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Sample records for clematis drayton anthozoa

  1. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis

  2. Automatic operation of CSR Drayton coal stockyard. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauerbach, R

    1985-12-01

    The automatic remote control of the stackers and reclaimer at the coal stockyard of the CSR Drayton opencast coal mine in Australia is described. Each machine is controlled by an on-board programmable logic controller (PLC) which monitors the machine location in its working section in relation to the other machines and can halt operations should any danger of a collision be imminent.

  3. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

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    Elvira A. González Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977, from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circunscript sphincter pinnate type. The axis has a truncated cone shape while in P. clematis the shape is cylindrical on its origin and it is bifurcated at the end. Both species experiments were carried out using the isolated muscles. They were stimulated at increasing KCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 200 mM. The results were analysed in the form of dose-response curves expressed in tension in grams force vs concentration. Contractil force increases in a sigmoid form to increasing KCl concentrations. The correlation between morphology and function and the differences shown in both species would be related to their intertidal distribution.Se realizó la caracterización de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 y Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977 del ecosistema intermareal mediante estudio morfológico y funcional. La especie P. clematis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo palmado. Este músculo está constituido por un eje mesogloeal y varios subejes mesogloeales. Tanto el eje como los subejes dan soporte al endodermo cuyo borde es liso. La especie A. marplatensis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo pinnado. El eje tiene forma de cono truncado mientras que en P. clematis es cilíndrico en su origen bifurcándose en su parte final. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo usando el músculo aislado de ambas especies. Estos fueron estimulados a concentraciones crecientes de KCl en un rango de 20 a 200 mM. Los resultados

  4. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  5. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Clematis tangutica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Da-Wa, Zhuo-Ma; Guo, Da-Le; Fang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Xi; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Xia, Bing; Chen, Lei; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Eight previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, clematangoticosides A-H, together with eight known saponins, were isolated from the whole plants of Clematis tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, in combination with chemical methods (acid hydrolysis and mild alkaline hydrolysis). Clematangoticosides D-G were found to be unusual 23, 28-bidesmosidic glycosides. The cytotoxic activities of all of the isolated saponins were evaluated against the four human cancer cell lines SGC-7901, HepG2, HL-60 and U251MG. Clematoside S, sapindoside B, kalopanax saponin A, and koelreuteria saponin A exhibited cytotoxicity against all of the test cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.88-27.20 μM, while clematangoticoside D and F showed selective cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 with IC50 values of 24.22 and 21.35 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kaempferol tri- and tetraglycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2012-02-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivar "Jackmanii Superba", together with a known kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1). The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Occurrence of blockage in cut stems of Clematis L.

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    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During vase life of cut flowers obstructions in stem xylem vessels develop. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake in stems and its transport towards flowers, thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity. Clematis is a very attractive plant which can be used as a cut flower in floral compositions. However, nothing is known about the histochemical or cytolo- gical nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. Observations carried out on Clematis cv. 'Solidarność' proved that tyloses appeared as a principal source of xylem blockage in cut stems. The preservative composed of 200 mg × dm-3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arre-sted development of xylem blockage, while the vessels in stems kept in water were filled with tyloses or an amorphic substance. PAS reaction proved that polysaccharides were present in the xylem occlusions, whereas no homogalacturonans were immunolocalized in tyloses using JIM 5 and JIM 7 antibodies. The present study provides new information on the origin of xylem occlusions in clematis and their development in two different vase solutions. Such information can be useful to develop pro- per postharvest treatments aiming to improve keeping qualities of this new cut flower.

  8. Identification of Xylem Occlusions Occurring in Cut Clematis (Clematis L., fam. Ranunculaceae Juss. Stems during Their Vase Life

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    Agata Jedrzejuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the vase life of cut stems obstruction of xylem vessels occurs due to microbial growth, formation of tyloses, deposition of materials in the lumen of xylem vessels and the presence of air emboli in the vascular system. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake and its transport towards upwards thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity of cut flowers. Clematis is a very attractive plant material which may be used as cut flower in floral compositions. Nothing is known about the histochemical or cytological nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. This study shows that in clematis, tyloses are the main source of occlusions, although bacteria and some amorphic substances may also appear inside the vessels. A preservative composed of 200 mg dm−3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arrested bacterial development and the growth of tyloses. This information can be helpful in the development of new treatments to improve keeping qualities of cut clematis stems.

  9. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Clematis argentilucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Ma, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Haifeng; Liu, Xinyou

    2014-09-01

    Reinvestigation of the n-BuOH extract of the roots of Clematis argentilucida led to the isolation of a new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin 1 and a new taraxerane-type saponin 2, four known saponins 3-6 first isolated from the species, together with seven saponins 7-13 reported in the previous papers. The structures of saponins 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The ursane-type and taraxerane-type triterpenoid saponins were obtained from genus Clematis for the first time, and the aglycone of saponin 1, 3β,28-dihydroxy-18αH-ursan-20-en was first encountered. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated against human glioblastoma U251MG cell lines. The monodesmosidic saponins 1, 2 and 4-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cells with IC50 values ranging from 6.95 to 38.51 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kaempferol 3,7,4'-glycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2013-08-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7,4'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivars "Jackmanii Superba" and "Fujimusume", together with the known compound kaempferol 3,7,4'-tri-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2). The chemical structures of the isolated kaemferol glycosides were established by UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and characterization of acid hydrolysates.

  11. Vojnovskytesidae - a new family of Mississippian Rugosa (Anthozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy; Kullmann, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Fedorowski, J. and Kullmann, J. 2013. Vojnovskytesidae - a new family of Mississippian Rugosa (Anthozoa). Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 657-679. Warszawa. Two new species of the genus Vojnovskytes Fedorowski, 2009, namely V. marcinowskii and V. arcuatus, and a new genus, Vojnimitor, based on the new species V. proiectus, all from Mississippian strata of northern Spain, are described. Vojnovskytes variabilis (Vojnovsky-Krieger, 1934), the type species for the genus from the lowermost Visean strata of southern Urals, also is discussed and illustrated. Characters displayed by the taxa mentioned permit introduction of a new family Vojnovskytesidae.

  12. Effect of CO2 on somatic embryos development Coffea arabica L. cv. ‘Caturra rojo’ and Clematis tangutica K.

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    Raúl Barbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies to optimize somatic embryogenesis have traditionally focused on the components of the culture medium but little other in vitro environment factors have been analyzed such as the composition of the gaseous atmosphere. The objective of this work was to determine the influence of CO2 on the development of the somatic embryo during the transition from the globular to the torpedo stage. The research was carried out on two model species for somatic embryogenesis that they are developed in different climatic zones: Coffea arabica L. cv. ‘Caturra rojo’ and Clematis tangutica K. Three CO2 concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% combined with 21% O2 and two controls (passive exchange and forced ventilation were used. The effect of CO2 on the differentiation of somatic embryos from globular to torpedo stage in coffee and clematis was demonstrated, since in the treatments with passive exchange, where there was accumulation of CO2, the differentiation of somatic embryos was superior to treatments with forced ventilation. With 5.0% CO2 the process of differentiation of the embryos in the globular stage was stimulated, because in the treatment with this concentration of CO2 for coffee and clematis the highest proportion of embryos in torpedo stages and low levels of malformation were obtained.   Keywords: carbon dioxide, differentiation, in vitro environment, somatic embryogenesis

  13. Leaf proteome analysis of clematis chinensis: a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) by two-dimensional electrophoresis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussaini, T.; Azami, S.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf proteome of Clematis chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The samples were extracted by phenol-SDS method (PSM) with high protein quantity i.e. 2.35, 0.345 mg/g (yield/dw). Proteins were visualized by staining of gels by silver stain and CBB. The gel images of each species were compared by Image Master 2D Platinum software for analytical purpose. The 2-DE profile depicted distribution of 1085 spots and out of these only 255 protein spots (23.5%) were common to all analyzed taxa. The visualized protein spots showed pI range from 3.0 to 10.0 (pH) and Mr of 7 kDa to 70 kDa. Twelve proteins were exclusively specific to C. chinensis when compared with its allies, C. finetiana and C. armandii, which may be used as biomarkers. Thirteen proteins were up-regulated in C. finetiana (0.75-0.95 fold) and twelve proteins in C. armandii (1.05-1.66 fold) whilst seven proteins down-regulated (0.66-0.94 fold) in former and three proteins (1.07-1.20 fold) in later one in comparison with C. chinensis. Twenty five differential and similar protein spots were picked and analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Identified proteins are related to energy metabolism (ATP synthesis), photosynthesis. environmental stimuli, regulating RNA metabolism, growth hormone regulators, evolutionary trends and gene expression. The efficiency and applicability of proteomic approach as biomarker for identification of C. chinensis is discussed in its quality control (QC) perspectives. Leaf proteins of Clematis plants are explored for the first time by 2-DE technique and debated for their metabolic role. (author)

  14. Determination of taxonomic status of chinese species of the genus clematis by using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Ahmed, H.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative taxonomic study using chemometric and numerical taxonomic approaches on 15 populations of 12 species of major taxa of the genus Clematis, belonging to sections, Rectae, Clematis, Meclatis, Tubulosae and Viorna were analyzed by HPLC coupled with diode array detector and ESI-MS. The chemo diversity profile of saponins proved to be useful taxonomic markers for the genus and results are presented in pheno grams. The compound 'Huzhangoside D' was the most abundant in analyzed species of the genus. Numerical taxonomic study was also conducted based on phylogenetically informative characters which corroborated with chemical fingerprinting findings. The significance of chemical markers in taxonomic study as well as their correlation between morphology and chemical compound profile is also debated with its significant role in botanic drugs identification. (author)

  15. Influence of the in vitro environment on the germination of somatic embryos of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Caturra rojo' and Clematis tangutica K.

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    Raúl Barbon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro environment is a factor that in recent years has begun to investigate, because gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and ethylene play an important role in the morphogenesis of somatic embryos and their development in plants. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the CO2 on the germination of coffee somatic embryos (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Caturra rojo' and clematis (Clematis tangutica K.. Three gas mixtures composed of CO2 concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% combined with 21% O2 and two controls (passive exchange and forced ventilation were used. A positive effect of CO2 on the germination of somatic embryos in the torpedo stage in coffee and clematis was obtained, because in the treatments with passive exchange, where there was CO2 accumulation, germination of the somatic embryos was superior to the treatments with Forced ventilation. With 2.5% and 5.0% CO2, the germination process is stimulated while with 10.0% CO2 there is an inhibition of germination with the appearance of malformations and hyperhydricity.   Keywords: gaseous atmosphere, carbon dioxide, somatic embryogenesis, secondary embryogenesis, hyperhydricity

  16. Cyphastreakausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Bouwmeester, Jessica, Benzoni, Francesca, Baird, Andrew H., Berumen, Michael L. (2015): Cyphastreakausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea. ZooKeys 496: 1-13, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.496.9433, URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.496.9433

  17. Palytoxin Found in Palythoa sp. Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Sold in the Home Aquarium Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Handy, Sara M.; White, Kevin D.; Reimer, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50) in mice 300 ng/kg), but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant co...

  18. Isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC against snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) computational and in vitro insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu; Chinnasamy, Selvakumar

    2017-07-01

    Bioactive compounds were isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. The compounds were separated, characterized, the structures elucidated and submitted to the PubChem Database. The PubChem Ids SID 249494134 and SID 249494135 were tested against phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 ) of Naja naja (Indian cobra) venom for PLA 2 activity. Both the compounds showed promising inhibitory activity; computational data also substantiated the results. The two compounds underwent density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential profile. Molecular interactions between the compounds and PLA 2 were observed at the binding pocket of the PLA 2 protein. Further, this protein-ligand complexes were simulated for a timescale of 100 ns of molecular dynamics simulation. Experimental and computational results showed significant PLA 2 inhibition activity.

  19. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L.) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Scleractinia, Anthozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delvoye, Laurent

    1992-01-01

    DELVOYE, L., 1992. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: Algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Sclereactinia, Anthozoa). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam

  20. Computational and in vitro insights on snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor of phytocompound ikshusterol3-O-glucoside of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-12-14

    Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity. In addition, molecular docking, quantum polarized ligand docking, prime MMGBSA calculation, and induced fit docking were performed to predict the binding status of SID 249494133 with the active site of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) (PDB ID: 1A3D). The stability of the compound in the active site of PLA 2 was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the anti-venom activity of the compound was assessed using the PLA 2 assay against Naja naja (Indian cobra) crude venom. The results strongly show that Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside has a potent snake-venom neutralizing capacity and it might be a potential molecule for the therapeutic treatment for snakebites.

  1. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post γ-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H 2 O 2 and 60 Co γ-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H 2 O 2 ( 2 O 2 (30% v/v) produced a small difference. 60 Co γ-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and between species. PC=Os can be detected by DNPH-reactivity/Western blotting assay in host A. agaricites. UPCs can be assayed via Western

  2. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  3. First records of Parazoanthidae and Microzoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the first records of the families Parazoanthidae and Microzoanthidae and by extension for the suborder Macrocnemina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from the Red Sea. Despite a long history of zoantharian research in the region, previous records only reported species of the suborder Brachycnemina, from the genera Zoanthus and Palythoa. Both Parazoanthus sp. and Microzoanthus sp. specimens were first found from the same small coral cave at a reef at Jaz\\'air Sila, Saudi Arabia, and subsequently observed at another location in the northern Red Sea. Numerous Antipathozoanthus sp. colonies were observed at Marker 9 north of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia in association with antipatharians inside small caves. The Parazoanthus sp. was in association with numerous encrusting sponge species on the roof of the cave, similar to previously reported undescribed species in the Pacific Ocean. Microzoanthus sp. was found on hard rubble on the cave floor. These records represent large range extensions (e.g. thousands of kilometres) for each genus, demonstrating the overall lack of research on the order Zoantharia, especially within the Red Sea. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2014.

  4. First records of Parazoanthidae and Microzoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis; Uyeno, Daisuke; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the first records of the families Parazoanthidae and Microzoanthidae and by extension for the suborder Macrocnemina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from the Red Sea. Despite a long history of zoantharian research in the region, previous records only reported species of the suborder Brachycnemina, from the genera Zoanthus and Palythoa. Both Parazoanthus sp. and Microzoanthus sp. specimens were first found from the same small coral cave at a reef at Jaz'air Sila, Saudi Arabia, and subsequently observed at another location in the northern Red Sea. Numerous Antipathozoanthus sp. colonies were observed at Marker 9 north of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia in association with antipatharians inside small caves. The Parazoanthus sp. was in association with numerous encrusting sponge species on the roof of the cave, similar to previously reported undescribed species in the Pacific Ocean. Microzoanthus sp. was found on hard rubble on the cave floor. These records represent large range extensions (e.g. thousands of kilometres) for each genus, demonstrating the overall lack of research on the order Zoantharia, especially within the Red Sea. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2014.

  5. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia sold in the home aquarium trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Deeds

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50 in mice 300 ng/kg, but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4 to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid. One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  6. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) sold in the home aquarium trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Handy, Sara M; White, Kevin D; Reimer, James D

    2011-04-04

    Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50) in mice 300 ng/kg), but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4) to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid). One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  7. Zooxanthellate zoantharians (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia: Brachycnemina) in the northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis; Montenegro, Javier; Santos, Maria E. A.; Low, Martyn E. Y.; Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Gatins, Remy; Roberts, May B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Red Sea was one of the first areas of the Indo-Pacific to be investigated by marine taxonomists, and the literature on suborder Brachycnemina (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) for this region dates from the early nineteenth century. However, in the last 100 years there has been only one focused study on this group in the Red Sea. In the present study, specimens collected from the Saudi Arabian coast of the northern half of the Red Sea were phylogenetically analyzed by sequencing nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA), mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S–rDNA). The new results were compared with historical data in the literature and recent results from the Persian Gulf and the southeastern coast of Africa. Results show the presence of six to seven potential Brachycnemina species in the Red Sea; five to six Palythoa species (Palythoa mutuki, P. tuberculosa, P. cf. heliodiscus, P. aff. heliodiscus, and one to two species within the P. sp. “sakurajimensis” group) together with Zoanthus sansibaricus. While P. mutuki, P. tuberculosa, and Z. sansibaricus are known to be widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, P. cf. heliodiscus and P. sp. “sakurajimensis” have not been reported from the Persian Gulf or the southeastern coast of Africa, and the current results represent large range extensions for these two species. Only one of the observed species, P. aff. heliodiscus, is potentially endemic to the Red Sea, further demonstrating the generally wide distributions of most zooxanthellate Brachycnemina species.

  8. Zooxanthellate zoantharians (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia: Brachycnemina) in the northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis

    2017-05-12

    The Red Sea was one of the first areas of the Indo-Pacific to be investigated by marine taxonomists, and the literature on suborder Brachycnemina (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) for this region dates from the early nineteenth century. However, in the last 100 years there has been only one focused study on this group in the Red Sea. In the present study, specimens collected from the Saudi Arabian coast of the northern half of the Red Sea were phylogenetically analyzed by sequencing nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA), mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S–rDNA). The new results were compared with historical data in the literature and recent results from the Persian Gulf and the southeastern coast of Africa. Results show the presence of six to seven potential Brachycnemina species in the Red Sea; five to six Palythoa species (Palythoa mutuki, P. tuberculosa, P. cf. heliodiscus, P. aff. heliodiscus, and one to two species within the P. sp. “sakurajimensis” group) together with Zoanthus sansibaricus. While P. mutuki, P. tuberculosa, and Z. sansibaricus are known to be widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, P. cf. heliodiscus and P. sp. “sakurajimensis” have not been reported from the Persian Gulf or the southeastern coast of Africa, and the current results represent large range extensions for these two species. Only one of the observed species, P. aff. heliodiscus, is potentially endemic to the Red Sea, further demonstrating the generally wide distributions of most zooxanthellate Brachycnemina species.

  9. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Abeytia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25m using three 10m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  10. Conodonta, Trilobita, and Anthozoa near the Late Frasnian Upper Kellwasser Event of the Geipel Quarry section in Schleiz, Thuringian Mountains (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weyer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New recoveries of Trilobita, Anthozoa and Conodonta from the linguiformis Zone close to the Frasnian/Famennian boundary and Immediately preceding the Upper Kellwasser Event level at Schleiz (Thuringia are investigated. The trilobites species are Harpes neogracilis Richter & Richter, 1924, Palpebralia cf. brecciae (Richter, 1913 and Acuticryphops acuticeps (Kayser, 1889, the latter is represented by several morphs with different numbers of eye-lenses; the trend to eye-reduction is discussed. The Rugosa fauna that was nearly unknown from the psychrospheric facies worldwide, comprise six taxa of the Cyathaxoniina. The rich conodont faunas permit tracing the exact boundary between the top of the Late Palmatolepis rhenana Zone and the Palmatolepis linguiformis Zone. Im Niveau der Frasnium/Famennium-Grenze werden neue Fossilfunde der letzten Trilobita, Anthozoa und Conodonta aus der linguiformis-Zone (vor dem Oberen Kellwasser-Event mitgeteilt. Harpes neogracilis Richter & Richter, 1924, Palpebralia cf. brecciae (Richter, 1913 und Acuticryphops acuticeps (Kayser, 1889 wurden beobachtet; bei letzterem wird an Hand verschiedener Morphen mit unterschiedlicher Linsenzahl der Trend zur Augenreduktion diskutiert. Von der Rugosa-Fauna, die weltweit aus solcher psychrosphaerischer Fazies fast unbekannt blieb, sind sechs Taxa der Cyathaxoniina skizziert. Die reichen Condonta-Faunen erlauben eine präzise Grenzziehung zwischen dem Top der Late Palmatolepis rhenana-Zone und der Palmatolepis linguiformis-Zone. doi:10.1002/mmng.20030060104

  11. The Holo-Transcriptome of the Zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: A Plentiful Source of Enzymes for Potential Application in Green Chemistry, Industrial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Étienne R. L. Morlighem

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals, form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides. In the present study, we analyzed the entire holo-transcriptome of P. variabilis, looking for enzyme precursors expressed in the zoantharian-microbiota assemblage that are potentially useful as industrial biocatalysts and biopharmaceuticals. In addition to hundreds of predicted enzymes that fit into the classes of hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases that were found, novel enzyme precursors with multiple activities in single structures and enzymes with incomplete Enzyme Commission numbers were revealed. Our results indicated the predictive expression of thirteen multifunctional enzymes and 694 enzyme sequences with partially characterized activities, distributed in 23 sub-subclasses. These predicted enzyme structures and activities can prospectively be harnessed for applications in diverse areas of industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology.

  12. Clematis chinensis Extract Protects against Diabetic Nephropathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholesterol (LDL-c, 0.71 ... high-fat diet (HFD). The HFD consisted of 40 % fat, 41 % carbohydrate, and 18 % protein for 8 weeks. After an overnight fast, HFD-fed rats were injected intravenously ... injection, the rats were killed by carbon dioxide.

  13. Mutis o la trampa de la Mutisia Clematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Pérez Mejía

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen muchas pinturas y esculturas que recuerdan a José Celestino Mutis. No en vano pasó veintidós años rodeado de una tropa de pintores, dibujando la flora de la Nueva Granada. También él quedó eternizado en varias pinturas y ahora preside salones de museos y universidades, de tal manera que se puede suponer que la imagen es inmediatamente reconocible para los colombianos. Hay una pintura particularmente común que adornaba mi libro de ciencias naturales de tercero elemental. Era la pintura de un hombre viejo suspendido en un pedestal de mármol, rodeado de instrumentos de medición y libros de anotaciones botánicas. Una planta enredadera, que parece salida de uno de los libros que rodean al personaje, subía por la base del busto y delicadamente se posaba sobre su cuerpo. Debajo se leía: "Mutis: sabio y precursor de la independencia"

  14. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  15. Early Bashkirian Rugosa (Anthozoa) from the Donets Basin (Ukraine). Part 6. The Family Aulophyllidae Dybowski, 1873

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Seven genera (one new), belonging to four subfamilies, seven named species (six new), four species left in open nomenclature and two specimens included in this paper as unnamed Aulophyllidae are described from strata ranging from the lowermost Bashkirian Limestone D510 to the lower Bashkirian Limestone F1. A new genus: Voragoaxum and six new species: Dibunophyllum medium, Dibunophylloides columnatus, D. paulus, D. similis, Voragoaxum cavum and Rozkowskia lenta are introduced. Comparison of the ontogeny of the earliest Bashkirian species of Nina Fedorowski, 2017a and Dibunophylloides Fomichev, 1953 suggest the derivation by descent of the Family Bothrophyllidae from the Subfamily Dibunophyllinae. This means that true bothrophylla are absent in the Mississippian strata of the Western European Province and, perhaps, in the contemporaneous strata of other areas as well.

  16. Regulation of apoptotic pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae to survive thermal stress and bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Kvitt

    Full Text Available Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C, caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6-48 h and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival.

  17. Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Scotia Arc, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The genus Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, C.; Ramil, F.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium collected by the Spanish Antarctic Expeditions "Antártida 8611" and "Bentart 95" are described and figured: Alcyonium paucilobulatum, A. grandis and A. southgeorgiensis. Another two species, A. antarcticum Wright & Studer, 1889, and Alcyonium sollasi Wright & Studer,

  18. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Liñán-Cabello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and ultraviolet radiation (UVR for 32h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST, chlorophyll a (Chl a, carotenoid pigments (CPs, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in combination and cause irreversible damage. The implementation of a management plan for the coralline reefs of the Mexican Pacific coast is required. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 103-118. Epub 2010 March 01.Los arrecifes de coral se ven afectados por una serie de variables ambientales que afectan su crecimiento y supervivencia, siendo los principales factores la alta irradiación y las fluctuaciones de temperatura. Los especímenes de Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 fueron expuestos a radiación activa fotosintéticamente (PAR y radiación ultravioleta (RUV por 32h en condiciones de laboratorio. Nosotros determinamos las concentraciones de peroxidación lipídica (MDA, actividades de enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, CAT, GPx y GST, clorofila a (Chl a, pigmentos carotenoides (CPS, aminoácidos tipo micosporina (MAAS, y la expulsión de las zooxantelas. Nuestros resultados muestran que los corales expuestos a los rayos UV presentaban niveles relativamente bajos de carotenoides y actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes en comparación con los expuestos al PAR, así como tasas de CPs/Chl a bajas. Aunque MAAs y CPs se producen rápidamente como antioxidantes no enzimáticos en respuesta a la radiación ultravioleta en los corales, éstos no fueron suficientes, incluso en la fase oscura del experimento, para mitigar los daños causados por la formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS, lo que provocó una ruptura en la relación simbiótica entre las zooxantelas y el coral con una relación 33 veces mayor que en el tratamiento de PAR. A nivel enzimático, P capitata presentó una serie de ajustes orientados a resistir los efectos derivados de la propagación de ROS y con ello favorecer su adaptación y capacidad reproductiva en ambientes oceánicos caracterizados por altos niveles de UVR.

  19. The sea anemone Bunodactis octoradiata (Anthozoa: Actiniaria from southern Patagonia: morphological study and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Garese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunodactis Verril, 1899 comprises at present 19 nominal species of sea anemones. The validity of the genus is under discussion. The description of the species, Bunodactis octoradiata Carlgren, 1899, is insufficient for reliable identification, and although subsequent works have provided additional information on the species, its description still needs to be complemented. Herein we describe B. octoradiata based on histological sections of the internal anatomy, and give a complete and detailed description of the external anatomy. The cnidom is composed of spirocysts, basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores; their distribution in the organism, sizes and relative abundances are provided. The presence of zooxanthellae is reported for the first time. Bunodactis octoradiata is distributed in groups that vary from 5.6 to 45 ind./m² in the field. Additionally, our data extends the distribution of the species along the coast of southern Patagonia (47°44'36"-49°15'13"S and 65°50'26"-67°39'45"W.

  20. High reproductive synchrony of Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2015-01-05

    Coral spawning in the northern Gulf of Aqaba has been reported to be asynchronous, making it almost unique when compared to other regions in the world. Here, we document the reproductive condition of Acropora corals in early June 2014 in Dahab, in the Gulf of Aqaba, 125 km south of previous studies conducted in Eilat, Israel. Seventy-eight percent of Acropora colonies from 14 species had mature eggs, indicating that most colonies will spawn on or around the June full moon, with a very high probability of multi-species synchronous spawning. Given the proximity to Eilat, we predict that a comparable sampling protocol would detect similar levels of reproductive synchrony throughout the Gulf of Aqaba consistent with the hypothesis that high levels of spawning synchrony are a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.

  1. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in combination and cause irreversible damage. The implementation of a management plan for the coralline reefs of the Mexican Pacific coast is required.

  2. Taxonomic classification of the reef coral family Lobophylliidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Danwei; Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy; Smith, Nathan D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Chou, Loke Ming; Budd, Ann F.

    2016-01-01

    Lobophylliidae is a family-level clade of corals within the ‘robust’ lineage of Scleractinia. It comprises species traditionally classified as Indo-Pacific ‘mussids’, ‘faviids’, and ‘pectiniids’. Following detailed revisions of the closely related families Merulinidae, Mussidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae, this monograph focuses on the taxonomy of Lobophylliidae. Specifically, we studied 44 of a total of 54 living lobophylliid species from all 11 genera based on an integrative analysis of colony, corallite, and subcorallite morphology with molecular sequence data. By examining coral skeletal features at three distinct levels – macromorphology, micromorphology, and microstructure – we built a morphological matrix comprising 46 characters. Data were analysed via maximum parsimony and transformed onto a robust molecular phylogeny inferred using two nuclear (histone H3 and internal transcribed spacers) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) DNA loci. The results suggest that micromorphological characters exhibit the lowest level of homoplasy within Lobophylliidae. Molecular and morphological trees show that Symphyllia, Parascolymia, and Australomussa should be considered junior synonyms of Lobophyllia, whereas Lobophyllia pachysepta needs to be transferred to Acanthastrea. Our analyses also lend strong support to recent revisions of Acanthastrea, which has been reorganized into five separate genera (Lobophyllia, Acanthastrea, Homophyllia, Sclerophyllia, and Micromussa), and to the establishment of Australophyllia. Cynarina and the monotypic Moseleya remain unchanged, and there are insufficient data to redefine Oxypora, Echinophyllia, and Echinomorpha. Finally, all lobophylliid genera are diagnosed under the phylogenetic classification system proposed here, which will facilitate the placement of extinct taxa on the scleractinian tree of life.

  3. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not show any disturbance effects, but the increasing economic development of Manzanillo, as one of the main commercial ports of Mexico, its proximity to the reef, and the burgeoning number of tourists, may have some ecosystem impacts, for which management and conservation plans for Colima coastline are highly recommended.

  4. Taxonomic Study of Suborder Calcaxonia (Alcyonacea: Octocorallia: Anthozoa) from King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Im Song; Sung-Jin Hwang; Haewon Moon; In-Young An

    2012-01-01

    Some gorgonians in the families, Primnoidae and Isididae within the suborder Calcaxonia were collected from subtidal zones between depths of 10 and 45 m in the coastal regions of King Sejong Station (62??13′S, 058?? 47′W), Korea Polar Research Institute of Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) by SCUBA diving from 2009 to 2011. Three species in the Primnoidae, Arntzia gracilis (Molander, 1929), Thouarella (Thouarella) antarctica (Valenciennes, 1846) and Onogorgia nodosa (Mola...

  5. Taxonomic Study of Suborder Calcaxonia (Alcyonacea: Octocorallia: Anthozoa from King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Im Song

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some gorgonians in the families, Primnoidae and Isididae within the suborder Calcaxonia were collected from subtidal zones between depths of 10 and 45 m in the coastal regions of King Sejong Station (62??13′S, 058?? 47′W, Korea Polar Research Institute of Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI by SCUBA diving from 2009 to 2011. Three species in the Primnoidae, Arntzia gracilis (Molander, 1929, Thouarella (Thouarella antarctica (Valenciennes, 1846 and Onogorgia nodosa (Molander, 1929, and also one species in the family Isididae, Tenuisis microspiculata (Molander, 1929 are newly recorded to octocorallian fauna in Marian Cove and Potter Cove of King George Island. These four species have been described in detail.

  6. High reproductive synchrony of Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    , in the Gulf of Aqaba, 125 km south of previous studies conducted in Eilat, Israel. Seventy-eight percent of Acropora colonies from 14 species had mature eggs, indicating that most colonies will spawn on or around the June full moon, with a very high

  7. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group.

  8. A new species of Sarcodictyon (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; Nuñez, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of Stolonifera, Sarcodictyon canariensis, from Tenerife, Canary Islands, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its large size, the form of its sclerites and internal anatomy. The material was collected at a depth of 95-130 m in the community of Dendrophyllia ramea

  9. Influence of Palythoa caribaeorum (Anthozoa, Cnidaria zonation on site-attached reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Mendonça-Neto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to test the influence of Palythoa caribeorum, a widely distributed zoanthid in the Atlantic, on site-attached reef fish in a subtropical rocky shore. Density, richness and vertical distribution of reef fish inside (ID and outside (OD previously chosen P. caribaeorum dominance patches were compared through stationary visual censuses along three different periods. Fishes were grouped in different trophic guilds to evidence differences in resources uses in both treatments. A complexity index was estimated by the chain link method and percentage covering of benthic organisms was obtained analyzing random points from replicated photo-quadrats. We observed thirty-eight species of fishes, belonging to twenty-five families. Reef fish communities between studied patches were similar,both in terms of species composition and vertical distribution. Considering only the most site-attached fishes, which were the most frequent and abundant species, data showed that ID sustains higher diversity and abundance than OD. Results showed that benthic composition differ significantly among patches whereas complexity remained without differences. Otherwise, results indicated that these areas might play an important role in space limitation, structuring neighboring benthic community and consequently reef fish assemblages.Este estudo visou testar a influência de Palythoa caribeorum, um zoantídeo amplamente distribuído no Atlântico, na estruturação da comunidade de peixes recifais associados a um costão rochoso de uma região subtropical. A densidade, a riqueza e a distribuição vertical de peixes recifais em áreas previamente selecionadas com e sem a dominância de Palythoa caribaeorum foram comparadas através de censos visuais estacionários em três períodos distintos de tempo. Os peixes foram agrupados em guildas tróficas a fim de evidenciar diferenças nos usos dos recursos nas diferentes áreas analisadas. Foram analisados também índices de complexidade estrutural através do método da corrente e os percentuais de cobertura bentônica através de fotos quadracts replicados. Foram registradas trinta e oito espécies de peixes recifais de vinte e cinco famílias diferentes. Acomunidade de peixes entre as áreas estudadas foi similar tanto em composição de espécies quanto em distribuição vertical. Considerando apenas as espécies mais associadas ao substrato, que foram as mais freqüentes e abundantes, os dados mostraram que as áreas com dominância de P. caribaeorum sustentam maior diversidade e abundância do que as áreas sem a dominância de P. caribaeorum. Foram encontradas ainda diferenças significativas na composição bentônica entre os diferentes tratamentos estudados, mas não foram verificadas diferenças entre a complexidade estrutural entre estas áreas. No entanto, os resultados sugerem que as áreas com dominância de P. caribaeorum podem desempenhar papel importante na limitação de espaços, estruturando as comunidades bentônicas e, conseqüentemente, afetando a comunidade de peixes recifais.

  10. Taxonomic classification of the reef coral family Lobophylliidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Danwei

    2016-10-14

    Lobophylliidae is a family-level clade of corals within the ‘robust’ lineage of Scleractinia. It comprises species traditionally classified as Indo-Pacific ‘mussids’, ‘faviids’, and ‘pectiniids’. Following detailed revisions of the closely related families Merulinidae, Mussidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae, this monograph focuses on the taxonomy of Lobophylliidae. Specifically, we studied 44 of a total of 54 living lobophylliid species from all 11 genera based on an integrative analysis of colony, corallite, and subcorallite morphology with molecular sequence data. By examining coral skeletal features at three distinct levels – macromorphology, micromorphology, and microstructure – we built a morphological matrix comprising 46 characters. Data were analysed via maximum parsimony and transformed onto a robust molecular phylogeny inferred using two nuclear (histone H3 and internal transcribed spacers) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) DNA loci. The results suggest that micromorphological characters exhibit the lowest level of homoplasy within Lobophylliidae. Molecular and morphological trees show that Symphyllia, Parascolymia, and Australomussa should be considered junior synonyms of Lobophyllia, whereas Lobophyllia pachysepta needs to be transferred to Acanthastrea. Our analyses also lend strong support to recent revisions of Acanthastrea, which has been reorganized into five separate genera (Lobophyllia, Acanthastrea, Homophyllia, Sclerophyllia, and Micromussa), and to the establishment of Australophyllia. Cynarina and the monotypic Moseleya remain unchanged, and there are insufficient data to redefine Oxypora, Echinophyllia, and Echinomorpha. Finally, all lobophylliid genera are diagnosed under the phylogenetic classification system proposed here, which will facilitate the placement of extinct taxa on the scleractinian tree of life.

  11. Revisiting the phylogeny of Zoanthidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Staggered alignment of hypervariable sequences improves species tree inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D

    2018-01-01

    The recent rapid proliferation of novel taxon identification in the Zoanthidea has been accompanied by a parallel propagation of gene trees as a tool of species discovery, but not a corresponding increase in our understanding of phylogeny. This disparity is caused by the trade-off between the capabilities of automated DNA sequence alignment and data content of genes applied to phylogenetic inference in this group. Conserved genes or segments are easily aligned across the order, but produce poorly resolved trees; hypervariable genes or segments contain the evolutionary signal necessary for resolution and robust support, but sequence alignment is daunting. Staggered alignments are a form of phylogeny-informed sequence alignment composed of a mosaic of local and universal regions that allow phylogenetic inference to be applied to all nucleotides from both hypervariable and conserved gene segments. Comparisons between species tree phylogenies inferred from all data (staggered alignment) and hypervariable-excluded data (standard alignment) demonstrate improved confidence and greater topological agreement with other sources of data for the complete-data tree. This novel phylogeny is the most comprehensive to date (in terms of taxa and data) and can serve as an expandable tool for evolutionary hypothesis testing in the Zoanthidea. Spanish language abstract available in Text S1. Translation by L. O. Swain, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, 60604, USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Davis Reimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow water zooxanthellate zoanthids are a common component of the coral reef ecosystems of the Caribbean. Despite this, their species diversity remains poorly understood. In this study, collected Palythoa, Zoanthus, Isaurus, and Terrazoanthus specimens from the waters of Florida were phylogenetically examined to obtain a better understanding of zoanthid species diversity in the Caribbean. Surprisingly, the results from analyses utilizing three DNA markers (mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA showed the presence of at least eleven species, of which up to four appear undescribed. Additionally, the presence of the genus Terrazoanthus in the Caribbean was confirmed for the first time. Attempts to match phylogenetic species or clades with original literature were hampered by vague and short original descriptions, and it is clear that for Atlantic Palythoa and Zoanthus species an in-depth and multidisciplinary investigation is needed to reconcile recent phylogenetic results such as in this study with traditional taxonomy. Furthermore, most shallow water zoanthid species from Florida were observed to have close, sister-species relationships with previously investigated species in the Pacific Ocean. These results indicate that many brachycnemic zoanthid species likely had a Caribbean-Pacific distribution until the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. However, due to inadvertent redescriptions, overall species diversity in these two common genera is likely much lower than literature indicates.

  13. Zoanthid diversity (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Galapagos Islands: a molecular examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J. D.; Sinniger, F.; Hickman, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    Although the Galapagos are famous for their unique biodiversity, many groups of marine invertebrates from this isolated archipelago remain understudied or not investigated. One such group is the zoanthids (Order Zoantharia, =Zoanthidea, =Zoanthiniaria), anthozoans (Cnidaria) found in marine ecosystems worldwide. Zoanthid taxonomy has been in a state of disorganization and neglect due in large part to the morphological plasticity within species and questions about the accuracy of traditionally used morphological and ecological characteristics. However, recent studies utilizing molecular methodology combined with morphology have proven to be very useful in understanding zoanthid diversity. The results of a survey of zoanthids from the Galapagos and the east Pacific are reported in this study. Shallow water (zoanthid specimens were identified using the molecular markers mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (mt 16S rDNA), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA). From the collected specimens seven putative zoanthid species-level clades from three known genera ( Zoanthus, Palythoa, Parazoanthus) were identified at the molecular level. These identifications were further supported by morphological and ecological data. While almost all specimens belonged to known zoanthid genera, based on unique molecular and ecological data one group of specimens (designated unknown zoanthid sp. “03-103”) is potentially a novel undescribed genus. Additionally, the remaining three azooxanthellate Parazoanthus clades may also be undescribed new species, but due to the overall lack of zoanthid research and descriptions from neighboring areas (East Pacific, west coast of South America) further research is needed to clearly ascertain this. Additionally, notes on the four observed nominal azooxanthellate zoanthid species and a key to all eight nominal (seven from known genera, one from a potentially new genus) shallow water zoanthid species found thus far in the Galapagos Islands are provided.

  14. Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, James Davis; Foord, Colin; Irei, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water zooxanthellate zoanthids are a common component of the coral reef ecosystems of the Caribbean. Despite this, their species diversity remains poorly understood. In this study, collected Palythoa, Zoanthus, Isaurus, and Terrazoanthus specimens from the waters of Florida were phylogenetically examined to obtain a better understanding of zoanthid species diversity in the Caribbean. Surprisingly, the results from analyses utilizing three DNA markers (mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, ...

  15. Growth of the tropical zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria: Anthozoa on reefs in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANINE F. SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian reefs, zoanthids, especially Palythoa caribaeorum are fundamental for structuring the local benthic community. The objective of this study was to determine the growth rate of P. caribaeorum, and to assess the influence of the site (different beaches, season (dry and wet, location (intertidal or infralittoral zones, and human pressure associated with tourism. For one year we monitored the cover of P. caribaeorum in transects and focused on 20 colonies. We cut off a square (100 cm2 from the central part of the colony and monitored the bare area for four months in each season. The average growth rates varied from 0.015 and 0.021 cm.day-1. The rate was homogeneous in all localities, and there was no influence from colony site, location, or touristic visitation, showing that the growth velocity may be an intrinsic characteristic of the species, with a strong genetic component. The growth rate of P. caribaeorum differed among months, and peaked in the first month after injury. The average cover varied from 6.2 to 22.9% and was lower on the reef visited by tourists. The present study corroborates the hypothesis that P. caribaeorum is important for coastal reef dynamics due to its fast and continuous growth.

  16. Growth of the tropical zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) on reefs in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janine F; Gomes, Paula B; Santana, Erika C; Silva, João M; Lima, Érica P; Santos, Andre M M; Pérez, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian reefs, zoanthids, especially Palythoa caribaeorum are fundamental for structuring the local benthic community. The objective of this study was to determine the growth rate of P. caribaeorum, and to assess the influence of the site (different beaches), season (dry and wet), location (intertidal or infralittoral zones), and human pressure associated with tourism. For one year we monitored the cover of P. caribaeorum in transects and focused on 20 colonies. We cut off a square (100 cm2) from the central part of the colony and monitored the bare area for four months in each season. The average growth rates varied from 0.015 and 0.021 cm.day(-1). The rate was homogeneous in all localities, and there was no influence from colony site, location, or touristic visitation, showing that the growth velocity may be an intrinsic characteristic of the species, with a strong genetic component. The growth rate of P. caribaeorum differed among months, and peaked in the first month after injury. The average cover varied from 6.2 to 22.9% and was lower on the reef visited by tourists. The present study corroborates the hypothesis that P. caribaeorum is important for coastal reef dynamics due to its fast and continuous growth.

  17. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea from the southeastern coast of Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum e Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoanthidea da costa sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Boscolo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in São Sebastião channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorum, high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P. variabilis and 41.7% of P. caribaeorum, and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaeorum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.A biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 e Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 foi estudada por amostras mensais de colônias etiquetadas de junho de 1996 a junho de 1997, no canal de São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brasil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. A gametogênese apresentou-se semelhante à de outros zoantídeos, como evidenciado em preparações histológicas. O diâmetro dos oócitos e os estágios de maturação dos folículos testiculares foram avaliados por preparações do tipo "squash". Ambas as espécies mostraram hermafroditismo seqüencial protogínico, com alta freqüência de pólipos férteis (83% em P. variabilis e 72% em P. caribaeorum e de colônias na condição sexual feminina (65,3% para P. variabilis e 41,7% para P. caribaeorum, e, aparentemente, gametogênese contínua. Em P. caribaeorum, a liberação de oócitos foi contínua e a liberação de espermatozóides ocorreu durante metade do período analisado. Para P. variabilis, a liberação de oócitos e de espermatozóides ocorreu em abril-maio e fevereiro-março de 1997, respectivamente.

  18. Exploring the genetic diversity of shallow-water Agariciidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2017-05-19

    Scleractinian corals ascribed to the family Agariciidae represent an important component of Red Sea coral reef fauna, though little genetic data are currently available for this group, and existing information shows polyphyly in the examined mesophotic taxa from the Pacific Ocean. In this work, we provide a first genetic survey of Agariciidae from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on a collection of shallow-water material (<30 m) from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands. Two molecular markers were sequenced to infer morphospecies monophyly and relationships, the intergenic region between COI and 16S rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal ITS1 region from nuclear DNA. A total of 20 morphospecies were identified based on classical macromorphological characters. Six, namely Gardineroseris planulata, Pavona maldivensis, Pavona clavus, Pavona decussata, Leptoseris fragilis, and Leptoseris yabei, were resolved with both DNA loci. The molecular boundaries among the remaining 14 species remain unclear. Our results further confirm that the morphology-based taxonomy of most agariciid species is in disagreement with genetics. In order to disentangle the systematics of these taxa, the inclusion of more sampling locations, additional variable loci, and a micromophological approach are likely needed. Our genetic data represent a first step towards the comparison of biodiversity and connectivity between the Red Sea and the rest of the Indo-Pacific.

  19. Cyphastrea kausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca; Baird, Andrew H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea. PMID:25931952

  20. Description of a new genus of Cryptochiridae (Decapoda: Brachyura associated with Siderastrea (Anthozoa: Scleractinia, with notes on feeding habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle F.S. Badaro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Cryptochiridae are small gall-crabs that live as obligate symbionts of scleractinian corals. Only two species have so far been recorded in the western Atlantic Ocean. Herein a new Cryptochiridae genus and species is described, and new information is added on the life history of cryptochirids. The new genus is characterized by having the carapace with the lowest deflection angle among the genera, and also shows the following features: thoracic sternite 4 with setules and constriction smaller than half of the width of the basis, anterior margin curved with apical row of granules; third maxilliped with subcircular exopod reaching medially the lateral margin of the ischium; pereiopod 2 with prominent distomesial and anterolateral expansion on the merus, propodus almost twice larger than dactylus; thoracic sternite 7 with complete medial suture, female pleopod 3 uniramous with longitudinal opening. Male first pleopod straight with subdistal curvature of approximately 90°. Individuals belonging to the new genus are found in galls in massive corals although this structure is cited as being characteristic of ramified corals. The long plumose setae of the maxilliped 3 suggest a filter-feeding function, but the toothless chelae suggest that they are used to gather mucus.

  1. First report on large scleractinian (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) accumulations in cold-temperate shallow water of south Chilean fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Försterra, G.; Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    South Chilean fjords contain an astonishing diverse benthic macrofauna of which anthozoans form a major portion. Azooxanthellate solitary scleractinians, which were hitherto known from major depths, were found as shallow as 8 m during several expeditions to the south Chilean fjord region. At some

  2. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia I.; Berumen, Michael L.; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. © Tullia I. Terraneo et al.

  3. Exploring the genetic diversity of shallow-water Agariciidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Tietbohl, Matthew; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Scleractinian corals ascribed to the family Agariciidae represent an important component of Red Sea coral reef fauna, though little genetic data are currently available for this group, and existing information shows polyphyly in the examined mesophotic taxa from the Pacific Ocean. In this work, we provide a first genetic survey of Agariciidae from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on a collection of shallow-water material (<30 m) from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands. Two molecular markers were sequenced to infer morphospecies monophyly and relationships, the intergenic region between COI and 16S rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal ITS1 region from nuclear DNA. A total of 20 morphospecies were identified based on classical macromorphological characters. Six, namely Gardineroseris planulata, Pavona maldivensis, Pavona clavus, Pavona decussata, Leptoseris fragilis, and Leptoseris yabei, were resolved with both DNA loci. The molecular boundaries among the remaining 14 species remain unclear. Our results further confirm that the morphology-based taxonomy of most agariciid species is in disagreement with genetics. In order to disentangle the systematics of these taxa, the inclusion of more sampling locations, additional variable loci, and a micromophological approach are likely needed. Our genetic data represent a first step towards the comparison of biodiversity and connectivity between the Red Sea and the rest of the Indo-Pacific.

  4. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. ?13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significa...

  5. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-03-05

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification.

  6. Three new species and the molecular phylogeny of Antipathozoanthus from the Indo-Pacific Ocean (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Hiroki; Fujii, Takuma; Masucci, Giovanni Diego; Biondi, Piera; Reimer, James Davis

    2017-01-01

    In this study, three new species of macrocnemic zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia) are described from localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean including the Red Sea, the Maldives, Palau, and southern Japan: Antipathozoanthus obscurus sp. n. , A. remengesaui sp. n. , and A. cavernus sp. n. Although the genus Antipathozoanthus is currently restricted to species living on antipatharians, A. obscurus sp. n. is not associated with any living substrate and instead is found on coral reef carbonate substrate within narrow caves or cracks. The two new species that have association with antipatharians, A. remengesaui sp. n. and A. cavernus sp. n. , can be distinguished by their relative coenenchyme development and the antipatharian species that each uses as substrate. Additionally, all new species described in this study have unique nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA) sequences. Our results indicate that more phylogenetic studies focusing on increasing the numbers of species examined within each of the genera of Parazoanthidae are required in order to better understand the evolutionary history of substrate specificity within the family Parazoanthidae.

  7. Three new species and the molecular phylogeny of Antipathozoanthus from the Indo-Pacific Ocean (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three new species of macrocnemic zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia are described from localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean including the Red Sea, the Maldives, Palau, and southern Japan: Antipathozoanthus obscurus sp. n., A. remengesaui sp. n., and A. cavernus sp. n. Although the genus Antipathozoanthus is currently restricted to species living on antipatharians, A. obscurus sp. n. is not associated with any living substrate and instead is found on coral reef carbonate substrate within narrow caves or cracks. The two new species that have association with antipatharians, A. remengesaui sp. n. and A. cavernus sp. n., can be distinguished by their relative coenenchyme development and the antipatharian species that each uses as substrate. Additionally, all new species described in this study have unique nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA sequences. Our results indicate that more phylogenetic studies focusing on increasing the numbers of species examined within each of the genera of Parazoanthidae are required in order to better understand the evolutionary history of substrate specificity within the family Parazoanthidae.

  8. Cyphastrea kausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2015-04-16

    A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea.

  9. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.La fauna de anémonas de mar es prácticamente desconocida para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la especie Telmatactis panamensis. Individuos de esta anémona de mar fueron colectados en el intermareal de Bahía Chatham y a 15m de profundidad en Punta Ulloa, en ambos casos adheridas a rocas; durante la expedición UCR-UNA-COCO-I en Abril de 2010. Se proveen fotografías de ejemplares vivos, datos de su anatomía externa y un inventario del cnidae de los especímenes estudiados. Posiblemente esta especie se extienda a mayor profundidad, tal como fue observado por otros autores para ejemplares de las Islas Galápagos.

  10. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia I.

    2014-08-13

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. © Tullia I. Terraneo et al.

  11. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Using hydrofluoric acid for morphological investigations of Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): a critical assessment of methodology and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James Davis; Nakachi, Shu; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi; Hashiguchi, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Zoanthids comprise an order of benthic, generally colonial cnidarians, which can usually be distinguished from other hexacorallians by embedded sand and detritus in their mesoglea to help strengthen their structure. These animals are becoming increasingly important research subjects in biochemistry and other research fields. Their inclusion of both calcium and silica results in the need for both decalcification and desilification for internal morphological examinations. Since the methodology of hydrofluoric acid (HF) desilification has rarely been documented in zoanthids, histological surveys for zoanthid taxonomy have often been abandoned and their taxonomy is often problematic. Recent investigations utilizing molecular methods have brought a clearer understanding of zoanthid diversity, but standardization of HF treatments are still needed to provide a link between molecular and more traditional techniques, and to properly examine specimens for which molecular methods may not be an option (e.g., formalin-preserved specimens, etc.). Here, we use both "straight" HF and, for the first time with zoanthids, buffered HF (BHF) treatments at different treatment lengths (1-48 h) on polyps from three different species of zoanthids for histological examination. Section conditions were judged based on the presence/absence of embedded detritus, drag marks, and tissue condition. Results show that the BHF treatment resulted in slightly better tissue conditions for all specimens, and suggest that desilification works well regardless of treatment time for species with smaller (polyp diameter zoanthid specimens.

  13. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    OpenAIRE

    シニゲル, フレデリック; OCANA, Oscar; BACO, Amy; SINNIGER, Frederic; OCANA, Oscar; BACO, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, gl...

  14. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  15. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa valilbilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) from the southeastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, H K; Silveira, F L

    2005-02-01

    The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860) and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in Sao Sebastiao channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45 degrees 26'W, 23 degrees 50'S). The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorun), high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P variabilis and 41.7% of P caribaeorum), and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaribaeonrum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.

  16. INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Nanette E

    1987-08-01

    Corallimorpharians are sessile cnidarians that are morphologically similar to the actiniarian sea anemones and scleractinian corals. This study describes for the first time the behavioral mechanism and effects of aggression by a corallimorpharian. Polyps of the temperate clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica extruded their mesenteries and associated filaments onto members of certain species of sea anemones and corals. They did not exhibit this behavior intraspecifically, and members of different clones of C. californica remained expanded upon contact. In contrast, members of four species of corals and zoanthids responded to contact with C. californica by contracting their tentacles, and members of three sea anemone species bent or moved away, detached from the substrate, or attacked using their aggressive structures. When interspecific contact was prolonged, individuals of C. californica extruded filaments onto, and killed polyps of, the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium senile within 3 weeks, and the corals Astrangia lajollaensis and Balanophyllia elegans within 4-10 months under laboratory conditions. The use of extruded mesenterial filaments by C. californica to attack members of other anthozoan species is similar to the aggressive behavior exhibited by many scleractinian reef corals. Field observations suggest that C. californica may use this agonistic behavior during interspecific competition for space on hard marine substrate.

  17. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sinniger

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844 but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  18. Estructura comunitaria de corales zooxantelados (Anthozoa: Scleractinia en el arrecife coralino de Carrizales, Pacífico Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Reyes-Bonilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento ecológico de corales arrecifales en el Pacífico mexicano es escaso, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la estructura de la comunidad de corales hermatípicos en el arrecife de Carrizales, Colima, mediante el uso de transectos y buceo autónomo (junio y octubre 2005, septiembre 2006. De las 13 especies de corales encontradas, Pocillopora verrucosa fue la más abundante y siete representan nuevos registros, sobresaliendo Psammocora contigua, primer registro para el Pacífico Oriental. No hubo diferencias significativas de abundancia entre profundidades, pero la zona somera presenta una mayor cobertura. Este sitio presenta una de las riquezas y cobertura de coral más alta (61% en el Pacífico Mexicano y valores de diversidad (H´=0.44±0.02, uniformidad (J´=0.76±0.02, y de diferenciación taxonómica (Δ*=45.87±3.16 relativamente altos. Actualmente la región no presenta grandes perturbaciones pero el creciente desarrollo económico de Manzanillo, uno de los principales puertos comerciales del país, además del creciente número de turistas, podrían afectar al arrecife, por lo que se sugiere implementar medidas de protección con el fin de mantener al arrecife más importante del litoral de Colima.

  19. Water mass characteristics and associated fauna of a recently discovered Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) reef in Greenlandic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchington, Ellen; Yashayaev, Igor; Tendal, Ole Secher

    2017-01-01

    , and in an area with exceptionally and persistently high currents of >15 cm s−1 at 1000 m. The intermediate-depth salinity maximum was found in the depth range where the corals were found. We discovered signals of consistent vertical and horizontal transports at 700–900 m over the reef area. Although this area......The first living sample of Lophelia pertusa from Greenlandic waters was inadvertently collected at 60.3675°, −48.45528°, entangled together with other corals to a seawater sampler and property sensor (CTD) package. We collected in situ photographs taken at two sites in the same area in order...... to determine whether a reef was present. We identified reef-like structures formed by living and dead L. pertusa at 886–932 m depth on a steep slope. We assembled and analyzed hydrographic data to characterize the reef environment in order to facilitate future localization of other reefs and predictions...

  20. Design, Test, and Evaluation of a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor with Splitter Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Over the course of turbomachinery history splitter vanes have been used extensively in centrifugal compressors . Axial...TEST, AND EVALUATION OF A TRANSONIC AXIAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR WITH SPLITTER BLADES by Scott Drayton September 2013 Dissertation Co...AXIAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR WITH SPLITTER BLADES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott Drayton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  1. Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) of the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand: a species list based on past reports and new photographic records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Wee, H.B.; Put, A.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first review of Zoantharia species in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand. In addition to past literature records, new field observations are added from previously unexamined countries and regions. In total 16 species are listed, 15 of which belong to suborder Brachycnemina,

  2. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  3. Search for mesophotic octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa and their phylogeny: I. A new sclerite-free genus from Eilat, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Benayahu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes a new octocoral, Altumia delicata gen. n. & sp. n. (Octocorallia: Clavulariidae, from mesophotic reefs of Eilat (northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. This species lives on dead antipatharian colonies and on artificial substrates. It has been recorded from deeper than 60 m down to 140 m and is thus considered to be a lower mesophotic octocoral. It has no sclerites and features no symbiotic zooxanthellae. The new genus is compared to other known sclerite-free octocorals. Molecular phylogenetic analyses place it in a clade with members of families Clavulariidae and Acanthoaxiidae, and for now we assign it to the former, based on colony morphology. The polyphyletic family Clavulariidae is, however, in need of a thorough revision once the morphological distinctions among its phylogenetically distinct clades are better understood.

  4. Distribuição espacial e estrutura das comunidades de antozoários (cnidaria: anthozoa) em substratos consolidados no litoral de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria Júnior, Edson

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Florianópolis, 2014 Um padrão recorrente em comunidades bentônicas marinhas de água rasa é a transição entre comunidades com cnidários zooxantelados por outras dominadas por algas com o aumento da latitude. Pesquisas frequentemente usam fatores ambientais para explicar limites de distribuição e uso de habitat de espécies marinhas, entre eles a temperatura d...

  5. Ecologia alimentar de Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1776) (Polychaeta-Amphinomidae) em bancos de Carijoa riisei (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (Anthozoa-Clavuralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Rodrigues, Hilquias

    2007-01-01

    Hermodice carunculata é considerado um importante predador de cnidários, alimentando-se de zooantideos, anêmonas, gorgônias, hidrocorais e corais escleractíneos. A predação é um importante agente estruturador das comunidades, podendo diminuir ou aumentar a diversidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a dieta de H. carunculata nos bancos de Carijoa riisei na praia de Proto de Galinhas-PE e descrever o comportamento alimentar e estratégias de predação de H. carunculata. Foram coletado...

  6. Comparative Molecular and Morphological Variation Analysis of Siderastrea (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) Reveals the Presence of Siderastrea stellata in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Norberto A Colín; Campos, Jorge E; Musi, José L Tello; Forsman, Zac H; Muñoz, Jorge L Montero; Reyes, Alejandro Monsalvo; González, Jesús E Arias

    2017-02-01

    The genus Siderastrea exhibits high levels of morphological variability. Some of its species share similar morphological characteristics with congeners, making their identification difficult. Siderastrea stellata has been reported as an intermediary of S. siderea and S. radians in the Brazilian reef ecosystem. In an earlier study conducted in Mexico, we detected Siderastrea colonies with morphological features that were not consistent with some siderastreid species previously reported in the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, we performed a combined morphological and molecular analysis to identify Siderastrea species boundaries from the Gulf of Mexico. Some colonies presented high morphologic variability, with characteristics that corresponded to Siderastrea stellata. Molecular analysis, using the nuclear ITS and ITS2 region, corroborated the morphological results, revealing low genetic variability between S. radians and S. stellata. Since the ITS sequences did not distinguish between Siderastrea species, we used the ITS2 region to differentiate S. stellata from S. radians. This is the first report of Siderastrea stellata and its variability in the Gulf of Mexico that is supported by morphological and molecular analyses.

  7. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Fukami

    Full Text Available Modern hard corals (Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have been in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the legitimacy of traditional suborders, families and genera, and suggest that a non-skeletal sister clade (Order Corallimorpharia might be imbedded within the stony corals. However, these studies either sampled a relatively limited array of taxa or assembled trees from heterogeneous data sets. Here we provide a more comprehensive analysis of Scleractinia (127 species, 75 genera, 17 families and various outgroups, based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, with analyses of nuclear genes (ss-tubulin, ribosomal DNA of a subset of taxa to test unexpected relationships. Eleven of 16 families were found to be polyphyletic. Strikingly, over one third of all families as conventionally defined contain representatives from the highly divergent "robust" and "complex" clades. However, the recent suggestion that corallimorpharians are true corals that have lost their skeletons was not upheld. Relationships were supported not only by mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but also often by morphological characters which had been ignored or never noted previously. The concordance of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils.

  8. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders. Although some relationships among these newly-defined groups are still ambiguous, morphological and molecular results are consistent enough to proceed with a new higher-level classification and to discuss the putative functional and evolutionary significance of several morphological attributes within Actiniaria. PMID:24806477

  9. Fouling community dominated by Metridium senile (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria in Bahía San Julián (southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Martin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information about a harbour-fouling community dominated by Metridium senile in southern Patagonia. Several steel tubes from the wharf of Puerto San Julián were extracted to perform repair tasks, allowing the attached benthic community to be studied. Sampling was conducted at three levels: lower intertidal, 3-4 m depth and 6-7 m depth. In the lower intertidal, M. senile had a relative abundance of 43%, the most abundant accompanying species being Perumytilus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis platensis and Aulacomya atra atra. At subtidal level, the anemone showed relative abundances of 64% and 65%, and was accompanied by Monocorophium insidiosum at 3-4 m depth and by polychaetes of families Sabellidae and Syllidae at 6-7 m at depth. In the lower intertidal, epibiosis was more frequent on P. purpuratus, A. atra atra and M. edulis platensis, while in the subtidal, the richness of substrate-organisms increased significantly and the anemone was fixed to A. atra atra, M. edulis platensis, Paramolgula gregaria, Crepipatella dilatata, Austromegabalanus psittacus, Hiatella arctica, Polyzoa opuntia, Pyura sp. and Sabellidae tubes. The ability of M. senile to settle on many different organisms, along with other strategies, makes it a colonizer able to displace other species that could compete with it for substratum. Given the cosmopolitan nature of M. senile, the fact that this species has not been previously reported in the coastal zone of the region, and the results of our study, we discuss the possibility that this sea anemone is an invasive alien species in southern Patagonia, or at least a cryptogenic species.

  10. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  11. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos III. The deep-sea commensal species Epizoanthus paguriphilus (zoanthidea, anthozoa) and Parapagurus pilosimanus (paguroidea, crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, A.; Tyler, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the biological processes of deep-sea megainvertebrates. The research programme aims to aid long term planning of nuclear waste disposal by providing information on the nature and rates of reproductive activities of deep sea invertebrates from several different phylogenetic groups. This information serves three functions:- Firstly, baseline information is provided concerning processes at or around the sediment/water interface. Secondly, knowledge of the actual mode of reproduction indicates the extent to which the biota could be involved in recycling leaked radioactive heavy metals to different areas of the environment via their reproductive processes. The third function fulfilled by this programme is to provide information on the rates at which these processes occur. Evaluation of these aspects of the life cycles of the megainvertebrates of a specific site will indicate the potential role of a large proportion of the biota inhabiting that site following leakage of dumped material. This report is concerned with the growth and modes of reproduction of a hermit crab, Parapagurus pilosimanus and the zoanthids Epizoanthus paguriphilus and E. abyssorum with which it lives at different depths of the N. Atlantic. (U.K.)

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new genus and new species of parazoanthid (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) associated with Japanese Red Coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J. D.; Nonaka, M.; Sinniger, F.; Iwase, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Order Zoantharia has long been taxonomically neglected primarily due to difficulty in examining the internal morphology of sand-encrusted zoanthids. However, recent work using molecular markers has shown an unexpectedly high diversity of previously “hidden” taxa (families and genera) within Zoantharia (=Zoanthidea, Zoanthiniaria). In this study, unidentified sediment-encrusting zoanthid specimens ( n = 8) were collected from living Japanese Red Coral Paracorallium japonicum (Family Coralliidae) during precious coral harvesting by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and manned submersible (February 2004-January 2006) at depths of 194-250 m at six locations between Ishigaki-jima Island and Kikai-jima Island, southern Japan. DNA sequences (mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA [mt 16S rDNA], cytochrome oxidase subunit I [COI], nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA [ITS-rDNA]) unambiguously place these specimens in a previously undescribed, new monophyletic lineage within the family Parazoanthidae. Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, gen. n. et sp. n. is the first reported zoanthid species associated with the family Coralliidae and unlike other described gorgonian-associated zoanthids ( Savalia spp .) does not secrete its own hard axis. Morphologically, C. tsukaharai sp. n. is characterized by generally unitary polyps and bright yellow external coloration.

  13. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae. Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein. We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders. Although some relationships among these newly-defined groups are still ambiguous, morphological and molecular results are consistent enough to proceed with a new higher-level classification and to discuss the putative functional and evolutionary significance of several morphological attributes within Actiniaria.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 165 ... Vol 14, No 2 (2011), Methods used to assess drug prescribing and ... of Antihypertensive Drugs in Private Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, .... Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts, Abstract PDF.

  16. Archaeological Investigations at Sites 45-OK-2 and 45-OK-2A, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    on the floor of Feature 49. RANUNCULACEAE (Buttercup Family ) Clematis L. (virgin’s bower) , A small section of clematis stem was found in occupation...assemblage, 4,951 fragments (approximately 2%) were identified to at least the family level. Eighty-eight percent of the Identified elements represented...93 elements, 45-OK-2A -- 28 elements. Snake vertebrae were Identified to family on the basis of size. There are _1 at least four species of snakes

  17. Distribution of meroplankton in relation to the thermocline in the Western Indian ocean during day and night

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.

    migration is light rather than temperature Fish eggs were found in large numbers in certain areas probably due to congregation of spawners Larvae of bivalves and Anthozoa indicated nocturnal abundance influenced more by light than temperature Larvae...

  18. The phylogenetic position of the solitary zoanthid genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Lin, M.; Fujii, T.

    2012-01-01

    The zoanthid genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoantharia), like many other brachycnemic zoanthids, is found in shallow subtropical and tropical waters, but is uniquely unitary (solitary, monostomatous), azooxanthellate, and free-living. With sparse knowledge of its phylogenetic position, this

  19. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Aminikhoei; Zeinab Janahmadi; Iraj Nabipour

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms k...

  20. Organismos de los arrecifes coralinos de Costa Rica: descripción, distribución geográfica e historia natural de los corales zooxantelados (Anthozoa: Scleractinia del Pacífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen veinte y dos especies de corales ecleractinios zooxantelados del Pacífico de Costa Rica se describen. Se incluyen claves para los géneros y especies. Se presenta su distribución geográfica en Costa Rica y en todo el mundo, así como aspectos de la historia general de las especies. Dieciséis especies tiene distribuciones muy amplias, desde en Mar Rojo o el Océano Indico hasta la costa Pacífica de América, dos especies son endémicas del Pacífico Oriental, y cuatro especies se encuentran solo en Océano Pacífico; no hay ninguna especie en común con el Caribe-Atlántico. Dos especies, Leptoseris scabra y Pavona xarifae, son registros nuevos para el Pacífico Oriental.Twenty two species of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals from the Pacific of Costa Rica are described and illustrated with macrophotographs. Keys to the genera and species are included. Their geographic distributions in Costa Rica and world-wide are noted, as well as aspects of the natural history of the species. Sixteen species have wide distributions, from the Red Sea or Indian Ocean to the Pacific coast of America, two species are endemic to the eastern Pacific, four species are found only in the Pacific Ocean; there are no species in common with the Caribbean-Atlantic. Two species, Leptoseris scabra and Pavona xarifea, are new records for the eastern Pacific.

  1. Strabismus-mediated primary archenteron invagination is uncoupled from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: Implications for the evolution of gastrulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumburegama Shalika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. The developmental mechanisms that induced archenteron formation and led to the segregation of germ layers during metazoan evolution are unknown. But an increased understanding of development in early diverging taxa at the base of the metazoan tree may provide insights into the origins of these developmental mechanisms. Results In the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, initial archenteron formation begins with bottle cell-induced buckling of the blastula epithelium at the animal pole. Here, we show that bottle cell formation and initial gut invagination in Nematostella requires NvStrabismus (NvStbm, a maternally-expressed core component of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP pathway. The NvStbm protein is localized to the animal pole of the zygote, remains asymmetrically expressed through the cleavage stages, and becomes restricted to the apical side of invaginating bottle cells at the blastopore. Antisense morpholino-mediated NvStbm-knockdown blocks bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination, but it has no effect on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-mediated endoderm cell fate specification. Conversely, selectively blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibits endoderm cell fate specification but does not affect bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Wnt/PCP-mediated initial archenteron invagination can be uncoupled from Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella, and provides evidence that these two processes could have evolved independently during metazoan evolution. We propose a two-step model for the evolution of an archenteron and the evolution of endodermal germ layer segregation. Asymmetric accumulation and activation of Wnt/PCP components at the animal pole of the last common ancestor to the eumetazoa may have induced the cell shape changes that led to the initial formation of an archenteron. Activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling at the animal pole may have led to the activation of a gene regulatory network that specified an endodermal cell fate in the archenteron.

  2. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  3. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 3. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    unique vegetation include: range extensions, relict populations, unusual ecotypes, hybridization zones, aquatic or wetland vegetation, bald mountains...Cinna rood reed grass E Cirsium thistle E Citrullus vulgaris E Claytonia miner’s lettuce M E Clematis virgin’s bower M Cleome integrifolia M I T5291

  4. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  5. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume II. Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Arctium mimus Schk. (burdock) 3 3 Leonurus cardiaca L. 3 (motherwo-3 Oenothera biennia L. 3 3 (evening pri-rose) Galium AM ine L. 2 (bedstaw) Asclapias...Wild carrot Bromus japonicus Thumb. Japanese brome , Oenothera biennis L. Evening primrose Clematis virginiana Virgin’ s bower Bidens tripartita Beggar

  6. Patrones de distribución de anémonas de mar chilenas de aguas someras (cnidaria: anthozoa: actiniaria, corallimorpharia); con una discusión de las relaciones taxonómicas y zoogeográficas de la actinofauna del Pacífico sudoriental, el Atlántico sudoccidental y la Antártida

    OpenAIRE

    Häussermann, Verena; Försterra, Günter

    2005-01-01

    La presente publicación provee un primer análisis zoogeográfico completo de las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria y Corallimorpharia) de las aguas someras a lo largo de la costa chilena y de sus relaciones con faunas vecinas, basando en un extenso muestreo en los últimos años en combinación con revisiones de la literatura. Desde 1994 hasta 2004 obtuvimos mas de 1000 ejemplares pertenecientes a 32 especies de Actiniaria y Corallimorpharia. Se muestrearon mas de 100 lugares enclavados en el intermare...

  7. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia. Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Some diseases spread by insects are serious and can be fatal. The risk of infection from insects is seasonal . Peak months of tick activity are March...genital warts, herpes, hepatitis B infection, and infection with the AIDS virus (HIV), all occur in the FRY. Abstinence is the best way to prevent...thorns which can puncture the skin and cause infections. Other plants (Clematis) can cause rashes just by touching the skin. Contact with the smoke

  8. Evaluation of Wildlife Mitigation Sites at the Chief Joseph Dam Project (1993/1994 Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-22

    clematis RAMUALER. Ifr . Site COST Cormes stolonifera red-osier dogwood CORNACLAE P,, Iff Site CRCO Crataegus columbiana Columbia hawthorn RC)SACEAE R...firitillary __________ EiS, BE GAAR Galillardla aristata gaillardia COMPOSnAE ES, BE GAAP Galiwn aparine bedsmrw _____________ Irr. Site GABO Galium...spicalum bluebunch wheatgras GRAMINEAE BS, BB AG Agrotids sp bentgrass GRAMINEAE Ifr . Site, near shore AGIN Agroawis interrupta internited bentgrass

  9. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  10. Structural characterization and discrimination of Chinese medicinal materials with multiple botanical origins based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis: Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin-Xiu; Li, Rui; Liu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2015-12-18

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)-based products are becoming more and more popular over the world. To ensure the safety and efficacy, authentication of Chinese medicinal materials has been an important issue, especially for that with multiple botanical origins (one-to-multiple). Taking Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma (CRR) as a case study, we herein developed an integrated platform based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis to characterize, classify, and predict the "one-to-multiple" herbs. Firstly, the predominant constituents, triterpenoid saponins, in three Clematis CRR were rapid characterized by a novel UPLC-QTOF/MS-based strategy, and a total of 49 triterpenoid saponins were identified. Secondly, metabolite profiling was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and 4623 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset. Thirdly, by using pattern recognition analysis, a clear separation of the three Clematis CRR was achieved as well as a total number of 28 variables were screened as the valuable variables for discrimination. By matching with identified saponins, these 28 variables were corresponding to 10 saponins which were identified as marker compounds. Fourthly, based on the relative intensity of the marker compounds-related variables, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to predict the species of CRR samples. The obtained model showed excellent prediction performance with a prediction accuracy of 100%. Finally, a heatmap visualization was employed for clarifying the distribution of identified saponins, which could be useful for phytochemotaxonomy study of Clematis herbs. These results indicated that our proposed platform was a powerful tool for chemical profiling and discrimination of herbs with multiple botanical origins, providing promising perspectives in tracking the formulation processes of TCMs products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dragon slayers: Canadian wild well tamers among the best in world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polczer, S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of oil well fire fighting techniques, and some of the more famous fires in the Alberta oil patch such as the Atlantic 3 blowout at Leduc Alberta in 1955 and the Lodgepole fire in 1982, are described, leading up to a discussion of the outstanding work done by Canadian oilfield fire fighters in Kuwait. During the Gulf War in 1991 the retreating Iraqi forces blew up 732 oil wells, sparking the largest oilfield emergency in history. Fire fighters from the Drayton Valley, Alberta, firm of 'Safety Boss' snuffed out 180 wells in 200 days, establishing Canadian oil well fire fighters as among the best in the world. Since then, the company was called upon to assist in extinguishing fires at the Tupras Refinery following the earthquake in Turkey in the summer of 1999, and at the Hub Oil Ltd. fire in southeast Calgary, just a week prior to the earthquake in Turkey. 2 photos

  12. Dragon slayers: Canadian wild well tamers among the best in world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1999-10-01

    The development of oil well fire fighting techniques, and some of the more famous fires in the Alberta oil patch such as the Atlantic 3 blowout at Leduc Alberta in 1955 and the Lodgepole fire in 1982, are described, leading up to a discussion of the outstanding work done by Canadian oilfield fire fighters in Kuwait. During the Gulf War in 1991 the retreating Iraqi forces blew up 732 oil wells, sparking the largest oilfield emergency in history. Fire fighters from the Drayton Valley, Alberta, firm of 'Safety Boss' snuffed out 180 wells in 200 days, establishing Canadian oil well fire fighters as among the best in the world. Since then, the company was called upon to assist in extinguishing fires at the Tupras Refinery following the earthquake in Turkey in the summer of 1999, and at the Hub Oil Ltd. fire in southeast Calgary, just a week prior to the earthquake in Turkey. 2 photos.

  13. Case studies of slope stability radar used in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, D. [GroundProbe Pty Ltd., South Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents case studies about how the Slope Stability Radar (SSR) system provided adequate warning to safeguard people and equipment prior to highwall and low wall failure at two Australian coal mines. At Drayton mine, the SSR was able to provide the mine with sufficient warning to move the shovel and trucks away from the highwall, while personnel safely watched 50,000 tonnes of bulk material coming down from the wall. At Mt Owen mine, the SSR alarm allowed the mine to evacuate equipment and personnel four hours prior to a 30,000,000 tonne low wall failure. These two case studies demonstrate how the SSR system was able to continuously monitor the stability of these critical slopes, enabling greater mine productivity whilst maintaining the highest quality of safety. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei, E-mail: fwtiffany@gmail.com [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Hailing, E-mail: wanghailing@njtech.edu.cn [College of Environment, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Al-Tabbaa, Abir, E-mail: aa22@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of the cement-based S/S at 17 years in West Drayton site is still satisfactory. • Major leaching of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in all mixes took place in the Fe/Mn oxides phase. • The hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place at 17 years. • Microstructure analyses show that unreacted PFA exists. - Abstract: The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  15. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  16. A new species of Aspidophryxus G.O. Sars, 1883 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Dajidae) from Caribbean mysid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Christopher B; Williams, Jason D

    2012-12-01

    A new species of dajid isopod in the genus Aspidophryxus G.O. Sars, 1883 is described from three females and one male found infesting the lateral carapace of Heteromysis (Olivemysis) actiniae Clarke, 1955 (Mysidae: Heteromysinae) associated with the corkscrew anemone Bartholomea annulata (Lesuer, 1817) (Anthozoa: Aiptasiidae) from the British Virgin Islands. This is the first record of the genus from the western Atlantic; three other species are known from northern European waters, the central Atlantic and Japan, all on mysid hosts. The new species is the first dajid recorded from tropical Caribbean waters. A key to species in the genus and a list of all known hosts with parasite orientation are provided.

  17. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  18. New Records of Cold-Water Corals from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Im Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cold-water coral taxa, Octocorallia in the class Anthozoa and Stylasteridae in the class Hydrozoa, were identified. Deep-water samples were collected in fishing nets at depths ranging between 20 and 200 m along the coasts of the East Sea in Korea from 1976 to 1993. The two species found in this study represent new records for Korea: Paragorgia arborea (Linnaeus, 1758 in the class Anthozoa, and Stylaster profundiporus Broch, 1936 in the class Hydrozoa. Two families, Paragorgiidae and Stylasteridae, are also newly recorded in Korea. Furthermore, the species name of another cold-water gorgonian species, Primnoa pacifica (Kinoshita, 1907 in the family Primnoidae, is amended in this report. The two newly recorded cold-water coral species from Korea are described in detail based on their morphological characteristics. Paragorgia arborea is characterized by its growth form, medulla and cortex, zooid dimorphism, canal system, and spicule composition. Stylaster profundiporus is distinguished by its external skeletal characteristics, such as the coordination of dactylopores and gastropores, presence or absence of gastrostyles and dactylostyles, cyclosystem orientation, ampullar position, gastropore tube shape, and coenosteal texture.

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  20. THE CICADA FAUNA AS PHYTOPLASMA VECTORS IN ISTRIAN VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đanfranko Pribetić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cicada fauna represents a considerable group of insects in vine-growing. Phytoplasma vine vectors insects are significant. They are fed from the phloem tissues of plants like cicadas from the families Cicadelidae, Coccidae, Fulgoridae and Psyilloidaea. Their phytoplasma is transmitted in a persistent way. Researches on cicada fauna, on the floristic structure of weeds and host plants of vine phytoplasma were done in 2005 and 2006 in Istrian vineyards. The research was being done in 10 vineyards on 11 localities. Cicade collecting was done with an entomological net by means of yellow sticky plates using an exhauster and a method of clonting. The collected cicadas were identified by means of binoculars and keys to identify species while the presence of phytoplasmas BN and Fd was defined by means of molecular analysis (PCR, RFLP. Listing and identifying the floristic structure of weeds were being cloned in the explored vineyards by means of keys to identify species. Samples of plant materials were taken for the analysis using PCR method by checking visually the typical symptoms caused by phytoplasma. Cicadas identifying and molecular analyses were being done at the Viticulture Institute for Research in Conegliano – Italy. During the researches, 243 insect samples were collected. Of the above mentioned number cicadas of 40 genus were identified in 207 samples. On the list of the floristic structure of Weeds 105 species of 36 families were identified. Corylus avellana L and Clematis vitalba L species were included in this list. These species showed sigus of phytoplasma disease and they were found near the explored vineyards. These two species were analysed on the presence for FD and BN phytoplasmas. The PCR method used in the molecular research on the presence of Fd and BN phytoplasmas was done on 34 insect samples and 22 plant samples. None of the mentioned sample was positive for FD and BN. The phytoplasma BN was found in the vine leaves of

  1. The phylogenetic significance of fruit structures in ranunculaceae of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.Y.; Liu, M.; Shi, C.Q.; Ru, J.

    2015-01-01

    The external and internal structures of fruits from 95 taxa representing 27 Ranunculaceae genera of China were studied. The results show that Ranunculaceae could be divided into 4 groups based on the fruit types, epidermal surface, vascular bundle, mesocarp cell, and endocarp cell structures: Group 1: follicle or achene, branching or branching and anastomosing vascular bundles, mesocarp parenchyma, and endocarp with one layer of lignified cells (including Aconitum and other genera); Group 2: achene, vascular bundle branching, mesocarp lignified, endocarp with one layer of irregular and partly lignified cells (Thalictrum only); Group 3: achene, endocarp with multilayered thick-walled cells (including Adonis, Batrachium and Ranunculus); Group 4: achene, two non-branching vascular bundles, and endocarp with one layer of fibers (including Anemone, Clematis and Pulsatilla). This study show that the fruit structures of Ranunculaceae could provide morphological and anatomical evidences for molecular phylogeny. (author)

  2. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  3. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  4. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  5. 1999 Annual Report to Shareholders: Building from a solid foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Bonus Resource Services Corporation is the leading provider of service rigs to the Canadian oil and gas industry. The company is based in Calgary and is employing some 1,300 people. Of its 220 rigs 212 operate in Western Canada, the remaining eight are on location in Australia. The company's objective is to provide a complete range of services, including high quality people and equipment backed by a centralized in-house support team of full service safety, maintenance, certification and quality control programs. These factors, combined with the company's range of equipment and geographic diversity, uniquely position the company as a leader in its sphere of activity. Financial and operating highlights in 1999 included a decline of 32 per cent in administrative costs; debt restructuring to provide Bonus with a stable long-term capital structure and the financial flexibility to advance its business plan; and continued growth as shown by the acquisition of seven rigs in Drayton Valley, Alberta, despite low crude oil prices in 1998 and the first quarter in 1999 which impacted negatively in activity levels and revenues for the entire year. The annual report provides a detailed operational and strategic overview, full financial statements and notes, management's discussion of operating and financial performance and a five-year summary overall company performance

  6. Dragon slayers: Canadian wild well tamers among the best in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1999-08-01

    Fighting oil fires is an extremely dangerous operation. Its roots trace back to the beginnings of the global petroleum industry. There are only four major well control companies around the world today, three of them in Houston, Texas and the fourth one -- Safety Boss -- in Drayton Valley, Alberta. This paper provides an historical account of how well fire fighting has developed since the early 1920s, when the technique of using dynamite to kill wild wells was pioneered by Myron Kinley of Texas. The paper also chronicles the development of `Safety Boss` formed in 1956 following the discovery of the Pembina Oilfield in the same year to meet the demands of a growing local industry. The two events which were primarily responsible for the worldwide reputation of the company -- the Lodgepole fire in 1982 and the Kuwaiti oil well fires following the Gulf War in 1991 -- are described in an effort to provide a context for the devastation of oil well blowouts and the constant danger, despite many improvements in techniques, in fighting them and bringing them under control.

  7. Case histories of pipeline exposure at stream crossings in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcovish, C.D. [Malaron Engineering Ltd., St. Albert, AB (Canada); Janz, A. [ATCO Pipelines, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gray, D.M. [Gulf Midstream Services, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Five case histories of river channel changes and associated pipeline exposure problems at river and stream crossings in Alberta were discussed with emphasis on the need for proactive inspection. For each case, the different hydrologic and geomorphic factors that resulted in erosion problems were reviewed and the mitigative actions that were taken to solve the problems were described. It was shown that in some cases, there are inherent difficulties in identifying potential erosion problems at the project design stage. It was also demonstrated that systematic monitoring and inspection procedures are useful for planning and implementing remedial measures before problems occur. There are many natural and anthropogenic causes of channel degradation. Upstream progressing degradation is usually the most common problem encountered at pipeline crossings in Alberta. The two main causes are both flood related. They include channel shortening by cutoffs across long meandering loops, and washout of downstream slope controls such as large beaver dams. The five case studies presented in this paper were: (1) North Saskatchewan River crossing near Drayton Valley, (2) Smoky River crossing near Grande Cache, (3) Hells Creek crossing near Grande Cache, (4) Modeste Creek crossing near Breton, and (5) Freeman River crossing near Swan Hills. It was emphasized that pipeline operators must consider past channel changes and geomorphic analysis to predict future channel instability. 15 figs.

  8. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  9. 1953 : quiet rumblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-06-15

    The 1953 discovery of the massive Pembina Cardium field near Drayton Valley, Alberta, was discussed. It was the largest field ever discovered in Canada, holding an estimated 7.8 billion barrels of crude. The Socony-Vacuum Exploration Company drilled the first well to 10,000 feet. The well produced light crude oil at a rate of 456 barrels per day. A second successful well was then drilled about 6 miles northeast of the discovery well. By the end of 1953, Socony and its partners had a total of 7 wells underway in the area, all testing the Cardium formation. By the end of 1954, the industry recognized the significance of the discovery, and 34 wells were being drilled in the area. Production from the field by the end of 1954 averaged 6,500 barrels per day from 85 wells. By 1955, the Pembina Cardium field, covering approximately 400,000 acres, was the largest in North America. Production from the field exceeded 76,600 barrels per year through 1955. It has been touted as the largest conventional oil accumulation, with a reserve of 7.8 billion barrels of oil in place, and the biggest discovery in the history of the Canadian oil industry. Other key events of 1953 included Saskatchewan's gas export policy; approval of a 22-year gas export permit for Westcoast Transmission Company; and completion of an oil pipeline from Edmonton to Vancouver. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. First record of Nanozoanthidae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis; Kawamura, Iori; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the first finding of Nanozoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) in the Red Sea and the first record west of Western Australia. A single specimen of Nanozoanthus sp. was found at a depth of 13 m off Dumsuq Island, the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia (16°33.846′N 42°03.510′E) during SCUBA surveys. Previous research had hypothesized that the genus could potentially be widespread in the Indo-Pacific and was simply undetected due to its small and cryptic nature, and the current specimen provides support for this idea. Such findings demonstrate the importance of biodiversity surveys by taxonomic specialists in understudied marine regions.

  11. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. First record of Nanozoanthidae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on the first finding of Nanozoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) in the Red Sea and the first record west of Western Australia. A single specimen of Nanozoanthus sp. was found at a depth of 13 m off Dumsuq Island, the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia (16°33.846′N 42°03.510′E) during SCUBA surveys. Previous research had hypothesized that the genus could potentially be widespread in the Indo-Pacific and was simply undetected due to its small and cryptic nature, and the current specimen provides support for this idea. Such findings demonstrate the importance of biodiversity surveys by taxonomic specialists in understudied marine regions.

  13. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila O Alieva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae, both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria. The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of

  14. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  15. Caryological notes in some portuguese Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queirós, Margarida

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of fourteen portuguese laxa of Ranunculaceae are reported: Helleborus foetidus 20 = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. The chromosome numbers are in accordance with previous results.

    Se estudia el número cromosómico de algunos táxones de Ranunculaceae portugueses: Helleborus foetidus 2n = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. Estos recuentos coinciden con los obtenidos anteriormente por otros autores.

  16. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  17. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  18. Strategic planning and action on climate change: A guide for Canadian mining companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Guide has been developed by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development of Drayton Valley, Alberta and Stratos Inc., of Ottawa, as a project for the Mining Association of Canada, in an effort to assist senior executives in the Canadian mining industry in developing corporate strategic responses to the risks and opportunities associated with climate change and sustainable development. Section One of the Guide provides an introduction to the scientific, political and legal issues involved in climate change. Section Two outlines the implications of this issue for Canadian mining companies. Section Three and Four provide senior managers with a strategic framework to help understand the scope of a comprehensive response and assist them in developing and integrating climate change policies into their overall corporate strategy and business plan. Section Five outlines the major components of a generic climate change strategy and action plan, while Section Six looks at specific technical opportunity areas where mining companies can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section Seven focuses on business opportunities related to greenhouse gas emission reductions that can be implemented domestically or internationally outside of Canadian mining operations. Section Eight concludes the Guide with a comprehensive list of references and additional sources of information to assist users in follow-up and implementation. The accompanying companion handbook, entitled 'Guide to inventorying, measuring and reporting on climate change actions for MAC member companies' is designed to be used by energy managers and technical support staff who are responsible for implementing greenhouse gas measurement reporting systems. In addition to the Guide, the Mining Association and the Pembina Institute also developed three versions of a climate change strategy workshop designed for mining company personnel at different levels and different responsibilities. These workshops can also be

  19. Future tools : from reservoir-embedded seismic to nanotechnological bitumen upgrading, scientists are unlocking new ways to extract and process fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2006-10-15

    A review of reservoir monitoring tools and methods designed by research centres and high-tech firms in Alberta was presented. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology is currently examining the use of biological catalysts for partially upgrading bitumens at remote field production sites to lower the viscosity and density of heavy oil and reduce the environmental impacts associated with refining. Geo-scientists at the University of Calgary are using a combination of geophysical methods to improve coalbed methane and tight gas extraction processes. Research at the university has centred around multi-component seismic exploration, which uses a shear wave measurement to provide an image of the ground's rigidity and can discriminate between fluid types to produce different pictures of the subsurface. In addition to investigating the conversion of seismic waves to radio emissions, the university is also examining the integration of electromagnetic or electrical methods with seismic methods. Multi-component seismic is now being evaluated for the purpose of monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced recovery operations and sequestration at a demonstration project near Drayton Valley. Time-lapse monitoring will allow the research team to compare seismic surveys done months apart and identify changes caused by the growing pressure due to CO{sub 2} injection. It was suggested that a new nanotechnology fabrication facility created as part of the National Research Council (NRC) technology cluster will help scientists to discover new approaches in bitumen processing through a better understanding of the properties that cause bitumen to foul upgrading and transportation equipment. Many students are now using nanotechnology methods to understand how large bitumen molecules interact with catalyst surfaces. 4 figs.

  20. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  1. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  2. In vitro evaluering van die effektiwiteit van vyf plante wat tradisioneel teen seksueel oordraagbare siektes gebruik word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Swart

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tot soveel as 60% van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking raadpleeg tradisionele genesers vir siektetoestande, insluitende seksueel oordraagbare siektes (SOS. Medisinale plante speel ’n belangrike rol in die behandeling van SOS deur tradisionele genesers, maar sonder enige wetenskaplike bewyse van effektiwiteit. Vir hierdie studie is 5 plante vanuit die literatuur gekies op grond van hul gebruik deur tradisionele genesers vir die behandeling van SOS. Siftingstoetse vir die bepaling van aktiwiteit teen bakterieë en teen SOS is op die plante uitgevoer. Die plante was Clematis brachiata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Lepidium bonariense, Ranunculus multifidus en Typha capensis. Siftingstoetse is uitgevoer met die organismes Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en Haemophilus ducreyi wat met SOS geassosieer word, terwyl Bacillus subtilus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Aspergillus niger ook in die siftingstoetse ingesluit is. Slegs Lepidium bonariense het aktiwiteit teen die gebruikte organismes getoon. Dit is dus duidelik dat daar ’n behoefte bestaan om die effektiwiteit van medisinale plante wetenskaplik te bepaal en te kommunikeer.

  3. Removal of Pb, Zn, and Cd from contaminated soil by new washing agent from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yaru; Zhang, Shirong; Wang, Guiyin; Huang, Qinling; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun

    2017-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to remove soil heavy metals, and the washing agent is generally regarded as one of the primary factors in the process, but there is still a lack of efficient and eco-friendly agents for this technique. Here, we showed that four plant washing agents-from water extracts of Coriaria nepalensis (CN), Clematis brevicaudata (CB), Pistacia weinmannifolia (PW), and Ricinus communis (RC)-could be feasible agents for the removal of soil lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd). The metal removal efficiencies of the agents increased with their concentrations from 20 to 80 g L -1 , decreased with the increasing solution pH, and presented different trends with the reaction time increasing. CN among the four agents had the highest removal efficiencies of soil Pb (62.02%) and Zn (29.18%) but owned the relatively low Cd removal efficiencies (21.59%). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the abilities of plant washing agents for the removal of soil heavy metals may result from bioactive substances with specific functional groups such as -COOH, -NH 2 , and -OH. Our study provided CN as the best washing agents for the remediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals.

  4. Complete sequence analysis and antiviral screening of medicinal plants for human coxsackievirus a16 isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Park, Kwisung; Shim, Aeri; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Hee; Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Jae Kyung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Yoon, Kyungah; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Coxsackievirus A group 16 strain (CVA16) is one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Using a specimen from a male patient with HFMD, we isolated and performed sequencing of the Korean CVA16 strain and compared it with a G10 reference strain. Also, we were investigated the effects of medicinal plant extract on the cytopathic effects (CPE) by CPE reduction assay against Korean CVA16. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean CVA16 isolate belonged to cluster B-1 and was closely related to the strain PM-15765-00 isolated in Malaysia in 2000. The Korean CVA16 isolate showed 73.2% nucleotide identity to the G10 prototype strain and 98.7% nucleotide identity to PM-15765-00. Next, we assessed whether the Korean CVA16 isolate could be used for in vitro screening of antiviral agents to treat HFMD infection. Vero cells infected with the Korean CVA16 isolate showed a cytopathic effect 2 days after the infection, and the treatment of cells with Cornus officinalis, Acer triflorum, Pulsatilla koreana, and Clematis heracleifolia var. davidiana Hemsl extracts exhibited strong antiviral activity against CVA16. Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of vaccine and novel drugs to treat the CVA16 strain isolated from a Korean patient.

  5. In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life plants: Demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern European city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misik, Miroslav [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Micieta, Karol [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Solenska, Martina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Misikova, Katarina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Pisarcikova, Helena [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Knasmueller, Siegfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Inner Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at

    2007-01-15

    Aim of the study was to monitor changes of genotoxic activity of urban air caused by an incinerator and a petrochemical plant in Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and pollen fertility assays with wild plants (Chelidonium majus, Clematis vitalba, Cichorium intybus, Linaria vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia). While in the first sampling period (1997-2000) significantly (on average 80%) more MN were found at the polluted site in comparison to controls from a rural area, no significant effects were observed during a later period (between 2003 and 2005). A similar pattern was observed in the pollen abortion assays in which the most pronounced effects were found in chicory and false acacia. The differences of the results obtained in the two periods can be explained by a substantial reduction of air pollution by use of new technologies. In particular the decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions may account for the effects seen in the present study. - Air pollution caused by industrial emissions induced micronuclei in Tradescantia and increased pollen abortion in wild plant species.

  6. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O 3 in the 2001 season

  7. Functional studies on the role of Notch signaling in Hydractinia development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, James M; Schnitzler, Christine E; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Doonan, Liam B; Kanska, Justyna; Gornik, Sebastian G; Barreira, Sofia; Thompson, Kerry; Schiffer, Philipp; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Frank, Uri

    2017-08-01

    The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra. Adult neurogenesis in the latter seemed to be unaffected by DAPT, a drug that inhibits Notch signaling. To address this apparent discrepancy, we studied the role of Notch in Hydractinia echinata, an additional hydrozoan, in all life stages. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated mutagenesis, transgenesis, and pharmacological interference we show that Notch is dispensable for Hydractinia normal neurogenesis in all life stages but is required for the maturation of stinging cells and for tentacle morphogenesis. Our results are consistent with a conserved role for Notch in morphogenesis and nematogenesis across Cnidaria, and a lineage-specific loss of Notch dependence in neurogenesis in hydrozoans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex determination and differentiation in Aurelia sp.1: the absence of temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Gu, Zhifeng; Xing, Mengxin; Sun, Yun; Chen, Siqing; Chen, Zhaoting

    2018-03-01

    Cnidarians, being regarded as `basal' metazoan animals, are considered to have relatively high plasticity in terms of sex reversal. In this study we used an experimental approach to demonstrate sexual differentiation and plasticity in benthic polyps and pelagic medusae of Aurelia sp.1 maintained at different temperatures. Results indicated that in Aurelia sp.1, sex differentiation has been determined at the polyp stage and that all medusae originating from a given polyp are, phenotypically, of the same sex. In addition, the sex of polyps budding from the same clone (either male or female) at different temperatures appears to be the same as that of the parent. The sex of medusae that had originated from a known-sex polyp was observed to remain the same as that of the parent, irrespective of differences in strobilation or rearing temperatures. These results indicate that the mechanism of sex determination of Aurelia sp.1. is not influenced by prevailing temperature regimes. A comparison of variability in terms of sexual plasticity of Aurelia sp.1 with that of Hydrozoa and Anthozoa suggests that species characterized by a free-swimming medusa life stage have a high dispersal potential, which probably results in a lower rate of sex reversal.

  9. Radioactive contamination of Bunodosoma caissarum under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    The kinetics of uptake and release of radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr (III and VI), 60 Co and 65 Zn in the 'cnidaria' Bunodosoma caissarum have been studied. This is an exclusively Brazilian species and easily collected on the Rio de Janeiro coastal waters. The kinetic experiments have been made in aquariums of 1000 cm 3 , in laboratory under controlled conditions and accompanied by single channel radiometry. The velocities of concentration were evident to radionuclides 131 I and 133 Ba. The larger concentration factors were registred to 51 Cr (III), 65 Zn and 51 Cr (VI), with middle values of 20,0 , 14,5 and 8,6 respectively. The same radionuclides stood out in the loss experiments, presenting the following biological half-lives : 292,2 h ( 51 Cr-III), 784,0 h ( 51 Cr-VI) and 823,0 h ( 65 Zn). This expressive value for the 65 Zn suggests a probable biological integration of this radionuclide by the species studied. The results allow us to indicate the 'anthozoa' Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator of the radioactive contamination of the marine environment. (Author) [pt

  10. Biosurfactant production by hydrocarbon-degrading Brevibacterium and Vibrio isolates from the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Marco; Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Porporato, Erika Maria Diletta; De Domenico, Emilio; Spanò, Nunziacarla; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2016-09-01

    Among filter-feeders, pennatulids are the most complex and polymorphic members of the cnidarian class Anthozoa. They display a wide distribution throughout all the oceans, constituting a significant component of the sessile megafauna from intertidal to abyssal depths. In this study, a total of 118 bacterial isolates from enrichment cultures, carried out with homogenates of the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764), were screened for hydrocarbon utilization by using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. Among them, 83 hydrocarbon-oxidizing isolates were analyzed for biosurfactant production by standard screening tests (i.e., emulsifying activity, E24 detection, surface tension measurement, microplate assay). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the affiliation of the most promising isolates to the genera Brevibacterium and Vibrio. Biosurfactant production resulted strongly affected by salinity and temperature conditions, and occurred in the presence of diesel oil and/or crude oil, whereas no production was observed when isolates were grown on tetradecane. The strains resulted able to create stable emulsions, thus suggesting the production of biosurfactants. Further analyses revealed a glycolipidic nature of the biosurfactant extracted from Vibrio sp. PBN295, a genus that has been only recently reported as biosurfactant producer. Results suggest that pennatulids could represent a novel source for the isolation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria with potential in biosurfactant production. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. DNA barcoding as a tool for coral reef conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigel, J.; Domingo, A.; Stake, J.

    2007-09-01

    DNA Barcoding (DBC) is a method for taxonomic identification of animals that is based entirely on the 5' portion of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit I ( COI-5). It can be especially useful for identification of larval forms or incomplete specimens lacking diagnostic morphological characters. DBC can also facilitate the discovery of species and in defining “molecular taxonomic units” in problematic groups. However, DBC is not a panacea for coral reef taxonomy. In two of the most ecologically important groups on coral reefs, the Anthozoa and Porifera, COI-5 sequences have diverged too little to be diagnostic for all species. Other problems for DBC include paraphyly in mitochondrial gene trees and lack of differentiation between hybrids and their maternal ancestors. DBC also depends on the availability of databases of COI-5 sequences, which are still in early stages of development. A global effort to barcode all fish species has demonstrated the importance of large-scale coordination and is yielding promising results. Whether or not COI-5 by itself is sufficient for species assignments has become a contentious question; it is generally advantageous to use sequences from multiple loci.

  12. Evolutionary transitions in symbioses: dramatic reductions in bathymetric and geographic ranges of Zoanthidea coincide with loss of symbioses with invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D

    2010-06-01

    Two fundamental symbiosis-based trophic types are recognized among Zoanthidea (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): fixed carbon is either obtained directly from zooxanthellae photosymbionts or from environmental sources through feeding with the assistance of host-invertebrate behaviour and structure. Each trophic type is characteristic of the suborders of Zoanthidea and is associated with substantial distributional asymmetries: suborder Macrocnemina are symbionts of invertebrates and have global geographic and bathymetric distributions and suborder Brachycnemina are hosts of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and are restricted to tropical photic zones. While exposure to solar radiation could explain the bathymetric asymmetry it does not explain the geographic asymmetry, nor is it clear why evolutionary transitions to the zooxanthellae-free state have apparently occurred within Macrocnemina but not within Brachycnemina. To better understand the transitions between symbiosis-based trophic types of Zoanthidea, a concatenated data set of nuclear and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences were used to test hypotheses of monophyly for groups defined by morphology and symbiosis, and to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions of morphological and symbiotic characters. The results indicate that the morphological characters that define Macrocnemina are plesiomorphic and the characters that define its subordinate taxa are homoplasious. Symbioses with invertebrates have ancient and recent transitions with a general pattern of stability in host associations through evolutionary time. The reduction in distribution of Zoanthidea is independent of the evolution of zooxanthellae symbiosis and consistent with hypotheses of the benefits of invertebrate symbioses, indicating that the ability to persist in most habitats may have been lost with the termination of symbioses with invertebrates.

  13. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Linial

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Sub-cellular damage by copper in the cnidarian Zoanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A; Trompf, K; Seung, D; Nivison-Smith, L; Bowcock, H; Kresse, H; Holmes, S; Radford, J; Morrow, P

    2010-09-01

    Sessile organisms may experience chronic exposure to copper that is released into the marine environment from antifoulants and stormwater runoff. We have identified the site of damage caused by copper to the symbiotic cnidarian, Zoanthus robustus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia). External changes to the zoanthids were apparent when compared with controls. The normally flexible bodies contracted and became rigid. Histological examination of the zoanthid tissue revealed that copper had caused sub-cellular changes to proteins within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tubular body. Collagen in the ECM and the internal septa increased in thickness to five and seven times that of controls respectively. The epithelium, which stained for elastin, was also twice as thick and tough to cut, but exposure to copper did not change the total amount of desmosine which is found only in elastin. We conclude that copper stimulated collagen synthesis in the ECM and also caused cross-linking of existing proteins. However, there was no expulsion of the symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and no effect on algal pigments or respiration (44, 66 and 110 microg Cu L(-1)). A decrease in net photosynthesis was observed only at the highest copper concentration (156 microg Cu L(-1)). These results show that cnidarians may be more susceptible to damage by copper than their symbiotic algae. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Kunitz-like Peptides Discovered in the Zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum through Transcriptome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiwen; Li, Shengnan; Siu, Shirley Weng In; Yang, Binrui; Huang, Chen; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Wong, Clarence Tsun Ting; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2018-02-02

    Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, on the basis of the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active, and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz). The three predicted PcKuz isotoxins (1-3) were selected for functional studies. Through computational processing comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation, PcKuz3 was shown to be a potential voltage gated potassium-channel inhibitor. PcKuz3 fitted well as new functional Kunitz-type toxins with strong antilocomotor activity as in vivo assessed in zebrafish larvae, with weak inhibitory effect toward proteases, as evaluated in vitro. Notably, PcKuz3 can suppress, at low concentration, the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity on the locomotive behavior of zebrafish, which indicated PcKuz3 may have a neuroprotective effect. Taken together, PcKuz3 figures as a novel neurotoxin structure, which differs from known homologous peptides expressed in sea anemone. Moreover, the novel PcKuz3 provides an insightful hint for biodrug development for prospective neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  16. Violet Grove CO{sub 2} injection project : monitoring with timelapse VSP surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coueslan, M.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jones, M. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Several oil and gas fields in western Canada have been depleted through primary production and secondary recovery methods. Injecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into a reservoir can enhance oil recovery (EOR) and has the potential benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. It has been estimated that western Canada has a practical CO{sub 2} storage capacity of about 3.3 Gt in its oil and gas reservoirs. In order to claim a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, however, the injected CO{sub 2} must be monitored to prove that it is being trapped in these reservoirs. For that reason, the Violet Grove site, near Drayton Valley, Alberta was chosen as a pilot site to study CO{sub 2} injection into a reservoir for enhanced recovery and carbon sequestration purposes. The reservoir is located in the Cardium Formation in the Pembina Field. It was expected that the CO{sub 2} would flow preferentially in the reservoir's dominant fracture orientation, which is northeast-southwest. Simultaneously acquired time-lapse multicomponent surface and borehole seismic surveys were used to monitor changes in the reservoir. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, a baseline survey was acquired in March 2005. A second survey was acquired 8 months after CO{sub 2} injection. The borehole seismic data displayed higher bandwidth and increased resolution compared to the surface seismic data. The PS-wave borehole seismic data in particular showed much better results. Together, these seismic surveys provide lateral coverage of the area as well as high resolution images near the observation well. Preliminary results from the time-lapse analysis show an increase of 30 to 60 per cent in the reservoir reflectivity amplitudes in the 8 months between the baseline and monitor surveys, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} flood has progressed southwest of the injector, most likely along the dominant fracture trend. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Healthy addiction: blowouts inspire lifelong dedication to roles in dangerous dramas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-05-01

    The development of Safety Boss and Key Safety Blowout Control Ltd, based in Calgary and Red Deer, Alberta, respectively, is chronicled, serving as a background to a discussion of growth of oilwell blowout and emergency response services in the Canadian oilpatch. The rise to prominence began in 1982 with the blowout of the Lodgepole run-away well near Drayton Valley, Alberta, where very high geological pressures drove 300 million cubic feet of natural gas that contained 20 per cent lethal hydrogen sulphide, into the air. The expertise was further honed in Kuwait, where a team of Canadian blowout fighters extinguished hundreds of wells, set ablaze during the Gulf War in 1991. Today, this Canadian expertise is routinely exported to various foreign lands, including the United States, which until recently dominated the field. For example, Key Safety Blowout Control is a designated response organization for Alaska, rubbing shoulders with international giants in the Canadian Arctic, as part of the Mackenzie Delta Integrated Oil Field Services Group. About 60 per cent of Key Safety's bread and butter work is generated by sour gas. The need for blowout services is expected to grow over the next decade as the hunt for gas reaches farther into deep geological formations and the Rocky Mountain Foothills region. The high proportion of lethal hydrogen sulphide in these deep formations and the Foothills region invite escalating criticism from environmentalists, landowners and communities, protests, which in turn create growing demand for blowout services and preventive gear. On the positive side, the growing danger of blowouts and noxious discharges into the air stimulate the development of new technology, such as the new generation of lower explosive limit monitors that identify the presence of any gases liable to blow up. There is also a growing market for 'downwind monitoring units' that detect parts-per billion hydrogen sulphide concentrations. These and other

  18. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  19. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  20. Is Bumblebee Foraging Efficiency Mediated by Morphological Correspondence to Flowers?

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    Ikumi Dohzono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for certain types of flowers in bee species may be an adaptation for efficient foraging, and they often prefer flowers whose shape fits their mouthparts. However, it is unclear whether such flowers are truly beneficial for them. We address this issue by experimentally measuring foraging efficiency of bumblebees, the volume of sucrose solution consumed over handling time (μL/second, using long-tongued Bombus diversus Smith and short-tongued B. honshuensis Tkalcu that visit Clematis stans Siebold et Zuccarini. The corolla tube length of C. stans decreases during a flowering period, and male flowers are longer than female flowers. Long- and short-tongued bumblebees frequently visited longer and shorter flowers, respectively. Based on these preferences, we hypothesized that bumblebee foraging efficiency is higher when visiting flowers that show a good morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube. Foraging efficiency of bumblebees was estimated using flowers for which nectar quality and quantity were controlled, in an experimental enclosure. We show that 1 the foraging efficiency of B. diversus was enhanced when visiting younger, longer flowers, and that 2 the foraging efficiency of B. honshuensis was higher when visiting shorter female flowers. This suggests that morphological correspondence between insects and flowers is important for insect foraging efficiency. However, in contradiction to our prediction, 3 short-tongued bumblebees B. honshuensis sucked nectar more efficiently when visiting younger, longer flowers, and 4 there was no significant difference in the foraging efficiency of B. diversus between flower sexes. These results suggest that morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube is not a sole determinant of foraging efficiency. Bumblebees may adjust their sucking behavior in response to available rewards, and competition over rewards between bumblebee species might change visitation patterns

  1. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

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    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  3. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  4. Establishment of zygomorphy on an ontogenic spiral and evolution of perianth in the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Florian; Ronse De Craene, Louis P; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Ranunculaceae presents both ancestral and derived floral traits for eudicots, and as such is of potential interest to understand key steps involved in the evolution of zygomorphy in eudicots. Zygomorphy evolved once in Ranunculaceae, in the speciose and derived tribe Delphinieae. This tribe consists of two genera (Aconitum and Delphinium s.l.) comprising more than one-quarter of the species of the family. In this paper, the establishment of zygomorphy during development was investigated to cast light on the origin and evolution of this morphological novelty. METHODS; The floral developmental sequence of six species of Ranunculaceae, three actinomorphic (Nigella damascena, Aquilegia alpina and Clematis recta) and three zygomorphic (Aconitum napellus, Delphinium staphisagria and D. grandiflorum), was compared. A developmental model was elaborated to break down the successive acquisitions of floral organ identities on the ontogenic spiral (all the species studied except Aquilegia have a spiral phyllotaxis), giving clues to understanding this complex morphogenesis from an evo-devo point of view. In addition, the evolution of symmetry in Ranunculaceae was examined in conjunction with other traits of flowers and with ecological factors. In the species studied, zygomorphy is established after organogenesis is completed, and is late, compared with other zygomorphic eudicot species. Zygomorphy occurs in flowers characterized by a fixed merism and a partially reduced and transformed corolla. It is suggested that shifts in expression of genes controlling the merism, as well as floral symmetry and organ identity, have played a critical role in the evolution of zygomorphy in Delphinieae, while the presence of pollinators able to exploit the peculiar morphology of the flower has been a key factor for the maintenance and diversification of this trait.

  5. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  6. Actividad contra Leishmania sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae de plantas en una Reserva Biológica de Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad muy importante para el ser humano pero su tratamiento es bastante difícil. Por esta razón muchos investigadores han venido buscando plantas que contengan componentes químicos activos contra esta parasitosis. En Costa Rica no se tienen estudios al respecto y por eso el objetivo de este estudio fue la búsqueda de componentes activos contra Leishmania sp. en plantas de Costa Rica; 67 especies de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB fueron seleccionadas para realizar este trabajo. Para ello se prepararon extractos crudos hidro-alcohólicos de material fresco o desecado de raíz, tallo, hojas maduras o tiernas, flores y frutos inmaduros o maduros. Usando pruebas presuntivas y luego específicas, se analizó el efecto de tales extractos sobre una cepa de Leishmania (OCR. Se consideraron plantas promisorias solamente aquellas en que al menos una de sus partes presentara un CI50<100µg/mL. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Bocconia frutescens, Clematis dioica,Cordia megalantha, Eugenia austin-smithii, Guarea bullata, Guateria tonduzii, Mikania holwayana, Nectandra membranacea,Neurolaena lobata, Persea povedae, Piper auritum, Rollinia pittieri, Solanum arboreum, Tetrorchidium euryphyllum, Witheringia solanacea y Zanthoxylum juniperinum. Existió una ligera tendencia de positividad mayor para los extractos frescos y la actividad se presentó en una y hasta más de cuatro partes de la planta. La mayoría de los extractos activos no fueron tóxicos. Se discute la importancia de estos nuevos hallazgos, en relación con el nuevo conocimiento científico y su proyección en el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis.

  7. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  8. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINGO A. LANCELLOTTI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  9. Uptake and Persistence of Homologous and Heterologous Zooxanthellae in the Temperate Sea Anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Lucas, I A N; Turner, J R

    1997-04-01

    The uptake and persistence of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) were measured in the temperate sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant). Aposymbiotic specimens of C. pedunculatus were inoculated with zooxanthellae freshly isolated from a range of temperate and subtropical Anthozoa. Each inoculate consisted of zooxanthellae from a single host species and was either homologous (zooxanthellae from a host of the same species as the one being inoculated) or heterologous (from a host of a different species than the one being inoculated). The densities of zooxanthellae in host tissues were determined at regular intervals. C. pedunculatus took up homologous and heterologous zooxanthellae to similar degrees, except for zooxanthellae from the temperate Anthopleura ballii, which were taken up to a lesser extent. The densities of all zooxanthellae declined between 4 hours and 4 days after uptake, indicating that zooxanthellae were expelled, digested, or both during this period. The densities of all zooxanthellae increased between 2 and 8 weeks after inoculation, indicating zooxanthella growth. Over the entire 8-week period after uptake, densities of homologous zooxanthellae were always greater than those of heterologous zooxanthellae. Between 8 and 36 weeks after infection, densities of homologous zooxanthellae declined markedly and densities of some heterologous zooxanthellae increased further, resulting in homologous and heterologous zooxanthella densities being the same at 36 weeks. These densities were the same as those in naturally infected C. pedunculatus of similar size. The results suggest that zooxanthellae from a range of host species and environments can establish symbioses with C. pedunculatus and that, over long periods under laboratory conditions, heterologous zooxanthellae may populate C. pedunculatus to the same extent as homologous zooxanthellae.

  10. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  11. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-04-26

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  12. Sea anemones may thrive in a high CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Boatman, Toby G; Payton, Ross; Tye Pettay, D; Johnson, Vivienne R; Warner, Mark E; Lawson, Tracy

    2012-10-01

    Increased seawater pCO 2 , and in turn 'ocean acidification' (OA), is predicted to profoundly impact marine ecosystem diversity and function this century. Much research has already focussed on calcifying reef-forming corals (Class: Anthozoa) that appear particularly susceptible to OA via reduced net calcification. However, here we show that OA-like conditions can simultaneously enhance the ecological success of non-calcifying anthozoans, which not only play key ecological and biogeochemical roles in present day benthic ecosystems but also represent a model organism should calcifying anthozoans exist as less calcified (soft-bodied) forms in future oceans. Increased growth (abundance and size) of the sea anemone (Anemonia viridis) population was observed along a natural CO 2 gradient at Vulcano, Italy. Both gross photosynthesis (P G ) and respiration (R) increased with pCO 2 indicating that the increased growth was, at least in part, fuelled by bottom up (CO 2 stimulation) of metabolism. The increase of P G outweighed that of R and the genetic identity of the symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) remained unchanged (type A19) suggesting proximity to the vent site relieved CO 2 limitation of the anemones' symbiotic microalgal population. Our observations of enhanced productivity with pCO 2 , which are consistent with previous reports for some calcifying corals, convey an increase in fitness that may enable non-calcifying anthozoans to thrive in future environments, i.e. higher seawater pCO 2 . Understanding how CO 2 -enhanced productivity of non- (and less-) calcifying anthozoans applies more widely to tropical ecosystems is a priority where such organisms can dominate benthic ecosystems, in particular following localized anthropogenic stress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cellular organization and spectral diversity of GFP-like proteins in live coral cells studied by single and multiphoton imaging and microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Anya; Cox, Guy C.; Larkum, Anthony W.

    2003-07-01

    Tissues of many marine invertebrates of class Anthozoa contain intensely fluorescent or brightly coloured pigments. These pigments belong to a family of photoactive proteins closely related to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), and their emissions range from blue to red wavelengths. The great diversity of these pigments has only recently been realised. To investigate the role of these proteins in corals, we have performed an in vivo fluorescent pigment (FP) spectral and cellular distribution analyses in live coral cells using single and multi-photon laser scanning imaging and microspectroscopy. These analyses revealed that even single colour corals contain spectroscopically heterogeneous pigment mixtures, with 2-5 major colour types in the same area of tissue. They were typically arranged in step-wise light emission energy gradients (e.g. blue, green, yellow, red). The successive overlapping emission-excitation spectral profiles of differently coloured FPs suggested that they were suited for sequential energy coupling. Traces of red FPs (emission = 570-660 nm) were present, even in non-red corals. We confirmed that radiative energy transfer could occur between separate granules of blue and green FPs and that energy transfer was inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Multi-photon micro-spectrofluorometric analysis gave significantly improved spectral resolution by restricting FP excitation to a single point in the focal plane of the sample. Pigment heterogeneity at small scales within granules suggested that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) might be occurring, and we confirmed that this was the case. Thus, energy transfer can take place both radiatively and by FRET, probably functioning in photoprotection by dissipation of excessive solar radiation.

  14. Cellular responses in sea fan corals: granular amoebocytes react to pathogen and climate stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Mydlarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate warming is causing environmental change making both marine and terrestrial organisms, and even humans, more susceptible to emerging diseases. Coral reefs are among the most impacted ecosystems by climate stress, and immunity of corals, the most ancient of metazoans, is poorly known. Although coral mortality due to infectious diseases and temperature-related stress is on the rise, the immune effector mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of corals to such events remain elusive. In the Caribbean sea fan corals (Anthozoa, Alcyonacea: Gorgoniidae, the cell-based immune defenses are granular acidophilic amoebocytes, which are known to be involved in wound repair and histocompatibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time in corals that these cells are involved in the organismal response to pathogenic and temperature stress. In sea fans with both naturally occurring infections and experimental inoculations with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii, an inflammatory response, characterized by a massive increase of amoebocytes, was evident near infections. Melanosomes were detected in amoebocytes adjacent to protective melanin bands in infected sea fans; neither was present in uninfected fans. In naturally infected sea fans a concurrent increase in prophenoloxidase activity was detected in infected tissues with dense amoebocytes. Sea fans sampled in the field during the 2005 Caribbean Bleaching Event (a once-in-hundred-year climate event responded to heat stress with a systemic increase in amoebocytes and amoebocyte densities were also increased by elevated temperature stress in lab experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection and temperature stress. The ability to mount an inflammatory response may be a contributing factor that allowed the survival of even infected sea fan corals during a

  15. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  17. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus

  18. 25 Years of Natural Product R&D with New South Wales Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Southwell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture’s Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea, myrtenol (Agonis, methyl chavicol (Ochrosperma, α-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera, methyl myrtenate (Darwinia, methyl geranate (Darwinia, kessane (Acacia, cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera, protoanemonin (Clematis, isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus, methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus and bornyl acetate (Boronia. Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of β-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole – low terpinen-4-ol oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the

  19. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  20. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low toxicity. Since the species studied are different from those

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aisha Khan; Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity among South Asians in Trinidad (Kevin Birth Frances Henry; Reclaiming African Religions in Trinidad: The Socio-Political Legitimation of the Orisha and Spiritual Baptist Faiths (Alfrieta Parks Monagan Margarite Fernámdez Olmos, Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert; Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santería to Obeah and Espiritismo (Raquel Romberg Johan Wedel; Santería Healing: A Journey into the Afro-Cuban World of Divinities, Spirits, and Sorcery (Raquel Romberg Gerard Aching; Masking and Power: Carnival and Popular Culture in the Caribbean (Stephen Stuempfle James Pritchard; In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas, 1670-1730 (Brett H. Rusforth Gerhard Menzel; Der schwarze Traum vom Glück: Haiti seit 1804 (Michael Zeuske Marcus Rediker; Villains of all Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Dian Murray Joseph E. Inikori; Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development (Richard Drayton Fernando Picó; Puerto Rico 1898: The War after the War (Mariola Espinosa Luis Martínez-Fernández; Protestantism and Political Conflict in the Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Caribbean (Michael Zeuske Gabino La Rosa Corzo; Runaway Slave Settlements in Cuba: Resistance and Repression (Daniel O. Sayers Bonham C. Richardson; Igniting the Caribbean?s Past: Fire in British West Indian History (Kenneth H. Orvis Bridget Brereton (ed., Theresa Martínez-Vergne, Rnené A. Römer, Blanca G. Silvestrini (co.eds; General History of the Caribbean. Volume V: The Caribbean in the Twentieth Century (Gert Oostindie Perry Mars, Alma H. Young (eds; Caribbean Labor and Politics: Legacies of Cheddi Jagan and Michael Manley (O. Nigel Bolland Euclid A. Rose; Dependency and Socialism in the Modern Caribbean (Obika Gray Bill Schwarz (ed.; West Indian Intellectuals in

  2. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    ), and nitrated PAH compounds for comparison. Potential organic aerosol components are identified which contribute to the enhanced absorption observed in the field. The wavelength dependence of the mass specific absorption is obtained from these spectra and total carbon measurements. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n +ik) in the UV-visible spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  3. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Javier; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-08-01

    Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n=22), Australia (n=6) and Florida, USA (n=1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other Zoantharia by a unique and

  4. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  5. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Montenegro, Javier; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n= 22), Australia (n= 6) and Florida, USA (n= 1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other

  6. The scavenger receptor repertoire in six cnidarian species and its putative role in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie F. Neubauer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes. The superfamily includes subclades named SR-A through SR-I that are categorized based on the arrangement of sequence domains including the scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR, the C-type lectin (CTLD and the CD36 domains. Previous functional and gene expression studies on cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis have implicated SR-like proteins in interpartner communication and regulation. In this study, we characterized the SR repertoire from a combination of genomic and transcriptomic resources from six cnidarian species in the Class Anthozoa. We combined these bioinformatic analyses with functional experiments using the SR inhibitor fucoidan to explore a role for SRs in cnidarian symbiosis and immunity. Bioinformatic searches revealed a large diversity of SR-like genes that resembled SR-As, SR-Bs, SR-Es and SR-Is. SRCRs, CTLDs and CD36 domains were identified in multiple sequences in combinations that were highly homologous to vertebrate SRs as well as in proteins with novel domain combinations. Phylogenetic analyses of CD36 domains of the SR-B-like sequences from a diversity of metazoans grouped cnidarian with bilaterian sequences separate from other basal metazoans. All cnidarian sequences grouped together with moderate support in a subclade separately from bilaterian sequences. Functional experiments were carried out on the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida that engages in a symbiosis with Symbiodinium minutum

  7. Benthic Community Composition and Seabed Characteristics of a Chukchi Sea Pockmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bluhm, B.; Iken, K.; Gagaev, S.; Robinson, S.

    2005-12-01

    densities of over 50 individuals per square meter. Preliminary analysis of the box core samples: Polychaetes (e.g. Chaetozone setose, Aricidea sp., Ophelina sp., Progoniada sp., Proclea graffi, Protula globifera), Foraminifera, Nemertini, Coronata (Cnidaria tubes), Sipunculida (Golfingia), Bivalvia, Anthozoa.

  8. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Montenegro, Javier

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n= 22), Australia (n= 6) and Florida, USA (n= 1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other

  9. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Clematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Clematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  10. The terebinth population (Pistacia mutica Fisсh. & C.A. Mey. in the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea

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    Viktoria Ju. Letukhova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive work on the study of rare and protected wood plants on the territory of the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea was carried out on the instructions of Karadag Nature Reserve administration in 2013. The Besh-Tash valley (approximate area of 15 hectares is wedged in the territory of the Karadag reserve from the south-west side, but it is not included in its structure. This article describes the material on distribution, abundance, population structure of terebinth (Pistacia mutica in this area. P. mutica is a Mediterranean relict species of the Tertiary period, included in the Red Books of Russia, Crimea and Ukraine. Terebinth creates rare relict plant communities (formation P. mutica listed in the Green Book of Ukraine. In the study area we counted all P. mutica specimens. We determined their taxation parameters, as well as characterized their locality. Based on the literature and our own research age-state classes of P. mutica were characterized for the studied population. As a result, we registered a total number of 3086 specimens of P. mutica: immature (im – 1259 (40.8%, virginal (v – 1054 (34.2%, young generative (g1 – 341 (11.0%, middle-age generative (g2 – 372 (12.0%, mature generative (g3 – 60 (2.0% plants. Senile plants have not been found out. So the age spectrum of the population is normal, not complete (without senile individuals, left-sided with predominance of immature plants. The population density is 206 specimens/ha. In the Besh-Tash valley P. mutica forms its own dense thickets or it is the component of hemixerophytical oak forests with Quercus pubescens, Juniperus deltoides, rarer Cornus mas, Sorbus torminalis. It also grows in shrub communities with Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Paliurus spina-christi, Prunus spinosa, Rosa corymbifera, Cotoneaster tauricus, Crataegus species, rarer Cotinus coggygria, Clematis vitalba. The distribution of the terebinth tree by elevation above sea level is analyzed. The great

  11. Benthic communities associated to Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

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    Ricardo Bitter - Soto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The benthic community associated with the turtlegrass Thalassia testudinum beds was analized at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. The localities were selected according to their exposure to the open sea : A (protected, B (intermediate and C (exposed. At each locality, a 20 x 20 m area was randomly chosen, delimited and divided into 400 1x1 m quadrats. Inside each, ten randomly selected quadrats/month were sampled during 13 consecutive months. At each site all macroinvertebrates and several physical variables were recorded, as well as leaf and rhizome biomass of T. testudinum. All parameters had a step- wise gradient from A through C: organic matter, carbon nitrogen, oxygen, salinity and temperature gradient was: ABC. Percentages of sand, silt and clay showed an inverse gradient; ASe analizó la comunidad bentónica asociada a Thalassia testudinum y su relación con algunos parámetros bióticos y abióticos, en tres localidades del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón-Venezuela; éstas fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo al grado de exposición al mar abierto: A(protegída, B (intermedia y C (expuesta. En cada localidad se demarcó un área de 20 x 20m, se muestrearon aleatoriamente 10cuadrantes/mes, (130 cuadrantes/localidad. Se efectuaron registros de oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, temperatura, porcentajes de materia orgánica, carbono y nitrógeno, textura del sedimento, biomasa foliar y de rizoma de T. testudinum. Todos los parámetros analizados presentaron un gradiente escalonado. Materia Orgánica, Carbono y Nitrógeno, Oxígeno disuelto, Salinidad y Temperatura presentaron el gradiente: ABC. Los porcentages de Arena, Limo y Arcilla presentaron un gradiente inverso. El patrón en la Diversidad, Equidad y Dominancia fue: BCA. La fauna colectada estuvo compuesta por los grupos: Coelenterata (Anthozoa, Polichaeta, Sipuncula, Molusca, Crustacea y Echinodermata. Se identificaron 15 especies de moluscos (gastrópodos y bivalvos, (3

  12. Importance of spatial factors and temporal scales in environmental risk assessment in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, A.; Linkov, I.; Andrizhievski, A.; Lukashevich, A.; Trifonov, A.

    2004-01-01

    second model, the velocity of receptor's migration in each cell is inversely proportional to the forage volume and habitat quality presented. The model allows depicting the receptor migration traces within habitat area. The model also gives possibility to implement two principal algorithms. The basic or deterministic algorithm is when the receptor migration within habitat area is equiprobable and the concentration fields of contaminants in forage resources are averaged all over the migration area. The semi-probabilistic algorithm reflects the probability of the receptor's presence and duration of presence in the given zones taking into account habitat quality and attractiveness of various forage resources in these zones. The spatial distribution of concentration of the contaminants in forage resources of habitat area is also taken into account. The later algorithm allows revealing many interesting effects that may specify exposure assessment, e.g., some data on incorporated activity and their deviation depends on configuration of migration zone. It was shown in model calibration study that exposure estimates for fish, anthozoa and other aquatic populations in areas containing spatially localized contaminants are functions of spatial factors, such as the receptor's average foraging area, the size of the habitat, and the specific distribution of contamination. We present a software prototype that calculates accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls by fishes and their higher order predators, including humans. This study was partially supported by GEF/UNDP and NATO. (author)

  13. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenbaev, B.M.; Abdijapar, S.; Shamshiev, A.B.; Jolboldiev, B.; Jalilova, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm

  14. Редкие виды сосудистых растений на территории национального парка «Земля леопарда» (Приморский край, Россия

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    етственно делению территории НП. В результате было собрано более 1500 образцов сосудистых растений, хранящихся в гербарной коллекции БСИ ДВО РАН (VBGI. В статье приводится аннотированный перечень 28 редких видов, выявленных на территории НП «Земля леопарда» и подтвержденных гербарными образцами. К редким отнесены 3 вида, включенные в “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species”(2014, 14 видов из Красной книги РФ (2008, 20 видов из Красной книги Приморского края (2008 и 5 видов, редко встречающихся на исследуемой территории в силу различных природных или антропогенных факторов. Из наиболее редких видов в статье приведены: Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., Codonopsis pilosula Nannf., Meehania urticifolia Makino, Clematis koreana Kom.