1709. Dimitry’s correspondence is vast, but addressees of the most of the known letters are Dmitry’s Moscow friend and Great Russian hierarchs. Problem of st. Dimitry’s contacts with his Little Russian acquaintances still remain obscure. This article deals with the information of st. Dimitry of Rostov correspondence with addressees in Kiev and Chernigov and the circumstances of Dimitry’s visit to Chernigov in 1704. In time of his episcopal service st. Dimitry exchanged letters with Josaph Krokowski, archimandrit of Kievan Lauras and future metropolitan of Kiev. Letters were sent with agents of both hierarchs. This correspondence was devoted to the publication of the “Lives of the Saints” in the Lavra’s typography. There are no evedencies of st. Dimitry writing letteres to members of Chernigov clergy in 1701–1709, although st. John Maximovich archbishop of Chernigov sent his new books to Dimitry of Rostov. However in february of 1704st. Dmitry undertook a journey to Chernigov that left almost no traces in sources. The main evidence is record of Pachomios of Roman, a Moldavian ascetic, about himself meeting Rostov metropolitan in Chernigov in 1704. This trip was an exeptional event and could be connected with the demise of Parthenios Neboza, metropolitan of Holmogory, who died suddenly on 2 january 1704 in Yaroslavl. Author concludes that Dimitry of Rostov in 1701–1709 was not isolated from his old friends and mantained his ties with educated clergy of Little Russia during the years of his Episcopal service in Moscow and Rostov.

  13. Issues On Religious Coexistence Tolerance In Albania 1912-1945

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    Ahmed Kalaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.

  14. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

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    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  15. "Disciplina clericorum" on VI century Sardinia according to the letters of Gregory the Great

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    Elena Marey

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with church life in Sardinia in the 6th century and is based on material from the letters of Gregory the Great. Metropolitan of Sardinia, Januarius, was not able to keep the island in order and to control his subordinate clerics; moreover, he himself was involved in crimes several times. The article studies various examples of violation of church discipline by clerics of Sardinia and their negligence of ordinances of church councils. Thus, priests often behaved in an improper and corrupt manner, did not obey the metropolitan, baptised incorrectly. The provincial council was rarely convened; several sees remained without a bishop due to Januarius’ negligence. All this much upset St. Gregory the Great, who did his best at trying to strengthen church discipline in the island. In his letters addressed to Januarius, the Pope scrutinised mistakes and faults of the latter appealing to the Bible and ordinances of conciliar canons. Typically, St. Gregory always provides arguments for his position. At the same time, he tried to raise Januarius’ authority in the eyes of the clergy, which he regarded as the base for order and stability. The letters of St. Gregory the Great demonstrate that church life in the region directly depended on metropolitan’s personality and character. This conclusion accords with the Cura pastoralis by St. Gregory which describes the epitome of a bishop: the bishop is able to manage his community and set his fl ock and clergy on the right path only on condition that he possesses certain moral standards.

  16. Matters of spirituality at the end of life in the pediatric intensive care unit.

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    Robinson, Mary R; Thiel, Mary Martha; Backus, Meghan M; Meyer, Elaine C

    2006-09-01

    Our objective with this study was to identify the nature and the role of spirituality from the parents' perspective at the end of life in the PICU and to discern clinical implications. A qualitative study based on parental responses to open-ended questions on anonymous, self-administered questionnaires was conducted at 3 PICUs in Boston, Massachusetts. Fifty-six parents whose children had died in PICUs after the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies participated. Overall, spiritual/religious themes were included in the responses of 73% (41 of 56) of parents to questions about what had been most helpful to them and what advice they would offer to others at the end of life. Four explicitly spiritual/religious themes emerged: prayer, faith, access to and care from clergy, and belief in the transcendent quality of the parent-child relationship that endures beyond death. Parents also identified several implicitly spiritual/religious themes, including insight and wisdom; reliance on values; and virtues such as hope, trust, and love. Many parents drew on and relied on their spirituality to guide them in end-of-life decision-making, to make meaning of the loss, and to sustain them emotionally. Despite the dominance of technology and medical discourse in the ICU, many parents experienced their child's end of life as a spiritual journey. Staff members, hospital chaplains, and community clergy are encouraged to be explicit in their hospitality to parents' spirituality and religious faith, to foster a culture of acceptance and integration of spiritual perspectives, and to work collaboratively to deliver spiritual care.

  17. The spiritual proceedings of the Yakutsk diocese in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, as a factor of inter-civilization interaction

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    Inna I. Yurganova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines, on the basis of the first introduced in the scientific revolution of historical sources, the judicial work of the Yakut diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, as an element of integration of the Orthodox Empire in the suburbs of the Russian statehood, as the Yakut spiritual Consistory, whose terms of reference included the investigation and judicial practice in respect of spiritual and secular persons, acted as one of the elements of the state apparatus. It is defined that the Orthodox population of the region was informed on the rights, showed the number of marriages and divorces, found the most characteristic of the Yakut diocese charge of the parish clergy, consisting in the wedding of a minor, due to the family law traditions of the Yakuts. Identified exceptions to the general rules made at the national legislative level, regarding the application marriage law, taking into account to the specifics of residence in the Far North: the remoteness of the diocese, the significance of its territory, climatic conditions, the difficulties of transportation and the conclusion has been made that the government, recognizing the difficulties of the Ministry, supported Yakut clergy. It is obvious that in connection with the conduct of spiritual justice, the customary law of the Yakuts began to be replaced by Christian Orthodox morals and to the early twentieth century in the area formed the ethno-religious understanding of the family legislation, when at obligatory Church the sanctification of marriage, kept the concept of it as a property transaction and, in general, the local population perceived the laws and customs of Orthodoxy not only through the Christian rituals, but also through the spiritual court , which regulates family and marital relationships.

  18. Role of Russian Orthodox Church in Life of Peasants in Russia in XIX – the beginning of the XXth centuries

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    LarisaS. Perevozchikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Russian Orthodox Church in the outlook of the peasantry in Russia in XIX – early XX centuries. It is shown that the priests have helped peasants in their households and even in the sickness, for which they used their special favour. In addition, our attention is given to the Orthodox Church holidays, with which the peasants tied the most significant events in their lives. We have analyzed the value of the parish in the life of the peasants, which determines the formation of the moral character of the peasantry. The attitude of the peasants to the different events, their assessment were often based on the judgment of the priest, not only obliged to hold services in the Church, but also to carry on business, has become a factor of integration of the clergy in the world of Russian village. In the article, on the archive material, the charity of peasants is differentiated. The peasants took an active part in the affairs of philanthropy, not only in their parishes or dioceses, but also in charity events throughout Russia. The scientific problem solved in this article makes it possible to identify that it is in the village of Russian Orthodox Church rallied the population, and it was considered citizens as a spiritual institution, where the cleric was in constant and close contact with the peasants, with the result that there is a certain transformation in the national consciousness. On the specific examples given in the article, we can say that the priests were authentic spiritual teachers of their congregations. Cautionary preaching of the clergy has played an important role in ritual and religious life of the Russian peasants.

  19. Occupational Variation in End-of-Life Care Intensity.

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    Hyder, Joseph A; Haring, R Sterling; Sturgeon, Daniel; Gazarian, Priscilla K; Jiang, Wei; Cooper, Zara; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Prigerson, Holly G; Weissman, Joel S

    2018-03-01

    End-of-life (EOL) care intensity is known to vary by secular and geographic patterns. US physicians receive less aggressive EOL care than the general population, presumably the result of preferences shaped by work-place experience with EOL care. We investigated occupation as a source of variation in EOL care intensity. Across 4 states, we identified 660 599, nonhealth maintenance organization Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who died between 2004 and 2011. Linking death certificates, we identified beneficiaries with prespecified occupations: nurses, farmers, clergy, mortuary workers, homemakers, first-responders, veterinary workers, teachers, accountants, and the general population. End-of-life care intensity over the last 6 months of life was assessed using 5 validated measures: (1) Medicare expenditures, rates of (2) hospice, (3) surgery, (4) intensive care, and (5) in-hospital death. Occupation was a source of large variation in EOL care intensity across all measures, before and after adjustment for sex, education, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index, race/ethnicity, and hospital referral region. For example, absolute and relative adjusted differences in expenditures were US$9991 and 42% of population mean expenditure ( P EOL care intensity measures, teachers (5 of 5), homemakers (4 of 5), farmers (4 of 5), and clergy (3 of 5) demonstrated significantly less aggressive care. Mortuary workers had lower EOL care intensity (4 of 5) but small numbers limited statistical significance. Occupations with likely exposure to child development, death/bereavement, and naturalistic influences demonstrated lower EOL care intensity. These findings may inform patients and clinicians navigating choices around individual EOL care preferences.

  20. Clérigos a la sombra de un pariente en el XVIII burgalés

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    Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Catastro of Ensenada contains, inside the thick volumes of the Respuestas Particulares or Memoriales, a detailed description of the vital parameters of the clergy. The usual formula is to take care of the ecclesiastical with independent housing and to study their professional activities. However, we also discovered the existence of clergy who, by different circumstances, are forced to live under the order of any close relation, within the walls of their own households and under the shadow of their own business. How many are they? What were their household structures? What were their professional activities? What impact did their presence in the household which gave them shelter? What colaciones and streets did they live?.El Catastro de Ensenada contiene, en el interior de los gruesos volúmenes de las Respuestas Particulares o Memoriales, una detallada descripción de los parámetros vitales del clero. La fórmula habitual es ocuparse de los eclesiásticos con vivienda independiente y estudiar sus actividades profesionales. No obstante, también descubrimos la existencia de clérigos que, por diversas circunstancias, estaban obligados a vivir bajo la férula de algún pariente, entre las paredes de sus hogares y a la sombra de sus quehaceres. ¿Cuántos son? ¿En qué estructuras domésticas se albergaban? ¿Cuáles eran sus actividades profesionales? ¿Qué impacto tenía su presencia en los hogares que les daban cobijo? ¿En qué colaciones y calles habitaban?.

  1. Church Vestries as Part of Church Administration in North Tobol Region During 1810-1860

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    Tsys’ Olga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines main characteristics, structure and functions of church vestries in North Tobol region during the period of 1810–1860. It is concluded that the church vestry as a governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church during the Synodal period acted as an information mediator between the diocese and parish. As a rule, the church vestry exercised the authority over a particular district or part of it. Responsibilities of vestries were mainly limited to gathering and interpreting various pieces of information, overseeing the accounting and documentation of the parish clergy, fining the clergy and laymen for minor misconduct, and distributing the consistory’s decrees. The paper also demonstrates that vestries were collegial units, where decrees of the diocese, as well as reports and presentations of its members were discussed. It should be noted that boundaries of the district under the vestry’s jurisdiction were vague and not clearly marked. The common drawback of the vestries, as part of church administration, was the ambiguity in definition and description of roles and responsibilities. It was discovered that the remoteness of church administration from the majority of its parishes was specific to North Tobol region. It is concluded that church vestries were set up as administrative and organisational centres, and played a significant role in the administration of the Russian Orthodox Church. However, in the course of time the vestries started to lose their original role, becoming a redundant mediator in diocese and parish relations, which, in turn, led to the full abandonment of church vestries.

  2. Ecce quam bonum et quam iocundum habitare firatres in unum. Vidas reglar y secular en las catedrales hispanas llegado el siglo XII

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    Carrero Santamaría, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Visigothic Councils and Saint Isidore's texts shows, the Hispanic catedral clergy was obliged to lead a communal life. After the Islamic invasion, the vita apostolica was retrieved in a two different ways. While the Iberian Western Kingdoms continued under Visigothic rules, the Marca Hispánica let it felt the reforming influence of Aix-la-Chapelle Council. Until the 12th century and depending on each Kingdonis politics and ecclesiastics realities, the cathedral clergy endured successive strict disciplinarian waves that exacted conmion life systems. In the 12th century, these processes ended in two different religious phenomenon, the beginnings of a final secularisation or the establishment of agustinian communities sub regula that arrived at the 16th century.[fr] Selon les conciles visigoths et les écrits de Saint Isidore, les clercs du cathédrale à l'Espagne doivent faire de la vie commune. Après la invasion islamique, la vie apostolique réapparaît en deux façon différentes. Du côté des règnes occidentales on continue sous préceptes visigoths, et dans la Marca Hispánica il y avait de la influence réformiste du Concile d'Aix-la-Chapelle. Dans l'Espagne du Xlle. siècle, et selon la realité politique et religieuse de chaque région, les clercs du cathédrale souffrirent l'imposition de la vie sub regula. Cette imposition eut deux solutiones: le commencement de la sécularisation definitive ou bien, la institution de chapitres augustiniens réguliers qui sont arrivé a l'époque moderne faisant de la vie commune.

  3. La retribución a la Residencia Anual de los Canónigos en la Iglesia de Toledo (S. XVI

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    Susana Villaluenga de Gracia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende continuar con el estudio del sistema retributivo del clero catedralicio de Toledo, ahondado esta vez en el vestuario de los canónigos.En la catedral de Toledo, al igual que en otras catedrales, una parte de las rentas eclesiásticas se destinaba al clero catedralicio para cubrir el alimento (refitor y el vestido (vestuario. El primero concernía a la consunción y el segundo a la perfección.El vestuario era la principal renta que recibía un canónigo de la Iglesia de Toledo, haciéndolo en orden a la dignidad conferida. Procedía de los diezmos de pan y vino que se recogían en el arzobispado y remuneraba la residencia anual. Se complementaba con otros recursos como las rentas procedentes del préstamo de Baza y el de Hita.The purpose of this paper is to continue studying the compensation system cathedral clergy of Toledo in the sixteenth century, this time on the vestuario of the canons.In this cathedral, as in one other, a part of the income was allocated to the cathedral clergy to cover the food (refitor and clothing (vestuario. The first one was concerning the consumption and the second one to the perfection.The vestuario was the main income that was receiving a canon of the Church of Toledo, so in order to dignity conferred. It was coming from the tithes of wheat and wine which were collected in the archbishopric of Toledo. Each canon received, together with income from refitor, the vestuario as an incentive for annual residency, along with other additional income from various loans as of Baza and de Hita.

  4. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

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    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  5. Genesis of Josephitism and functioning the opposition in “anti-Sergius” movement

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    Kamila Pawełczyk-Dura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in the Russian Orthodox Church, connected with the Patriarch Tikhon’s death, initiated the deep divisions between hierarchs. Deputies of Tikhon, including dignity as a result of the nomination – which was a precedent in the canonical order of the Orthodox Church authorities – were not able to maintain the monolith community, destructed by internal divisions and persecuted by the communist state. Nomination of metropolitan of Nizhny Novogorod on the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne and publication of The Letter (declaration of the deputy of the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky of Nizhny Novgorod and the Temporary Saint Synod about the attitude of Russian Orthodox Church to the state authorities underlined differences between the faithful and the clergy. On opposite sides were followers and opponents of the Sergius’ “political line”. Activity of the last ones, manifesting in not-exchanging name of Sergius during liturgy, in moments, when words of the prayer for the superior of the local Church are being said, took the non-institutional forms of movement, definite as not-recalling. This formation, which was essentially the conglomeration of different groups of the clergy and faithful, dominated Josephites – the strongest and most active adherents of the archbishop of Leningrad Joseph (Petrovykh. Genesis those movement as a kind of symbol of opposition to the policy of servility and compromises metropolitan Sergius has been the subject of analysis of this text.

  6. Lucha de bandos y beneficios eclesiásticos en los encastillamientos de Ciudad Rodrigo (1475-1520

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    José Ignacio MARTÍN BENITO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La rivalidad banderil de los últimos años del siglo XV y los primeros del XVI que enfrentó en Ciudad Rodrigo a los principales linajes de la ciudad, se extendió también al estamento eclesiástico. Los conflictos derivaron muchas veces en asaltos y encastillamientos, esto es, una de las partes se hacía fuerte con armas y gente en el interior de un edificio para resistir la presión del bando contrario. En el fondo lo que estaba en juego era la lucha por el poder civil y militar de la ciudad, así como por la permanencia de encomiendas en determinados monasterios. A ello no eran ajenas tampoco las discrepancias por la jurisdicción eclesiástica, así como por la posesión de beneficios. Águilas y Pachecos, Obispo y Cabildo, así como otros intereses ligados a miembros de la nobleza y del clero protagonizaron dichos sucesos.ABSTRACT: In the late 15th century and the early 16th century, the rivalry among the main noble families in Ciudad Rodrigo also included the clergy. Conflicts often resulted in assaults and encastillamientos, i.e., one of the sides took over a castle and kept arms and people in it to resist pressure from the opposite side. Civil and military powers in town were at stake, as well as life annuities in some monasteries. There was also conflict over the jurisdiction of the church and the possession of endowments. These conflicts were led by Águilas and Pachecos (two noble families, Chapters and Bishops, and other members of the aristocracy and the clergy.

  7. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

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    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  8. La cristianización de los chinos en el Perú: integración, sumisión y resistencia

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    1992-01-01

    , ¿la comunidad china del Perú estaría hoy en día tan bien organizada? THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF CHINESE IN PERU: INTEGRATION, SUBMISSION AND RESISTANCE. For the chinese coolies who arrived to Peru between 1849-1874, and afterwards for the merchants that followed them, the adoption of Catholicism was one of the most important elements of their integration strategy to the national society. Two religious orders fought to be in charge of this community. Starting in 1870, the Jesuits took the initiative in training Chinese clergy and they were followed by the Franciscans whose efforts began at the end of the 19th century and continue to the present day. Similarly, these same people participated in the official creation of the Beneficencia China in 1885, and the members of the clergy were present in almost all of the Chinese movements and institutions. It is the Spanish priests that up to the present time accompany, orient, and advise Chinese Catholics, who each day are more numerous and powerful in the contemporary Peruvian community. The influence of the Spanish clergy has been so important that we can ask ourselves whether the Chinese community of Peru would have been so well organized without their intervention.

  9. Una experiencia malograda: la Sociedad de Socorros Mutuos del Clero (1847-1857

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    Váquez Vilanova, José Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Often, history contains bankrupt experiences, episodes that would remain forever unknown if the researcher´s work would not bring them to light. This is the case of the Society of Mutual Aids of the Clergy. Its creation responds to the initiative of a group of priests willing to find solutions to the difficult situation in which the clergy was, instead of complaining or missing past times, but also with the emulation desire, seen the good results, of the associations of workers that had begun to be constituted in Spain at those moments. However, Its short trajectory seems to have gone between economic difficulties and disagreements among its partners that finally will ruin the Society. In spite of this, many clergymen found in it an aid when more they needed it. Its final failure evidences, it is certain, the lack of solidarity and the lack of union of many of its members, but it does not hide those that responded positively and tried that the Society continued being a reality.

    A menudo, la historia encierra experiencias fallidas, episodios que de no ser por la labor del investigador, que las saca a la luz, permanecerían para siempre ignorados. Es el caso de la Sociedad de Socorros Mutuos del Clero. Su creación responde a la iniciativa de un grupo de sacerdotes dispuestos a encontrar soluciones a la difícil situación en que se hallaba sumido el clero, en lugar de lamentarse o añorar tiempos pasados, pero también al deseo de emulación, vistos los buenos resultados, de las asociaciones de trabajadores que en aquellos momentos habían empezado a constituirse en España. Sin embargo, su corta trayectoria parece hacer discurrido entre dificultades económicas y desacuerdos entre sus socios, que finalmente darán al traste con la Sociedad. Pese a esto, muchos clérigos hallaron en ella un socorro cuando más lo necesitaban. Su fracaso final evidencia, es cierto, la insolidaridad y la falta de unión de muchos de sus miembros

  10. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

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    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  11. Communities: Development of church-based counselling teams

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    Stella D. Potgieter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care is a biblical mandate to the Church to be involved in the lives of God’s people. A key metaphor used by Jesus to describe his pastoral role was that of a shepherd. Thus, to be God’s shepherds and instruments of healing and transformation in God’s world is an imperative to all people, clergy and laity alike. The brokenness in South African society is strikingly apparent, exacerbated by the effects of exceptionally high criminal behaviour as statistics show. The demand for pastoral care and assistance with various personal problems is on the increase, with many non-church goers turning to churches for help. Also apparent in South Africa is the acute shortage of trained individuals to offer care and counselling. The task of offering care is not the sole responsibility of clergy, as all are called to be shepherds and caregivers. The importance and urgency in training church-based counselling teams cannot be overstated. More so in that we are becoming increasingly aware that not only are individuals in need of care, but whole communities are struggling with trauma and life’s challenges, and often do not know whom to turn to. In pursuance of the realisation that pastoral care is the function and duty of all Christians, this article will delineate in particular an explanation of lay counselling, reasons for its importance including biblical foundations, where and how ordinary South Africans can get involved, and will propose certain models and approaches for getting started. These models will not be discussed in depth, but present an opportunity for the next. Teams for these models consist of professional counsellors, but ought not to be restricted to a select few, as all are called to this special ministry and can be trained for the task, which will include on-going supervision and mentoring. The overall purpose of this article is to highlight the urgency of training lay counsellors and some recommendations will be made how to

  12. Incorporation of Islamic Institutions into Political Structure of the Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde States »

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    Roman Pochekaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to basic directions and mechanisms of incorporation of Islamic administrative and legal institutions into the Jochid Ulus. As this state included regions with well developed Islamic traditions, individual manifestations of influence of Islam on political and legal realities of the Golden Horde took place since the first stage of existing of this state. However, only after official conversion of the Jochid ulus to Islam during the reign of Uzbek Khan (in the 1320s Islamic political and juridical institutions became an integral part of state and legal structure of the Golden Horde. Their role substantially increased in the time of crisis of imperial state and legal system after disintegration of the Mongol Empire and then of its successors, the Chinggisid states. Influence of Islamic institutions on political and legal relations of the Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde states became apparent in different aspects. At first, it was participation of representatives of Islamic administration in executive power including tax collection: such functions of them are confirmed by yarliks of khans of the Golden Horde, as well as of the Crimean and Kazan khanates. Secondly, Islamic judges, the qadis were integrated into court system of the Golden Horde and later, within the post-Golden Horde states, they even ousted imperial judges, the jarguchis. Third, powerful representatives of Islamic clergy became participants of qurultays, where the khans were elected, and the ceremony of enthronement was supplemented by the oath of a new khan on Koran under their influence. At last, Islamic clergymen participated actively in diplomatic activity of the post-Golden Horde states and acted as mediators between rivals who pretended for the throne in the Jochid states. No doubts, the rise of influence of Islam and Islamic clergy in political and legal life of the later Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde states could be explained, from one side, by

  13. Retrospective and modern views on modernization and alternative modernization components of shinto and zen buddhism

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ratio of modernization and counter modernizing key components of Japan and religions (partly introduced Christianity. The author concludes that the various components of the religious consciousness of the Japanese were kontratetycal on two main elements that form the basis of modern Western culture Japanese resistance and cause upgrade. First, science and technology, working on the basis of the laws of nature, which are opposed to the supernatural and the metaphysical world. Secondly, expressed individualism and atomism as hypertrophic respect for the human person, liberal nadzoseredzhenist to a person who undermines the consolidation of corporate social society. Japanese culture in the past was oriented toward modernization, but progress has been very slow. Moreover, in this process, Japan was much more conservative because in Japanese society regulatory institutions of the army, religion and industrial corporations can be considered a kind of constants which not only can be adapted to the modernization of Euro-American style, as suggested selection of authentic script compatible, especially with life values corporatism and solidarity. It is in this dimension of modernization projects related to Christian proselytism, as were «frustrated.» The reason for this breakdown can be considered inherence religion with social cohesion, its actual merging of social institutions, as well as hidden mahizm skepticism and religious outlook that combines Shinto, Confucian and Zen Buddhist elements. Since modernization in Christianity included the distinction darkened minds clerical era and «enlightened enlightenment» of consciousness era of modern times, it is this dichotomy allowed to oppose religious «ignorance» and scientific «enlightenment», the clergy and secular intellectuals, universities and intellectual clubs as a medium spreading the ideology of the bourgeoisie and monasteries as centers of religious clericalism

  14. Carreras eclesiásticas y redes clientelares en la Castilla bajomedieval: la provisión de beneficios menores en el cabildo de la catedral de Burgos (1456-1470

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    Agúndez San Miguel, Leticia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and evolution of the lower social groups that constituted cathedral chapters is still an unknown aspect of the middle ages in Spain. This evidence has not prevented historiographical notice of the important role of the offices and benefices enjoyed by this large sector of the clergy in their ecclesiastical careers and in the composition of the fortunes of high status clerics. This article sheds light on the status of a large group of prebendaries in the cathedral chapter during the first stage of the episcopate of Luis de Acuña (1456-1495. It analyses the provision and exchange of minor ecclesiastical benefices, which constituted the first step in the chain of promotion of the cursus honorum of Burgos’s ecclesiastical men. Also studied is the role played by the bishop Luis de Acuña as a promoter of a social network among the clergy of the cathedral of Burgos.La naturaleza y evolución de los grupos sociales inferiores que constituyeron los cabildos de las catedrales continúa siendo un aspecto poco conocido de la España medieval. Esta evidencia no ha impedido a la historiografía advertir el papel determinante que los oficios y beneficios disfrutados por este amplio sector del clero jugaron en las carreras eclesiásticas y en la configuración de las fortunas de los miembros capitulares de mayor rango. El presente artículo pretende arrojar luz sobre el estatus del numeroso grupo de los prebendados menores que componían la estructura del cabildo burgalés durante la primera mitad del episcopado de Luis de Acuña (1456-1495. Para ello se analiza el sistema de provisión y permutas de beneficios eclesiásticos menores; primer eslabón de importancia en la cadena de promociones que constituía el cursus honorum de los capitulares burgaleses. Además, se examina el protagonismo del Obispo Acuña como impulsor de una red clientelar entre el clero catedralicio.

  15. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of premarital intervention: moderators of divorce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Vrome daden en gedachten. Een revisionistische kijk op het katholieke verleden van Nederland

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    A.-L. Van Bruaene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available L. Bogaers, Aards, betrokken en zelfbewust. De verwevenheid van cultuur en religie in katholiek Utrecht, 1300-1600Ch.H., Parker, Faith on the Margins. Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age Pious Deeds and Thoughts. A Revisionist View of the Netherlands’ Catholic PastThis contribution comments upon the renewed interest in the Catholic past of the Netherlands. It discusses two recent books by Llewellyn Bogaers and Charles H. Parker on late medieval and early modern Catholicism, respectively. Both authors reject a teleological conception of history and propose studying the devotion of laymen, laywomen and the clergy from within. Both studies can be considered as part of a wider international – partly anthropologically inspired – trend to reassess the history of Catholicism. The author of this contribution applauds these developments but advocates a stronger integration of the study of religious practices on the one hand, and the study of religious experiences and ideas on the other hand.

  17. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  18. On the tithes/subsidies dilemma in Castile and the Crown of Aragón in the Late Middle Ages

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    Jordi Morelló Baget

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a diachronic and comparative analysis of the lengthy process in the Crown of Aragon and Castile, involving two forms of extraordinary taxation (tithes and subsidies, which can be considered representative of a major transfer of ecclesiastical income in favour of the emerging tax state. We follow successive chronological phases from the thirteenth century to the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, to ascertain how often the monarchy made use of each type of levy —imposed with or without papal authorization— the different reasons given in each case, and other issues concerning the consent of the clergy and the role of church assemblies in the management of these payments. Despite the divergences and different dynamics that developed in each kingdom, it is clear that both forms of clerical contribution led to the imposition of more regular income taxes, while establishing a fiscality based on the taxation of ecclesiastical gains. The work has been prepared from a selective review of bibliographical output and the consultation of primary sources relating to the Crown of Aragon.

  19. THE RESPECT OF PHILOSOPHY FOR RELIGION AND THEOLOGY IN EUROPE DURING THE END OF THE 17TH CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 18TH CENTURY

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    Ioan N. ROŞCA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the philosophers from the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, regardless if they were empiricist or rationalist, showed respect for religion, as well by their admittance of God, as by the adoption of religious morality. Ontologically, the thinkers from the above mentioned period have identified God with the supreme substance, which, by the attribute of scope and that of thought, as Spinoza considered, or, by the extended or omnipresent substance and thoughtful or omniscient substance, as the Deists stated, makes God intrinsic to the world of things and,respectively, to the human souls. Ethically, thev thinkers we consider here argued that, being created by God, human souls have enrooted in them the divine principles of moral conduct as well as the freedom of choice between good and evil. The philosophers of Enlightenment reaffirmed the above indicated correlations between philosophy and religion, merely criticizing the behavior of some of the members of clergy, but not exactly the Christian doctrine. The author argues that, at present, given the identified interferences between philosophy, on the one hand, and theology and religion, on the other hand, they could and should be cultivated as consistent and not conflicting forms, which would contribute to the affirmation of the unified and harmonious spirit of contemporary human being and to the revival or, even more, to the retrieval of her moral conduct.

  20. The role of monastic embroidery workshops in the formation of the early modern Polish embroidery

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    Karolina Stanilewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state of research and the research problems concerning the early modern Polish embroidery and the role of the monastic workshops in its formation. Embroidery was one of the regular occupation in the female congregations. Nuns embroidered for their churches, as well as they took the orders from outside – from male congregations, the higher clergy and the secular customers. Their importance has increased in the 17th century, and in the 18th century nearly all convents dealt with this craft. The preserved embroideries reflect the general stylish trends prevailing in the handicrafts, but they are characterized by greater conservatism. Their level is very varied, from perfect works to very weak and inept ones. Nuns rarely prepared themselves patterns for embroideries, more often they used the services of craftsmen or they were repeating the proven solutions. They certainly used the embroidery pattern books. An important inspiration for them were also patterns of fabrics. While the floral motifs showed high proficiency, in less common figural presentations we often see much incompetence. Vestments decorated with the elaborate symbolic representations are distinguished among them. At this stage of research it seems that the monastic workshops have had a major impact on the prosperity of embroidery in the Republic of Poland and that along with the guilds they developed a certain style and taste. Preserved objects are waiting for being catalogued and for insightful research that let us connect more of them with definite workshops.

  1. “El asesinato del Chantre Don Ventura Ferrer. Clérigos y bandos en la Seo valentina seiscentista”

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    Callado Estela, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cathedral clergy did not remain aloof from the factions that drew together a major part of the valencian society during the XVII century. A good example is the case of the precentor Don Ventura Ferrer, who led one of the cathedral sections and who, supported by the Vallterra family, sought the control of the first church of the kingdom. On the opposite side was the group of canons represented by the admiral of Aragón, head of the opposing supporters and liable for the precentor’s murder in 1661. This event revealed the overlapping of the ecclesiastic world and the phenomenon of banditry.El clero de la Seo no fue ajeno a las bandositats que aglutinaron a buena parte de la sociedad valenciana durante el siglo XVII. Lo demuestra el caso del chantre don Ventura Ferrer, líder de una de las facciones catedralicias que, con el apoyo externo del bando de los Vallterra, luchaba por el control de la primera iglesia del reino. Frente a él, el grupo de canónigos patrocinado por el Almirante de Aragón, a la cabeza de la parcialidad contraria y responsable último del asesinato del chantre en 1661, suceso este que pondría al descubierto la imbricación entre el mundo eclesiástico y el fenómeno del bandolerismo.

  2. Back to the future: The AMA and religion, 1961-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel T; Curlin, Farr A; Wolenberg, Kelly M; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2014-12-01

    U.S. medical scholarship and education regarding religion and spirituality has been growing rapidly in recent years. This rising interest, however, is not new; it is a renewal of significant interweavings that date back to the mid-20th century. In this Perspective, the authors draw attention to the little-known history of organized medicine's engagement with religion from 1961 to 1974. Relying on primary source documents, they recount the dramatic rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion (CMR) at the American Medical Association (AMA). At its height, there were state-level committees on medicine and religion in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and there were county-level committees in over 800 county medical societies. Thousands of physicians attended annual conferences for clinicians and clergy, and direct outreach to patients included a film viewed by millions. The CMR arose in the context of rapid medical advances, the growth of professional chaplaincy, and concern for declining "humanism" in medicine-conditions with parallels in medicine today. The CMR was brought to a puzzling end in 1972 by the AMA's Board of Trustees. The authors argue that this termination was linked to the AMA's long and contentious debate on abortion. They conclude with the story's significance for today's explorations of the intersection of spirituality, religion, and medicine, focusing on the need for mutual respect, transparency, and dialogue around the needs of patients and physicians.

  3. Incautaciones: aportaciones documentales para un informe del patrimonio eclesiástico en el siglo XIX

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    García Gómez, M. Dolores

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At this article are studied and published the two reports sent in 1869 and 1870 for the confiscation of archives, libraries and objects of art of the clergy. Besides the dispositions of the government, this documentation shows the value of the manuscripts that are preserved in the majority of the Spanish provinces, although their validity are connected with the preparation and the ability of local informants and the facilities they have to accede to the resources.

    En el presente artículo se estudian y publican los dos informes remitidos en 1869 y 1870 para la incautación de archivos bibliotecas y objetos de arte del clero. Además de las disposiciones del gobierno, esta documentación lo que nos permite conocer es el valor de los manuscritos que se conservan en la mayor parte de las provincias españolas, aunque su validez va a estar en función de la preparación y la capacidad de los informantes locales y las facilidades que tienen para acceder a los fondos.

  4. Antisemitism, “Economic Emancipation” and the Lithuanian Co-operative Movement before World War I

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    Klaus Richter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of having to liberate the Christian peasants from the harmful economic and moral influence of Jewish merchants was an essential element of the political agenda of both the secular intelligentsia and the Catholic clergy. Activists of both political camps started founding cooperative shops, which were seen as the most promising tool to “emancipate” the peasants and the founding of which became legally possible after a streak of reforms shortly before the Russian Revolution of 1905/06. The article thus poses the questions of what role antisemitism played in the cooperatives, what tasks these cooperatives were supposed to fulfill and whether they were a success or not. The article comes to the conclusion that after the Revolution, there was a significant dissent between the two groups mentioned: While priests argued that cooperatives needed to be antisemitic in order to be successful, the liberal intelligentsia countered that antisemitism deterred cooperative shops from being economically successful. Both groups, however, celebrated the founding of such shops as a means for Lithuanians to gain foot in the Jewish dominated towns.

  5. L’inspectio di un anonimo investigatore pisano nella prima metà del secolo XII

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    Andrea Puglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and publishes in the Appendix a document kept in the Archive of the Archbishop of Pisa, known until now only in a partial transcript, because was for a long time not available. The relevance of this document lies both in its materials and graphics characteristics , but also in its unique content, which presents a cross section of political and social life of the entourage of Bishops in the city and county in the first half of the Twelfth century. In fact, it shows the different sides of an inquest (inspectio conducted in the diocese of Pisa by an anonymous investigator appointed by the Archbishop of Pisa Hubert in 1137. The numerous stages of the inquest were probably recorded in some files and then, with the help of judges (and law experts and the graphic abilities of the episcopal clergy, were written in an entire parchment, with a clear and fluid book-Caroline and with a good rhetoric form. The goals of this document were surely informative, but we don’t exclude also a memorial and judicial objective. In conclusion, the inspectio give us the opportunity of studying the non-epistolographic practices of medieval communication and allows us to know a pragmatic and non-formal system of document building. This system is out of the field of notarial acts with legal effects (chartae and brevia recordationis and different from the writing of judicial records.

  6. Gossip, humor, and the art of becoming an intimate of Jesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2012-03-01

    In Living Stories (Capps 1997) I addressed the rather broad consensus among clergy and laity alike that gossip is destructive of congregational life, a consensus based on the view that gossip invariably involves negatively critical conversations about other individuals and groups. However, this view is not supported by social scientific research and literary studies on gossip, which present a more complex picture of this form of human communication. On the other hand, the claim that gossip is trivial is more difficult to challenge, so I made a case for the importance of the trivial through consideration of the formal similarities between gossip and the narratives that comprise the Gospels, including the fact that both employ an "esthetic of surfaces" that focuses on specific personal particulars and that the stories that are told derive their power from the freedom that the participants in the conversation gain from entering imaginatively into the life of other persons. The present article furthers the exploration of the affinities between gossip and Gospel narratives by noting the role of humor in fostering good gossip and the mutually supportive role of gossip and humor in the art of becoming an intimate of Jesus.

  7. Measurement of materialism and spiritualism in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R J; Mathew, V G; Wilson, W H; Georgi, J M

    1995-07-01

    A modified version of an instrument called the Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale (MMSS), originally developed in India, was evaluated for possible use in substance abuse research in the U.S. The scale was administered to 62 individuals recovering from substance use, 20 clergy people and 61 general controls. Test-retest reliability for the MMSS was verified by administering it to 18 control subjects on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. The Pearson correlation for the MMSS total scores was 0.83 (p < .0001). Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha in the entire sample of 143 subjects; the result for the total score was .93. Factor analysis showed a factor structure compatible with the subscales proposed by the developer. Women, in general, obtained higher spirituality scores. Members of the recovering group obtained significantly higher scores on "character" and "mysticism" than the general controls. When general controls were divided into MAST positive and MAST negative individuals, the MAST positive group obtained lower scores than the recovering group for "God," "mysticism" and "character." MAST negative individuals had lower scores on "mysticism" than the recovering group. Christians had higher scores on "God" and "religion" subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics. The results of this study need confirmation using an improved methodology and larger sample sizes. However, they suggest that the scale may be useful for the study of spirituality in the U.S.

  8. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The tower of ivory meets the house of worship: psychological first aid training for the faith community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Mosley, Adrian M; Gwon, Howard S; Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Clergy and laity have been a traditional source of support for people striving to cope with everyday tragedies, but not all faith leaders have the specialized knowledge required for the challenges of mental health ministry in the aftermath of widespread trauma and mass casualty events. On the other hand, some mental health professionals have acquired high levels of expertise in the field of disaster mental health but, because of their limited numbers, cannot be of direct help to large numbers of disaster survivors when such events are broad in scale. The authors have addressed the problem of scalability of post-disaster crisis mental health services by establishing an academic/faith partnershipforpsychological first aid training. The curriculum was piloted with 500 members of the faith community in Baltimore City and other areas of Maryland. The training program is seen as a prototype of specialized first-responder training that can be built upon to enhance and extend the roles of spiritual communities in public health emergencies, and thereby augment the continuum of deployable resources available to local and state health departments.

  10. Psychological first aid training for the faith community: a model curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Lating, Jeffrey M; Everly, George S; Mosley, Adrian M; Teague, Paula J; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally faith communities have served important roles in helping survivors cope in the aftermath of public health disasters. However, the provision of optimally effective crisis intervention services for persons experiencing acute or prolonged emotional trauma following such incidents requires specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities. Supported by a federally-funded grant, several academic health centers and faith-based organizations collaborated to develop a training program in Psychological First Aid (PFA) and disaster ministry for members of the clergy serving urban minorities and Latino immigrants in Baltimore, Maryland. This article describes the one-day training curriculum composed of four content modules: Stress Reactions of Mind-Body-Spirit, Psychological First Aid and Crisis Intervention, Pastoral Care and Disaster Ministry, and Practical Resources and Self Care for the Spiritual Caregiver Detailed descriptions of each module are provided, including its purpose; rationale and background literature; learning objectives; topics and sub-topics; and educational methods, materials and resources. The strengths, weaknesses, and future applications of the training template are discussed from the vantage points of participants' subjective reactions to the training.

  11. Godoy and the Church | Godoy y la Iglesia

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    Gérard Dufour

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available «Column of faith», according to Popes Pius VI and Pius VII and their Secretaries of State, or declared enemy of the Church, according to the majority of Spanish clerics, Godoy had an ambivalent attitude towards the Church. He showed the greatest respect towards the Holy See and offered it all his diplomatic support in return for its approval of the reforms he deemed essential in Spain: to put an end to the clergy's privileged status, and instead, to place it – and its riches – at the service of the monarchy, in line with the system envisaged by Calonne and introduced by Napoleon in France. | «Columna de la fe», según los papas Pío VI y Pío VII y sus secretarios de Estado, o enemigo declarado de la Iglesia, según la mayoría de los eclesiásticos españoles, Godoy tuvo una doble actitud con la Iglesia. Éste mostró el mayor respeto y prestó el mayor apoyo diplomático a la Santa Sede con el propósito de que aprobara las reformas que juzgaba imprescindibles en España: dejar de considerar al clero como un estado privilegiado, para ponerlo, con sus riquezas, al servicio de la monarquía según un sistema ya imaginado en Francia por Calonne y aplicado por Napoleón.

  12. The Role of Social Workers in Spiritual Care to Facilitate Coping With Chronic Illness and Self-Determination in Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B; Burke, Nancy; Wilson, Alicia M

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual values and beliefs of patients and families influence resilience during chronic illness and shape patient choices during advance care planning. The spiritual needs of Baby Boomers will be more diverse than previous generations, in connection with the questioning, experimental mind-set of this group and the fact that it includes a higher proportion of immigrant populations outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Social workers are trained explicitly to intervene with diverse populations and are well positioned to offer spiritual support in ways that do not necessarily conform to traditional religions. To the extent of their individual expertise and competence, social workers should assess and provide spiritual care to clients, including those who either are underserved or prefer not to seek assistance from clergy or chaplains because they feel alienated from religious institutions and representatives. They should also be aware of ethical dilemmas in consulting with spiritual care professionals in developing spiritual interventions. Social work education should address clients' humanistic and existential concerns, beliefs and behaviors of the major religions, and forms of nontraditional religious and spiritual experiences; it should also provide experiential opportunities for engaging with grief and earlier advance care planning. There should be attention to different theodical perspectives of the major religions regarding the problem of good and evil, which may preoccupy even clients who no longer participate in organized religion, because these unresolved existential issues may weaken client coping with chronic conditions and may diminish clarity and self-awareness for engaging authentically and effectively in advance care planning.

  13. From popular tribunals to purgative committees: violence and repression in Guipúzcoa during the Civil War and the early years of the Franco regime (1936-1945 | De los tribunales populares a las comisiones depuradoras: violencia y represión en Guipúzcoa durante la Guerra Civil y el primer franquismo (1936-1945

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    Pedro Barruso Barés

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of repression suffered by the population of Guipúzcoa between 1936 and 1945 broke the peaceful coexistence in a region which had been noted for its political moderation during the Second Republic. Accordingly, this article seeks to examine the different types of violence perpetrated in the region, and to highlight the most salient features of each of these, including their geographical and social impact and quantitative significance. Likewise, in the light of new sources, little known occurrences such as the repression of the clergy and the purging of Secondary Education are revealed. | El proceso represivo experimentado por la sociedad guipuzcoana entre 1936 y 1945 supuso una ruptura de la convivencia en un espacio que se había caracterizado por su moderación política a lo largo de la II República. Por este motivo, en el texto, se trata de analizar los distintos tipos de violencia que se produjeron en el territorio tratando de poner de manifiesto las características de cada uno de ellos, su incidencia geográfica y social sin perder de vista el aspecto cuantitativo. Del mismo modo se ponen de manifiesto, a la luz de nuevas fuentes, procesos poco conocidos como el de la represión del clero guipuzcoano o la depuración de la Enseñanza Secundaria entre otros.

  14. Notes on the reproduction of a controversial evangelical passage in Romanian (Mt, 19, 24

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    Adina Chirilă

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research follows, from a diachronic perspective, the solutions that Romanian translators and revisers have applied to the biblical passage from Mt, 19, 24, also present in Mk, 10, 25 and Lk, 18, 25. Taking into consideration that they had, at least up to a point, the privilege of expressing themselves in circumstances that allowed a certain freedom compared to the base text, I have searched to clearly understand the nature of the factors that determined them to assume this liberty and what guided their linguistic options. The research has intended to examine two types of texts: the integral biblical one (the New Testament and the Bible and the text that is specifically used by the clergy, The Gospel, in its successive versions, starting from the 16th century up to the modern era; the observed facts call attention to the scholar who is in charge of the text, who exhibits a behaviour that entails trust in his prior knowledge about the content and form of the fashioned text, a critical assessment of the version that serves as a starting point and the renewal of linguistic solutions offered by sources of a different nature from the rectified text.

  15. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  16. [The world of medicine encounters the world of halakha--the great medical halakhist and Israel Prize awardee Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg (1915-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Shenkelowsky, Eliezer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, one of the most important medical halakhists of all time, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg died. He was affectionately known as the Tzitz Eliezer after his monumental halakhic treatise of that name. He was a leading rabbi, a judge on the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem, and an eminent authority on medical halakha. He also served as the rabbi of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem for many years prior to his death. His most important body of work, the Tzitz Eliezer, is a treatise of medical halakhic questions and many consider it as one of the great achievements of halakhic scholarship of the 20th century. Although he has written in all fields of halakha in general and medicine in particular, he is best known for his verdicts on physician responsibility, fertility, abortion, smoking, medicine on the Sabbath, organ transplantation, cosmetic surgery and determination of death. While some of his decisions on medical issues have proven controversial, they reflect scholarship and sensitivity and are respected by ethicists and clergy across the board. In 1976 he received the Israel Prize, the nation's highest honor, for Torah literature. His greatness lay in his ability to connect and gain respect across the board of the worlds of modern medicine and halakhic Judaism. Many of his decisions are today considered as routine and standard operating procedure, but, at the time, his definitions were considered new and original. He will be sorely missed by the medical and halakhic communities.

  17. El clero contestatario de finales del franquismo. El caso Fabara

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    Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Council Vatican II (1962-1965 supposed a very important change in many aspects of catholic faith, included the concept of Church. A part of clergy considered that it was the moment to break with the rigid structures of this institution, based in the importance of hierarchy and order, and it meant an unavoidable conflict with the different ecclesial authorities. In the case of Spain, this problem turned bigger because of the confusion of changes in Catholic Church with the targets for democratization of a society that was under authoritism of Franco’s Regime.El Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965 supuso un extraordinario cambio en muchos aspectos de la fe católica, entre los que debe incluirse el concepto de Iglesia. Un sector del clero consideró que era el momento de romper con las rígidas estructuras de la institución, basadas en la importancia de la jerarquía y el orden, lo que supuso un inevitable conflicto con las diferentes autoridades eclesiales. En el caso de España, este problema adquirió mayor complejidad todavía en la medida que los cambios en el seno de la Iglesia fueron confundidos, en no pocas ocasiones, con los objetivos de democratizar una sociedad que hasta ese momento se encontraba bajo el autoritarismo del Régimen de Franco.

  18. Destroying the National-Spiritual Values of Ukrainians during the Anti-Religious Offensive of the Soviet Totalitarian State in the 1960s and 1970s

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    Nadia Kindrachuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the church and religious life of Ukrainians in the context of national and political processes during the 1960s and 1970s. The author characterizes the anti-religious policy of the Soviet government, shows its directions, forms, and methods, studies the attitude of Ukraine’s title nation representatives to religious persecution and to manipulation of religious consciousness by the communist leadership, and highlights comprehensive atheistic activities and the elimination of the ways for reviving religiosity among people. The author reveals the essence, the process of creating and artificially enforcing the new Soviet ritualism in Ukrainians’ lives. This ritualism has become a convenient tool for popularizing communist ideology in the Ukrainian SSR, destroying historical memory and undermining the national identity of the Ukrainian people. The new Soviet ritualism was also a means for implementing the policy of denationalizing Ukrainians, beginning with the age-old religious oppression of Ukrainian customs, traditions, and rituals. The model of state-church policy of the Soviet power in the described period was based on the use of a variety of forms and methods of struggle against religion, including: a comprehensive control over clergy activities, destruction of religious sites and sacred objects, as well as administrative, moral, and political pressure on believers. Displacing religion, the Soviet totalitarian state destroyed not only native religious customs of the Ukrainian people, but also violated the principles of the centuries-old traditional culture and undermined the national fortitude of Ukrainians.

  19. The organization of HIV and other health activities within urban religious congregations.

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    Palar, Kartika; Mendel, Peter; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-10-01

    Most religious congregations in the USA are involved with some type of social service activity, including health activities. However, relatively few formally engage with people with HIV, and many have reported barriers to introducing HIV prevention activities. We conducted a qualitative case study of HIV involvement among 14 urban congregations in Los Angeles County in 2007. In-depth qualitative interviews of lay leaders and clergy were analyzed for themes related to HIV and other health activities, including types of health issues addressed, types of activities conducted, how activities were organized, and the relationship between HIV and other health activities. We identified three primary models representing how congregations organized HIV and other health activities: (1) embedded (n = 7), where HIV activities were contained within other health activities; (2) parallel (n = 5), where HIV and other health activities occurred side by side and were organizationally distinct; (3) overlap (n = 2), where HIV and non-HIV health efforts were conducted by distinct groups, but shared some members and organization. We discuss implications of each model for initiating and sustaining HIV activities within urban congregations over time.

  20. Synoden schaffen Räume: Metropolen, Diözesen und Pfarreien in den Synodalkanones des 9. Jahrhunderts

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    Wilfried Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on »space in canon law« investigates the concepts of provincial, diocesis and parrocchia in the synodal decisions and the capitularies of bishops in the ninth century. The space of provincia was not precisely determined at the end of this age. Perhaps not even the provincial council is differentiated from a diocesan synod. The space of the diocese in the ninth century is best known by the trip of visitation that the bishops had undertaken since late Antiquity. In his capitularies, the bishop speaks to all members of his diocese, clergy and laity, and he provides them precepts and prohibitions. The new significance of the diocese is also made clear by the prohibition of transmigration and transfer of bishops from one diocese to another, which gained new importance during the ninth century. The subdivision of a diocese into several districts of deans can already be found in the middle of this age. The smallest format of space in the canon law was the parrocchia, the parish. We must be careful in using this term, because it often also means bishopric or diocese. The parish was defined as the space where only one priest has the right to hold his office. Since the ninth century, parish and diocese are very precisely defined as particular spaces. Bishop Theodulf of Orléans (798–818 and archbishop Hincmar of Reims (845–882 made numerous remarks in their capitularies about the formation of diocese and parish.

  1. The magazine „Kishinyovskie Eparkhial′nye Vedomosti” („Chisinau Diocesan Journal” as a means of advertising (1867-1917

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    Vera Serjant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article relates to the area of advertising. It reflects the implementation of advertising in the official religious magazines; in this case we are talking about the magazine „Kishinyovskie Eparkhial′nye Vedomosti" („Chisinau Diocesan Journal". This Bessarabian periodical was published for more than 50 years. Its publication was an important event in the spiritual life of the entire diocese and clergy. Advertisements were placed in the informal part of the publication. Investigation of the collection of magazines from the National Museum of History of Moldova led us to the conclusion that the first advertisements were devoted exclusively to publishing issues. Commercial advertising appears towards the end of the 19th century. Its development was unstable, which led to its disappearance in recent years of edition. The role of advertising in the diocesan publication was modest and insignificant, as the church authorities have not seen the advertisement as a source of obtaining finance. However, the magazine performed advertising functions. There were published advertisements of Chisinau shopkeepers who traded church utensils, of iconographic workshops for painting icons and iconostases, tailoring establishments making church vestments. The list of advertisements includes a number of local companies that offered consumers - Bessarabian priests products and services related to everyday life.

  2. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

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    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  3. Religion and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos.

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    Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos.

  4. Disentangling Religion and Culture: Americanizing Islam as the Price of Assimilation

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    JOHN H. MORGAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exploration into the social inevitabilities of culture shifts within the American Muslim community’s self-understanding of their faith. Rather than a theological explication of the reasons why and why not Islam may or can or will not assimilate in America, our approach will be strictly sociological thereby side-stepping the intricate dialectic of theological niceties in deference to the social realities of culture change. As a social psychologist, my duty is to acknowledge the inevitabilities of behavioral shifts brought about due to social and cultural pressures resulting from immigration into an alien cultural weltanschauung, i.e., worldview. Therefore in this essay, we will explicate the meaning and nature of de-ethnicization and re-enculturation as we endeavor to disentangle religion from culture, recognizing that much of what goes under the flag of religious orthodoxy is really culturally-mandated behavior and worldview. The assimilation process, however, will bear heavily upon the necessity for Muslim clergy in America to become professional by Western standards and we will in the process explore the complexities of religious secularism as a way of becoming an “American” Muslim. Finally, we will suggest liturgical and architectural “adjustments” to Western modes of public worship while indicating linguistic niceties which will prove helpful in the assimilation process which we have chosen here to call the “Islamicization of America”.

  5. Francesco Arcelli, an Italian monk at the service of Bourbon Spain

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    Cezary Taracha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century was a time of considerable challenges for monastic life, both in general and for specific congregations. Let us recall such events as the abolition of Jesuit reductions in Paraguay, expelling Jesuits from Portugal and Spain, the dissolution of the Society of Jesus, the closure of hundreds of monastic houses as part of Josephine reforms or cruel repressive measures towards clergy during the French Revolution. Despite attempts at questioning the presence of orders in public space, they still played a significant role in many areas of social life, in the realm of culture and education. Despite service appropriate to monastic charismata, there were monks in royal courts, monks with important functions in state administration, in diplomacy, at universities, schools, charitable and cultural institutions. Francesco Arcelli was one of such monks, who combined, with better or worse results, serving God by their involvement in lay, public and state matters. In the early modern era such activity of religious orders was nothing extraordinary, especially among the Spanish Catholic monarchy.

  6. Muyren los traydors! Factions struggles in Tarragona at the end of XIVth Century

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    Eduard Juncosa Bonet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial relationship of the collaboration between kings and archbishops at the height of the lordship of Tarragona, soon gave way to the first stages of tension and confrontation, which deteriorated or improved depending on the circumstances at that time. Disagreements peaked during the last few decades of the reign of Peter the Ceremonious, who just like his son John, and with the support of a league of citizens motivated by the Crown itself, endeavoured to transform the city into an exclusive Crown property. This situation was welcomed neither by some in the clergy nor by a group of neighbours, who claimed adamantly the dominion of the prelate. This resulted in a number of serious conflicts amongst factions, which maintained a firm commitment to taking over the political control of the city and prominently to end the shared authority, which in the face of the many attempts, was not achieved until several centuries later. Thus, I am putting forward a proposal which aims to reconstruct and study the various episodes still unknown to a large number of historians by using a combination of historical documents of the city and several unpublished legal proceedings.

  7. The spiritual struggle of anger toward God: a study with family members of hospice patients.

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    Exline, Julie J; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Root, Briana L; Peereboom, Karen S

    2013-04-01

    Anger toward God is a common form of spiritual struggle, one that people often experience when they see God as responsible for severe harm or suffering. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, correlates, and preferred coping strategies associated with anger toward God among family members of hospice patients. Teams from a large hospice in the midwestern United States distributed surveys, one per household, to family members of home-care patients. The survey assessed feelings toward God (anger/disappointment and positive feelings), depressive symptoms, religiosity, and perceived meaning. Participants also rated their interest in various strategies for coping with conflicts with God. Surveys (n=134) indicated that 43% of participants reported anger/disappointment toward God, albeit usually at low levels of intensity. Anger toward God was associated with more depressive symptoms, lower religiosity, more difficulty finding meaning, and belief that the patient was experiencing greater pain. Prayer was the most highly endorsed strategy for managing conflicts with God. Other commonly endorsed strategies included reading sacred texts; handling the feelings on one's own; and conversations with friends, family, clergy, or hospice staff. Self-help resources and therapy were less popular options. Anger toward God is an important spiritual issue among family members of hospice patients, one that is commonly experienced and linked with depressive symptoms. It is valuable for hospice staff to be informed about the issue of anger toward God, especially because many family members reported interest in talking with hospice team members about such conflicts.

  8. Reliability and validity of the perspectives of Support From God Scale.

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    Hamilton, Jill B; Crandell, Jamie L; Carter, J Kameron; Lynn, Mary R

    2010-01-01

    Existing spiritual support scales for use with cancer survivors focus on the support believed to come from a religious community, clergy, or health care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new measure of spiritual support believed to come from God in older Christian African American cancer survivors. The Perceived Support From God Scale was administered to 317 African American cancer survivors aged 55-89 years. Psychometric evaluation involved identifying underlying factors, conducting item analysis and estimating reliability, and obtaining evidence on the relationship to other variables or the extent to which the Perceived Support From God Scale correlates with religious involvement and depression. The Perceived Support From God Scale consists of 15 items in two subscales (Support From God and God's Purpose for Me). The two subscales explained 59% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .94 and .86 for the Support From God and God's Purpose for Me subscales, respectively. Test-retest correlations were strong, supporting the temporal stability of the instrument. Pearson's correlations to an existing religious involvement and beliefs scale were moderate to strong. Subscale scores on Support From God were negatively correlated to depression. Initial support for reliability and validity was demonstrated for the Perceived Support From God Scale. The scale captures a facet of spirituality not emphasized in other measures. Further research is needed to evaluate the scale with persons of other racial/ethnic groups and to explore the relationship of spirituality to other outcome measures.

  9. Feeling an Invisible Wall: The Experience of Iranian Women's Marital Relationship After Surgical Menopause: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study.

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    Abadi, Om Salimeh Roudi Rasht; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Tirgari, Batool; Nayeri, Nahid Dehaghan; Rayyani, Masoud

    2018-02-16

    Sexual relationships after surgical menopause matter when talking about sex is taboo and marriage is the only justified way to meet sexual needs. In this qualitative research study, 22 surgical menopausal women shared their experiences of sexual/marital relationship after surgery through in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative content analysis technique was used for data analysis. An overarching theme entitled "feeling an invisible wall" reflected this experience. It comprised three categories: (1) declined marital intimacy, (2) disarming, and (3) transformation of societal norms into concerns. This study proposed new contextual information about the marital relationship of Iranian women after surgical menopause that was not openly articulated before and which may be applicable for others in such contexts. Women's main concern was the emotional separation because of the sexual consequences of the surgery. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's concerns, which may alter their marital relationship. They must provide individualized care, education, and support for couples to make thoughtful decisions about rebuilding their sexual relationship. Results may also have implications for psychiatrists, sex/marital therapists, and probably clergy who have the authority to openly address this important issue to the public.

  10. Roe v. Wade. Catholic wisdom.

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    Maguire, D

    1998-01-01

    In this commentary, a Roman Catholic professor of moral theory recounts how, during his doctoral work in Rome, he was taught that abortion was intrinsically evil and could never be justified. He was also taught, however, about Probabilism, a Roman Catholic teaching that held that "where there is doubt, there is freedom." In other words, serious doubts based on a person's own insights allow a person moral freedom to choose a course of action in cases of debated moral issues. This moral teaching, a triumph for the rights of personal conscience, which was formulated in the 16th and 17th centuries, has been well-hidden from the laity and neglected by the clergy during the past 100 years. He also learned about Thomas Aquinas who taught that practical moral principals are valid most of the time but can have exceptions depending on circumstances. In addition, early 17th-century church leaders justified abortions performed to save the life of the women. Thus, the Supreme Court's decision in Roe seems to reflect Catholic thinking more accurately than the Vatican's new-found absolutism against abortion.

  11. The right to an heir in the era of assisted reproduction.

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    Benshushan, A; Schenker, J G

    1998-05-01

    The latest remarkable technological advances in assisted reproduction, which enable cryopreservation of spermatozoa, embryos and ovarian tissue, raise difficult and debatable legal, social, ethical and moral issues concerning the right to posthumous reproduction. Furthermore, reports on the attitudes of the general public and of centres licensed for infertility treatment in the United Kingdom found that the majority of women and centres support the idea of posthumous reproduction. In this paper we review the data published on this issue, and after considering the various aspects, we conclude that each case should be discussed and authorized by a multidisciplinary committee that includes physicians, clergy, psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists and other appropriate parties. In our opinion, the main principles that should guide this committee would allow posthumous reproduction in the context of marriage when a prior consent exists. For unmarried persons, post-mortem donation of gametes should be done only anonymously, if they are in agreement with existing laws concerning infertility treatments in every country and after appropriate consent and proper counselling. Moreover, any case which involves consanguinity or a possibility of incest should be forbidden, both for ethical and genetic reasons. In a case of pre-existing siblings, they should be consulted and their informed consent should be granted in advance so as to avoid legal problems in the inheritance of property.

  12. Activities of the Wendlingen community of orthodox refugees in the post-war Germany

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    Kornilov Aleksandr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Displaced persons camps with significant activities of the Russian Orthodox clergy were established and developed after the World War II. The Orthodox community in the Wurttemberg land of Germany was one of the centers for the War refugees. The father superior of the community was priest Adrian Rymarenko future Archbishop of Rockland Andrew, who served as the dean of the Berlin Cathedral in 1943–1945. The article deals with peculiarities of the Wendlingen community founding and developing process. Father Adrian’s letters to the Archpriest of the German Diocese, Metropolitan Seraphim (Ljade, as well as other unknown documents from the German Diocese Archive of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Novo-Diveyevo Convent (New York have been for the first time published. The author of the article has shown that this small Orthodox community overcame the post-War troubles and hardship, restored the Church services’ circle and became a Christian missionary center. The author analyses the guidelines of community activities. Metropolitan Seraphim advisedly gave a special status to the community for not only the support a Church service but also organization of a Church manufactory. The author investigated archives sources and found the list of Community members. He discovered among them outstanding clergymen of the Russian Church in Exile and future clerics of the Orthodox Church of America.

  13. The Russian Orthodox Church in the occupied territories of the Caucasus in August 1942 — February 1943

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    Shishkin Evgenii, priest

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1942-1943 is analysed on the material of the North Caucasus and the Kuban. Battle for the Caucasus and the Battle of Stalingrad — the crucial events of the World War II — were accompanied by the fi rst phase of the occupation of a large part of the South of Russia. We study both positive and tragic facets of church life in the occupied territories of the enemy. The process of spontaneous legalization of the clergy and parish communities, the Soviet government outlawed in the preceding period, traced the fate of the Orthodox pastors and churches — returning to serve and die at the hands of the Nazis, open to the service and destroyed by Hitler’s army. The internal problems of religious policy of the German Headquarters and especially its implementation in the region, as well as hierarchical and jurisdictional problems caused by the Renovationist schism, and their perspective in conditions of military everyday are examined. Marked combining processes in the church community and the formation at the local level prerequisites for overcoming the disunions ecclesiastic of the 1920s — 1930s.

  14. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

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    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  15. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

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    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  16. “An Effect That is Deeper Than Beating” Family Violence in Jordanian Women

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    Morse, Diane S; Paldi, Yael; Egbarya, Samah Salaime; Clark, Cari Jo

    2012-01-01

    This study informs healthcare approaches to gender-based family violence through focus groups with Jordanian women. The authors conducted a thematic qualitative analysis of 12 focus groups among 70 married, divorced, or widowed women about their experiences and beliefs regarding family violence. Five themes relevant to healthcare providers were identified. Three of the themes addressed participant-perceived causes of gender-based family violence: 1) unmet gender role expectations, 2) stigma and social norms, and 3) extended family roles. The fourth theme reflects effects on victims. The fifth theme reflects protective qualities and help seeking behaviors. The themes identified in the analysis reveal multiple ways that gender-based family violence can contribute to health problems and that it can be kept secret by Jordanian women as patients. Potential clues are described for the violence which may not be typically explored in a medical encounter. Additional ways that Jordanian families may seek help from other family or clergy instead of police and family violence agencies are described. Implications of these results for healthcare providers who care both for Jordanians and Arab immigrants in Western cultures are discussed. PMID:22329396

  17. Relationship between Critical Thinking and Adherence to Religious Reference Groups in M.A. Students of Tehran’s Universities

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    Fatemeh Amooabdollahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Clergymen in religion, social and political life had been legitimized with Islamic theoretical base and historical necessity in Iran’s society. Surveys have shown that clergymen’s prestige has been changed (Particularly among the youth after the Islamic Revolution. Regarding  the extension of critical approach and critical thinking in education system, the purpose of this research is to investigate the relation between students' critical thinking and adherence to clergymen. The statistical population included all MA students of state universities in Tehran . Three hundred seventy (370 students were selected through Kuokran's formula and PPS sampling. The results have shown that there is not a significant relation between critical thinking and adherence to clergymen. But adherence to clergymen is shown to have a negative relation with inquisitiveness and open-mindedness subscales. There is a positive relation between truth-seeking and adherence. Also there is a positive relation between critical thinking and going to non-clergy specialists of religion.

  18. Why the moratorium on human-animal chimera research should not be lifted.

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    Moy, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals. Interestingly, this government effort is creating an uncommon coalition between pro-life groups and animal rights activists that oppose this medical research on ethical grounds; the former seeking to ensure the welfare of human embryos and the latter seeking to protect the well-being of animals. Unlike the issue of abortion, this research is complex. Yet, it is important that the pro-life laity and clergy be adequately informed on some of the basic science and ethics that surround this research. To fully understand why this research is unethical and why the NIH is pursuing this particular research, it is important to understand the ethical tenets governing human-subject research and why secular scientists are pursuing this scientific field.

  19. Sociological investigation Students of Universities' Social-Political Trust in Iran: relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys

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    Sayed Mahdi Etemadifard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social system based on mutual trust among members continues to exist. Social trust in modem era is more important than earlier periods. Subject of current report is focused on the trust of Iranian students in different aspects. Main question in this investigation is about social-political trust of these students (based on trust in Islamic Republic of Iran at the past and present. This matter explored by secondary analysis of data, Relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys. Based on data and consequences of other researches we are going to illustrate the objective aspects of student's trust in current decades. The main sources for data collection at this stage include: All the public surveys conducted in the past four decades, the general data about students and their related assays. Trust students were evaluated on the following dimensions: trust in trade unions and various groups, trust in the clergy, directors of public trust and confidence in judges. Furthermore, the level of political engagement and participation in elections, satisfaction with economic situation, political situation and level of satisfaction with confidence in radio and television news. Reduction of public trust leads to reduced maximum student trust especially in the social and political dimensions.

  20. Opposition to Women in Congregational Leadership: A Sociocultural Perspective

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    Solomon Kofi Amoah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made in time past in demonstrating that women are similar to men, there still appear to be a widespread persistent belief that women are indeed inferior to men even until today. What is even worrying is the theological backing that this sociocultural belief of society enjoys. One notices in the literature that God ordains, sanctions, and upholds the spiritual authority of women today as he did in time past as his official spokespersons and leaders of his people. However, the evidence and discussion presented in this paper demonstrate that problems with women being accepted as leaders by congregations, gender differences in pay and promotions, and the experiences and dissatisfaction of women clergy who feel constrained by these gender discrimination is widespread. The paper discusses this phenomenon and presents an often neglected perspective in the discourse – the sociocultural perspective. It interrogates the various stands on women and leadership in congregations. In doing this, the paper explores the position of women in the Old Testament through to the New Testament and the centuries following.

  1. Para além de Salvador e do Recôncavo baiano: o culto aos santos na América Portuguesa Beyond Salvador and the Recôncavo baiano: cult to the saints in Portuguese America

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    Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.

  2. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

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    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  3. Broken vows and the next generation: Recognizing and helping when parental divorce is a spiritual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Annette; Warner, Heidi; Krumei, Elizabeth

    Recent national surveys show that older youth who have experienced parental divorce tend to disengage from organized religion but feel as close to God as peers from intact families. In this paper, we offer a conceptual model and concrete guidelines to help adults engage in sensitive, yet direct, dialogues with older youth about the spiritual dimensions of parental divorce. Based on a recent line of empirical research on the role of religion and spirituality for post-divorce adjustment, we argue that parental divorce can be experienced as a spiritual trauma where the event is interpreted as a sacred loss and desecration, and can also trigger painful spiritual struggles. Yet youth can also draw upon adaptive religious/spiritual methods to cope with the transition. We illustrate these psychospiritual processes using quotes from a study of college students who had experienced a parental divorce within the prior five years. We end with a list of questions that parents, pastoral counselors, clergy, and mental health professionals can draw upon to explore the intersection of faith and divorce with adolescents.

  4. The role of religious leaders in promoting healthy habits in religious institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H; Smith, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    The growing obesity epidemic in the West, in general, and the U.S.A., in particular, is resulting in deteriorating health, premature and avoidable onset of disease, and excessive health care costs. The religious community is not immune to these societal conditions. Changing health behavior in the community requires both input from individuals who possess knowledge and credibility and a receptive audience. One group of individuals who may be uniquely positioned to promote community change but have been virtually ignored in the applied health and consulting psychology literature is religious leaders. These individuals possess extraordinary credibility and influence in promoting healthy behaviors by virtue of their association with time-honored religious traditions and the status which this affords them-as well as their communication skills, powers of persuasion, a weekly (captive) audience, mastery over religious texts that espouse the virtues of healthy living, and the ability to anchor health-related actions and rituals in a person's values and spirituality. This article focuses on ways in which religious leaders might promote healthy habits among their congregants. By addressing matters of health, nutrition, and fitness from the pulpit and in congregational programs, as well as by visibly adopting the tenets of a healthier lifestyle, clergy can deliver an important message regarding the need for healthy living. Through such actions, religious leaders can be effective agents in promoting critical change in these areas.

  5. Mission as liberation in socio-economic and political contexts: towards contextual and liberating theology of mission in the context of migration and human dislocation

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    Buffel, Olehile A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that for mission to be contextual and liberating it has to take seriously the plight of those who for various socio-economic and political factors have been forced to migrate from their countries of birth. Furthermore it critically analyses those factors that have led to the uprooting and the dislocation of Africans who are further impoverished, if not enslaved in the new countries where they are domiciled, particularly in the South African context. The paper argues that it is time, just like at Melbourne (1980 with regard to the poor, for those people who are dislocated to be put in the very centre of missiological reflection. In addition they also have to be put in the centre of theological reflection, and in particular theological education. Only if the plight of foreigners (migrants who have been dislocated is placed at the centre of theological education can the churches through their main functionaries who benefit directly from theological education play a liberating and humanising role in welcoming and humanising the foreigners who have been dislocated. Clergy, theologians and laity have significant roles to play in view of uprooting and dispelling the myths, stereotypes and resentment that often fuel xenophobia, in view making Africa hospitable to Africans.

  6. What to Do When there is Nothing to Do: The psychotherapeutic value of Meaning Therapy in the treatment of late life depression

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    J. H. Morgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic treatment with the goal of cure, of course, is the standard within the healing professions but when we are dealing with late life depression where there is no hope for longevity, the agenda necessarily must shift from cure to care, from treatment with the goal of renewed healthy living to a focus upon the palliative aspects of a limited prognosis. Here, then, the clinician is faced with the challenge of existential intervention with an emphasis upon the “moment” rather than the future. The encroachment of ennui upon the elderly, particularly and especially those who have been actively engaged in a full life of service such as the clergy, physicians, teachers, and attorneys, can be a traumatic and debilitating experience.When hope for the future is not being sought but rather an effective and celebrative address to the existential realities confronting the elderly patient who is facing decline and death, the quest for those “happy moments” conjured in the patient’s memory constitute a promising field of treatment.Geriatric logotherapy is uniquely constructed to do just that. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Mayo del 68 y los católicos catalanes

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    Martínez Hoyos, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1968, the catalonian Church lived in a full post-council crisis. The most progressive sections felt themselves disappointed because the expected changes after the Second Vatican Council did not achieve. The parisian events affect this ecclesiastic context, which is accentuated by division and the marxism influence. This article is focused on the responses of Alfonso Carlos Comín, «El Ciervo» magazine and the clergy represented by the «Correspondència» review.En 1968, la Iglesia catalana vivía en plena crisis postconciliar. Los sectores más progresistas se sentían decepcionados porque no se habían producido los cambios que esperaban tras el Vaticano II. Los acontecimientos parisinos inciden sobre este contexto eclesial, marcado por la división y el influjo del marxismo. El artículo se centra en las reacciones de Alfonso Carlos Comín, El Ciervo y el clero representado por la revista Correspondència.

  8. Spirituality and practice. Stories, barriers and opportunities. Interview by Laurence A. Savett.

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    Hatgidakis, J; Timko, E R; Plotnikoff, G A; Gale, C

    1997-01-01

    What are "spiritual matters?" Are "spiritual matters" the same as "religious matters?" What is spiritual inquiry? Are such questions appropriate for those of us in the caring professions, other than clergy, to consider? If we accept that role, how far should we go? When should we call for help? Whom should we call? We convened a gathering of a hospital chaplain, a social worker, a hospice nurse and a physician to discuss many of the dimensions of spirituality and then to apply their personal and professional paradigms of care to a discussion of an actual case. This article is a record of that conversation. It is actually several articles in one, for it deals with their own views of the meaning of spirituality, the degree to which their spirituality has impact on their practice, what they see as the merit of spiritual matters in the caring professions, barriers to collaboration among their professions and to addressing these issues with patients, and boundaries beyond which one should not go. One way to read this conversation is to include yourself; that is, to reflect on the points the participants make and the ways in which you might integrate their insights into your personal practice. We hope that you find this task worthwhile and that it provokes further thought and discussion. The discussion began with participant introductions.

  9. Spiritual interventions and the impact of a faith community nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Cynthia Ingram

    2014-04-01

    Faith community nursing had its formal beginnings in the Midwestern United States in 1984 when six nurses received financial support from a local hospital to work in churches. Over time, the churches assumed increasing responsibility for the nurses' salaries. The success of this initiative was associated with the understanding that faith communities are dedicated to keeping people well. The number of programs increased over the past 30 years and now there are thousands of faith community nurses serving populations around the world. Research for this specialty practice has not experienced comparable growth, and is needed to further develop faith community nursing science. This study, based on the Roy Adaptation Model, used a qualitative design to identify spiritual nursing interventions that faith community nurses use in their practice, and to examine the spiritual impact of a faith community nursing program. Data were collected from faith community members, clergy representatives, and faith community nurses with a researcher-developed demographic tool and a six-item open-ended questionnaire that were both mailed to participants (N = 112; n = 52; response rate = 46%) and analyzed through content analysis. A variety of spiritual nursing interventions were identified. Themes related to the spiritual impact included the physical, mental, and spiritual health connection, caring, hope, spiritual support and benefits, and religious concepts.

  10. Mobile Internet Usage among Adolescents and Young Adults in Iran: A Sociological Survey

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    Vahid Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the phenomenon of the tendency of adolescents and young adults to the mobile Internet as a social issue in the information era. The phenomenon of the Internet and the mobile Internet has risen in the developed counties as a consequence of increase in the development of electronic communication networks and it has many functions for individuals, family and society. This paper is derived from a survey research in 2013 on the status of this phenomenon in Iran. The statistical population of this research is the adolescents and young adults from 13 to 22 years old in Isfahan who have access to the mobile Internet. The sample population is 193 and the results indicate that there is an intense tendency to the mobile Internet in Iran. This seems normal in comparison with the developed countries. Also, according to the results of the study, 90.3% of adolescents and young people have mobile phones and mobile Internet and have access to the Internet mostly via the Irancell SIM cards and mobile Wi-Fi (they do not use Rightel due to the prohibition of senior clergies. Due to the easy access, the mobile Internet is their favorite. More than browsers, they use online games and social networks (especially Facebook. According to this study no social impairment (eg. Internet addiction, lack of accountability, educational impairment, social isolation, etc because of the adolescents’ tendency to the mobile Internet was observed in them.

  11. CZĘSTOCHOWA JOURNALISTS

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    Jolanta Dzierżyńska-Mielczarek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article characterises a local journalist environment. The analysis was conducted on the example of Częstochowa—a city that is identified with the Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra by most Europeans. Symbolically, that identification seems reasonable, but Częstochowa is also an independent urban organism carrying out not only religious tasks. The Częstochowa journalist environment, along with local press, arose in the late 19th century. Because the city at that time had a population of only a few thousand residents and was under Russian occupation, the environment was represented by just several people, mostly originating from other cities or the Catholic clergy. Journalists in Częstochowa became a separate professional group between 1918 and 1939. Their number at that time did not exceed one hundred. They were decimated during World War II. In the People’s Republic of Poland, the Częstochowa journalists were deprived of their independence and forced to engage in numerous propaganda activities. The uniformisation of the press also caused a significant reduction on the part of the examined group, which from 1945–1989 numbered less than one hundred. Thanks to sociological research, we know that between 1989–2007, over 200 journalists worked in the Częstochowa media. In the overwhelming majority of cases, they performed their journalist work in a regular and systematic manner, receiving a salary that was their primary or only source of income.

  12. El Cardenal Isidro Gomá y la cuestión vasca

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    Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.

  13. The Role that Religious Festivities Have in Society and Ideology: Local Identity, Social Control and Instrument of Domination

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    José Fernando Domene Verdú

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer the question: what role have religious and patroness festivities in society, now and throughout history? They belong to what is called popular religiosity, are utilitarian —because they were used as a solution to natural and epidemic calamities— and are mainly a symbol of local or regional identity. But besides this, they have always had a social and ideological role, which can be summarized as maintaining the established social order, mainly by making that a part of the population identifies itself with the Crown and the ruling aristocracy. The parallel between God, the Virgin and the saints with the kings, feudal lords and members of the nobility in general favored that the same attitudes of obedience and submission that common people had toward the religious figures, they also had them to the social ruling figures (the nobility, the clergy and the subsequent absolute monarchy. Therefore, religious festivities (Easter, Christmas, Kings and, especially, the patron-saints’ festivities were the most suitable cultural event to promote that the common people adopt these attitudes towards religious figures and, indirectly, also towards the civilian ones.

  14. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How and why wealthy suburban congregations are responding to poverty and inequality

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    Nadine F. Bowers du Toit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.

  15. The cause of Arseniy Matseevich as an "indicator" of the ideology of the church conservatism at the Catherinian age: historiographical aspect

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    Rudnev, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the materials of the historico-biographical treatises and furthermore the generalizing and monographic works in history of the Russian Orthodox Church and the social and political thought the historiographical appraisals and treatments of the ideological content and motivation of the church opposition to the Catherine's II policy led by metropolitan of Rostov Arseniy Matseevich is examined. This problematico-historiographical review is realized in the context of the Russian conservatismʼs origins and development from its initial oppositional version to the posterior incarnation. The Russian Pre-October and émigré "secular" historians (V. S. Ikonnikov, A. V. Kartashev appraised Arseniy Matseevichʼs struggle against the secularization church estates decreed by Catherine II as the manifestation of the class economical egoism of the highest clergy only. These authors denied any "ideal" (spiritual and ideological motives of his opposition to the Catherinian policy. Contrary to this viewpoint in the apologistical treatise about Arseniy Matseevich published in 1912 the priest M. S. Popov represented him as the principal ideological fighter for the Church's independence of the Catherinian absolutist regime. The Soviet historiography and the majority of the contemporary Russian historians assertes the "class egoistical" economical motivation of Arseniy Matseevichʼs opposition to the Catherinian politics and confronted his oppositional church conservatism with its "system" version personified by the metropolitan of Moscow Platon (Levshin.

  16. The French Emigrants and the Evolution of Frenchification in Spain

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    Emilio Luis LARA LÓPEZ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the Spanish Bourbons, there was a gradual introduction of Gallic cultural forms that gave rise to Frenchification, or cultural afrancesamiento, which was supported by most of the enlightened elite. The continual upheavals of the French Revolution and of the War of the Pyrenees were to change Spanish life in several of its facets, due in particular to the French emigrants. These exiles –above all, the clergymen– instilled in the popular classes a counterrevolutionary feeling that the Spanish clergy was to turn into a resentment of the French with religious and xenophobic overtones. Such latent prejudices were to reappear in 1808, in part helping to explain the forceful anti-Napoleonic reaction. The afrancesados supported the new Napoleonic Monarchy for political reasons with the purpose of regenerating the country. French residents in Spain from long before had to endure the anger of their Spanish neighbours at the beginning of the war as well as live under the cloak of suspicion.

  17. Perspective of patients, patients' families, and healthcare providers towards designing and delivering hospice care services in a middle income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Aghaei, Mir Hossein; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Asgarlo, Zoleikha

    2015-01-01

    In view of the recent surge in chronic disease rates and elderly population in the developing countries, there is an urgent felt need for palliative and hospice care services. The present study investigates the views and attitudes of patients and their families, physicians, nurses, healthcare administrators, and insurers regarding designing and delivering hospice care service in a middle income country. In this qualitative study, the required data was collected using semi structured interviews and was analyzed using thematic analysis. Totally 65 participants from hospitals and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively to achieve data saturation. Analyzing the data, five main themes (barriers, facilitators, strategies, attitudes, and service provider) were extracted. Barriers included financial issues, cultural-religious beliefs, patient and family-related obstacles, and barriers related to healthcare system. Facilitators included family-related issues, cultural-religious beliefs, as well as facilitators associated with patients, healthcare status, and benefits of hospice service. Most participants (79%) had positive attitude towards hospice care service. Participant suggested 10 ways to design and deliver effective and efficient hospice care service. They thought the presence of physicians, nurses, and psychologists and other specialists and clergy were necessary in the hospice care team. Due to lack of experience in hospice care in developing countries, research for identifying probable barriers and appropriate management for reducing unsuccessfulness in designing and delivering hospice care service seems necessary. Input from the facilitators and their suggested solutions can be useful in planning the policy for hospice care system.

  18. Religious Belief and Mental Health in Lay and Consecrated Italian Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    There is compelling evidence that teachers and clergy are stressful occupations. This study aimed to compare the rate of job strain and burnout among lay and consecrated teachers and to study the effect of religious coping on the mental health of these two groups. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out in Catholic kindergarten, preschool and primary schools of an Italian Congregation of nuns, in South Italy. The Italian versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) scale, of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and a study-specific questionnaire with sociodemographic variables and indicators of subjective (self-reported religiosity) and objective (prayer personal and church attendance) religiousness were used. Data were analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and an analysis of the scales used. The participation rate of this study was 88 %. There was a significant difference between two groups in religiousness and job strain/burnout scores (lay teachers were the most affected group). Moreover, religiousness scores had a positive correlation with personal accomplishment, job satisfaction and perceived performance and a negative correlation with emotional exhaustion, turnover intention and morbidity psychiatric. Therefore, according to religious coping's research, prayer personal and church attendance can be recommended as two of the ways to prevent job strain and burnout in the teacher work.

  19. Participation of A. A. Dmitrievsky in the arrangement of church service at Leningrad Theological seminary

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    Sergey Akishin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the study of archival fi les from A. A. Dmitrievsky’s series (Manuscript Department, National Library of Russia which contain a number of records related to the history of Leningrad Theological Seminary. These records refl ect the fact that on October 18 (Memory day of the Four Holy Hierarchs of Moscow and December 13 (Memory day of Apostle Andrew 1926, four public church services in the name of Hieromartyr Isidore of Yurievsk took place with the help of the prominent scientist and liturgist A. A. Dmitrievsky at the Russian-Estonian church in Leningrad. Both the public church services and their preparation were probably employed by A. A. Dmitrievsky as a medium for achieving better results of his students in the process of liturgical study. It was the intention of students of the Theological Seminary and Higher Theological Courses to conduct these public services. A number of manuals were prepared for various categories of participants of the services (clergy, readers, choristers and laymen in order to conduct the service according to liturgical books. Each of these manuals explained what had to be done at certain moments of the service, who had to interact with each other, etc. The general course of the service was determined by a specifi cally designed document “The Order of Public Worship”, which listed the elements of the service from start to fi nish. These documents are published in modern orthography as a supplement to this article.

  20. Antroponimia femminile nella Scozia del XIII secolo: la testimonianza del Ragman Roll (1296 Feminine anthroponyms in 13th-century Scotland: the Ragman Roll (1296

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    Valeria Di Clemente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La serie di documenti nota come Ragman Roll raccoglie i giuramenti di fedeltà e l’omaggio feudale resi da aristocratici, ecclesiastici, proprietari terrieri e borghesi di Scozia a Edoardo I Plantageneto dopo la campagna di occupazione inglese della primavera-estate 1296. In questa veste, essa riporta nomi e cognomi di circa 1800 persone, rappresentando una fonte preziosa per lo studio dell’antroponimia in uso in Scozia nella seconda metà del XIII secolo. Il presente saggio esamina gli antroponimi femminili nelle forme ricorrenti nel documento, ricostruendone la vicenda storico-etimologica e culturale.

    The documents known as Ragman Roll collect the fealty oaths sworn and the homages rendered by Scottish nobility, clergy, landowners and burgesses to Edward I Plantagenet after the English invasion of Scotland in the spring and summer of 1296. These documents record personal names and surnames of ca. 1800 people, being a precious source for the study of Scottish anthroponymy in the second half of the 13th century. This paper focuses on the feminine anthroponyms occurring in the Ragman Roll, on their form and on their historical-etymological and cultural background.

  1. Concilios y legistación imperial

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    Fe BAJO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La colaboración instaurada a partir de Constantino entre la Iglesia y el poder político produjo toda una serie de interpretaciones que afectaron no sólo al plano de lo ideológico-religioso sino a las propias estructuras político-sociales del Imperio. Así se procedió a una reorganización del derecho sobre bases nuevas. La creación de la iurisdictio episcopalis, las exenciones fiscales a las propiedades eclesiásticas y a los propios clérigos o el monopolio concedido a la Iglesia de muchas de las antiguas instituciones civiles tales como el patronato ciudadano, dan cuenta de las interrelaciones entre la normativa jurídica imperial inserta en el Codex Theodosianus y las disposiciones conciliares.ABSTRACT: The cooperation between the Church and the Worldly Power started with Constantine resulted in a series of interpretations not only from the ideologicalreligious point of view, but also affecting the socio-political structures of the Empire. Thus, and on a new ground reorganisation of the laws was undertaken. The creation of a iurisdictio episcopalis, financial exemptions for ecclesiastic properties and for the clergy itself, or the monoply granted by the Church to many former civil institutions, such as the board of citizens, account for the interrelations between the imperial jurisdiction as described in the Codex Theodosianus and the Council dispositions.

  2. Die kerke in Rwanda: Skandes en uitdagings - en lesse vir Suid-Afrika 1

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    P. G.R. Meiring

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The churches in Rwanda: Disappointments and challenges -and lessons for South Africa. The author, one of a team of South Africans invited to Rwanda to advise the newly appointed Unity and Reconciliation Commission, gives an overview of the political developments that led to the bloody genocide (February-April 1994 during which more than a million Rwandans died at the hands of their compatriots. The role that the churches played during the crisis was a disappointment to many; the conduct of many of the clergy - who not only condoned what was happening but actively took part in the events - is nothing less than shameful in view of the Gospel. If the churches want to regain their integity, five challenges should be taken seriously: the churches should lead the country in a sincere confession of guilt; the churches should regain their prophetic witness in the country; they should contribute to leadership development and training; the churches shouldplay their part in ministering to the poor and needy, to the traumatized in Rwanda; and, lastly, the churches should act as servants of reconciliation.

  3. «Nomen est omen»: pseudonyms in actor society of Dnieper Ukraine late XIX – early XX century

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    I. V. Yeremeyeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the memoirs and archival material basis of Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine, Kyiv and State Archives of Kharkiv Region the etymology of some actor’s pseudonyms on the Dnieper Ukraine territory in late XIX – early XX century was analysed. The pseudonyms’ place and role in desired professional actor image formation were determined. In particular the fact that pseudonyms borrowed or transformed from the famous literary character names used to transfer the character’s moral qualities and exterior to the artist was defined. The stage name creation specificity depending on the affiliation of the actor to the Russian or Ukrainian repertoire was shown. Also the basic motives for fictional anthroponym using in actors’ society were depicted. The main reason for the actor’s name-change among ones originated from the nobility and clergy was shown. Besides the recognition of pseudonym as the important part of professional success not only among the actors, but also among entrepreneurs of Dnieper Ukraine in late XIX – early XX century was explored.

  4. Thinking beyond Secularism: The Catholic Church and Political Practice in Rural South India

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    Aparna Sundar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article re-opens the debate on secularism in India by looking at a religion and a region that has historically been marginal to this discourse, focusing on the way in which the Catholic Church has historically mediated the relationship between individuals and the state, among the fishing communities of South India. The Catholic Church’s dominant position among the fishing communities, its minority status within India, as well as theological and other shifts that have taken place within the global Church, lead it to articulate a secular, even radical politics as its primary mode of religious engagement. Radical clergy, many from fishing backgrounds, act as both organic and traditional intellectuals in the Gramscian sense, linking the traditional religious concerns of the Church to the secular interests of their parishioners. Likewise, villagers participate in Church-generated associations spaces to secure wider political goals. The paper concludes that certain forms of religious organisation in the public sphere might indeed be compatible with democracy, citizenship, and even secularism.

  5. The Value of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Preservation of the National Religious Rights оf the Ukrainians: 60s–70s of the 20th Century

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    Nadia Kindrachuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we studied the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church as an integral part, a national factor in the religious process of the Ukrainians, living in western regions of the USSR during the 1960s and 1970s. The research gave a comprehensive analysis of the place and role of the church in nation-building and preservation of ethnic and national identity of the titular representatives of the Ukraine’s nation during the Soviet anti-religious campaign. We described the activities of the Greek Catholic clergy, whose aim was the consolidation of national-patriotic forces and the formation of religious opposition among the Ukrainians. The article also outlined the policy vectors of the atheistic communist ruling elite and revealed their essence, covered violent reorientation of Greek Catholics to Orthodoxy. In terms of religious oppression and persecution, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church continued its development of underground and become a consolidating factor in Western Ukrainian struggle for their national and religious rights. It has become an important factor in ethnicity creation and a spiritual and cultural self of the Ukrainian people.

  6. Pain relief in childbirth: changing historical and feminist perspectives.

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    Skowronski, G A

    2015-07-01

    Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position.

  7. Leo Sgouros – Tyrant and Patriot. The Ruler of the Northeastern Peloponnese in the Early 13th Century

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    Viktor N. Chkhaidze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leo Sgouros is one of the Byzantine magnates who ruled in the northeastern Peloponnese in the late 12th – early 13th centuries. The paper discusses the separatist activity of the Leo Sgouros which allowed him in a short time to create ephemeral ‘state’ in the South of Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, Corinth and the Argolid. In order to give legitimacy to his authority Leo Sgouros married the daughter of the deposed Emperor Alexios III. But his way from separatism to Imperial idea was interrupted by the clash with the knights of the Latin Empire who have predetermined his defeat. Among the reasons for the defeat we can name the enmity with the clergy and nonpossibility of joining with other governors in fighting the crusaders. According to later legend, Leo Sgouros died, throwing himself with his horse from the cliff of the Acrocorinth fortress, besieged by the crusaders. According to another version, Leo Sgouros died under the walls of his native city Nauplius. The study examined the seal of the Leo Sgouros with a rare title of sebastohypertatos (higher sebastos, and similar seal which was reused by John Branas. Data analysis suggests that such a contradictory personality as Leo Sgouros’ may be characterized not only as an ambitious tyrant and the defender of Byzantine Hellenism. The Annex contains information about the seven of Sgouros names that have become known in recent years by virtue of the monuments of sphragistics.

  8. Empowering physicians to respond to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullin, K J; Cosgrove, A

    1992-06-01

    Despite the progress of the last 15 years in combating family violence, some individuals, community agencies and institutions still support a man's "right" to control, and they often disregard the physical violence he uses. Because threats and assault are in fact against the law, a man who physically or sexually assaults his wife or girlfriend couldn't keep doing it without this support from the very people who are supposed to enforce the law and help the victims of crime-namely, police, prosecutors, judges, clergy, psychologists, social workers and doctors. Some let him get away with it, look the other way, or--unsure of what to do to stop it--do nothing at all. Thus, they reinforce his "right" to use force, even if they never say, "Go ahead, hit her." The police officer who walks a man around the block or fails to show up when called, the clergyman who advises a woman to go home and pray, the doctor who gently patches her injuries but avoids asking who inflicted them, all cooperate with the abusive man in several ways. He comes to understand that no one will stop him from doing what he does. He learns that there are no consequences to his actions--even his violent actions. He can beat up "his woman" if he wants to and get away with it.

  9. Social aspects of the implementation of multidisciplinary approach in palliative and hospice care

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    V. V. Proskura

    2017-06-01

    The results of our empirical research have shown that the palliative care services in the city of Lviv include the functions of social workers, though no social worker positions exists in the service providing working groups. Instead, the functions of the social worker in this area are handled either by other team members (e.g. a chief doctor or other medical personnel, psychologist, priest, etc., or professionals who do not belong to the service team (mostly psychologist. In some cases most part of the functions of the social worker are not delivered at all. The main social worker’s functions while implementing the social component of the palliative care may include the conduction of self-help groups for the terminally ill and their relatives, management of a client’s case, drawing up an individual work plan with the client and his/her family, basic legal counseling, provision of the supervision for members of the multidisciplinary team, establishment of contacts with other specialists, conduction of measures to prevent burnout, development of educational and leisure programs for children of different ages with different illnesses, training for teachers how to work with terminally ill children, development of leisure programs for the elderly (taking into account their age and physical condition, training for practitioners to provide these services, research and development of new programs in order to improve social services in the palliative care, establishment of networks with other social organizations, search for partners, grants, and training of clergy to work in palliative care.

  10. Inkâr al-Sunnah pada Aspek Kodifikasi Hadis

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    Zainuddin Mz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One aspect that makes a bunch of people does not believe in the existence and role of sunnah is the delay of codification itself. Peoples also considered that hadith’s codified in various references are not what are worth ascribed to the Prophet, but rather a form of the companions comprehension of the Prophet’s directives and statements. That is why, there are different editorial ranges between one companion to another, even the mutawâtir lafzî was not separated from this editorial differences. This paper high lights how was the process of hadith codification, so that we can find a common points which are closely related to the authenticity and validity of a hadith. Studying on such topic (the process of hadith codification and classification, shows how professional the hadith scholars in memorizing and maintaining Sunnah of the Prophet, to bring the science of isnâd (‘ilm al-isnâd which is never possessed by any other religion. This is the climax of the way clergy maintaining the authenticity of the Prophet sayings. That is, whenever one states todays about a hadith, definitely, its authenticity and validity would be detected through the scienc.

  11. Un salvavidas de plomo: Los curas rurales de Buenos Aires y la reforma eclesiástica de 1822

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    María Elena Barral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las interpretaciones disponibles sobre la Reforma eclesiástica de 1822 oscilan entre la idea de "expropiación" a la Iglesia y de "salvataje" hacia una parte del clero. Este artículo analiza el impacto de estas reformas y de otras medidas que traspasaban el ámbito eclesiástico para las parroquias rurales bonaerenses. Aquí se demuestra que el presupuesto de Culto -una de las principales innovaciones de la reforma- apenas modificó los ingresos económicos de los párrocos. De modo complementario, otras medidas del programa rivadaviano orientadas a reforzar el orden institucional rural los subordinaban a los nuevos "jefes políticos" locales: los jueces de pazThe available interpretations of the ecclesiastical reform of 1822 stretch from the idea of "expropriation" of the Church wealth to the idea of "saving" part of the clergy. This article analyzes the impact of this reform -and others beyond the ecclesiastical sphere- on the rural parishes of Buenos Aires. Here we show that the budget allocated to the Church, one of the main innovations of this reform, hardly modified the income of parish priests. In addition, other measures of the program of Rivadavia leading to reinforce the institutional order sought to subordinate these priests to the new local "jefes políticos" -the judges of Peace

  12. Subjective well-being among Episcopal priests: predictors and comparisons to non-clinical norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective.

  13. Psychological aspects of sexual functioning among cleric and noncleric alleged sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W

    1996-06-01

    Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed.

  14. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

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    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  15. Spiritual Dryness as a Measure of a Specific Spiritual Crisis in Catholic Priests: Associations with Symptoms of Burnout and Distress

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    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.

  16. Pastoral care: marketing "high touch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, M

    1986-01-01

    Marketing pastoral care skills is important both within and without the health care organization. To increase administrators' awareness of the value of the pastoral care department, for example, chaplains must be able to demonstrate that their activities can affect the bottom line. They must therefore develop a system of accountability that defines and measures their services in objective terms. Such a system would include the reporting of monthly visit statistics as well as the collection of data from patients and personnel on the adequacy of pastoral care services. Other awareness-building activities could include participation in nursing practice rounds, in-service presentations, involvement in hospital social events, and placement of articles about pastoral care in hospital publications. Activities that would help to foster good community relations and thereby improve census include participation in the area clergy association, work with local church groups that visit the sick and the homebound, providing speakers to community organizations, and sponsoring a memorial Mass for families of patients who have died at the hospital. Pastoral care staff should not feel threatened by the changing health care environment. Instead they must recognize the opportunity it provides to create ways to minister to a new mix of patients and to reach new groups.

  17. Las «misiones interiores» en la campaña de Buenos Aires entre dos siglos: de los Borbones a Rosas

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    Di Stefano, Roberto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The «misiones interiores» were promoted by the political authorities, required by bishops and parsons and carried out by Jesuits, Mercedarios and Franciscans. Both in Europe and America, during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they were conceived as missionary strategies to spread the teachings and the sacraments to areas of weak ecclesiastical presence, and they often sought to pacify the most distant and conflictive communities. The missions were an extraordinary moment of contact with religion, and were planned with a strong pedagogical character, so that the duties of the missionaries meant an important help to the parsons. The «misiones interiores» involved a wide range of actors: parishioners and churchmen, political and religious authorities, regular and secular clergy. This article offers a comparison between the missions developed in the countryside of Buenos Aires in two moments of change in the relationships between regular and secular clergy on one hand, and between the Church and the civil authorities on the other, during the colonial period and Juan Manuel de Rosas’ second period of government. We want to highlight the way in which the civil powers resorted to these missions, and their characteristics in those two different historical contexts, in which the role of the ecclesiastical institutions in the social order and their ties with the civil powers were subject to modifications.Las «misiones interiores» fueron promovidas por las autoridades políticas, requeridas por obispos y párrocos y llevadas a cabo por jesuitas, mercedarios y franciscanos. Tanto en Europa como en América, durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX se plantearon como estrategias misionales para llevar la predicación y los sacramentos a regiones donde la presencia eclesiástica era débil. A menudo se proponían pacificar las comunidades más alejadas y conflictivas. La misión constituía un momento extraordinario de contacto con la

  18. Picturing continuity. The beginnings of the portrait gallery of Cracow bishops in the cloisters of the Franciscan friary in Cracow

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    Krzysztof J. Czyżewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Important type of “group” portraits are likenesses of people connected by blood, holding the same position or representing the same office, shown next to one another, in chronological order. Such portrait galleries, which usually displayed a high degree of uniformity and disregarded the chronological and spatial accuracy, are examples of commemorative paintings. Their primary purpose was to emphasise the lineage and create a picture of unity by simultaneously showing, as a “family” and “house” people who lived in various times, but were united by heredity or succession. In the case of portraits of Catholic clergy, a key role is played by the notion of the Apostolic succession which has guaranteed the continuity in the Church since the times of Christ. The paper deals with (partially surviving group of likenesses of bishops, in the east and south wings of the cloister of the Franciscan friary in Cracow, initiated in the 1430s by Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, then ordinary bishop of Cracow, 1323–1455. The Franciscan collection likely showed all of Oleśnicki’s predecessors seated next to one another on stone benches, dressed in pontifical garb and identified by means of coats of arms. The founder of the gallery decided that his predecessors be depicted seated, a pose that was considered to be a privileged one, signified the authority of bishops and their role as teachers. The figures of enthroned bishops form a timeless, “ideal” congregation of hierarchs of the local ecclesiastical community. This particular, and fairly rare, arrangement of the representation may have been influenced by the fact that the portraits were painted on walls of cloister walks where, according to the monastic tradition, stone benches were often present. Zbigniew Oleśnicki was well-versed in history and there can be no doubt that he considered himself to be the heir to the accomplishments of all his predecessors and treated their group representation

  19. Contributions to the Study of the Beginnings of the Orthodox Church in Western Rus’

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    Radosław Liwoch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1882 T. Ziemięcki conducted in Pìdgìrcì (Lviv district, Ukraine a research excavation of two neighboring burial mounds which he called the Great Twin Barrows No. 1 and No. 2. In barrow No., he discovered on richly furnished double burial (probably of a married couple where he found two identical silver crosses. The crosses belong to the so called Scandinavian type (variant B.1 type 1.4.3 acc. J. Staecker. In barrow No. 2, he found a skeleton of a male buried with furnishings, including two crosses. The bigger one (lost was a bronze encolpion depicting the Crucifixion and the Virgin Orans, which can find analogies in the Danube countries. The smaller one is a silver St. Peter’s cross. In the mouths of the corpses found in both barrows there were tiny gold objects which could be interpreted as a local variation of the obolus of the dead custom. Both graves are a part of necropolis with druzhina burials. They date back to the end of the 10th century or the first half of the 11th century. The objects presented here are the earliest evidence to confirm the presence of a Christianized (Greek version of Christianity elite in the region of the Upper Bug and Upper Dniester, which is not burdened with chronological or interpretative reservation. The deceased were not members of the clergy but, nevertheless, representatives of the new official religion in a pagan Slavic population whose conversion had barely begun. It seems, therefore, that their presence in Pìdgìrcì can be considered the beginning of the Orthodox Church in the western part of the former Kievan Rus’.

  20. Ethics in reproductive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Evans, M I

    1992-12-01

    Ethics in reproductive genetics comprise descriptive ethics and normative ethics. Ethical problems before prenatal diagnosis involve genetic counseling and informed consent for the choice patients must make. Prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis is controversial. An international survey of geneticists showed that 25% would do prenatal diagnosis for sex selection, and 17% would refer the couple elsewhere. Hungary (60%), India (37%), the US (34%), Canada (30%), Greece (29%), and Sweden (28%) would do prenatal diagnosis. The statistical incidence of positive findings after prenatal diagnosis does not exceed 4% of all cases when most couples choose abortion. Respect for parental choice and for nondirective counseling was supported in responses to 3 cases in the international survey that also had disclosure dilemmas included with abortion choices. 84% of respondents would be nondirective for XYY and 88% for XO. In India, Hungary, Turkey, and Norway, 46%, 40%, 40%, and 33%, respectively, would advise aborting an XO (Turner) fetus. A survey of 737 genetics and obstetricians and ethicists and clergy showed acceptability of abortion in singleton pregnancies and in twins associated strongly with the trimester of pregnancy, indication for selective termination, and fetal number. Prior group review of risks and benefits of experimental fetal therapy, case selection for experimental fetal therapy, the optimal informed-consent process for fetal therapy, twin pregnancies, refusal of proven fetal therapy, the lack of federal support for research in fetal diagnosis (preimplantation embryo diagnosis) and therapy, and sources of a moral obligation are also addressed. The Belmont Report on the ethics of biomedical research in the US proposed ethical principles to guide research with human subjects including the fetus: respect for parsons, beneficence, and justice.

  1. Science Professionals Engaging Theologians in India: Towards a Dialogical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Vaiphei, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Societies across the world have profoundly ambivalent attitudes towards science; exaggerated expectations to vigorous anti-science attitude abound whereby Science is perceived as the sole panacea for every societal problem to meddling with nature and creating environmental havoc. The rapid advancement in Sciences from the nineteenth century onwards had created a hype that organised religion will be a relic of the past by 21st century, which also unfortunately created an image of Science being hostile to religions. But this is not conducive for scientific progress. For good or for ill, religious beliefs continue to exert great influence with 87% of the world population, according to one survey, identifying themselves to be `part of a religion'. The scientific community cannot afford to ignore if they want to make a difference with their science. While India is often considered to be the most religious country in the world the ambivalent attitude towards science is perhaps not too dissimilar from other societies. This paper highlights the findings from a workshop conducted in India, by practicing scientists, and the follow-up responses from Christian theologians to a proposed curriculum revision on Science, Technology and Religion course being taught in mainline Christian Theological Seminaries in India. Feedbacks collected from the clergy/theologians based on the discussions regarding a) the nature, b) potentials and c) limits of science and technology, and, d) historical survey of the interaction between Science and Christian faith will be presented. Responses of Christian theologians in India regarding the new challenges and opportunities being thrown by Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, Synthetic Biology and others will also be discussed. The paper concludes with the results of discussing four models of relating science and religion: conflict, independence, dialogue and integration discussed in the workshop to develop methods of meaningful engagements

  2. Anti-Muslim Sentiments and Violence: A Major Threat to Ethnic Reconciliation and Ethnic Harmony in Post-War Sri Lanka

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    Athambawa Sarjoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the military defeat of LTTE terrorism in May 2009, the relationship between ethnic and religious groups in Sri Lanka became seriously fragmented as a result of intensified anti-minority sentiments and violence. Consequently, the ethnic Muslims (Moors became the major target in this conflict. The major objective of this study is to critically evaluate the nature and the impact of the anti-Muslim sentiments expressed and violence committed by the extreme nationalist forces during the process of ethnic reconciliation in post-war Sri Lanka. The findings of the study reveal that, with the end of civil war, Muslims have become “another other” and also the target of ethno-religious hatred and violence from the vigilante right-wing ethno-nationalist forces that claim to be protecting the Sinhala-Buddhist nation, race, and culture in Sri Lanka. These acts are perpetrated as part of their tactics aimed to consolidate a strong Sinhala-Buddhist nation—and motivated by the state. Furthermore, the recourse deficit and lack of autonomy within the organizational hierarchy of the Buddhist clergy have motivated the nationalist monks to engage in politics and promote a radical anti-minority rhetoric. This study recommends institutional and procedural reforms to guide and monitor the activities of religious organizations, parties, and movements, together with the teaching of religious tolerance, as the preconditions for ethnic reconciliation and ethnic harmony in post-war Sri Lanka. This study has used only secondary data, which are analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner.

  3. Women's rights: eternal principles, changing forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-17

    A rising movement within Islam is to turn back to Islamic values and to inject them into everyday life. Another movement gaining popularity is a campaign to grant women improved status. The two movements argue about how to interpret the prerogatives and duties of women addressed in the Koran. The tension between the two movements often threatens social harmony. Muslim communities have different laws and regulations to protect females and to nurture their lives, but they often cause inequalities and become obsolete or impractical. For example, in Malaysia, Muslim women can be theologians and teachers, but not clergy. Many think that Islam prevents them from divorce and allows their husbands to abuse them. Perhaps all leading Islamic scholars should meet to discuss and then agree on Koranic interpretations that would regulate all aspects of social interaction. They must abhor any violation of basic rights, e.g., denying education to females. Any answers to gender inequalities within Islam must be based in Muslim realities. In Malaysia, Sisters of Islam, a Muslim professional group, want a comprehensive gender policy that considers contemporary realities and Muslim culture. They point out that past interpretations of laws may no longer be pertinent, especially since women did not work outside the home in the 7th century. A male Muslim made a commentary that Allah's message does not change over time, but its form may change according to the needs and exigencies of the time. Thus, Islamic leaders can invoke new decrees to conform to modern situations. Pakistanis have done so with usury laws to allow a modern banking system to operate properly. Muslim women are in the forefront of the debate and try to change the system from within while preserving harmony. Men must remember that everyone is equal before God.

  4. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Redes, Reforma y Revolución: Dos franciscanos rioplatenses sobreviviendo al siglo XIX (1800-1830

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    Troisi-Melean, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the first three decades of the 19th century in the Río de la Plata region through the lives of two important Franciscans. Using civil and ecclesiastical documents, sermons and newspapers we will try to identify in which ways, different events changed the lives of two members of the Catholic Church. Two life stories are the windows to analyze the effect of the Bourbon Reforms at a local level, the impact of the revolution inside and outside the convents, the ideological transformation of the Clergy and the different attitudes towards the ecclesiastical reforms of the 1820s.En este trabajo, de carácter exploratorio, he procurado realizar un recorrido histórico de las primeras tres décadas del siglo XIX en el Río de la Plata a través de la vida de dos importantes franciscanos. Usando archivos eclesiásticos y civiles, sermones y diarios, intento identificar de qué manera, diferentes acontecimientos de largo alcance trasformaron las vidas de dos hispanoamericanos. A partir de dos historias de vida pretendo brindar algunas sugerencias sobre el funcionamiento en el ámbito local de las políticas borbónicas, el impacto de la revolución dentro y fuera de los conventos, la transformación ideológica dentro de las Órdenes regulares y las intrincadas redes de relaciones sociales a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  6. Como en un espejo, la recepción europeade la Constitución de Cádiz

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    Miguel Herrero De Miñón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución de Cádiz de 1812 tuvo una amplia difusión en el Viejo Continente por la escasez de modelos constitucionales —Constitución americana 1787, francesa 1791 y británica— por el halo heroico de la resistencia antifrancesa y por su pseudohistoricismo — constitución histórica española—. Sin embargo, el balance político de su recepción presenta una oscura coloración pudiendo calificarse de fracaso, debido a la rígida separación de poderes que persiguió la capitidisminución del ejecutivo monárquico, el monocameralismo que desconocía el marcado carácter estamental de la sociedad española de la época en la que tres cuartas partes de la tierra estaban en manos del monarca, la nobleza y el clero, y el exacerbado centralismo con los funestos perjuicios que irrogó sobre la emancipación de la América española. The Constitution of Cadiz of 1812 had an ample diffusion in the Old Continent by the shortage of constitutional models —American Constitution 1787, French 1791 and British by the pull ahead heroic of the French resistance and by its pseudohistoricismo— Spanish historical constitution. Nevertheless, the political balance of its reception presents/displays a dark coloration being able to be described as failure, due to the rigid separation of powers that persecuted diminution of the executive authority of the monarch, the monocameralismo that did not know the noticeable estamental character of the Spanish society of the time in whom three fourth parts of the Earth were into the hands of the monarch, the nobility and the clergy, and the strong centralism with the unfortunate damages that it caused on the emancipation of Spanish America.

  7. Iranian adolescent girls' barriers in accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohammed; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In today's world, to pass through this period successfully it is necessary to have adequate information and knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. In Iran, it is crucial that special attention be paid to reproductive health services for adolescents, especially for girls. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults around the barriers to access of Iranian adolescent girls to SRH information and services. In this qualitative study, data were gathered through focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 247 adolescent girls and 71 key adults including mothers, teachers, health providers, governmental, nongovernmental and international managers of health programmes, health policymakers, sociologists and clergy in four Iranian cities. Data were coded and categorised using content analysis by MAXQDA10. The main barriers identified were classified in four categories: (1) social and cultural barriers such as taboos; (2) structural and administrative barriers such as inappropriate structure of the health system; (3) political barriers such as lack of an adopted strategy by the government and (4) non-use of religious potential. Adolescent SRH in Iran should be firmly established as a priority for government leaders and policymakers. They should try to provide those services that are consistent with the community's cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. As várias faces da Igreja Católica

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    Luiz Alberto Gómez de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O AUTOR faz um balanço da Igreja Católica nas últimas décadas, fazendo notar diversidades e tensões internas e assinalando sua presença ativa na vida pública brasileira. Examina os vários momentos da relação entre a Igreja e a política. Numa avaliação do momento atual afirma, no sentido contrário de algumas análises, a relevância, ainda hoje, das pastorais sociais e das CEBs. Chama a atenção para uma crise da Igreja no momento presente, em relação a alguns temas que ela mantêm congelados, sobre a mulher, a sexualidade ou o celibato obrigatório dos clérigos. E finaliza com a proposta, atualmente em pauta, de começar o processo de preparação de um futuro concílio.THE AUTHOR purviews the role of the Catholic Church over the last decades, bringing to light its diversities and internal tensions, and highlighting its active presence in Brazilian public life. He examines the various instances of the relationship between the church and politics. Assessing the present time, and going counter to certain analyses, he affirms that social pastoral initiatives and the Grassroots Ecclesiastical Communities are still relevant today. He calls our attention to the ongoing crisis of the Church regarding certain issues that remain "frozen": women, sexuality, and the compulsory celibacy of the clergy. And he ends with the proposal, currently being discussed, to begin preparations for a future council.

  9. Reflexiones sobre la controversia clericomasónica en la Restauración y Segunda República

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    José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.

  10. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.

  11. Spiritual Literature of the Peoples of the North Caucasus and the Culture of the East

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    Abdul-Kadyr Yu. Abdullatipov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article poses the problem of connection between the spiritual culture of the peoples of the North Caucasus and the culture of the East. The authors show the historical predetermination of this process, their aim is to solve the problem of forming the North Caucasian literary tradition as a whole, to characterize some of its aspects, in particular, such as the originality of distribution of the Arabic language, the development of Arabic-language literature, its role and character in the process of strengthening the Middle East Caucasian, North Caucasian contacts, North Caucasian literature in Arabic (mainly, Persian, Turkic languages, the formation and development of its genre forms. The authors note that the driving forces of the Arab-Muslim culture - the Arabic language and Islam - have penetrated into Dagestan and the North Caucasus along with the Arab campaigns. The Arabic language and Islam became an integral part of the culture of many Dagestani and North Caucasian peoples. Islam was one of the main, but not the only factor that determined the prospects for cultural interaction. The ethnic and linguistic diversity of Dagestan and the North Caucasus facilitated the wide dissemination of the Arabic language as a communication mean accessible to a large part of the population, in particular, to the clergy. The process of intraregional interaction of literatures is gaining momentum. Therefore, this influence has gradually created the local original literature in the Arabic language in Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, and in part of Kabarda and Circassia. The authors of this article trace the ideological and aesthetic originality of this regional national literature.

  12. To the Issue of the Influence of Islam in Chechen Uprising in 1825 year

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    Vladimir B. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors analyze the causes, course and results of the rebellion of the highland plains of Chechnya and Dagestan in 1825. The special attention is given to the Muslim religion, which acted as an ideological factor in the formation of military-political confrontation of mountain peoples of the Caucasus and the Russian Empire. Analyzing the role of the leaders of the movement, such as Bay-Bulat Taimiev, the authors come to the conclusion that at this stage of confrontation with Russia, the mountaineers were able to rally not only the strong hand of military leader, but also islam. The relatively recent adoption of islam Vainakh tapes, and therefore low religiosity has led to the fact that the Muslim clergy were in a subordinate position in relation to the military-political leadership. The authors also share the concept of «Jihad» and «Gazavat» and conclude that for the highlanders Chechnya this movement had the character for «Gazavat» or struggle under religious banners in defense of its own territory, while Jihad must be understood as a struggle for the spread of Islam. The important issue is the formation of the foundations of statehood of the Chechens in the military-political events, the organization of institutions of local administrative authorities. These measures have helped Bay-Bulat to consolidate disparate and often warring highland society a common goal, and islam helped to overcome the intergeneric and intertribal tensions and marked the beginning of the folding of the Chechen nation. All this the authors parse based on the extensive material, including unpublished archival sources.

  13. Church History and the Predicament of the Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the Early 1800s

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    Eugene I. Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author tries to reflect the emergence of the intellectual concept of “Church History” through a number of theoretical frameworks, setting this discursive turn on the map of the epoch using several narratives. The first is the problem of the cultural gap arising during the 18th century between the intellectual elites of the nobility and clergy. Second, we examine the bureaucratization of the empire leading both to the convergence of parallel “ecclesiastical” and “civil” administrative structures and to the emergence of the bureaucratic layer between episcopate and the monarch, who was considered as the formal “head” of the earthly ecclesiastical structure. Third, we consider the establishment of the administrative bonds between governmental authorities and individuals, which were understood as being in competition for the “pastoral” power of the church hierarchy. We next examine the change in the mode of knowledge distribution, which took place within the emergence of the “public sphere” in the early 19th-century Russian Empire. Finally, we look at the problem of the national identity emerging in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which was centered around the concept of the ethnic community and political body (and its history rather than on the community of believers actualized in the discourse of the epoch as the concept of Church (and its history. All those narratives on social change strive to explain the global change in Orthodox theology, which became centered on ecclesiology. This change might be effectively problematized as a transition between first and second “orders of theology” within the framework proposed by G. Kaufman. This method of explanation may be especially productive when it comes to drawing an analogy between Russian and Western theology in the modern period.

  14. Russian Imperial Principles and Technologies of the Management ofEthno-Confessional Diversity and of the Integration of Traditional Socio-Cultural Systems

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    Igor I. Verniaev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the new monograph by Boris Mironov, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity,” which is devoted to the social history of Russia in the imperial period. One of its main characteristics is its fundamental interdisciplinarity and the use of various research methods and strategies. Mironov synthesizes the approaches of social, economic, political and visual history, social anthropology, historical demography, sociology, political science and psychology. I.I. Verniaev, an ethnographer by profession, views this book through the eyes of an ethnographer and analyzes it from the perspective of social anthropology. In his opinion, Mironov succeeded in deeply analyzing the principles and technologies of management of ethnic and confessional diversity and the transformation of traditional socio-cultural institutions. The article discusses how Mironov identifies and analyzes such imperial principles and technologies of management of ethno-confessional diversity, modernization, and integration of socio-cultural systems as maintaining the status quo, the relative autonomy of ethnic groups in the early stages of incorporation of the national borderlands, ethnic and religious tolerance, the use of intermediate symbiotic (neo-traditional, in terms of ethnography institutions, confessionalization, the predominance of social rather than ethnic assimilation, legitimation and the ennoblement of national elites, their inclusion in the system of governance of the empire, the extension and adaptation of the estate system to include new groups of the population from the national borderlands, the confessionalization of religions, and the empowerment of the clergy through rights and responsibilities in the administrative system. These processes are interpreted in terms of models of traditional societies and cultures developed in modern ethnography, and the manner of their modernization and incorporation into modern society.

  15. „Small children are not able to ask that their essential needs be satisfied ...” – the role of Mariavite parochial communities in Łódź in helping children during the World War I [„Dziatwa mała nie jest w stanie prosić o zaspokojenie swych nieodzownych potrzeb”1 – rola łódzkich mariawickich wspólnot parafialnych w niesieniu pomocy dzieciom podczas I wojny światowej

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    Joanna SOSNOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its very beginning, the life of the Mariavite community focused around parishes and churches. It was the parishes that satisfied the religious needs of their members but also performed social functions related to education, culture, and welfare issues. Before, as well as during. World War I, the Mariavite Church was one of the largest religious communities in Łódź. Mariavite parishes in Łódź were established several years before World War I, in the period when Mariavite parishes, independent from the Roman Catholic Church, were organised. The first Mariavite church was built in December 1906, the next in September 1907, and the third and the last after a year, in September 1908. Apart from churches and chapels erected with exceptional speed, institutions for adult parish members and their children were also established, such as libraries, reading rooms, classrooms for girls and boys, schools, shelters, and flats for poor families. They were supposed to serve Mariavite Church members. Directly after the outbreak of the World War I, Łódź Mariavite clergy joined aid campaigns organized in parishes. Food was provided for adults and children on a larger scale; meals were prepared and served in Mariavite parochial kitchens. In that period, care and education institutions for children continued to perform their tasks; however, they intensified their activities aimed at providing meals, clothes, and shoes. The overriding task of Mariavite shelters included care, religious and moral education, and helping children of pre-school age (3–7. Aid was provided to children from poor families of factory workers and craftsmen.

  16. [Presidential address at the 20th Journees sur la Fertilite et l'Orthogenie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1993-01-01

    Recollections of the author's early experiences in French family planning and reflections on the ethical issues and legal status of new fertility technologies are the major topics of this address. The group that was to become le Mouvement francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF) was founded in 1956 by the author and others and opened its first family planning center in 1961, before contraception became legal. Despite opposition from physicians and Catholic clergy, the MFPF operated 100 centers serving over 100,000 clients by 1965. In 1969 the MFPF began a study of abortion. Despite legalization, the controversy concerning the legitimacy of abortion has not subsided. More recently, the practices of artificial insemination with donor sperm, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and other medically assisted fertility technologies have raised moral, ethical, and legal questions for all societies. The questions range from the legitimacy of gamete donation to the status of unused embryos. The dissociation of different stages of the reproductive process affects concepts of filiation, paternity and maternity. In the absence of appropriate legislation, it has been left largely to the courts to create a new body of law at this frontier. The review of legislation in France, elsewhere in Europe, and in the U.S. concerning contested filiation in cases of artificial insemination, the legitimacy of insemination of a woman after the death of her spouse, the preservation and donation of embryos, surrogate motherhood, the child's rights to information about his biological parents, and other questions indicate that no consensus has yet emerged concerning the admissibility and legitimacy of specific practices. It would be highly desirable for the European countries to adopt a common legislation in these areas.

  17. Forum-ing: Signature practice for public theological discourse

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    Edward P. Wimberly

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a unique model for public theological conversation and discourse, which was developed by the Concerned Black Clergy of Atlanta (CBC. It was a model developed in response to the problems of poverty, homelessness, and the ‘missing and murdered children’ victimised in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States of America in the early 1980s. It was originally organised to respond to the economic, financial, spiritual, emotional, employment, housing and resource needs of the underserved poor. This unique practice is called forum-ing. The forum meets every Monday morning, except when there is a national holiday. It has operated 30 consecutive years. The forum has a series of presentations, including the opening prayer, self-introductions of each person, a report of the executive director, special presentations from selected community groups, reports, and then questions and answers. The end result is that those attending engage in a process of discourse that enables them to internalise new ideas, approaches, and activities for addressing poverty and injustice in the community. Key to forum-ing for the 21st century is that it is a form of public practical theology rooted and grounded in non-violence growing out of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. The overall purpose of this article is to contribute to the effort of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria (South Africa to identify those variables that will assist religious leaders in South Africa to develop public conversational spaces to enhance democratic participation. This article presents one model from the African American community in Atlanta, Georgia. The hope is to lift up key variables that might assist in the practical and pastoral theological conversation taking place in South Africa at present.

  18. Despre clopotele şi clopotarii din Ţara Moldovei (până la 1859 / About bells and bellmakers in Moldavia (before 1859

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    Elena Chiaburu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bells used in Christian churches are documentary sources due to the inscriptions, decorations and coats of arms available on them. Depending on the language in which the inscriptions were made, old bells had different names. The bells used to be donated to the churches by private persons, by the right of the founder, or by communities; the oldest bells of the medieval Moldavian state date back to the reign of Stephen the Great. The alloy used for bell casting contained copper, brass and a minor amount of silver or other elements. Bellfounders were itinerant, traveling from church to church to cast bells, the furnaces were built on sites, and the casting of large bells was carried out only during the warmer months. The most lasting operation was building the furnace and constructing the mold, and the most dangerous process was pouring the melt metal in a mold. This was followed by controlled cooling the bell, removing the mold material after the metal has solidifi ed, and finishing the bell. Casting bells was always associated with a number of beliefs and practices meant to contribute to the success of the operation and the obtaining of a beautiful sound of the bell. Data about the practitioners of this craft are rather scanty; their few names can be found in archival documents and inscriptions on the bells only to the middle of the 18th century. Some bells were cast in Transylvania, in Sighişoara and Braşov. Whether members of the clergy or the laity, the bellfounders had great technical knowledge and skills handed down from father to son. Unfortunately, only a few churches and monasteries preserved the original bells; many were lost in course of time, sometimes in fires, and in most cases because of requisitions for military needs, when they were melted down to make cannons.

  19. Continuing education is the key in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the Jamaican Women's Center Programme by the Population Council of New York found that 55% of teenage mothers in Jamaica returned to school in Kingston and 73% in the Mandeville branch following their pregnancies and exposure to the program. Only 15% who were not exposed to the program returned to school. The Sister School Workshop Program on Teenage Pregnancy provides knowledge instead of the myth and fantasy given by parents and clergy. Continuing education is particularly important for those with low self-esteem. The Center also provided knowledge about contraception. The findings were that contraceptive use was 89% among program graduates and 81% among nonprogram persons. In addition to the higher % of usage, there were differences in methods used. Center users preferred the IUD and pills, while nonprogram persons favored pills and injections. Subsequent pregnancies were much higher among nonprogram persons at 39%, while for program participants 15% at Kingston and 8% from the Mandeville Center had subsequent pregnancies within 3 years. The creation of the Jamaican Women's Center in 1978 has also promoted continuing education during pregnancy. Assistance is also provided to those reentering the school system after giving birth. The financial cost has been reasonable at J$3500 program year/woman and nursery facility costs at J$664/child/year. Other services to former students include counseling and school visits and occasionally financial aid amounts J$176/woman/year. Rural outreach averages J$336/woman/year. The identifiable weakness was in preparation of these girls for employment. It is suggested that additional efforts be made to provide wider and more marketable skills to meet local needs. There is also a need to provide linkage with other skills training programs and small business groups in order to expand labor force opportunities for these women.

  20. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

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    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  1. Conversos i jueus: cohesió i solidaritat. Necessitat d’una recerca

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    Hernando, Josep

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion.



    El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.

  2. The origins of the plebs Sanctae Agathae. Inscriptions lost and rediscovered on the history of Santhià in the Early Middle Ages

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    Marco Aimone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two fragments of white marble are embedded in the apsis’ wall outside the parish church of St. Agatha in Santhià (near Vercelli, in Piedmont: the first one is engraved with the final part of a dedicatory inscription to a martyr by a clergyman named Vvalpertus (or Alpertus; the second one is a part of a small pillar or a lintel coming from a presbytery enclosure, and is decorated with a motif of intertwined gallons. The inscription stayed in the middle of a pluteus bordered by a carved frame, of which only a part of the lower band survives: the letters and the style of the decorations allow a chronology within the 8th century, while the fragment of pillar is to be traced back to a period between the 8th and the first half of the 9th. Of special interest are the Lombard onomastic of the dedicator and, in the final surviving text, the “signature” of a sculptor, which is present in a second inscription of Lombard age found in Piedmont, adorned with carved decorations as well. The analysis of these artefacts - hitherto unpublished - offered the opportunity to restudy two other inscriptions once existing in the church of St. Agatha, long lost and of uncertain authenticity: all these data allow various deductions about the history of Santhià over the centuries of the early Middle ages, the presence of a clergy in the countryside of the diocese of Vercelli, and the work of sculptors and engravers active between the 8th and 9th century in an area between Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Provence, labelled in the past under the unifying name of “bottega delle Alpi Marittime”.

  3. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

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    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  4. Romanian-Bulgarian Religious Relations during the First World War

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    Claudiu Cotan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of the priests who had left their parishes. The issue of the priests fled from Dobrudgea was discussed within a Council met in Iasi in the summer of 1918, when the participants tried to find solutions for their return to their parishes. I personally examined the documents of this council found today in the Archives of the Metropolitanate of Moldova and Bucovina, because they reveal the deficiencies of the Romanian Orthodox Church in regard to the administrative organisation both in Dobrudgea and in the Quadrilateral. Our study approaches two major events occurred in the Bucharest occupied by the German-Bulgarian troops: the Te-Deum service celebrated in the honour of the royal family of Bulgaria in the Metropolitan Cathedral and the attempt to steal the Holy Relics of Pious Dimitrios Basarabov. The German administration has also been involved in the two events, because the Primate metropolitan Conon asked them to resolve these religious Romanian- Bulgarian conflicts. The documents which mention the two events can be found in the Archives of the Holy Synod of Bucharest and have a special significance because they represent an aspect less examined of the First World War and of the Romanian-Bulgarian relations. The theme of this study has never been approached so far by the Romanian theologians and historians, the research covering a gap in the study of the history of the First World War and of the Romanian- Bulgarian relations.

  5. The Orthodox parish in the Russian Empire as an object of fi scal policy of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities in the late XIX — early XX centuries

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    А. BEGLOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the system of taxation of Orthodox parishes of the Russian Empire in the late XIX — early XX centuries is reconstructed on the new archival materials and the numerous contributions that the parishes carried out from its own funds in favor of the diocesan institutions and charitable organizations are described. Attempt are made to estimate the number of different charges, which existed in this period (the author now includes over 80 items and their size and severity for the parish budget. In this regard, it is concluded that such deductions in some cases accounted for more than half of the income of the parish churches. The author describes the reasons for turning the formally voluntary fees in favor of charitable institutions in virtually compulsory. It investigates the failed attempts of the Supreme Church leadership to reform the system of parish charges in the early XXth century, in particular, the work of the two synodal committees (active in 1905 under the chairmanship of Archbishop Nikon (Sofi yskiy and in 1909, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky. The author comes to the conclusion that these charges were not the only cause of poverty of many parishes (especially rural parishes in Central Russia, but they weakened the parish as a religious community, for the charges were a pretext for permanent discontent among the parishioners about the parish clergy and diocesan authorities. Not the last role here was played by the fact that the diocesan institutions, which were funded by the parish funds were of an estate character.

  6. The Influence of State-Confessional Policy on the Situation of MuslimOrganizations in Western Siberia in 1905 – the beginning of 1917 years

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    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the situation of Muslim communities in Western Siberia in the period between the two Russian revolutions (1905 – the beginning of 1917 years in the framework of the government's state-confessional policy. Based on the analysis of archival documents and legal acts the authors conclude that the attitude of the state towards muslims in the Russian empire, despite all political changes, was based on the attempts to consolidate the indigenous component with the Russian ethnos. The events of 1905 year engendered from the muslim population of the country hope to change their situation, and strengthened the desire to religious autonomy. However, the government continues to build its policy so that controlled virtually all spheres of life of the Muslim community. The events of the First Russian revolution contributed to the birth of activity in the muslim world in defending their rights, which led to the manifestation of some exemptions from the state in relation to the Ummah. It was during this period muslims see an opportunity to assert their rights at the legislative level, form their own political movements and are part of the State Duma. Quite noticeable was the participation of Muslims in the Russian army during the First world war. In this regard not by chance that the muslims received the right to perform prayers and approval of the clergy of the muslim faith to the troops. In this case they were equalized in rights with the regimental priests. At the same time, despite the active position of the muslim community, however, by the beginning of 1917 still have quite a lot of unresolved issues and problems related to the device life of the muslim community. One of the most difficult and unsolved problems remained a problem of national education for the aboriginal population professing islam.

  7. Service failures and challenges in responding to people bereaved through drugs and alcohol: An interprofessional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Christine; McKell, Jennifer; Ford, Allison

    2018-05-01

    This article reports findings from the first two stages of a three-stage qualitative study which considered the role of services, including public, private and charitable organisations, in responding to the needs of adults bereaved following the drug and/or alcohol-related death of someone close. The study, the first of its kind to explore the landscape and role of services in substance use deaths, was conducted over two sites: south west England and Scotland. In stage 1 of the research, adopting both convenience and purposive sampling, data were collected via semi-structured interviews on experiences and support needs of bereaved individuals (n = 106). In stage 2, six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of practitioners (n = 40), including those working for the police, coroner's service, procurator fiscal depute (Scotland), health service, funeral service, press, clergy, Public Health England, Drugs Policy Unit, bereavement counselling/support and alcohol and drug treatment services, to investigate how services may better respond to this bereavement. Thematic analysis from both data-sets identified two overarching themes. The first, focusing on practitioner responses, captures how these bereaved people may meet with inadequate, unkind, and discriminatory responses from services. Having to navigate unfamiliar, fragmented, and time-consuming procedures compounds the bereaved's distress at an already difficult time, illustrated by a 'mapping' of relevant services. The second relates to challenges and opportunities for those responding. Service failures reflect practitioners' poor understanding of both substance use bereavement and the range of other practitioners and services involved. Those bereaved are a poorly understood, neglected and stigmatised group of service users. There is a need for services to respond without judgement or insensitive language, and provide information about, communicate and work closely with, other services despite

  8. De curas, frailes y monjas: disciplina y regulación del comportamiento del clero en el obispado de Calahorra, 1500-1700

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    Catalán Martínez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changing patterns of behavior of the clergy and the homogenization of models of holiness, in the process of transformation of the medieval church in a modern church. The Council of Trent tried to build a new identity for the priests, organized, neat and efficient at the service of the faith that would keep it away from private interests and attitudes, typical of a feudal church. It was necessary to clearly separate the profane and sacred spaces to ensure that the interactions between the two universes were dominated by the verticality. The post-Tridentine church opted for a model of holiness based on the compliance with the standard. The convents became real saints factories advertised through their stories, reinforcing the formation of a spirit identification, in which the church guided the recognition codes and its public excitement.Este trabajo analiza el cambio en las pautas de comportamiento del clero en el proceso de transformación de la iglesia medieval en una iglesia moderna. El concilio de Trento intentó construir una nueva identidad para los sacerdotes, organizada, pulcra y eficiente al servicio de la fe que la alejara de los intereses y actitudes privados, propios de una iglesia feudal. Era necesario separar con claridad los espacios profanos y sagrados hasta lograr que las relaciones entre ambos universos estuviesen dominadas por la verticalidad. La iglesia post-tridentina apostó por un modelo de santidad basado en el acatamiento de la norma. Los conventos se convirtieron en auténticas fábricas de santos que publicitaron a través de sus crónicas, reforzando la formación de un espíritu identificativo, en el que la iglesia marcaba los códigos de reconocimiento y su exaltación pública.

  9. Una fuente para el estudio de la geografía eclesiástica de Galicia en la Baja Edad Media: las tasaciones del subsidio y la décima

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    Vázquez Bertomeu, Mercedes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important tax that Galician clergy must confront in late Middle Ages is the decimal, delivered initially to the Pontificate and afterwards to the royal chambre, which became the revenue called in the century XV «decima y subsidio del clero». The payment that the diocesan representative does to the papal or royal collector is the final point of a process whose details are described here for the case of the Galician churches. This charge, which envolves all the diocesan benefices, caused a specific documentary type known as taxation in which is established a roll of contributors and a valuation of beneficies - a very useful source to know late medieval dioceses.

    La tasa más importante que pesa sobre el clero gallego es la décima, entregada inicialmente en beneficio del pontificado y más tarde al tesoro real, dando lugar al canon que en el siglo XV se conoce como «décima y subsidio del clero». El pago que el representante diocesano hace al recaudador pontificio o real es el punto final de un proceso cuyos pormenores son aquí descritos para el caso de las diócesis gallegas. Este gravamen, que afecta a todo los beneficios diocesanos, dio lugar al nacimiento de un tipo documental específico conocido como tasación en el que se establece la cantidad que cada contribuyente debe aportar y que es de gran interés para el acercamiento a la geografía diocesana bajomedieval.

  10. Gauvain e il corpo smembrato: allegorie nell'«Atre périlleux»

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    Maurizio Virdis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’Atre Périlleux è un romanzo anonimo francese del XIII secolo e fa parte della corrente letteraria che rimettere in questione il romanzo cortese di tradizione chrestieniana. Piú che all’ideologia o alle istanze della classe cavalleresca e della nobiltà minore, il nostro romanzo risponde alle prospettive e alle necessità intellettuali della clergie, che si fa gioco dei valori cavallereschi tradizionali. L’Atre Périlleux è condotto, con toni di humour e una trama complessa, su binari metaletterari e allegorici (di cui il corpo smembrato di Gauvain è il simbolo piú eminente, e si pone come critica della decadenza della società cortese, animato però dal proposito del rinnovamento morale di essa.L’Atre Périlleux is an anonymous French romance of the thirteenth century and it is part of the literary movement that calls into question the tradition of courtly romance dating back to Chrétien de Troyes. More than to the ideology and instances of the class of minor nobility and chivalry, our romance responds to the clergie’s needs and intellectual perspectives, and it mocks the traditional values of chivalry. L’Atre Périlleux is conducted, with a hint of humour and a complicated plot, on metaliterary and allegorical tracks (and Gauvain’s dismembered body is the most prominent symbol of this allegorical tone, so that our romance stands as a critique of courtly society decadence, nevertheless animated by the purpose of its moral renewal.

  11. Topical issues of labor at the concession enterprises in the USSR

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    Bulatov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1920s in the USSR the total number of workers and employees at the concession enterprises did not exceed 0,7 % from the total number of ones in the country. Sometimes requirements about distribution of the Soviet labor law on all employees of the concession enterprise, irrespective of their nationality or citizenship, caused protests from foreign concessionaires. Economic interests often were behind those protests. Sometimes the Soviet partners made a compromise. The problem of a percentage ratio of the Soviet and foreign workers on concessions was an important one. In contracts, the number of foreigners usually was defined as 1020 percentage (often 15 % from each category of skilled workers. In the Far East of the USSR, the percent of attracted foreign labor was higher (4550 percentage of foreign workers and above. Specific weight of foreign employees at the concession enterprises officially could reach 50 %. There were many so-called «the former people» at the concession enterprises (representatives of the former bourgeoisie, the nobility, clergy, merchants and officers. Because of their origin, they could not get lob at the state enterprises. That is why in the 1920s at some concession enterprises of the USSR there were 30–35 % of workers with the higher education and 50–60 % with a secondary one. However, such high educational level of workers could take place only at the concession enterprises that were settling down in Moscow, Leningrad or in especially large industrial and cultural centers of the European part of the USSR. As a rule, almost at all concessions the average monthly salaries were higher, than at the one-branch state enterprises. For example, at peak of the Soviet concession practice (in 1928, the difference in salaries fluctuated from one to 60 % and tended to increase.

  12. “Vizcaínos en un berenjenal”

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    Luis Arturo Hernández Pérez de Landazábal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to explain the coincidence that the Moor Cide Hamete Benengeli should take over as Don Quixote’s “witness-chronicler” precisely during the fight between the latter and the Biscayan Sancho de Azpeitia. This coincidence is explained by virtue of a Basque-Iberist theory accepted at that time, that related the Basques to Moors “a las tácitas” (tacitly. The hypothesis strengthens the structural unity of chapters 8 and 9 of Part I of Don Quixote, since, in both chapters, Cervantes would be presenting a challenge –let us say even an defiance– to the 17th century Basque “estamental society” –from the common people or the incipient bureaucratic bourgeoisie to the clergy and the high nobility–, exposing the imposture common to their status as privileged subjects of the Empire. In addition to satirizing the supposed nobility of the diabolical –thanks to his fiendish expression– Biscayan, the author would have derided the false brief chronicles –the structural technique revealed in this adventure–, by hiding –as we venture to say– the identity of the “Benitos” –Frs. Haedo, Biscayan Benedictine, the supposed author and editor respectively of the story of the captivity in Algiers–, as well as the identity of one of the “historians of La Mancha” –Garibay, the Guipuzcoan chronicler based in Toledo–, not to mention the resentment against the high nobility who had the privilege of the “pase a Indias” (pass to the Indies. And all this, in an episode of conflicts between three languages and cultures whose complementary nature and perspectivism are a cover up for the impossible truth of the modern Man of the author’s time.

  13. The Piety of a noble woman in the light of Polish printed 17th century funeral speeches

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    Urszula Kicińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 17th century funeral orations, as sources of didactic character, include numerous threads referring to the piety of baroque damsels. They are full of examples describing religiousness of women of virtually all ages and marital statuses (married, single and widowed. According to the model propagated by the clergy, a zealous catholic woman was supposed to be devoted to God and persistent in her belief. She should also worship Mary the Mother of God, Jesus and saint patrons, which was reflected in her participation in religious confraternities. It was also important that she attended religious services and pilgrimages as well as respected fasting periods and received holy sacraments. On every day basis, it was suggested that a God fearing Christian should live by the rules of the Decalogue, read religious books and contemplate the moment of death and prepare to it by reading ars bene moriendi guides. Charity work and generous donations to churches, monasteries, schools and homeless shelters were also important. Preachers also emphasised the personality features of a model catholic woman. Hence it was suggested that she should be hard working, reasonable, quiet and modest. Although clergymen emphasised deep and fervent religiousness of women whom they were describing in their sermons, we are actually unable to fully confirm the accuracy of their words. Therefore, it must be assumed that, on the one hand, this religiousness and piety was supposed to constitute an ideal role model, on the other hand, however, it resulted from the fear which accompanied people almost everywhere in turbulent times of the 17th century.

  14. Collaborating across the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Defense to integrate mental health and chaplaincy services.

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    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Jackson, George L; DeKraai, Mark B; Bulling, Denise J; Cantrell, William C; Rhodes, Jeffrey E; Bates, Mark J; Ethridge, Keith; Lane, Marian E; Tenhula, Wendy N; Batten, Sonja V; Meador, Keith G

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing that clergy and spiritual care providers are a key part of mental health care systems, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) jointly examined chaplains' current and potential roles in caring for veterans and service members with mental health needs. Our aim was to evaluate the intersection of chaplain and mental health care practices in VA and DoD in order to determine if improvement is needed, and if so, to develop actionable recommendations as indicated by evaluation findings. A 38-member multidisciplinary task group partnered with researchers in designing, implementing, and interpreting a mixed methods study that included: 1) a quantitative survey of VA and DoD chaplains; and 2) qualitative interviews with mental health providers and chaplains. Quantitative: the survey included all full-time VA chaplains and all active duty military chaplains (n = 2,163 completed of 3,464 invited; 62 % response rate). Qualitative: a total of 291 interviews were conducted with mental health providers and chaplains during site visits to 33 VA and DoD facilities. Quantitative: the online survey assessed intersections between chaplaincy and mental health care and took an average of 37 min to complete. Qualitative: the interviews assessed current integration of mental health and chaplain services and took an average of 1 h to complete. When included on interdisciplinary mental health care teams, chaplains feel understood and valued (82.8-100 % of chaplains indicated this, depending on the team). However, findings from the survey and site visits suggest that integration of services is often lacking and can be improved. Closely coordinating with a multidisciplinary task group in conducting a mixed method evaluation of chaplain-mental health integration in VA and DoD helped to ensure that researchers assessed relevant domains and that findings could be rapidly translated into actionable recommendations.

  15. The Three Estates Model: Represented and Satirised in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales

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    Sadenur Doğan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the ‘Three Estates Model’ of the English medieval society in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Based upon the descriptions and illustrations of the characters, it aims to explore the hierarchal structure of the medieval society which is divided into three main groups or ‘estates’: the ones who pray, the ones who rule and govern, and the ones who work. In the General Prologue, Chaucer gives a series of sketches of the characters that are the representatives of the three estates, and through these depictions he investigates the social characteristics and roles of the medieval people who are expected to speak and behave in accordance with what their social group requires. While presenting Three Estates Model, he employs the tradition of ‘estates satire’ by criticising the social vices resulting from the corruption in this model. Through the characteristics and virtues of the ‘Knight’, the ‘Parson’, and the ‘Plowman’, he demonstrates the perfect integration of the people who belong to chivalry, clergy and the commoners in the medieval English society. Also, by offering contrasting views to these positive traits in the portrayal of almost all of the other characters, as illustrated in the portrayal of the ‘Monk’, the ‘Reeve’, and the ‘Wife of Bathe’ in this paper, he criticises the vices and sins (that are mainly resulted from the religious, financial and moral corruption of the people belonging to the social classes of the Middle Ages.

  16. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

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    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  17. National Study of Excellence and Innovation in Physical Therapist Education: Part 1-Design, Method, and Results.

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    Jensen, Gail M; Nordstrom, Terrence; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Hack, Laurita M; Gwyer, Janet

    2017-09-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching commissioned the Preparation for the Professions Program, a qualitative study of professional education in 5 professions: medicine, nursing, law, engineering, and clergy. These studies identified curricular structures, instructional practices, assessment approaches, and environmental characteristics that support the preparation of professionals and led to educational reforms. The physical therapy profession has not had any in-depth, national investigation of physical therapist education since the Catherine Worthingham studies conducted more than 50 years ago. This research was a Carnegie-type study, investigating elements of excellence and innovation in academic and clinical physical therapist education in the United States. Five physical therapist education researchers from across the United States used a qualitative multiple-case study design. Six academic and 5 clinical programs were selected for the study. The academic institutions and clinical agencies studied were diverse in size, institutional setting, geography, and role in residency education. Qualitative case studies were generated from review of artifacts, field observations, and interviews (individual and focus group), and they provided the data for the study. A conceptual framework grounded in 3 major dimensions was generated, with 8 supporting elements: (1) culture of excellence (shared beliefs and values, leadership and vision, drive for excellence, and partnerships), (2) praxis of learning (signature pedagogy, practice-based learning, creating adaptive learners, and professional formation), and (3) organizational structures and resources. Building on the work of the Carnegie Foundation's Preparation for the Professions Program, a conceptual model was developed, representing the dimensions and elements of excellence in physical therapist education that is centered on the foundational importance of a nexus of linked and highly valued aims of

  18. Perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health among a group of adult women in urban Ghana: a pilot study.

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    Tuakli-Wosornu, Y A; Rowan, M; Gittelsohn, J

    2014-03-01

    Obesity and other lifestyle-related chronic diseases impact urban West African women at high rates. Physical activity (PA) can improve these health outcomes but there is little published data on the associated psychosocial predictors in this population. We aimed to explore preliminary associations between perceptions of PA, PA behaviours, and health in a group of Ghanaian women. Non-experimental, cross-sectional case study using a mixed-methods approach. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of Ghanaian women, fitness trainers and clergy comprised the qualitative phase. A self-administered survey (n=218) comprised the quantitative phase. Constant comparative method, logistic regression, component and factor analyses were used for analysis. Women viewed activities of daily living like housework as PA; rarely utilized organized fitness facilities; understood "rigorous" PA as professional male athleticism; and took interest in socialized PA. Mean age was 49.4 years. Mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. The majority (75.9 %) reported exercising sometimes or often. Half (48.4%) reported a lifestyle-related chronic disease. "Weight loss," "health concerns" and "increased energy," were top motivators for PA. "Can't find the time," "work/family obligations," and "don't have a facility" were top barriers. Presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and prior weight loss correlated with the slimming motivator (adjusted odds ratio 2.59, p=0.008; AOR 3.56, p=0.012; AOR 3.36, p=surveyed, PA motivators and barriers were associated with demographics, PA exposure, and health status. Further research on unique PA perceptions, behaviours and health could catalyze health promotion through culturally relevant fitness programming.

  19. Eta y «la resistencia vasca» durante los últimos años del franquismo en la prensa clandestina del nacionalismo vasco moderado = Eta and the ‘Basque Resistence’ In The Last Years Of Franco’s Regime As Seen Through The Moderate Basque Nationalist Clandestin

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    Macario Hernández Nieto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de Alderdi, OPE y Euzko Deya, periódicos editados durante el Franquismo en Francia por el PNV y el Gobierno Vasco en el exilio, pone de manifiesto que ETA gozaba de alguna consideración en el nacionalismo vasco moderado aunque oficialmente no se respaldara su actividad violenta. ETA era considerada un elemento importante en la lucha que la “resistencia vasca” libraba contra el régimen de Franco. Estos periódicos incluían también dentro de la “resistencia vasca” fuerzas políticas, sindicales, sociales etc., como el clero vasco, en parte afecto al nacionalismo, o partidos y sindicatos antifranquistas, no nacionalistas como el PCE o CC.OO. que promovían la contestación de los trabajadores vascos.The analysis of Alderdi and OPE-Eusko-Deya newspapers published during Franco’s time in France by the PNV and the Basque Government in the exile, reveals that ETA had high esteem among the moderate Basque nationalism although officially its violent activity was not backed. ETA was considered an important element in the struggle that the ‘Basque resistance’ fought against Franco’s Regime. These newspapers also included in the ‘Basque resistance’ political, union, social and cultural forces as the Basque clergy, nationalist, or political parties and unions against Francoism and no nationalistic as PCE or CC.OO. which lead the Basque worker protest.

  20. El Socialista versus El debate (Enero-Septiembre 1933

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    Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.

  1. Escándalos, ruydos, injurias e cochilladas: prácticas de violencia en el clero catedralicio burgalés durante el siglo XV

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    Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work, based mainly on manuscripts and unpublished documents from Burgos Cathedral Archive, is the study and analysis of violence, physical and verbal, among the cathedral clergy of Burgos, emphasizing the individual and collective scale of the conflicts and the variety of their causes. The cathedral chapter of Burgos exercised its jurisdiction by punishing the culprits, favouring reconciliation processes and trying to stop, often unsuccessfully, the conflicts between clergymen that increased during the last decades of the fifteenth century, and that have a close connection with the conflicts which took place between different families and lineages of the urban oligarchy of Burgos during the same period.El objetivo de este trabajo, basado fundamentalmente en fuentes manuscritas e inéditas procedentes del Archivo Catedralicio de Burgos, es el estudio y análisis de la violencia, tanto física como verbal, en el seno del clero catedralicio burgalés, poniendo de relieve la dimensión tanto individual como colectiva de los enfrentamientos y su variada casuística. El cabildo catedralicio burgalés ejerció su jurisdicción imponiendo castigos a los culpables, fomentando fórmulas de reconciliación y tratando de frenar, a menudo sin éxito, unos enfrentamientos entre clérigos que aumentaron durante las últimas décadas del siglo XV, y que guardan un estrecho paralelismo y relación con los conflictos que en la misma época se produjeron entre diferentes familias y linajes de la oligarquía urbana burgalesa.

  2. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

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    S. Awoniyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  3. Expectations and reality: perceptions of support among African American breast cancer survivors.

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    Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Quinn, Jada C; Phelps, Kenneth W; Parker, Pearman D; Heiney, Sue P

    2017-09-04

    The experience of an illness such as breast cancer is not a static event. Just as physiological needs change as a patient transitions through diagnosis, treatment, to long-term survivorship, so too will their needs for social support. We applied a transitions theory framework to explore how African American women with breast cancer conceptualized and experienced support along their breast cancer journey. We recruited 16 African American women with breast cancer from a regional cancer center in South Carolina to complete qualitative, semi-structured interviews. We iteratively examined verbatim transcripts using thematic analysis. Three core themes emerged: 'I guess she was supposed to': When support meets patient expectations; 'I wasn't expecting that and that just made me feel so good': When reality exceeds expectations; and 'Don't try to make an invalid out of me': When support given wasn't what was desired. Survivors shared how their family, friends and clergy met their needs for emotional (e.g. prayer, sharing affirmations about God) and instrumental support (e.g. cooking meals, house cleaning). They emphasized how receiving emotional support from their healthcare providers was a pleasant surprise. However, survivors also described unexpected disappointments when family members offered support that was un-needed or un-desired. Applying transitions theory, we found that social support is a process of bidirectional negotiation where African American women with breast cancer perceive support as helpful and acceptable depending on who offers support, what type of support is offered, and when it is offered. Members of their social support network (e.g. family, friends, providers) should periodically assess the survivor's evolving needs to ensure the social support harmonizes with the needs and expectations of the survivor.

  4. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

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    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  5. «Un capellán que sirve la mesa» y otros menesteres. Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII

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    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la ciudad de Burgos, a mediados del siglo XVIII, nueve hogares disponían, entre sus componentes, de un capellán privativo, contratado por el pater-familias a título de «doméstico». Sus quehaceres eran múltiples: dirigir la celebración de actos religiosos, servir la mesa, educar a la progenie, llevar los asuntos de su patrón, etcétera. Muchos de esos hogares tenían, en sus grandes mansiones, oratorio y cochera, donde se guardaban celosamente los menajes sacros y los carruajes. Las razones para contratar capellanes ah hoc son varias, pero una destaca entre las demás. En un siglo caracterizado por la transición desde una religiosidad colectiva, teatralizada, de templo y estridencias en las calles hasta una religiosidad más intimista, doctrinal, hogareña, personal e individualista, se mantenía, alimentaba y/o asalariaba a un clero flotante que servía en exclusiva a los miembros de algunos hogares aristocráticos. Estos hogares disfrutaban, en general, de unos niveles de renta y de fortuna elevados, muy por encima de la inmensa mayoría de los habitantes de la ciudad.ABSTRACT: In the city of Burgos, in the middle of the 18th century, nine homes had, as their members, a private chaplain, contracted by the pater-familias, as household servant. These jobs were of a great variety: to lead the celebration of religious events, to serve meals, to educate offspring, to be in charge of his landlord's bussiness, etcétera. Many of those homes had, in their great mansions, an oratory and a garage, where the sacred items and the carriages were well kept. The reasons to contract chaplains ad hoc are different, but one is the most important. In a century characterized for the changings from a collective religiousness, exaggerated, in churchs and stridency in the streets to a religiousness more intimate, doctrinal, familiar, personal and individualistic, maintained, fed and/or paid a floating clergy who served the members of some

  6. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

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    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  7. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

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    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  8. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  9. Sotanas, Escaños y sufragios. Práctica política y soportes sociales del neo-catolicismo en las provincias castellano-manchegas (1854-1868

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    Inarejos Muñoz, Juan Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Spanish Constituent assembly of 1854 some previously unknown issues were raised about Church-State relations, including tolerance of worshipping and religious freedom. The clergy, whose interference in political confrontations was nothing new, placed themselves as a majority alongside one of the factions of the Moderate party, which, in a contradictory way, used the new mechanisms of political representation arisen with the representative State of the citizen (The press and Parliamentary representation to fight against liberalism. A defense of Church rights directed towards the sacralization of society was undertaken by the pulpit, the press, the parliamentary tribune and the Printing press. These represented the main lines of an analysis which wakes reference to the provinces that nowadays make up Castilla-La Mancha, where the neocatholic brend had a reasonable electoral support and relied on the ideological, numerical and organizational support provided by the Archbishopric of Toledo and the diocese of Cuenca.En las Cortes Constituyentes de 1854 se plantearon cuestiones hasta entonces inéditas en las relaciones Iglesia-Estado: tolerancia de cultos, libertad religiosa o confesionalidad del Estado. El clero, cuya injerencia en las confrontaciones políticas no era en absoluto novedosa, se posicionó de forma mayoritaria al lado de una de las fracciones del partido moderado que, contradictoriamente, utilizó los nuevos mecanismos de representación política surgidos con el Estado representativo de la ciudadanía (prensa y representación parlamentaria, para combatir el liberalismo. Desde el púlpito, la prensa, la tribuna parlamentaria y la imprenta se emprendió una defensa de los derechos de la Iglesia orientada a la sacralización de la sociedad. Constituyen los principales trazos de un análisis que toma como referente las provincias que en la actualidad constituyen Castilla-La Mancha, donde la corriente neo-católica gozó de un

  10. Sur les Lettres diverses d’Henry Le Bret, éditeur de Cyrano et prévôt de l’église de Montauban

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    Madeleine Alcover

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lettres diverses attributed to Henry Le Bret were published anonymously, without any date nor place of publication. This article deals with three problems : authorship, datation and Le Bret’s direct involvement in its publication.Le Bret’s paternity of Lettres diverses, included the only letter addressed to himself, is proven mainly by his signature found in many of them and by his attested private relationships with the majority of addressees. The publication date is resolved after a meticulous comparison of Lettres diverses and Recueil de quelques discours et lettres écrites à des personnes studieuses sur differentes matieres (1692, in which 15 letters (out of the 64 of Lettres diverses are present with some variations. From an omission in the Recueil I theorized that a great number of pages from a published copy of Lettres diverses were detached/untied and reused as a material hypotext for the Recueil ; this theory is substantiated and confirmed by a lot of informations related to events, books, and people, especially to Bossuet, Queen Marie-Thérèse and the Clergy Assembly of 1665. All these data lead to the conclusion that Lettres diverses were published between 1678 and May 1681, which invalidates all previous datations proposed by Lacroix, Forestié, Cioranescu, and myself in 2004.And finally there is no historical evidence nor objective argument for believing that Le Bret did not want his readers to know that he was responsible for the publication of these letters : the book was obviously destined to a private and chosen group of friends, which was not uncommon in xviith century. In 1692, given his geographic and not so private new public, Le Bret withdrew from Lettres diverses all the ones addressed to his Parisian friends as well as some destined to Toulousan ladies in which good taste was questionable (like his Eloge de la petite vérole, i. e. small-pox.We can now reformulate the bibliographical description of

  11. Coro de cisnes, cantos de sirenas: una aproximación a la música en los monasterios del Chile colonial Swan Choirs, Siren Songs: An Approach to the Music in the Monasteries of Colonial Chile

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    Alejandro Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora por vez primera la práctica musical en los monasterios de monjas del Chile colonial. Partiendo de la información inédita recopilada en el archivo del Monasterio de La Victoria de Santiago, se analizan aspectos históricos y musicales tales como la imagen de la monja música en la historiografía tradicional y postmoderna; su estatus social en el período colonial; la evolución de las plantillas musicales (instrumentistas y cantoras, con sus correspondientes cambios estilísticos y la injerencia que tenían los músicos ajenos al monasterio. Por último, se cuestiona la supuesta independencia de género de las monjas y se plantea la hipótesis de que las repetidas censuras a sus prácticas artístico-musicales estuvieron motivadas no sólo por propósitos moralizantes, sino también por la necesidad del clero secular y la autoridad civil de limitar el crecimiento de las instituciones monásticas.This is the first study about the musical practice in convents of Colonial Chile on the basis of new data collected in the archive of the convent of La Victoria in Santiago. It considers historical and musical aspects such as the image of the nun musician in traditional and postmodern historiography, her social status during the colonial period, the evolution of music groups (instrumentalists and singers, the stylistic changes associated with them, and the role played by foreign mule musicians in the monastery. Finally, it questions the assumption that nun musicians enjoyed an independence from masculine gender. Furthermore, it puts forward as a hypothesis that the frequent prohibitions of their musical and artistic practices originated not only in moralistic purposes, but also in the need of the secular clergy and civic authorities of limiting the growth of monastic institutions.

  12. Lectores y lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires a fines de la época colonial Readers and economic readings in Buenos Aires at the end of the colonial period

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    María Verónica Fernández Armesto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo intenta una primera mirada al mundo de las lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires en los últimos años del período colonial: qué autores circulaban con mayor profusión, cuáles obras se privilegiaban en las bibliotecas privadas y qué público lector se interesaba en ellas, a partir de los inventarios de bibliotecas privadas e, indirectamente, del registro de donaciones de libros a la Biblioteca Pública en los primeros años independientes. Se postula como hipótesis la mayor libertad de que habrían gozado los libros de economía en el Buenos Aires finicolonial, para propiciar la difusión de las nuevas ideas que surgían de la mano de la llamada "Ilustración cristiana". En este contexto, caracterizado por la activa presencia del clero y de los funcionarios de la administración virreinal (es decir, los miembros de los dos poderes, Corona e Iglesia y un sector mercantil cada vez más influyente, se constituyó el público lector de las obras de economía. Por otra parte, el análisis de los inventarios de bibliotecas muestra la frecuencia con que aparecen los autores españoles e italianos que actuaron, ya sea por medio de la traducción, la adaptación o la copia, como intermediarios de otros economistas europeos.The article attempts a first look to the world of the economic readings in Buenos Aires in the last years of the colonial period: which authors circulated more frequently, which books used to be found in the private libraries, and what type of people were interested in them, starting from the inventories of private libraries, and indirectly, from the registration of books donations to Public Library in the first independent years. The postulated hypothesis is that the economics books enjoyed of more freedom in the Buenos Aires late colonial period, propitiating the diffusion of the new ideas of the so-called "Christian Enlightenment». It was in this context, characterized by the active presence of the clergy and the

  13. Who Was Honored by “Truthful Khan”, “Coveted Khan” and Their Descendants

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    Gennady N. Garustovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to consider issues of the features of the pagan beliefs – the primordial religion of shamanism of the Turks and Mongols – described in writings of the authors of the Middle Ages: Chinese, Arab, Western, Russian, etc. (which act as the main research materials. Novelty of the research: until now the specific realities of the Turko-Mongol shamanism in Russia have been studied, but still not fully, despite the publication of numerous works of historians, anthropologists, archaeologists, linguists and specialists in other scientific and educational disciplines. As a result of the work, it appears that the authors of medieval narratives managed to notice series of interesting and important elements of the traditional religion of the steppe people. The deification by nomads of natural disasters contributed to the formation of their polytheism, with a large list of spirits and demons, and the development of complex branched rituals; it led to the isolation of their stratum of professional clergy – of the shamans (kams, buge, udogan. Priestly class served as intermediaries between the community of living people and the supernatural world of gods and genii, communicating with the ideal world through its spirit helpers (in the rites. Ministers of religion in society performed number of important functions (protective-preservative, healing, cleansing, conservative-traditionalist, et al.. As the narrative sources chroniclers paid little attention to the structure of the pantheon of gods and dogmas of shamanism, this paper objects rather the shamans’ function in ritual practice. The priests involved in family rituals (at the funeral and wake, with courtship and the birth of a child were carriers of traditions, healed sick and treated animals, “struggled” with evil spirits, magically influenced their enemies, guessed and predicted future, and most importantly – they were managers of regular generic and tribal

  14. Centros, periferias y redes eclesiásticas en la España del siglo XX

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    José Ramón Rodríguez Lago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del rol desempeñado por las redes eclesiásticas en las relaciones centro-periferia, en un Estado como el español, caracterizado por los debates suscitados en torno a este binomio durante una buena parte del siglo XX, nos adentra en la dimensión alcanzada por la cuestión territorial en la administración de las diócesis y provincias eclesiásticas, la promoción vocacional del clero y la selección de sus más cualificados dirigentes. La acción y el discurso de los órganos pontificios y las diversas instituciones de la Iglesia en España incidirán no sólo en el desarrollo de prácticas pastorales más atentas a las peculiaridades culturales y sociales propias de cada Iglesia local, sino también en la singular trayectoria de los diversos proyectos de construcción nacional que compitieron durante la pasada centuria.      Palabras clave: Vaticano, España, diócesis, provincia eclesiástica, regionalismo, nacionalismo.  _____________ Abstract: The analysis of the role played by the church networks in center-periphery relations in a state such as Spain, characterized by the discussions on this pair at least for most of the 20th century, takes us into the dimension reached by the territorial issue in the administration of dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces, vocational promotion of the clergy and the selection of its most qualified leaders. The action and discourse of the pontifical bodies and several institutions of the Church in Spain will impact not only in pastoral practices more alive to the social and cultural peculiarities, but also in the unique path of various nation-building projects which competed during the last century.      Keywords: Vatican, Spain, dioceses, ecclesiastical provinces, regionalism, nationalism. 

  15. La canonica di Santa Maria del Fiore e i suoi abitanti nella prima metà del XV secolo

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    Gabriella Battista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the residence of the canons of the Cathedral of Florence in the period covered by The Years of the Cupola with attention both to its architectonic and social-political-cultural aspects in order to define the architectural natural and function of the complex and identify its residents and the circumstances of their common life. Through the systematic study of the documentation regarding the definition and management of the close it is possible to reconstruct the steps in the creation of a new dignified and comfortable cloistered space for the metropolitan clergy: a building complex that was appropriately detached from the new church, which had to remain magnificently free around its entire circumference. This new residence for canons, chaplains and other ecclesiastical collaborators, designed to accommodate the values of residency, common life and discipline, was realized in the tight urban fabric of the medieval city at great cost for the purchase of private real estate which was gradually incorporated into the project according to the predetermined ‘design’. It was defined along lines that remained unchanged until the 19th century following a policy of adapting structures previously destined to civil habitation and enclosing them in a cloistered environment sheltered from urban circulation with a single monumental entrance towards the church and its portal ‘of the Canons’. In order to understand the duties incumbent upon the canons and chaplains it was necessary to examine the synodal constitutions of previous periods. These documents offered a view of the common life in the canonry according to the dictates of the constitutions that regulated discipline: from the assignment of dwellings on the basis of seniority to the designation of places for the sharing of meals and, finally, the necessity of providing small personal spaces for meditation and study. The resident canons belonged to the highest rank of society

  16. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified

  17. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

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    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  18. Panfletagem digital – espaço público, comunicação institucional e internet

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    José Aparecido de Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo faz parte de uma pesquisa sobre os espaços de discussão criados, a partir da internet, entre os membros clérigos e leigos da Igreja Metodista, nos meses que antecederam o 18º Concílio Geral, realizado em 2006, conclave que resultou na saída da instituição dos organismos ecumênicos em que atua e que ajudou a fundar. O objetivo consistiu em avaliar as possibilidades e limitações da internet como emergente espaço público ampliado para as instituições. A análise teve como suporte os fundamentos da literatura nos aspectos da história dos meios de comunicação; comunicação política, espaço público e marketing político. O suporte histórico foram os fenômenos da Reforma Protestante e do Movimento Metodista, na Inglaterra do século XVIII. Os resultados permitem inferir que as novas tecnologias apresentam desafios para as instituições como o paradoxo democratização-fragmentação da autoridade. Palavras-chave: Poder e visibilidade; Espaço público; Marketing político; Comunicação institucional; Democratização. Abstract This article is part of a research work on the discussion spaces created by the Internet for the clergy and lay members of the Methodist Church, in the months preceding the 18th General Council, carried out in 2006, and resulting in the institution’s withdrawing from the ecumenical organisms where it worked and which it help founding. The research aimed at evaluating the possibilities and limitations of the Internet as an emerging public space opened to institutions. The analysis was based on the literature concerning the history of communication media; political communication, public space and political marketing. The historical background focused on the phenomena of Protestant Reform and the Methodist Movement in 18th–century England. Results indicate that the new technologies pose challenges to institutions, such as the paradox democratization-fragmentation of

  19. [Eye witnesses and the flagellants in the year 1349].

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    Jansen-Sieben, R

    1999-01-01

    Deeply affected and often desperately afraid, many contemporaries recorded their observations and emotions. These reports--no matter how obviously subjective they sometimes were--provide valuable information about what happened during the plague pandemic of 1348-1350. Thus many of our fellow countrymen left behind a direct testimony: Bartholomew of Bruges, a canon in Andenne; Gilles li Muisis, the abbot of Saint Martin in Tournai; Ludovicus Sanctus of Beringen; Simon de Couvin, a canon in Liège; Jan van Boendale, an alderman's clerk in Antwerp; John of Burgundy (also known as John of Mandeville), professor of medicine in Liège; but also texts in Middle Dutch that were not known up to now, and therefore not published, such as the important thesis by Arent Schryver, licentiate in medicine (see next article); an account in verse in the Brabant Chronicle, as well as contemporary testimonies in a different language that have been translated into our language, such as that by John of Eschinden, Johannes de Rupescissa or Guy de Chauliac (who had had the plague himself). They describe the precautions, the causes (God, a comet, an eclipse of the sun, the polluted water, the planets, the air), the symptoms, the social groups most likely to be affected (the youth, the lower classes, the clergy), the high mortality, the problems of hygiene,the social and administrative chaos, the general panic, the flight of countless people. One of the most virulent reactions led to the emergence of the flagellant sect. They originated from Hungary and advanced in an unstoppable advance with a growing number of followers as far as our country, singing, praying, dancing and flaying themselves until they drew blood. We only recently discovered what they sang in Dutch: very recently, a unique roll of parchment was discovered that they carried in their processions, and that contains the text of their songs and a flagellant sermon. The existence of this valuable document and its contents are

  20. Caminhos que levam a Roma: recursos culturais e redefinições da excelência religiosa

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    Ernesto Seidl

    2009-06-01

    , how are experienced and perceived the different ways of internationalization of the high clergy and what is the place it takes among the instruments of legitimation within the field of power?

  1. The Cracow’s pious laymen or Beghard heretics? From the study on the 14th century Tractatus contra beghardos by Henryk Harrer

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    Tomasz Gałuszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tractatus contra beghardos written by a Chech Dominican Henryk Harrer is a masterpiece of exceptional value for both historians of the medieval heterodox movements as well as for scholars interested in the history of theology and law in the 14th century. The treaty was commissioned by Cracow Dominicans in the years 1328 to 1334. Commissioning the treaty to Henryk Harrer, a stranger expert from the Prague monastery of St. Clemens was dictated by a series of controversies among Cracow clergy around the judgement of conduct of a certain group of people whose religious practices and a way of life stood out from the rest of the congregation. Undertaking the task of writing the treaty Henryk Harrer based his work around three charges pressed against the suspected of heresy: breaking off the Church and establishing an illegal organization (singularitas vite; corrupted attitude towards recognized religious practices (contemptibilitas sacramenti eucharistiae; numerous flaws and perverse disposition (pertinax voluntas. Not only did Harrer decide to comment on all aspects of life of central figures of Contra beghardos but he also honestly mentioned all arguments he was not able to undermine. Despite these objective difficulties, the Czech Dominican was certain that the expertise he came up with was sufficient to link the lay movement with the sect of Beghard Heretics. The author of this study proved that, contrary to Harrer’s keen intention, his Tractatus contra beghardos does not unambiguously show heresy in the Cracow diocese. What is more, the reader, instead of indictment against the conduct of a group of laymen paradoxically received a confirmation of their innocence and orthodoxy. In the light of analysis of the text Contra beghardos, the claim that Beghard Heretics from Harrer’s work turn out to be pious layman, living in communion with the Church, seems to be fully substantiated. Of course their way of life and the practice of asceticism made

  2. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

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    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  3. Nursing around the world: a perspective on growing concerns and the shortage of care

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    Vance DE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceThe University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Many of us think of nurses as people who provide direct care to us and our loved ones. And that is true. Images of a selfless person such as Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War running from one wounded soldier to another providing care inspires the imagination of what a nurse is and can be. Based on that image, a nurse is anyone who cares (and from a spiritual or philosophical perspective, that may be true. But nursing as a profession is so much more. nurse is someone with a very selective skill set that can only be developed and honed by intense training, education, and discipline while being used in a proscribed ethical manner. With such a combination of skills, ethics, and caring, nurses are the backbone of health care settings, tending to the individual needs of the patients; however, many nurses also function outside such traditional settings and perform numerous functions. Nurses are educators and provide data to the public designed to improve health literacy and promote physical and mental wellness. Nurses are computer and organizational specialists who provide hospitals and institutions with the technologies for keeping, maintaining, and analyzing records. Nurses are clergy, psychologists, and philosophers providing a direction and a moral compass in how to are for patients and each other. Nurses are researchers investigating everything from developing medication for Alzheimer's disease to improving crop yields to reduce hunger. Finally, nurses are advocates and leaders petitioning for justice and beneficence of all regardless of gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality; and as such, nursing is political and has a global impact. Nursing is global in nature and is facing global, as well as country specific, problems. The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of what

  4. Estado, iglesia y sociedad en la Monarquía Hispana de Carlos IV. Las apreciaciones de un embajador austríaco en Madrid

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    Álvarez Gutiérrez, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing deals with an historiographical analysis of the contents of the diplomatic dispatches sent to Vienna by the imperial ambassador, John Frederick count of Kageneck, accredited at the Court of Charles IV. They concern to the first seven years of that reign (1789-1795. Provide issues, appreciations, and commentaries about the conditions of the contemporaneous Hispanic kingdom in the matter of institutional, administrative, political, economic, social, religious, military affairs, international relations and geostrategical interests. The Austrian diplomat pays much attention to the consequences of the French revolution in Spain; to the measures adopted by the Spanish authorities against the spread of the subversive ideas, as much in the metropolis, as in the overseas dominions, with special reference to the outstanding rôle played by the clergy, as the ideological and moral bulwark against the impetuous attacks of the French revolutionary activity; to the attitude of Spain with regard to the purpose of forming an international coalition against the revolutionary France; and to the later access of Spain in the war against the France of the Convention (1793-1795.

    Este trabajo propone un análisis historiográfico del contenido de los despachos diplomáticos enviados a Viena por el embajador imperial, Juan Federico de Kageneck, acreditado ante la Corte de Carlos IV. Corresponden a los siete primeros años de aquel reinado (1789-1795. Proporcionan datos, apreciaciones y comentarios sobre el estado de la monarquía hispana de la época en sus aspectos institucionales, administrativos, políticos, económicos, sociales, religiosos, militares, relaciones internacionales, e intereses geoestratégicos. El diplomático austríaco dedica atención preferente a las repercusiones de la Revolución francesa en España; a las medidas adoptadas por las autoridades españolas para contrarrestar la difusión de las ideas subversivas, tanto en la

  5. Jewish national cultural-and-religious public motion in Ukraine in 1920th

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    V. O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Communist Party organs and soviet special services increased. Repressions against the clergy and the most active public activists were activated. On the whole, persecutions on Judaism stipulated the mass walking of jewries away from religious traditions and mass destruction of traditional religious life of Ukrainian Jewishness.

  6. The attitude of the Church towards the social and political events in Poland in the early 1980’s

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    Zdzisław Gogola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Polish historiography the martial law period is still an issue that causes a lot of controversy. It also seems that even growing period of time and psychological distance do not automatically facilitate developing clear and objective assessment of the dramatic events of the years 1981–1983. The difference between presented opinions is strongly influenced by current trends of political correctness as well as inaccessibility of classified documents still kept in the Polish and Russian archives. An attempt to conduct a thorough and multifaceted evaluation of the martial law period seems impossible without analysing tense sociopolitical situation as well as difficult economic situation of Poland at the end of 1970s and the beginning of 1980s. It is also necessary to take into account an important factor – the Solidarity movement that was founded in 1980. It was the first post-war mass opposition movement, rooted firmly on the ground of Christian ideas. Thus, it seems impossible to ignore the role of the Polish Catholic Church during the period of the martial law. It was within the framework of the Church structures – due to suspension of almost every social organization – that the victims of repression and their families were granted physical, legal, and spiritual support. The attitude presented by the hierarchy and numerous representatives of the clergy (e.g. Primate J. Glemp, Archbishop B. Dąbrowski, Fr. J. Popiełuszko or Fr. K. Jancarz clearly proved that numerous cases of violating the law, in particular arresting and detaining the members of the Solidarity movement, were strongly condemned. The ideas and conclusions presented in the article, although still imperfect and probably premature, enable the reader to assume that the events of 1981–1983 were caused by the lack of both authority of the government as well as fundamental social freedom rather than insufficient supply of food, economic crisis or a threat of a military

  7. Asturias Enlightenment: The Economic Society of Friends of the Country La ilustración en Asturias: la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País

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    María de los Ángeles FAYA DIAZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Society of Asturias was an instrument of enlightened reformism which should act in a region with severe economic backwardness. Born in 1780 at the initiative of Campomanes, it responds to Matritense model, focusing on economic development and popular education. Designed around the possibilities of development offered by the coal, was finally oriented to promote agricultural growth, according to the interests of the educated elite of Asturias, mainly composed by members of the nobility and clergy. The industrial promotion efforts were focused on the popular industry, centered in the linen, mining and metallurgical techniques, but it met with little success. Because of the existing poverty, the Society developed a new secular charity, while education was limited to a School of Drawing and four sewing schools for women. In short, the Society was unable to lead the region’s economic takeoff, which delayed still several decades.La Sociedad Económica de Asturias fue un instrumento del reformismo ilustrado que tuvo que actuar en una región con grave atraso económico. Nace en 1780 por iniciativa de Campomanes y responde al modelo de la Matritense, centrada en el desarrollo económico y la educación popular. Ideada en torno a las posibilidades que ofrecía el carbón, se termina orientando a impulsar el crecimiento agrario, acorde con los intereses de la élite ilustrada asturiana, integrada por miembros de la nobleza y del clero. Los esfuerzos para el fomento industrial en Asturias estuvieron centrados en la industria popular en torno al lino, así como a los sectores minero y metalúrgico, pronto fracasados. Dada la pobreza existente, la Sociedad desarrolló la nueva beneficencia laica, mientras que la enseñanza quedó limitada a una Escuela de Dibujo y cuatro escuelas de coser para mujeres. En definitiva, la Sociedad fue incapaz de vehicular el despegue económico de la región, que aún tardaría varias décadas.

  8. Tuvan-Mongolian relations and links under the People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Lubov K. Hertek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the links and relations between Tuva and Mongolia during the two decades of People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Although some aspects of these relations have been studied by a number of Russian, Mongolian and Chinese scholars, they have so far failed to outline their general tendencies. In this article, we aim to study the Tuvan-Mongolian relations in the PRT period in the light of new archival materials, which will help us trace the main stages of their development and characterize the specific features of each stage. The first stage (1921-1925 opens with the establishment of Tuvan statehood and its non-recognition by Mongolia. Tuvan lamas and noyons retained their links to the highest-profile Mongolian clergy and the rulers of Mongolian aimags in the borderlands. The second stage (1926–1929 begins with the changes in leadership of both states, which led to PRT being officially recognized by the Mongolian People’s Republic. The recognition was followed by signing a Treaty of Friendship between the two states and the restoration of cultural links, given that traditional culture and the Mongolian written language still prevailed in Tuva. We have reconstructed a full list of Tuvan diplomatic envoys in Mongolia and Mongolian envoys in Tuva. The third stage (1930–1944 was marked by the victory of the political left in both Tuva and Mongolia. The new leaders of both states had been educated in Moscow, in Communist University of the Toilers of the East. This helped establish what was deemed ‘truly revolutionary mutual relations’ and build up an interparty network. Indirectly, it also helped enhance economic, trade and cultural links. Our study was based, among other sources, on archival documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies, and some published sources from the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ archive

  9. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19th – early 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  10. The Russian Orthodox Church and atheism

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    Teuvo Laitila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the religious tide in Russia has been quick to rise. During the Soviet era, religion – particularly Orthodox Christianity and Islam – was considered to be one of the ‘enemies of the people’. Since the late 1990s however, Russian politicians at all levels of the power structure have associated themselves either with the Orthodox, or on some occasions with the Muslim, clergy. The present state of affairs in the relations between religion and the state are well illustrated by the cordial liaison of the late Patriarch Aleksii II with President Vladimir Putin and the equally warm involvement of President Dmitry Medvedev, and his wife Svetlana Medvedeva, with the new Patriarch Kirill, who was elected in January 2009. Some have even argued that ‘today’ (in 2004 the Church and state are so extensively intertwined that one can no longer consider Russia to be a secular state. Polls seem to support the claim. While in 1990 only 24 per cent of Russians identified themselves as Orthodox, in the sense that they felt themselves to be Russians as well, in 2008 the number was 73 per cent. However, less than 10 per cent, and in Moscow perhaps only 2 per cent do actually live out their religiosity.Why did Russia turn towards religion? Is religion chosen in an attempt to legitimise power, or in order to consolidate political rule after atheist-communist failure? My guess is that the answer to both is affirmative. Moreover, whatever the personal convictions of individual Russians, including politicians, religious, mainly Orthodox Christian, rhetoric and rituals are used to make a definitive break with the communist past and to create, or re-create, a Greater Russia (see Simons 2009. In such an ideological climate, atheism has little chance of thriving, whereas there is a sort of ‘social demand’ for its critique.I therefore focus on what the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC has had to say about atheism and

  11. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

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    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  12. Keeping the Faith: African American Faith Leaders’ Perspectives and Recommendations for Reducing Racial Disparities in HIV/AIDS Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia’s most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia’s racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations’ existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services

  13. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

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    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  14. ¿Es Chile un país católico? Polémica en torno a un libro del padre Hurtado

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    P. Pedro Espinosa Santander

    2005-01-01

    distance of the poor from the Church and the scarcity of priests. For him there existed a pending task that many avoided: to conquer Chile for Christ. The book and its invitation were welcomed with great enthusiasm, especially by young people, but criticisms of it grew severe on the part of the clergy and lay conservatives. For them, Hurtado's vision was dangerously bitter and ignored the labor that the Church, since colonial times, had put into forming the "soul of Chile". The polemics were basically a criticism that turned a deaf ear towards Hurtado, the national counselor for the youth of Acción Católica. This article shows the polemics surrounding the book and its author, the different actors who intervened and the ecclesial significance of the entire process: Was Chile a Catholic country

  15. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death

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    Thykier, C.

    1992-07-01

    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian people relating to organ donation in 2016: a cross-sectional study.

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    Abukhaizaran, Nidal; Hashem, Mohammed; Hroub, Osama; Belkebir, Souad; Demyati, Khaled

    2018-02-21

    Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but organs are scarce and their availability is affected by relational ties, religious beliefs, cultural influences, body integrity, medical mistrust, and other factors. This aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian population with respect to organ donation. In this cross-sectional study, we used a validated questionnaire delivered by land telephone to collect data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to organ donation in the general population of the West Bank. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling were applied using data obtained from the Palestinian Telecommunication Group in 2016. Stata version 20 was used for statistical analysis, and a p value less than 0·05 was considered significant. Ethics approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of An-Najah National University, and all participants gave verbal informed consent. The questionnaire was completed by 385 (68%) of 565 people approached (mean age 42 years [SD 14·13]). 266 (69%) respondents were married, 311 (80%) were employed, and 375 (97%) were Muslim. 136 (35%) respondents were university students or post-graduates. Half of participants lived in urban areas. Local religious clergy were reported as being the source of general information by 150 (40%) participants. 273 (71%) respondents had adequate knowledge about organ donation, TV being the main source of information for 207 (60%) participants. 70 (26%) respondents would consider donation only after death, and 342 (67%) respondents would only consider donating to a close family member, whereas 341 (100%) respondents believed that their organ could be misused and 219 (64%) believed organ donation carries a health risk. 135 (49%) respondents preferred to donate to a recipient of the same religion. 266 (78%) individuals believed that organ donation should be promoted in the occupied Palestinian territory

  17. Dying with dignity in America: the transformational leadership of Florence Wald.

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    Adams, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study are to examine the constructs of transformational leadership as they played out for one nurse who steered significant change in the care of the dying in the United States and to provide deeper insights into how nursing leaders can design and direct meaningful changes in the delivery of health care in turbulent times. A significant problem was identified in how the terminally ill were treated in this country post World War II. The introduction of hospice care in the United States represented a paradigm shift in how the health care community viewed and treated dying patients. Critical to this transformation was the work of Florence Wald, who organized with community leaders, clergy, and other health care providers to create a vision and synergy around palliative care. She was instrumental in opening the first American hospice in 1971 in Connecticut. Within 15 years, there were more than 1,000 hospices in the United States. A single case study design was chosen for this qualitative research grounded in the theory of transformational leadership (J.M. Burns, 1978). The study used narrative inquiry to conduct an in-depth exploration of Florence Wald's transformational leadership and the perceptions of the group of founders she organized to conceptualize, build, and open the first hospice in the United States. The participants chosen for interview were involved directly in the designing, planning, and beginning of the first American hospice. In addition to the seven in-depth interviews conducted in 2007 in Connecticut, this research examined three groups of documents from The Florence and Henry Wald Archives in the Yale University Library. The findings from both interviews and the Yale Archives showed that Florence Wald based her leadership on the strong values of reverence for life and social justice for all. To direct meaningful change, Florence Wald elevated the consciousness of her hospice team by conducting a 2-year research study on the needs

  18. Mazili and ruptaşi (and other social categories in the statistics of the 1817 census

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    Valentin Tomuleţ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the time of annexation of Bessarabia to the Russian Empire, the Russian imperial institutions lacked concrete and reliable information on the number of people in the newly annexed province. The lack of statistical data for the entire province was also a problem for the regional administration, recently established in Chisinau, which for various reasons needed these data and constantly informed the imperial authorities about it. The population census became possible only in 1816-1817, when a number of concrete measures were taken in Bessarabia to establish an interim administration, to form of the first administrative and police institutions of power and some changes were made in the territorial administrative and customs and sanitary quarantine systems. In addition, the population had experienced the new regime of domination, the outflow of the population from the province to Moldova over the Prut was partially reduced, and the imperial administration was able to collect the first statistical data on the new annexed province. The results of the population census of 1817 were published in full in Russian, in 1907 by the historian I.N. Halippa, secretary of the Bessarabian Provincial Scientific Archival Committee. Subsequently, in 1920, the census was reproduced, this time in a more concise form, by Tudor Pamfile (only for the Hotin County, in 1929 – by professor of theology and history Constantin N. Tomescu, and in 1933 it was systematized by T. Porucic. The census forms contained the following components: 1. the name of districts and localities; 2. the economic situation of villages according to the category: a good state, b middle state (satisfactory, c insufficient state (unsatisfactory; 3. statistics of the clergy: priests and their widows, deacons and their widows, church clerks and their widows, psalm readers and their widows, and vergers and their widows; 4. mazili and their widows; 5. ruptaşi and their widows; 6. statistics of lower

  19. La mort du prince Henri (†1612 : éthique et rhétorique du deuil dans un cycle de sermons funèbres anglais The prince Henry’s death (†1612 : ethics and rhetoric of bereavement in a cycle of English funeral sermons

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    Paula Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les spécificités thématiques et rhétoriques d’un cycle de sermons de deuil de Daniel Price, prononcés en 1612 à l’occasion de la mort du prince Henri, le fils aîné du roi d’Angleterre, Jacques Ier. Le premier volet expose les caractéristiques du sermon funèbre anglais, un genre de discours fortement codifié, dont les conventions se fixèrent dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle, alors même que le clergé s’efforçait de démontrer la légitimité de la prédication funèbre dans un contexte protestant. À l’aube du XVIIe siècle, les sermons funèbres imprimés se conforment en majorité à un modèle rhétorique bien défini et poursuivent un objectif pastoral double : la commémoration des morts et l’édification des vivants. Vis-à-vis de cette norme, les sermons de Daniel Price présentent des écarts considérables. En effet, ils se consacrent pour l’essentiel à la prise en charge du deuil des fidèles, un choix thématique qui implique une stratégie rhétorique spécifique. Se focalisant sur l’examen de ces caractéristiques, le deuxième volet de l’article montrera que ces textes, s’ils sont peu représentatifs de la pratique homilétique du clergé anglais au moment des funérailles, sont symptomatiques d’un changement culturel qui se dessine en Angleterre à l’aube du XVIIe siècle, et qui se traduit par la valorisation du deuil humain à des fins dévotionnellesThis article examines the thematic and rhetorical specificities of a cycle of funeral sermons preached in 1612 by Daniel Price on the occasion of the death of prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It begins by describing the conventions of the English funeral sermon, which took shape in the second half of the sixteenth century, at a time when the clergy aimed at legitimizing the act of preaching over the dead in a Protestant context. It will be shown that at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the majority of

  20. “Vistiendo las ropas del santo”: Atributos afro en la personalidad de san Baltasar a través de algunos cargos devocionales en su culto en la Argentina

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    Norberto Pablo Cirio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the joy and fun, they celebrate him with music and dance, being some of them from black roots. In this paper I wish to analyze one of these religious principles. So far there isn't any difference between kings and goods, the divine personality has a bipolar behavior that comes to real in a unique entity movable-non movable, thing- human. In this way, being goods also kings and kings also goods, their divine and royal attributes are object of devotion and subordination by their faithful people-subjects. My hypothesis is that that black people could have applied this principle so far they knew that double characteristic of this saint: divine (he is a saint and royal (he is one of the three Wise Men, compatible with their ancestral believes.//Al revisar la historia del culto popular de San Baltazar en Argentina, es posible encontrar sus raíces africanas. A pesar de haber empezado como una devoción impuesta por el clero y la Corona española a mediados del siglo XVIII , los esclavos lograron insertar sus propias tradiciones culturales, produciendo así una suerte de sincretismo sui generis.Hoy en día, dicha tradición está presente en celebraciones religiosas, especialmente en el área devocional. A San Baltazar se le considera el patrón de la alegría y la diversión y sus celebraciones se realizan con música y bailes, algunos de ellos de raíces negras.En este trabajo me propongo analizar uno de los principios de este culto. Como no hay diferencias entre los

  1. Rola mediów i innych agend socjalizacji jako źródła wiedzy młodzieży o seksualności

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    Maria Woźniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The media and other agents of socialization as youths’ sources of knowledge about sexuality The discourse on sexual education expresses great diversity of norms, beliefs, and attitudes towards sex and is dominated by the voices of adults who belong to the political and symbolic elites (i.e., politicians, teachers, clergy. Thus, the opinions of young people, which often reflect authentic personal and generational needs, are too often ignored. What is more, research shows that parents often seem to avoid discussions regarding sexuality with their children, ceding the responsibility to educate young people on the school. However, evaluations of how "introduction to family life" curriculum is implemented suggest that it is often conducted on an unsatisfactory level. Consequently, young people are forced to acquire and verify information about sexuality on their own. Based on individual in‑depth interviews this analysis refers to chosen sources from which young people obtain knowledge about sexuality. The article focuses on one of such sources: the media (including the Internet. It aims also to discuss young people's ambivalence towards self-acquired knowledge about sexuality.   Rola mediów i innych agend socjalizacji jako źródła wiedzy młodzieży o seksualności Dyskusja dotycząca edukacji seksualnej wyraża olbrzymią różnorodność norm, wierzeń oraz postaw wobec seksu i zdominowana jest przez głosy osób dorosłych należących do elit politycznych i symbolicznych (np. polityków, nauczycieli, duchownych. Opinie młodych ludzi, które nierzadko są odzwierciedleniem ich osobistych i pokoleniowych potrzeb, są natomiast nader często ignorowane. Co więcej, badania pokazują, że rodzice raczej unikają rozmów ze swoimi dziećmi na temat szeroko pojętej seksualności, cedując pośrednio obowiązek edukowania młodych ludzi w tym zakresie na szkołę. Ewaluacje realizacji „wychowania do życia w rodzinie” sugerują jednak,

  2. A identidade presbiteral depois do Vaticano II (Presbyterial Identity after Vatican II - DOI: P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1090

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    Pe. Geraldo Luiz Borges Hackmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a questão da identidade presbiteral do Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II até hoje. O ponto de partida são dois artigos sobre esse tema. Um foi escrito por Mauro Gagliardi, e publicado pela revista da Congregação para o Clero, e outro por José Maria Hernándes Martínez, CMF, e publicado pela revista Proyección. Apesar de tratarem da mesma questão, eles têm pontos de vista diferentes para compreender a fundamentação do proprium do ministério ordenado: a representação de Cristo ou a da comunidade eclesial. A seguir, o artigo aborda a posição do Vaticano II, de modo especial, na Lumen Gentium 28 e no Decreto Presbyterorum Ordinis; a crise que seguiu sobre a identidade presbiteral e o surgimento de uma nova posição, indicada pela fundamentação trinitária, além de apontar algumas posições teológicas mais recentes. Por fim, são apontadas algumas perspectivas para o ministério presbiteral nos dias de hoje, de modo particular quanto à identidade do presbítero, a espiritualidade e a formação para a afetividade e o celibato.Palavras-chave: Sacerdócio Ordenado. Presbítero. Vaticano II. Persona Christi Capitis. Persona Ecclesiae.AbstractThis article addresses the issue of Presbyterial identity on the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council until today. Two articles on this theme are the starting point. One of them was written by Mario Gagliardi and published by the journal of the Congregation for the Clergy, and the other was written by Maria José Hernández Martínez, CMF, and published by the journal Proyección. Although addressing the same issue, they have different points of view in understanding the foundation of the proprium of ordained ministry: the representation of Christ or of the ecclesial community. Next, the article discusses the position of Vatican II, especially in Lumen Gentium 28 and in the Presbyterorum Ordinis Decree; the crisis that followed about the Presbyterial identity and the emergence of

  3. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy

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    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Cultural and political contexts are important in determining the ways in which communities respond to volcanic eruptions. Understanding the manner in which communities and the State apparatus have coped with historic eruptions can provide insights into how responses have influenced vulnerability and resilience. The 1906 eruption of Vesuvius is well suited for such a study as it was one of the first major eruptions in which there was a significant element of State control, and this worked alongside more traditional pre-industrial responses. This eruption was extensively reported in the regional, national and international press and in archives which include still photography. One feature is the rich archive of material published in English language newspapers of record which are analysed fully in the paper for the first time. Many of these data sources are now accessible on-line. The eruption started on April 4th with mild explosive activity and the eruption of lava from 5th to 7th April. On the night of the 7th/8th, activity intensified when a vigorous lava fountain inclined obliquely to the north east, deposited a thick layer of tephra on the towns of Ottaviano and San Giuseppe. This led to roof collapse and a large number of fatalities. There was increased lava emission and a flow progressed south through the outskirts of Boscotrecase cutting the Circumvesuviana railway line and almost reaching Torre Annunziata. Following April 8th the eruption declined and ended on April 21st. In the initial responses to the eruption pre-industrial features were prominent, with the local communities showing social cohesion, self-reliance and little panic. A more negative aspect was the traditional religious response that involved the use of liturgies of divine appeasement and which included the use of saintly relics and images. There is interesting evidence, however, that this coping strategy was driven by the populace rather than by the clergy. The inhabitants of San Giuseppe

  4. La « marmitte renversée » : construction discursive et fonctionnement argumentatif d’une insulte dans les polémiques des guerres de religion (1560-1600 The “Overturned Pot”: Discursive Construction and Polemic Use of an Insult during the French Religious Wars (1560-1600

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    Paul-Alexis Mellet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article propose de montrer comment le motif de la marmite, courant dans la culture de la Renaissance, se spécialise dans un sens politique pour constituer une insulte dans le contexte précis de la polémique opposant pamphlets catholiques et protestants pendant les guerres de religion. En effet, le motif de la marmite, objet central de la cuisine, condense héritage biblique (Ezechiel XI et XXIV, tradition littéraire (Plaute et culture populaire (telle que Rabelais s’en fait l’écho, pour constituer une critique des présumés péchés du clergé (concupiscence, gourmandise, pacte avec le diable, etc.. A travers l’étude de plusieurs pamphlets (Thomas Beaux-Amis, Théodore de Bèze, etc. se répondant dans le cadre d’une polémique centrée sur les rites chrétiens, nous mettons en évidence la dynamique discursive permettant la réappropriation du motif dans une valeur d’insulte. Nous étudions en particulier les processus argumentatifs utilisés au fil des pamphlets par chaque camp pour renvoyer l’insulte à l’autre. Il est alors possible de suivre le cheminement discursif de la construction d’une insulte. Il s’agit enfin de souligner la force argumentative de l’image satirique dont la fonction est bien sûr pour les deux Eglises de conforter la confession et pour les catholiques d’éviter la conversion au protestantisme.This article shows how the motif of the cooking pot, recurrent in Renaissance culture, was, in the particular context of the polemics which raged between Catholic and Protestant pamphleteers during the French religious wars, converted into an elaborate political insult. A central element of culinary life, the cooking pot was also loaded with biblical heritage (Ezekiel 11 and 24, literary tradition (Plautus and popular culture (such as that propounded by Rabelais, which made of it a concise symbol of the supposed sins of the clergy (concupiscence, gourmandise, pact with the devil, etc.. Through the

  5. The Middle Class in China and the West under Society-building Perspective%社会建设视野下的城市中产阶层1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞廉

    2014-01-01

    本文从社会建设的视角出发,对中国和西方国家城市中产阶层的起源和形成进行了梳理和考察。笔者的主要观点是:在西方国家工业革命早期,竞争伦理、谋利动机、经商欲望和新教信仰造就了一个以商人、工场主和专业人士(主要包括医生、律师和神职人员)为主体的中产群体。他们所享有的共同的经济和社会经历,促进了西方中产阶级的阶级意识和身份认同的形成。这种阶级意识和身份认同成为推动西方各国资产阶级民主革命以及之后的多次社会建设和改良运动的重要经济与思想力量。在中国改革开放的三十年的时间里,也产生了一个商人、民营企业主、专业人士以及职业经理人为主体的中产群体。其中的部分有识之士也已成为转型中国社会建设重要的支持者和领导者。然而在城乡二元体制格局和贫富差距不断扩大的背景下,较小的规模,较高的异质性,以及价值理念上的分歧,阻碍了中国中产阶层阶级身份认同的形成。%From the society-building perspective, this article explores the origin and formation of Chinese and Western middle class. In the early period of industrial revolution, competing ethics, profit motives, business desire and the Protestant ethics created businessman, factory owners and professionals(like doctors, lawyers and clergy) formed the main body of middling-groups. They enjoyed the common economic and social experience, which promoted the Western bourgeois class consciousness and identity formation. During three decades of China’s reform and opening, there is also a middle groups including businessman, private business owners, professionals and managers. Some of them have become the main supporters and leaders of China’s society-building. However, in the context of urban-rural dual structure pattern and the widening gap between the rich and the poor, a smaller scale

  6. About the science-theoretical measuring of history of revolutionary shocks in Russia (to the 100 year of February and October, 1917

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    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the comprehension of the science-theoretical tool of research of revolutionary shocks in Russia. The 100-years-old anniversary of revolutionary shocks in Russia pulls out before researchers the vital task of complex comprehension of reasons, character and consequences of revolution. Scientific tasks which stood before the scientists of soviet epoch lay mainly inplane illumination of event of revolution and Civil war as displays of fight of «leading revolutionary class» — proletariat at the head with bolshevist communist party with «regressive classes» — bourgeoisie, squires, clergy, the «kulak». Within the framework of this main approach, researchers succeeded to form the fully integral scientific picture of social and political conflict of 1917-1922 years, on the whole to expose his motive forces, leading political actors, to trace the dynamics of events.However and presently to a full degree the task of comprehensive scientific analysis of structural-functional features of becoming and evolution of organs of power saves the actuality, which functioned within the framework of the different political modes, including modes of antibolshevist orientation. The important element of search is an exposure of specific of mutual relations of public institutions, basic directions of policy, historical factors which stipulated acceptance and practical realization of important administrative decisions.Іnstitucional approach must organically complement dominant to this day in scientific literature historical-event approach. Institucional approach consists in that a look to the social and political process is inplane not «from» (as in the historical-event measuring outside, and, vice versa, «from within». In obedience to this approach, research attention applies foremost on subsoil and on organization of administrative mechanisms, internal logic of acceptance both key and, on the face of it, second-rate decisions

  7. A difusão da escola e a afirmação da sociedade burguesa

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    António Gomes Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    hands of clergy and were located in monasteries, cathedrals, and parochial churches. But since XII-XIII centuries one sees the implementation of non-church related schools in main European cities which held an important bourgeoisie. For reasons that mix with religious, economic, and political interests, protestant regions of Europe show a popular instruction more broadly generalized that the one found in catholic regions. In general, Setrentional people advanced earlier and with more conviction towards popular education and showed a higher capacity to attend to educational needs drived from scientific and technological progress. Nevertheless, this was not though a reality that could be seen generalized over the European countries in the end of XIX century and begging of the XX. Although the imposition of compulsory education had expanded from the north to the south of Europe, it did not happen in the same way in all of the countries. Even when the efforts of scholarization was more in conformity with the transnational ideary that promoted the imposition of compulsory education it never meant an egalitarian conviction. Keywords Scholarization; Society Bourgeois; Popular Education; Catholic Churches; Education

  8. La aplicación de la libertad religiosa en Cádiz durante el Sexenio Democrático en relación con los protestantes (1868-1874

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    Antonio Orozco Guerrero

    2012-01-01

    . The Spanish revolution of 1868, with the declaration of religious freedom embedded in Constitution 1869, announced an extension of the Reformation in the city of Cadiz. But the Catholic clergy was very critical against of religious freedom and a priest turned very severe letters against the beliefs of the Protestants and against local pastors, by way of propaganda to make deistir his followers. Meanwhile, the bishop of the diocese tried to encourage the creation and improvement of private Catholic schools to counter the expected rise of Protestantism. The reality did not confirm the expectations of evangelicals, which in practice continued to have some difficulties to express their religion in public. His situation worsened when the cemetery was closed and non-Catholic returned to be buried in undignified conditions. The short time of the First Republic did not allow measures to strengthen municipal and secularization of the municipal cemetery, which would have allowed the Protestants buried there.

  9. Masonería y política: una nueva cara del rito masonería- revolución. ¿La masonería tiene una ideología y "hace política"? ¿Los políticos fueron y son tales porque fueron masones y los masones siempre fueron hombres que tomaron partido o fueron de partido?

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    Aldo ALESSANDRO MOLA

    2010-02-01

    attributed whith partisan objectives: the struggle against the power of the clergy and religiuous doctrine, against the monarchy (although this is not true for Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Greece and often not true for Italy, Spain and even France, where masonry was pro-Bourbon and pro-Napoleon. Against militarism (although many officers and non-commissioned officers were masons... The authenticity of the objectives of masonic organizations can be verified by analysing whether certain famous masons were only famous or were actually masons as well. As examples of these we have Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, etc. Since it is not a religion, masonry is not politicienne politics, nor a permanent revolution. The choise between «education» and «administrations of needs».

  10. Nonpharmacologic treatments in psychodermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Richard G

    2002-01-01

    , or other mental health or behavioral specialist. Patients are more likely to accept a referral to a "skin-emotion specialist," because this term destigmatizes psychologic interventions. Incorporating these techniques and specialists into a clinical practice will expand therapeutic horizons and improve the quality of life of many of the patients afflicted with chronic skin disease. A final caveat must be offered about attempting to make prognostic statements regarding the likelihood of therapeutic success. Although all patients can potentially benefit from psychocutaneous interventions, those with severe psychopathology and poor pretreatment functional status are likely to be more difficult to treat and to achieve less optimal outcomes. Patients with personality disorders such as borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal disorders, and patients with any active psychotic process certainly constitute a more resistant and difficult population with whom therapeutic success is less likely. These patients, however, are often the ones in the greatest subjective distress and certainly can profit from any of the described interventions. Quoting W. Mitchell Sams, Jr., "although the physician is a scientist and clinician, he or she is and must be something more. A doctor is a caretaker of the patient's person--a professional advisor, guiding the patient through some of life's most difficult journeys. Only the clergy share this responsibility with us." This commitment is and must always be the guiding force in the provision of comprehensive and compatient patient care.

  11. Pela educação lutaremos o bom combate: a instrução operária como um campo de disputas entre católicos e anarquistas na primeira república brasileira - For education will fight the good combat: the workers' education as a field of disputes between catholic

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    Isabel Bilhão, Brasil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo aborda-se o contexto de transformações sócio-educacionais ocorridas ao longo da Primeira República brasileira, quando o crescimento urbano-industrial e o aumento da força organizativa e numérica do operariado começou a se fazer sentir, ensejando o crescimento de disputas de diferentes grupos em torno da educação dos trabalhadores. Observam-se as polêmicas travadas entre integrantes do clero católico e militantes anarquistas pela adesão operária às suas concepções educativas.Palavras-chave: movimento operário, educação, polêmicas, anarquismo, catolicismo. FOR EDUCATION WILL FIGHT THE GOOD COMBAT: THE WORKERS' EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND ANARCHISTS IN THE FIRST BRAZILIAN REPUBLICAbstractThe article addresses the context of social and educational changes that occurred along the Brazilian First Republic, in which urban-industrial growth and increased the organizational and numerical strength of the workers began to be noticeable, increasing disputes of the distinct groups around the workers education. Will observe the polemics between members of the catholic clergy and anarchist militants by the adhesion of the working class to their educational conceptions.Key-words: labour movement, education, polemics, anarchism, catholicism.       POR LA EDUCACIÓN LUCHAREMOS EL BUEN COMBATE: LA INSTRUCCIÓN DE LOS TRABAJADORES COMO UN CAMPO DE DISPUTAS ENTRE LOS CATÓLICOS Y LOS ANARQUISTAS EN LA PRIMERA REPÚBLICA DE BRASILResumenEl artículo aborda el contexto de transformaciones socio educacionales ocurridas a lo largo de la Primera República en Brasil, en el cual el crecimiento urbano-industrial y el aumento de la fuerza organizativa y numérica de los obreros empezaba a ser sentida, intensificando las disputas de distintos grupos alrededor de la educación de los trabajadores. Se observan las polémicas trabadas entre miembros del clero católico y militantes anarquistas por la adhesi

  12. Slavic anthroponyms in the judicial decisions of Demetrios Chomatenos

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    Dželebdžić Dejan

    2006-01-01

    and very probable for the family of Ljutovojs (Litobonz from Skoplje (59. People with double names are usually persons of some importance, members of local aristocracy, imperial clerks or high representatives of the clergy, which is indicated by the fact that their names are often preceded by epithets like megaliphaestatoz, pansebastoz sebastoz, kyr or by administrative titles like archōn. Family names are usually not grammatically different from personal names, mostly because it was common to simply take a personal name of an ancestor as the family name without further modifications, just like in Byzantine families. Chomatianos' judicial decisions yield only two derived family names, both formed from a Slavic stem with the Greek suffix -poyloz (Bogdanopoyloz, Serbopoyloz. Family names among the Slavs are attested at the same period in Dalmatian towns, whereas they are virtually unknown in the areas predominantly inhabited by Serbs, as evident from the Chrysobulls of Decani and other Serbian medieval documents.

  13. The Role of the Clerics and the Religious Forces in the Iranian Movement of Nationalization of Oil Industry

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    Zohreh Salehi Siavoshani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available De 1941 a 1953, a la luz del nuevo clima que se respiraba en el país, el gobierno, la asamblea nacional, las embajadas extranjeras y los militares, el clero y las fuerzas religiosas formaron los nuevos círculos de influencia que podrían jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo socio-político del país.El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar las acciones, las actitudes y el desarrollo interno de los principales grupos religiosos e islámicos de este período, así como su interacción y su impacto en el movimiento de nacionalización de la industria del petróleo. ¿En qué medida las perspectivas y los métodos de estos grupos estaban en consonancia con las demás son alguna de las cuestiones que el autor trata de responder sin tomar parte en cualquiera de ellos, y contra todos las limitaciones impuestas en este trabajo. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de recursos referidos a este tema representa una imagen tridimensional de las actividades de los grupos religiosos y de los clérigos. Sin duda, todos los grupos mencionados anteriormente no fueron de la misma índole, y debido a los puntos de vista heterogéneos y a las tácticas y pactos que entre ellos acordaron hicieron que su perduraran poco tiempo.Palabras clave: Religión, Irán, petróleo, industria, reglas. ______________________________Abstract:From  1941 to 1953, in the light of new atmosphere in post-Reza Shah rule, further to the court, government, the national assembly, foreign embassies and the military men, the clergy and the religious forces were one of the new but influential circles of power playing important role  in the socio political developments and events of the country. The present article seeks to review the actions, attitudes and the inner development of the main religious and Islamic groups of this period, their interaction and their impact on the movement of nationalization of oil industry. To what  extent the outlook and methods of these groups were

  14. Ser mãe: o amor materno no discurso católico do século XIX

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    Raquel dos Santos Sousa Lima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa parte do discurso que a Igreja Católica teceu sobre as mulheres, enfatizando o tema da maternidade durante o século XIX. O enfoque parte da Bulla Sylabus (1864, expedida no pontificado de Pio IX, e da encíclica Rerum Novarum (1891, do Papa Leão XIII. Entre a segunda metade do século XIX e a Primeira Guerra Mundial, a Igreja passou pelo processo conhecido como "romanização", caracterizado pela preocupação moral e disciplinar do clero diante de críticas do laicado, além da promoção de ordens e congregações religiosas. O objetivo deste artigo é, portanto, discutir como aquela instituição definiu um papel social feminino vinculado à ideia do amor materno, divulgado como natural e incondicional. A partir da contribuição dos estudos de gênero, aborda a atribuição de características masculinas e femininas para a distinção não apenas biológica entre homens e mulheres. Concluiu-se que, na longa duração, o discurso católico passou de uma postura misógina - de recusa do sexo feminino - à incorporação das mulheres como público essencial para a sustentação do catolicismo diante das propostas de laicização da sociedade ocidental contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Mulheres; Discurso católico; Maternidade; Gênero. AbstractThis paper discusses part of the discourse that the Catholic Church built in order to define woman's role in the 19th century, emphasizing representations of motherhood. The focus starts with Pius IX's Bulla Sylabus (1864 and Pope Lion XIII's Rerum Novarum (1891. Between the second half of the 19th century and World War I, the Catholic Church underwent a process known as "Romanization", characterized by the clergy's moral and disciplinary concern in face of the laity's criticism, and by the promotion of new religious orders and congregations. The paper considers, therefore, how the Catholic Church defined a social female role linked to the idea of maternal love, diffused as

  15. [RECONSTRUCTING THE LIFE OF AN UNKNOWN MAN--INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincak, Z; Filipec, K; Iacumin, P; Cavalli, F; Mihelić, D; Jeleč, V; Korušić, A

    2016-09-01

    brachial and antebrachial muscles showed a significant development and these enthesopathies would be consistent with a strenuous physical activity, especially at the biceps tendon and shoulder girdle, portraying an anterior elevation, cubital flexion, pronation, circumduction and fixation. It can be said that the person predominantly used the left arm. The developed muscle hinges, show common pronatory and supinatory movements and presume a routine swinging motion of an object above the head or in front of the person. The left tibia was suggestive of the height and male gender of the person. According to Pearson’s regression formula, for the length of the brachium, radius and tibia, it can be reasoned that the person was approximately 169 cm tall. The upper third of the L3 vertebra shows a Schmorl’s hernia which can be secondary to strong anteroposterior and lateral flexion of the spine. On the supero-lateral surface of the left patella, there is a Messeri sign, suggestive of a long and repeated flexion of the knee (kneeling). The molars of the lower and especially upper jaw show signs of paradontosis and a slight abrasion of the first degree according to Gustafson. The secondary dentin can be seen on the incisors, canines and molars. The bone impression of the left temporal bone, was oval in shape and measured 12x9 mm. It was probably and old, healed wound, possibly consequential to a fall or strike from a sharp object. The left tibia, showed a treated but still active periostitis. Analysis of the stable isotopes (C, N, O) shows an increased consumption of vegetables, common to a moderately warm and dry climate (millet). The person had access to water of a good quality, possibly from a well and did not eat fish or drink wine. We do not know whether the person from grave 107 was a member of the clergy or nobility, but was most likely a member of the social elite.

  16. Relics, miracles and furta sacra: A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s

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    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one

  17. З ІСТОРІЇ ФОРМУВАННЯ ІНСТИТУТУ ГОСТИННОСТІ / Ethnocultural sources of formation of the institute of hospitality

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    Курочкін Олександр

    2015-06-01

    Olympic Games. A peculiar etiquette of hospitality has recently existed at nomadic farmers and mountaineers societes unprotected by state. The well-known hospitality of the Caucasian peoples, due to prolonged preservation of military-feudal social relations and geographic isolation which have contributed to the preservation of archaic features life. The core of Ukrainian hospitality rightly considered peasant, folk, origins of hospitality of the city, which in its turn can be differentiated on hospitality of burghers, merchants, craftsmen, clergy and representatives of the higher strata of the population. The high status of guests in Ukrainian and East Slavic traditions is based on Christian ethics, which teaches us to see in every stranger who came to the house, "a messenger of God, or God himself". Under the shelter of the Christian church in Western and Eastern Europe there has been created a set of special shelters for the sick, the maimed, beggars, pilgrims. Medieval monks can rightly be considered the pioneers of social services for the poorest. Along with charitable / religious / form of hospitality there has long existed secular / commercial / hospitality, where the provision of certain services turned into a product for which you had to pay money. On this basis, since the nineteenth century, there has been formed an extensive international travel service industry with its infrastructure, standards and rules of etiquette. Key words: guest, hospitality, proxenia, etiquette, ritual, charitable institution, comercial service area, tourism.

  18. De l’utopie socialiste au réalisme chrétien

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    Isabelle Richet

    2006-03-01

    history of the United States that was neither inspired nor supported by Protestantism. While a majority of Protestants and their clergy opposed Franklin Roosevelt from a conservative position, the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr developed a virulent left‑wing criticism of his policies, before finally rallying to his support at the end of the decade. Rejecting the idealism of the Social Gospel, unable to understand social relationships in term of class interests and power, Niebuhr used Marx’s analytical tools to develop a more realistic and efficient political approach. He saw the New Deal as a program aiming to save capitalism through state action, whereas the society based on social justice that he envisaged required the socialisation of the means of production which could be brought about only through social conflicts that may require the use of violence. However, under the influence of events in Europe after the rise of Hitler to power, he turned increasingly to theology. Inspired by the neo‑orthodoxy of Karl Barth and of his own brother, Richard Niebuhr, he reintroduced sin as the absolute limit of human action. Because of man’s sinful nature it was impossible to create a society based on justice and peace. His new theological absolutism led to political relativism. Indeed, realism now meant that in politics a Christian could only choose between the lesser of two evils. From this point of view the Democratic president and his preparedness campaign appeared as the only realistic choice in the context of the rise of fascism in Europe.

  19. CONFIGURAŢII TEMATICE ŞI DE VIZIUNE ASUPRA TEXTELOR POETICE PUBLICATE ÎN REVISTA LUMINĂTORUL (1908-1918

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    Silvia SCUTARU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Luminătorul a fost prima revistă cu conţinut bisericesc în limba română din Basarabia ţaristă, aceasta fiind o adevă­rată tribună publicistică pentru clerul basarabean. Pe lângă articole de învăţătură creştinească, au fost publicate şi poezii cu caracter educativ.În acest demers vom demonstra că, deşi versurile nu aveau o valoare deosebită a unui produs de artă, acestea au reuşit totuşi să se apropie de realitatea basarabeană. Textele poetice au redat o varietate de sentimente, preponderent dezolante, specifice perioadei elucidate.Cu toate acestea, constatăm capacităţile limitate ale versificatorilor, care nu aveau idei clare şi exacte despre sensul unei situaţii sau împrejurări. În contrast cu ei menţionăm textele poetice ale tânărului A.Mateevici, care, de cele mai multe ori, erau ancorate în real.Investigaţia confirmă opinia că, pe lângă tematica creştină, poeziile publicate în revista Luminătorul au încercat să dezvolte subiecte atipice sociale şi contestatare, dar ele nu au impulsionat libertatea de gândire şi nu au stimulat abilităţile lexicale ale versificatorilor şi cititorilor. Folosind metoda analizei, am demonstrat că imperfecţiunile textelor poetice nu au diminuat mesajele acestora, ci, dimpotrivă, ofereau românilor basarabeni un alt sistem de valori. Investigaţia confirmă cu certitudine că configuraţiile tematice şi de viziune ale versificatorilor erau influenţate de obscurantismul omniprezent în provincia Basarabia, menţinut cu succes de autorităţile ţariste.În studiu sunt utilizate datele culese şi analizate de autor în baza a 14 numere ale acestei publicaţii.EXHIBITION AND VISION OF SETTINGS POETIC TEXTS PUBLISHED IN LUMINĂTORUL (ILLUMINATOR JOURNAL (1908-1918Luminătorul was the first ecclesiastical magazine in Romanian language from Tsarist Bessarabia this is a true publicist tribune for Bessarabian clergy. Besides Christian doctrine articles

  20. Al Moriskyn in Valencia (study in the political, economic and social Situations (1525-1609 الموريسيكيون في بلنسية (دراسة في أوضاعهم السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية (1525-1609

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    Dr. Yousuf Kazim Jgal Al-Shammari أ.م.د. يوسف كاظم جغيل الشمري

    2015-01-01

    prosecution mentioned inspection bureau for more than forty years . - Become Muslims in Valencia by a decision Christianization Christians technically and fired on them naming Almaurickjon any Christians new , but they were able to maintain their Islamic beliefs , customs and traditions of Arab and Osttaau drop from a lot of the decisions that were taken by the authorities of Christianity against them , especially those that belong to their beliefs and customs and so for Using Anthajhm the principle of dissimulation as permitted one jurists Moroccans a Amorawi of Muslims in Spanish territory acceptance exercise rituals of Christianity in the case of falling under duress to have faith the heart of the Islamic faith , taking into account continuing performance of religious rituals of the Islamic secret, and thus was able to Muslims in Valencia maintain their privacy Islamic and language even expulsion from Spain , as well as it has resorted Almaurickjon in Valencia to pay bribes to the authorities of Christianity in order to delay a lot of decisions that were made against them , especially those decisions issued by Philip II , which was aimed at restricting the Almaurickjon in the city mentioned in order to fend them off for the Islamic religion and spare the link between them and the cultural heritage them in order to then integrate them into the Christian community . - Realized that Spanish policy futility of the process of Christianization in Valencia to hold Muslims in this city, the Islamic religion and Hvazam on the customs and traditions of social even described by one Christian clergy in a report to King Philip II as Muslims they will end if Muslims of Algeria , so take King Philip II think seriously evict them from Spain , especially after the arrival of information to confirm their contact with Muslims in Turkey and Algeria to announcing a revolution in Valencia , but the conditions did not tack conducive to the involvement of Quilib second conflicts with various

  1. Terminologia religijna w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców w Polsce i Bułgarii. Zapisy z lat 1969–1973

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    Iryda Grek-Pabisowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious terminology in Russian dialect of Old Believers in Poland and Bulgaria (records from the years 1969–1973 Records of religious terminology in Bulgaria were conducted by the author, records in Poland were done by people from the community of Old Believers as well. The material was collected in three centres of Old Believers in Poland – in Augustów, Suwałki and Mrągowo counties (the Masurian district. The basis for gathering the material was a special questionnaire formulated by the author which contained peculiarities of religion and culture of Old Believers. The questionnaire consists of 220 questions concerning the following topics: sacred buildings, belfry, monastery, cemetary, icons, religious books, Old Believer­ rosary, thurible, candles, a so called podrucznik (i.e. a small cushion used for kneeling and putting hands during bowing, christening, marriage, funeral, ritual food, lent, holidays, names of confessions, clergy, ritual clothes and other names (clergymen and other. The sound of names provided by informants was preserved. The records were done using simplified phonetic transcription. A small dictionary attached to the questionnaire explains less known terms and phrases.   Религиозная терминология в старообрядческих островных говорах в Польше и в Болгарии (записи 1969–1973 годов Записи были проведены автором в старообрядческих деревнях в авгус­товском и мронговском районе (Мазурия в Польше и в варненском и силистерском районе в Болгарии. Материал собирался по особому вопроснику, разработанному с учетом характерных черт старообрядческой религиозной культуры. Учтены следующие

  2. Zamowy białoruskie oraz inne teksty ludowego lekarowania jako dowód na przenikanie się języków i kultur na obszarze byłego Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

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    Krystyna Szcześniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Belorussian zamowy and other folk medicine texts as evidence for linguistic and cultural permeation in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania This paper presents the lexical material stored in the Belorussian zamowy: names of holidays, prayers, designations of the sacred and clergy portaits, as well as names and nationalities. The documentation, coming from two sets of Belorussian zamowy (addresses given in references, shows clearly that these texts – which usually come with a classic construction, important for those telling them – preserved traces of multilingualism, different religions and dialects, as well as the information about the nationalities residing in the area. Some lexemes (or groups of lexemes mix two or three languages. What is more, it often occurs that literary language and the standard variety (Polish are mixed with Belorussian dialects, which stems from the historical circumstances the area studied. Such information could be preserved in zamowy because słowa or szepty (as they were called had strictly defined structure, and had to include certain lexemes that always came in the same pre-defined order.   Белорусские заговоры и другие тексты народного лечения как свидетельство взаимопроникновения языков на территории бывшего Великого княжества Литовского Статья представляет лексический материал, содержащийся в белoрусских заговорах, который касается названий праздников, молитв, определений изображений святых и священников, а также имен святых и национальностей. Документация, почерпнутая из двух книг белoрусских заговоров, выходные данные к

  3. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

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    Ivanišević Vujadin

    2016-01-01

    Town fortifications a settlement developed with its radially distributed rows of buildings cascading down the slope. In the eastern part of the plateau there is the horreum, adjoined from the east by another building - the storage called Building with Pillars. Larger than the other buildings and constructed in opus mixtum, the two buildings follow the route of the Upper Town’s northern street, all of which indicates that they belong to the initial construction phase. One should not exclude the possibility that this part of the town was originally conceived as an economic district with storages and similar edifices. By all appearances, the original concept was soon abandoned. Already at the time of Justinian a settlement of numerous smaller buildings was created. With their walls of stone and wattle and daub, the buildings were roofed with tiles. Yet one should underscore that this construction phase, although less sophisticated than the first one, was accomplished according to a previously prepared plan; the spread of the buildings speaks to that effect. Shortly afterwards, if not at the same time, buildings were erected along the outer face of the Acropolis rampart - a clear indication of abandoning urban planning (Fig. 9. Public space was turned into private, in spite of the legal proscriptions of that time. During the last phase of the town’s life the buildings described, whether public or private, were partitioned into small rooms, often with fireplaces and with some of their entrances walled up. Just like the edifices constructed in opus mixtum, some of the more modest buildings from the second construction phase were used to store food - namely buildings 11 and 15C. The plan of this part of the site points to an organised settlement, most probably inhabited by persons servicing a significant clergy and administration. On the other hand, except for some houses - such as building 18 - small buildings along the Acropolis fortification, facing the main street