WorldWideScience

Sample records for clearwater focus watershed

  1. Community DECISIONS: stakeholder focused watershed planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Darrell; Pease, James; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Zobel, Christopher; Osorio, Javier; Cobb, Tanya Denckla; Evanylo, Greg

    2012-12-15

    Successful watershed planning can be enhanced by stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing plans that reflect community goals and resource limitations. Community DECISIONS (Community Decision Support for Integrated, On-the-ground Nutrient Reduction Strategies) is a structured decision process to help stakeholders evaluate strategies that reduce watershed nutrient imbalances. A nutrient accounting algorithm and nutrient treatment database provide information on nutrient loadings and costs of alternative strategies to reduce loadings. Stakeholders were asked to formulate goals for the North Fork Shenandoah River Watershed in Virginia and select among strategies to achieve those goals. The Vector Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to rank strategies. Stakeholders preferred a Maximum strategy that included point source upgrades, riparian buffers, no-till corn silage, wheat cover, and bioretention filters in developed areas. Participants generally agreed that the process helped improve communication among stakeholders, was helpful for watershed planning, and should be used for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) planning. Participants suggested more attention be paid to ensuring that all relevant issues are addressed and all information needed to make decisions is available. Watershed planning should provide stakeholders with clear scientific information about physical and socioeconomic processes. However, planning processes must give stakeholders adequate time to consider issues that may not have been addressed by existing scientific models and datasets.

  2. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  3. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian

  4. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation

  5. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation

  6. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  7. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  8. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  9. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  10. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Gretchen (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and

  11. Watershed Dynamics, with focus on connectivity index and management of water related impacts on road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. This study was built on a conceptual framework for looking at SedInConnect model, topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs and climate change in an integrated way to pave the way for more integrated policy making. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. This framework can provide a region with an effective tool to inform a broad range of watershed planning activities within a region. Regional planners, decision-makers, etc. can utilize this tool to identify the most vulnerable points in a watershed and along roads to plan for interventions and actions to alter impacts of high flows and other extreme weather events on roads construction. The application of the model over a large scale can give a realistic spatial characterization of sediment connectivity for the optimal management of debris flow to road structures. The ability of the model to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  12. Lower Clearwater Aquatic Mammal Survey. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Curt; Kronemann, Loren A.; Eneas, Cheryl

    1994-08-01

    BPA provided funding to collect baseline data on river otters to assist in developing mitigation implementation plans for river otters percent to the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, sections 1003 (b)(2) and (3). Distribution, movements, habitat use, and diets of river otters were investigated in the Clearwater River within the Nez Perce Indian Reservation from 1991-1992. The study outlined recommendations to guide development of mitigation implementation plans for riparian habitats. Sections of the Clearwater River were identified that if protected or enhanced would provide optimal benefit to otters. Habitat improvement alternatives were also outlined which could be used to enhance otter habitats.

  13. Development and evaluation of clear-water pier and contraction scour envelope curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-scour depths collected in both provinces ranged from 0 to 8.0 feet. Contraction-scour depths collected in the Coastal Plain ranged from 0 to 3.9 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted clear-water scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted clear-water scour depths, in general, exceeded measured scour depths and at times were excessive. Predicted clear-water contraction scour, however, was underpredicted approximately 30 percent of the time by as much as 7.1 feet. The investigation focused on clear-water pier scour, comparing trends in the laboratory and field data. This comparison indicated that the range of dimensionless variables (relative depth, flow intensity, relative grain size) used in laboratory investigations of pier scour, were similar to the range for field data in South Carolina, further indicating that laboratory relations may have some applicability to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing pier scour in laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence on the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were pier width and approach velocity. Envelope curves developed from the field data are useful tools for evaluating reasonable ranges of clear-water pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. A modified version of the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 pier-scour equation also was developed as a tool for evaluating clearwater pier

  14. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  15. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  16. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    2,000 acres, are associated (mainly) with smaller lakes in the subbasin, such as Blackduck, Maple, Julia , Pine and Clearwater. Also, many sumnier homes...flooding fot reproduction. In addition, channel modification could lead to increased wetland drainage. I-creasing the chanel depth or cross section

  17. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  18. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  19. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  20. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  1. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  2. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abutment is similar. The scour depth develops to top of foundation quickly, and then the foundation postpones the scour development (lag–time. Duration of lag–time depends on the foundation level, velocity ratio (U/Uc and foundation dimension. This study highlights that proper design of foundation level increases duration of scouring and provides enough time to treat bridge foundation after the flood events.

  3. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  4. Influence of hydrological pulse on bacterial growth and DOC uptake in a clear-water Amazonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Azevedo, Debora A; Esteves, Francisco A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Roland, Fabio; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate: (1) the bacterial growth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake in an Amazonian lake (Lake Batata) at high-water and low-water periods of the flood pulse; (2) the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) additions on bacterial growth and DOC uptake in Lake Batata at two flood pulse periods; and (3) the bioavailability of the main DOC sources in Lake Batata. Lake Batata is a typical clear-water Amazonian lake, located in the watershed of Trombetas River, Central Amazon, Brazil. Bacterial batch cultures were set up with 90% 0.2-microm filtered water and 10% inoculum from Lake Batata. N-NH(4)NO(3) and P-KH(2)PO(4), with final concentrations of 50 and 5 microM, respectively, were added to the cultures, except for controls. Extra sources of DOC (e.g., algal lysate, plant leachates) were added to constitute six distinct treatments. Bacterial response was measured by maximum bacterial abundance and rates of bacterial production, respiration, DOC uptake, and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Bacterial growth and DOC uptake were higher in NP treatments than in controls, indicating a consistent nutrient limitation in Lake Batata. The composition of DOC also seems to be an important regulating factor of bacterial growth in Lake Batata. Seasonally, bacterial growth and DOC bioavailability were higher at low-water period, when the phytoplankton is a significant extra source of DOC, than at high-water period, when the forest is the main source of DOC. DOC bioavailability was better estimated based on the diversity and the diagenetic stage of carbon compounds than on single classes of labile compounds. Changes in BGE were better related to CNP stoichiometry in the water, and the "excess" of organic substrates was oxidized in catabolism, despite the quality of these compounds for bacterial growth. Finally, we conclude that bacterial growth and DOC uptake vary throughout the flood pulse in clear-water Amazonian ecosystems as a result

  5. Impacts of Changing Agri-Environmental Policy on Countryside Conservation: A Report of Focus Groups Held in Association with Skaneateles Lake Watershed, Skaneateles, NY, USA, and High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Goudhurst, Kent, England, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, David; Bills, Nelson L.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing area-based agri-environmental programs, our work involves focus groups and interviews with program managers, landowners, and elected officials to assess the impact of on-farm managerial interventions on broader countryside conservation issues. Initially, two areas were compared: The Skaneateles Lake Watershed Agricultural Program (NY) and the High Weald Land Management Initiative (England). The organizing principle for this research is that the British experience with countryside ma...

  6. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  7. Do zooplankton contribute to an ultraviolet clear-water phase in lakes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Lange, de H.J.; Leech, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal increases in the ultraviolet (UV) transparency of the surface waters of an oligotrophic lake in Pennsylvania suggest that clear-water phase (CWP) events similar to those previously observed for visible light also exist for the potentially damaging UV wavelengths. Seasonal increases in zoopl

  8. The clearwater consensus: the estimation of metal hazard in fresh water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; Gandhi, Nilima; Adams, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Task Force 3 of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has been working towards developing scientifically sound methods for quantifying impacts of substances released into the environment. The Clearwater Consensus follows from the Lausanne (Jolliet et al. Int J Life Cycle...

  9. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostrom, Jody K. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release

  10. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  11. Impact of a focused environmental education program on adults: A study of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in the New York City watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenet, Linda Plummer

    This research investigated the relationships between adult education and environmental issues, specifically in the context of an environmental conflict. An educational program on key environmental concepts was delivered to selected adults residing in the watershed areas for New York City. Subsequently, a brief written survey was sent to these individuals as well as residents of the watersheds who had not received the educational materials. Results were analyzed to determine if there were significant differences in knowledge, attitudes or behaviors among the survey groups. Respondents were grouped according to their readership level: Readers fully utilized all the educational materials; Nonreaders received the educational package but did not fully utilize the materials; and nonWCP did not receive the educational package. Statistical analyses illustrated that Readers displayed a higher level of fact recall and confidence in environmental knowledge than did Nonreaders or nonWCP. Application and evaluation of that knowledge was not, however, significantly different among the three readership groups. In addition, results indicated that Nonreaders displayed a somewhat hostile attitude toward environmental issues. Finally, although residents' behavior changed over time in terms of a specific environmental behavior (septic system maintenance), results did not indicate that the educational program was responsible for that behavior change. The findings in this dissertation support continued environmental education efforts in the New York City watersheds. Results should assist educational organizations such as Cooperative Extension in developing environmental programming for adults.

  12. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  13. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Patricia E.; Larsen, Chris A. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-03-01

    Although sample sizes were small during the 1999 field season, we were able to verify at least some residual steelhead survive the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. Hatchery steelhead were found in low numbers migrating up tributaries of the Clearwater River where wild A-run steelhead spawn. Data from this first year did not indicate differences in survival due to size, release site, or rearing system for steelhead reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. This information needs to be compared over several (at least three) years for meaningful analysis. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. Based on one year of data, the majority of steelhead which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate at all.

  14. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Connor, William P.; Connor, Edward; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1992-04-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe sub-contracted with EBASCO Environmental to develop capabilities for predicting fish habitat conditions in the lower mainstem clearwater River under a limited range of discharge regimes from Dworshak Dam. The Nez Perce Tribe used this information to analyze a range of discharges from Dworshak Dam for anadromous fish habitat requirements. The Tribe's analysis does not necessarily reflect views of EBASCO Environmental. Flow analyses provided to the Bonneville Power Administration and/or US Army Corps of Engineers within this report on the lower mainstem Clearwater River shall in no way limit or influence future water rights claims or flow recommendations made by the Nez Perce Tribe for any purposes. Flows analyzed in this report are independent of conditions for upstream or downstream anadromous fish migration and of any other purposes not specifically stated.

  15. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  16. Watershed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  17. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  18. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  19. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong

    2005-01-01

    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  20. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  1. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  2. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting

  3. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  4. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1990-06-01

    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Juvenile Steelhead Survey and Factors that Affect Abundance in Selected Streams in the Lower Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Johnson, David B. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1986-08-01

    A biological and physical inventory of selected tributaries in the lower Clearwater River basin was conducted to collect information for the development of alternatives and recommendations for the enhancement of the anadromous fish resources in streams on the Nez Perce Reservation. Five streams within the Reservation were selected for study: Bedrock and Cottonwood Creeks were investigated over a two year period (1983 to 1984) and Big Canyon, Jacks and Mission Creeks were studied for one year (1983). Biological information was collected and analyzed on the density, biomass, production and outmigration of juvenile summer steelhead trout. Physical habitat information was collected on available instream cover, stream discharge, stream velocity, water temperature, bottom substrate, embeddedness and stream width and depth. The report focuses on the relationships between physical stream habitat and juvenile steelhead trout abundance.

  6. Distribution, persistence, and hydrologic characteristics of salmon spawning habitats in clearwater side channels of the Matanuska River, southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; McTeague, Monica L.; Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbid, glacially influenced rivers are often considered to be poor salmon spawning and rearing habitats and, consequently, little is known about salmon habitats that do occur within rivers of this type. To better understand salmon spawning habitats in the Matanuska River of southcentral Alaska, the distribution and characteristics of clearwater side-channel spawning habitats were determined and compared to spawning habitats in tributaries. More than 100 kilometers of clearwater side channels within the braided mainstem of the Matanuska River were mapped for 2006 from aerial images and ground-based surveys. In reaches selected for historical analysis, side channel locations shifted appreciably between 1949 and 2006, but the relative abundance of clearwater side channels was fairly stable during the same period. Geospatial analysis of side channel distribution shows side channels typically positioned along abandoned bars at the braid plain margin rather than on bars between mainstem channels, and shows a strong correlation of channel abundance with braid plain width. Physical and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and chemical character of the water measured at 19 side channel sites, 6 tributary sites, 4 spring sites, and 5 mainstem channel sites showed conditions suitable for salmon spawning in side channels and tributaries, and a correlation of side channel characteristics with the respective tributary or groundwater source water. Autumn-through-spring monitoring of intergravel water temperatures adjacent to salmon redds (nests) in three side channels and two tributaries indicate adequate accumulated thermal units for incubation and emergence of salmon in side channels and relatively low accumulated thermal units in tributaries.

  7. 77 FR 6778 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Clear Creek Integrated Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; restore natural fire regimes and reduce ] fuels; improve watershed conditions; improve elk habitat.../vulnerable to insects and diseases and grand fir is unlikely to survive in wildfire. There is a need to trend... resilient to change agents such as insects, disease, and fire. Historical logging practices and...

  8. 77 FR 775 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Clear Creek Integrated Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ...; restore natural fire regimes and reduce fuels; improve watershed conditions; improve elk habitat.../vulnerable to insects and diseases and grand fir is unlikely to survive in wildfire. There is a need to trend... resilient to change agents such as insect, disease, and fire. Historical logging practices and...

  9. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  10. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  11. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  12. LAND USE AND WATERSHED HEALTH IN THE UNITED STATES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This nation-scale, watershed-level analysis focuses on the major trends and the spatial pattern of land use and the impact on watershed health. We estimate a simultaneous equation system to analyze the impact of land use on aquatic health in watersheds across the United States.

  13. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  14. SWAT hydrologic model parameter uncertainty and its implications for hydroclimatic projections in snowmelt-dependent watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Barnhart, Bradley L.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of climate change on water resources have been studied extensively throughout the world through the use of hydrologic models coupled with General Circulation Model (GCM) output or climate sensitivity scenarios. This paper examines the effects of hydrologic model parameterization uncertainty or equifinality, where multiple unique hydrologic model parameter sets can result in adequate calibration metrics, on hydrologic projections from downscaled GCMs for three snowmelt-dependent watersheds (upper reaches of the Clearwater, Gunnison, and Sacramento River watersheds) in the western United States. The hydrologic model used in this study is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and is calibrated for discharge at the watershed outlet in each watershed. Despite achieving similar calibration metrics, a majority of hydrologic projections of average annual streamflow during the 2080s were statistically different, with differences in magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) compared to historical annual streamflows. At the average monthly time-scale, a majority of the hydrologic projections varied in peak streamflow timing, peak streamflow magnitude, summer streamflows, as well as overall increases or decreases compared to the historical monthly streamflows. Snowmelt projections from the SWAT model also widely varied, both in depth and snowmelt peak timing, for all watersheds. Since a large portion of the runoff-producing regions in the western United States is snowmelt-dependent, this has large implications for the prediction of the amount and timing of streamflow in the coming century. This paper shows that hydrologic model parameterizations that give similar adequate calibration metrics can lead to statistically significant differences in hydrologic projections under climate change. Therefore, researchers and water resource managers should account for this uncertainty by assembling ensemble projections from both multiple parameter sets and GCMs.

  15. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification; NPRA, Alaska, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  16. ANALISIS OF STREAM DISCHARGE OF MICRO WATERSHED AND ITS UTILIZATION POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunggul Y.S.H. Nugroho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trough understanding of hydrology characteristic of watershed, water resource can be  managed for wider goals such as economic, social, and sustainainable utilization.  In fact, current watershed managements have more been focused  on erosion, sedimentation, drought, and flood control and less attention paid on fulfilling the need of upper watershed inhabitat on water yield.  The research of Micro Watershed was conducted in three Micro Watersheds as representation of priority watersheds in South Sulawesi  namely Mamasa, Saddang, and Jeneberang. The aim was to find out stream discharge pattern of those three Micro Watershed related to precipitation, landuse and its utilization potential for local community.  The results showed that the more extensive forest cover, the better water yield and the higher its utilization potential . Concerning to precipitation and water yield, the three micro watersheds have the potentially to be source of water for irigation and household consumption.

  17. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  18. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  19. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  20. Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Magat Watershed Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...

  1. Clear-Water Contraction Scour at Selected Bridge Sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain in Alabama, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Transportation, made observations of clear-water contraction scour at 25 bridge sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. These bridge sites consisted of 54 hydraulic structures, of which 37 have measurable scour holes. Observed scour depths ranged from 1.4 to 10.4 feet. Theoretical clear-water contraction-scour depths were computed for each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths by about 475 percent. Variables determined to be important in developing scour in laboratory studies along with several other hydraulic variables were investigated to understand their influence within the Alabama field data. The strongest explanatory variables for clear-water contraction scour were channel-contraction ratio and velocity index. Envelope curves were developed relating both of these explanatory variables to observed scour. These envelope curves provide useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in the Black Prairie Belt of Alabama.

  2. Social Exclusion in Watershed Development: Evidence From the Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwer Kale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion is context-specific and there is no uniform paradigm of exclusion across the world. This paper attempts to analyse exclusion of resource-poor groups in watershed development programmes in the Indian context. It aims to explore excluded community groups from the perspective of people’s equal opportunity and equal access to newly generated economic benefits in watershed development programmes. The paper also traces the determinant factors responsible for denial and exclusion of resource-poor groups and describes the detailed processes involved in their exclusion from institutional and livelihood opportunities in watershed programmes. At the same time, the paper also explores suggestions and views of resource-poor groups about their meaningful social inclusion in watershed programme. The Gadiwat Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Aurangabad district in the State of Maharashtra is studied in detail in terms of its social, economic and political realities through mix-method and multi-stakeholder approaches. The key findings of the paper are that landownership, caste, gender, membership in village institutions and/or watershed institutions or close relationship with members, as well as the limitations of the programme guidelines, are the major determinants of institutional inclusion and the extent of resulting economic benefits. The exclusion of resource-poor groups mainly takes the form of their exclusion from institutional representation. In order to promote meaningful social inclusion of resource-poor groups, there is need for a more livelihood-oriented focus and their equal representation and participation in watershed institutions.

  3. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  4. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  5. Clear-water abutment and contraction scour in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina, 1996-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, collected observations of clear-water aburment and contraction scour at 146 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina. Scour depths ranged from 0 to 23.6 feet. Theoretical scour depths were computed at each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths and often were excessive. A comparison of field data with dimensionless relations for laboratory data showed that the range of dimensionless variables used in laboratory investigations was outside of the range for field data in South Carolina, suggesting laboratory relations may not be applicable to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing scour within laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence within the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions found in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were embankment length, geometric-contraction ratio, approach velocity, and soil cohesion. Envelope curves developed with the field data are useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in South Carolina. These tools are simple to apply and are an improvement over the current methods for predicting theoretical scour.

  6. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, F.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  7. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  8. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  11. Biological and Physical Inventory of Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and the Potlatch River, Tributary Streams of the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1984 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.

    1985-05-01

    Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and Potlatch Creek, three of the largest tributaries of the lower Clearwater River Basin, were inventoried during 1984. The purpose of the inventory was to identify where anadromous salmonid production occurs and to recommend enhancement alternatives to increase anadromous salmonid habitat in these streams. Anadromous and fluvial salmonids were found in all three drainages. The lower reach of Clear Creek supported a low population of rainbow-steelhead, while the middle reach supported a much greater population of rainbow-steelhead. Substantial populations of cutthroat trout were also found in the headwaters of Clear Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were found throughout Orofino Creek. A predominant population of brook trout was found in the headwaters while a predominant population of rainbow-steelhead was found in the mainstem and lower tributaries of Orofino Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were also found in the Potlatch River. Generally, the greatest anadromous salmonid populations in the Potlatch River were found within the middle reach of this system. Several problems were identified which would limit anadromous salmonid production within each drainage. Problems affecting Clear Creek were extreme flows, high summer water temperature, lack of riparian habitat, and high sediment load. Gradient barriers prevented anadromous salmonid passage into Orofino Creek and they are the main deterrent to salmonid production in this system. Potlatch River has extreme flows, high summer water temperature, a lack of riparian habitat and high sediment loads. Providing passage over Orofino Falls is recommended and should be considered a priority for improving salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. Augmenting flows in the Potlatch River is also recommended as an enhancement measure for increasing salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. 18 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  12. Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to

  13. Mixing zone hydrodynamics in a large confluence: a case study of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, M. M.; Petrie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Confluences are a basic component in all fluvial systems, which are often characterized by complex flow and sediment transport patterns. Addressing confluences, however, started only recently in parallel with new advances of flow measurement tools and computational techniques. A limited number of field studies exist investigating flow hydrodynamics through confluences, particularly for large confluences with central zone widths of 100 m or greater. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the confluent rivers and the post-confluence zone may impact flow and sediment transport processes in the confluence zone, which consequently could impact the biodiversity within the river network. This study presents the results of a field study conducted at the confluence of the Snake and the Clearwater rivers near the towns of Clarkston, WA and Lewiston, ID (average width of 700 m at the confluence center). This confluence supports many different and, sometimes, conflicting purposes including commercial navigation, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation. The confluence properties are affected by dredging operations carried out periodically to maintain the minimum water depth required for safe flow conveyance and navigation purposes. Also, a levee system was constructed on the confluence banks as an extra flood control measure. In the recent field work, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was used to measure water velocity profiles at cross sections in the confluence region. Fixed and moving vessel measurements were taken at selected locations to evaluate both the spatial and temporal variation in velocity throughout the confluence. The confluence bathymetry was surveyed with a multi-beam sonar to investigate existent bed morphological elements. The results identify the velocity pattern in the mixing zone between the two rivers. The present findings are compared to previous studies on small confluences to demonstrate the influence of scale on flow processes.

  14. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Finlay, Jacques C; Janke, Benjamin D; Nidzgorski, Daniel A; Millet, Dylan B; Baker, Lawrence A

    2017-04-03

    Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs. In contrast to many nonurban watersheds that exhibit high P retention, these urban watersheds have high street density that enhanced transport of P-rich materials from landscapes to stormwater. High P exports in storm drainage networks and yard waste resulted in net P losses in some watersheds. Comparisons of the N/P stoichiometry of net inputs versus storm drain exports implicated denitrification or leaching to groundwater as a likely fate for retained N. Thus, these urban watersheds exported high quantities of N and P, but via contrasting pathways: P was exported primarily via stormwater runoff, contributing to surface water degradation, whereas N losses additionally contribute to groundwater pollution. Consequently, N management and P management require different strategies, with N management focusing on reducing watershed inputs and P management also focusing on reducing P movement from vegetated landscapes to streets and storm drains.

  15. Institutional Analysis of Watershed Manangement in Batam Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Donie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at the institutional condition of the current watershed management and institutional models (management authority which were relevant to Batam Island in the future. The data collection was conducted by interview techniques and was validated through focus group discussions. The data were described and analyzed with SCP (structure, conduct, performance method for relevant stakeholders’ data, legislation, and with KIPA (quadrant interpretative performance analysis method for data of interest and power of stakeholders. The results showed that the watershed management institutional in Batam Island was still overlapping. According to the regulations, the Management Board (BP of Batam Island was given the authority to manage and to use land and water; on the other hand the Local Government (Mayor was facilitated by BPDAS KEPRI (Watershed Management Institute of Riau Islands to also arrange an integrated watershed management. The results of discussions showed that BP Batam was an institute of having interest and power as well as key position in achieving successful watershed management. Based on this study, it was suggested that BP Batam should be given authority in watershed management in Batam Island, which keeps referring to the norms, standards, procedures, and indicators set by the central government.

  16. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a

  17. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  18. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  19. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  20. Watershed Boundaries - MO 2015 Metro No Discharge Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table F - Metropolitan No-Discharge Streams of the Water...

  1. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  2. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. Watershed management and organizational dynamics: nationwide findings and regional variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brad T; Burkardt, Nina; King, Dawn

    2005-08-01

    Recent attention has focused on resource management initiatives at the watershed scale with emphasis on collaborative, locally driven, and decentralized institutional arrangements. Existing literature on limited selections of well-established watershed-based organizations has provided valuable insights. The current research extends this focus by including a broad survey of watershed organizations from across the United States as a means to estimate a national portrait. Organizational characteristics include year of formation, membership size and composition, budget, guiding principles, and mechanisms of decision-making. These characteristics and the issue concerns of organizations are expected to vary with respect to location. Because this research focuses on organizations that are place based and stakeholder driven, the forces driving them are expected to differ across regions of the country. On this basis of location, we suggest basic elements for a regional assessment of watershed organizations to channel future research and to better approximate the organizational dynamics, issue concerns, and information needs unique to organizations across the country. At the broadest level, the identification of regional patterns or organizational similarities may facilitate the linkage among organizations to coordinate their actions at the much broader river basin or ecosystem scale.

  5. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  6. Modeling the influence of climate change on watershed systems: Adaptation through targeted practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudula, John; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2016-10-01

    Climate change may influence hydrologic processes of watersheds (IPCC, 2013) and increased runoff may cause flooding, eroded stream banks, widening of stream channels, increased pollutant loading, and consequently impairment of aquatic life. The goal of this study was to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrologic processes and to evaluate scale and effectiveness of management practices for adaptation. We simulate baseline watershed conditions using the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) simulation model to examine the possible effects of changing climate on watershed processes. We also simulate the effects of adaptation and mitigation through specific best management strategies for various climatic scenarios. With continuing low-flow conditions and vulnerability to climate change, the Ipswich watershed is the focus of this study. We quantify fluxes in runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, sediment load, and nutrient concentrations under baseline and climate change scenarios (near and far future). We model adaptation options for mitigating climate effects on watershed processes using bioretention/raingarden Best Management Practices (BMPs). It was observed that climate change has a significant impact on watershed runoff and carefully designed and maintained BMPs at subwatershed scale can be effective in mitigating some of the problems related to stormwater runoff. Policy options include implementation of BMPs through education and incentives for scale-dependent and site specific bioretention units/raingardens to increase the resilience of the watershed system to current and future climate change.

  7. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruvesh P Patel; Prashant K Srivastava; Manika Gupta; Naresh Nandhakumar

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  8. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds, while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. Together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    is largely developed yet its surface water system encompasses two arroyos, an engineered detention basin (Lake Haussmann), storm channels, and wetlands. Conversely, the more rural Site 300 includes approximately 7,000 acres of largely undeveloped land with many natural tributaries, riparian habitats, and wetland areas. These wetlands include vernal pools, perennial seeps, and emergent wetlands. The watersheds within which the Laboratory's sites lie provide local and community ecological functions and services which require protection. These functions and services include water supply, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water quality improvement, wildlife and aquatic habitats, erosion control, and (downstream) recreational opportunities. The Laboratory employs a watershed approach to protect these surface water systems. The intent of this approach, presented in this document, is to provide an integrated effort to eliminate or minimize any adverse environmental impacts of the Laboratory's operations and enhance the attributes of these surface water systems, as possible and when reasonable, to protect their value to the community and watershed. The Laboratory's watershed approach to surface water protection will use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Framework and guiding principles of geographic focus, scientifically based management and partnerships1 as a foundation. While the Laboratory's unique site characteristics result in objectives and priorities that may differ from other industrial sites, these underlying guiding principles provide a structure for surface water protection to ensure the Laboratory's role in environmental stewardship and as a community partner in watershed protection. The approach includes pollution prevention, continual environmental improvement, and supporting, as possible, community objectives (e.g., protection of the San Francisco Bay watershed).

  10. The Watershed Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LIN Nan

    2007-01-01

    This article introduced the watershed algorithm for the segmentation, illustrated the segmation process by implementing this algorithm. By comparing with another three related algorithm, this article revealed both the advantages and drawbacks of the watershed algorithm.

  11. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  12. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  13. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  14. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  15. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  16. Social Safeguards for REDD+ in Mexico’s Watershed Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Garduño Diaz, Philippe Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Case studies on environmental governance are essential to improve comprehension on howto implement international agreements. This study focuses on seven social safeguards relevant toREDD+. The existence of these social safeguards is examined in Mexico’s watershed managementprogram in La Sierra Madre and La Costa of Chiapas. The watershed management program is anotherPayment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme similar to REDD+. Questionnaires and interviews wereused to conduct primary research...

  17. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  18. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  19. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  20. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook watershed in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvir, J.A. [National School of Forest Science, Comayagua (Honduras); Rustad, L. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Durham, NH (United States). Forest Service Northeastern Research Station; Wiersma, G.B.; White, A.S. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecosystem Science; Fernandez, I. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Plant, Soil and Environmental Studies; White, G.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances have been noted in trees growing in controlled nitrogen-fertilization experiments over areas of different nitrogen deposition rates and along N deposition gradients. Long-term foliar nutrient concentration data is not generally available because of a lack of long-term nitrogen studies and systematic measurements. This study at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) focused on temporal changes in the foliar nutrient concentrations in sugar maple, American beech, and red spruce. The foliar chemistry was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the paired-watershed forest ecosystem of the BBWM study in which 1 watershed was treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate at a rate of about 25 kg of nitrogen per hectare per year. Foliar nitrogen concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in the foliage were found to be lower in the American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. Potassium concentrations did not vary between the 2 watersheds and the differences in phosphorous and manganese concentrations were inconsistent from one year to another. The differences in nitrogen concentrations in the foliage of sugar maple declined over time between the 2 watersheds. Differences in foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, mostly due to the steady decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. There was no noted temporal trend in sugar maple foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the watersheds. It was concluded that the watersheds of the BBWM may be in the later stages of nitrogen saturation, where the supply of nitrogen exceeds the nitrogen demand of plants and microorganisms in the ecosystem. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  2. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  3. Significant habitats and habitat complexes of the New York Bight watershed from 1971 to 1996 (NODC Accession 0071981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report focuses on the identification and description of essential habitats of key species inhabiting the New York Bight watershed study area. The study area...

  4. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been

  5. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of glacial-drift aquifers in the Bemidji-Bagley area, Beltrami, Clearwater, Cass, and Hubbard counties, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Busch, J.P.; Deters, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Unconfined and the upper confined aquifers in glacial drift are the primary sources of water in a 1,600 square-mile area including parts of Beltrami, Cass, Clearwater, and Hubbard Counties, Minnesota. The unconfineddrift aquifer consists of coarse sand and gravel in the center of the study area. The total area underlain by the unconfined-drift aquifer is approximately 550 square miles. The unconfined aquifer ranges in thickness from 0 to 130 feet, and is greater than 20 feet thick over an area of 280 square miles. On the basis of scant data, the transmissivity of the unconfined aquifer ranges from less than 70 feet squared per day in the south and west to greater than 8,900 feet squared per day in an area west of Bemidji. Well yields from 10 to 300 gallons per minute are possible in some areas. The unconfined and upper confined-drift aquifers are separated by a fine-grained confining unit of till or lake deposits.

  7. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  8. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  9. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.

    2017-03-31

    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  10. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  11. Efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms for Calibration of Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Arabi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since the promulgation of the Clean Water Act in the U.S. and other similar legislations around the world over the past three decades, watershed management programs have focused on the nexus of pollution prevention and mitigation. In this context, hydrologic/water quality models have been increasingly embedded in the decision making process. Simulation models are now commonly used to investigate the hydrologic response of watershed systems under varying climatic and land use conditions, and also to study the fate and transport of contaminants at various spatiotemporal scales. Adequate calibration and corroboration of models for various outputs at varying scales is an essential component of watershed modeling. The parameter estimation process could be challenging when multiple objectives are important. For example, improving streamflow predictions of the model at a stream location may result in degradation of model predictions for sediments and/or nutrient at the same location or other outlets. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of single and multi objective evolutionary algorithms for parameter estimation of complex watershed models. To this end, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm, a single-objective genetic algorithm (GA), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (i.e., NSGA-II) were reconciled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to calibrate the model at various locations within the Wildcat Creek Watershed, Indiana. The efficiency of these methods were investigated using different error statistics including root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the output variables as well as the baseflow component of the stream discharge. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to screening model parameters that bear significant uncertainties. Results indicated that while flow processes can be reasonably ascertained, parameterization of nutrient and pesticide processes

  12. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  13. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  14. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Watershed of the Bear River Basin extends from the river's headwaters to Pixley Dam in Wyoming. This is the largest watershed in the Bear River Basin, with an area of about 2,000 square miles.

  15. Watershed Modeling Applications with the Open-Access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET) and Introductory Hydrology Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, L. S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, introductory hydrology courses focus on hydrologic processes as independent or semi-independent concepts that are ultimately integrated into a watershed model near the end of the term. When an "off-the-shelf" watershed model is introduced in the curriculum, this approach can result in a potential disconnect between process-based hydrology and the inherent interconnectivity of processes within the water cycle. In order to curb this and reduce the learning curve associated with applying hydrologic concepts to complex real-world problems, we developed the open-access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET). The user-friendly, MATLAB-based toolbox contains the same physical equations for hydrological processes (i.e. precipitation, snow, radiation, evaporation, unsaturated flow, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff) that are presented in the companion e-textbook (http://aqua.seas.ucla.edu/margulis_intro_to_hydro_textbook.html) and taught in the classroom. The modular toolbox functions can be used by students to study individual hydrologic processes. These functions are integrated together to form a simple spatially-distributed watershed model, which reinforces a holistic understanding of how hydrologic processes are interconnected and modeled. Therefore when watershed modeling is introduced, students are already familiar with the fundamental building blocks that have been unified in the MOD-WET model. Extensive effort has been placed on the development of a highly modular and well-documented code that can be run on a personal computer within the commonly-used MATLAB environment. MOD-WET was designed to: 1) increase the qualitative and quantitative understanding of hydrological processes at the basin-scale and demonstrate how they vary with watershed properties, 2) emphasize applications of hydrologic concepts rather than computer programming, 3) elucidate the underlying physical processes that can often be obscured with a complicated

  16. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  17. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  18. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  19. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  20. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  1. Sediment and nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorneberg, D.; Ippolito, J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential part of stable food and fiber production. However, water returning from irrigated watersheds can contain excess sediment, nutrients and salts. Applying polyacrylamide to furrow irrigated fields reduces erosion 60 to 90%. Converting from furrow irrigation to sprinkler irrigation eliminates planned irrigation runoff necessary for uniform water application. Installing sediment ponds removes 50 to 80% of the suspended sediment from water before it flows back to major water bodies. In southern Idaho, irrigation watershed monitoring showed that implementing these conservation practices has reduced average suspended sediment loss from 460 kg/ha in 1970 to less than 100 kg/ha in 2005. These practices, however, have had less effect on soluble nutrients. Median nitrate concentrations have almost doubled from 1970 to 2005. Current research is focusing on identifying practices to reduce soluble nutrient losses.

  2. Discussion on the Landscape Pattern Change of Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the transition of landscape can understand that ecosystem processes are being influenced by disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that using appropriate mapping techniques and quantitative methods to assess landscape condition within different disturbance regimes. Landscape metrics were calculated for segmented areas of homogeneous land use in watershed to allow understanding and characterization of ecosystem.Chen-yu-lan watershed, located in the central of Taiwan, is a sensitivity area for disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. In this study we focus on how the natural disaster affect landscape pattern. The study shows that landscape metrics can measure the effect of typhoon and earthquake disturbance regime. The analysis shows that evaluating landscape transition can contribute more detailed information for managing ecosystem.

  3. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  4. A framework for propagation of uncertainty contributed by parameterization, input data, model structure, and calibration/validation data in watershed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The progressive improvement of computer science and development of auto-calibration techniques means that calibration of simulation models is no longer a major challenge for watershed planning and management. Modelers now increasingly focus on challenges such as improved representation of watershed...

  5. Flash flooding in small urban watersheds: Storm event hydrologic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    We analyze flash flooding in small urban watersheds, with special focus on the roles of rainfall variability, antecedent soil moisture, and urban storm water management infrastructure in storm event hydrologic response. Our results are based on empirical analyses of high-resolution rainfall and discharge observations over Harry's Brook watershed in Princeton, New Jersey, during 2005-2006, as well as numerical experiments with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. We focus on two subwatersheds of Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 subwatershed which was developed prior to modern storm water management regulations, and a 0.5 km2 subwatershed with an extensive network of storm water detention ponds. The watershed developed prior to modern storm water regulations is an "end-member" in urban flood response, exhibiting a frequency of flood peaks (with unit discharge exceeding 1 m3 s-1 km-2) that is comparable to the "flashiest" watersheds in the conterminous U.S. Observational analyses show that variability in storm event water balance is strongly linked to peak rain rates at time intervals of less than 30 min and only weakly linked to antecedent soil moisture conditions. Peak discharge for both the 1.1 and 0.5 km2 subwatersheds are strongly correlated with rainfall rate averaged over 1-30 min. Hydrologic modeling analyses indicate that the sensitivity of storm event hydrologic response to spatial rainfall variability decreases with storm intensity. Temporal rainfall variability is relatively more important than spatial rainfall variability in representing urban flood response, especially for extreme storm events.

  6. A framework for evaluating regional hydrologic sensitivity to climate change using archetypal watershed modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Lopez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the development of a regional framework to evaluate hydrologic and sediment sensitivity due to predicted future climate variability using developed archetypal watersheds. The developed archetypes are quasi-synthetic watersheds that integrate observed regional physiographic features (i.e., geomorphology, land cover patterns, etc. with synthetic derivation of basin and reach networks. Each of the three regional archetypes (urban, vegetated and mixed land covers simulates satisfactory hydrologic and sediment behavior compared to historical observations (flow and sediment prior to the climate sensitivity analysis. Climate scenarios considered increasing temperature estimated from the IPCC and precipitation variability based on historical observations and expectations. Archetypal watersheds are modeled using the Environmental Protection Agency's Hydrologic Simulation Program–Fortran model (EPA HSPF and relative changes to streamflow and sediment flux are evaluated. Results indicate that the variability and extent of vegetation play a key role in watershed sensitivity to predicted climate change. Temperature increase alone causes a decrease in annual flow and an increase in sediment flux within the vegetated archetypal watershed only, and these effects are partially mitigated by the presence of impervious surfaces within the urban and mixed archetypal watersheds. Depending on extent of precipitation variability, urban and moderately urban systems can expect the largest alteration to flow regimes where high flow events are expected to become more frequent. As a result, enhanced wash-off of suspended-sediments from available pervious surfaces is expected.

  7. Relating sediment impacts on coral reefs to watershed sources, processes and management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Bainbridge, Zoe T; Lewis, Stephen E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Wilkinson, Scott N; Brodie, Jon E; Silburn, D Mark

    2014-01-15

    Modification of terrestrial sediment fluxes can result in increased sedimentation and turbidity in receiving waters, with detrimental impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Preventing anthropogenic sediment reaching coral reefs requires a better understanding of the specific characteristics, sources and processes generating the anthropogenic sediment, so that effective watershed management strategies can be implemented. Here, we review and synthesise research on measured runoff, sediment erosion and sediment delivery from watersheds to near-shore marine areas, with a strong focus on the Burdekin watershed in the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. We first investigate the characteristics of sediment that pose the greatest risk to coral reef ecosystems. Next we track this sediment back from the marine system into the watershed to determine the storage zones, source areas and processes responsible for sediment generation and run-off. The review determined that only a small proportion of the sediment that has been eroded from the watershed makes it to the mid and outer reefs. The sediment transported >1 km offshore is generally the clay to fine silt (erosion is the dominant process responsible for the fine sediment exported from these watersheds in recent times, although further work on the particle size of this material is required. Maintaining average minimum ground cover >75% will likely be required to reduce runoff and prevent sub-soil erosion; however, it is not known whether ground cover management alone will reduce sediment supply to ecologically acceptable levels.

  8. Influences of summer water temperatures on the movement, distribution, and resources use of fluvial Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the South Fork Clearwater River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Marika E.; Corsi, Matthew P.; Schill, Daniel J.; DuPont, Joseph M.; Quist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Although many Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations in Idaho are robust and stable, population densities in some systems remain below management objectives. In many of those systems, such as in the South Fork Clearwater River (SFCR) system, environmental conditions (e.g., summer temperatures) are hypothesized to limit populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. Radiotelemetry and snorkeling methods were used to describe seasonal movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the SFCR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Sixty-six radio transmitters were surgically implanted into Westslope Cutthroat Trout (170–405 mm TL) from May 30–June 25, 2013, and June 20–July 6, 2014. Sedentary and mobile summer movement patterns by Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in the SFCR. Westslope Cutthroat Trout were generally absent from the lower SFCR. In the upper region of the SFCR, fish generally moved from the main-stem SFCR into tributaries as water temperatures increased during the summer. Fish remained in the middle region of the SFCR where water temperatures were cooler than in the upper or lower regions of the SFCR. A spatially explicit water temperature model indicated that the upper and lower regions of the SFCR exceeded thermal tolerance levels of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the summer. During snorkeling, 23 Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in 13 sites along the SFCR and at low density (mean ± SD, 0.0003 ± 0.0001 fish/m2). The distribution of fish observed during snorkeling was consistent with the distribution of radio-tagged fish in the SFCR during the summer. Anthropogenic activities (i.e., grazing, mining, road construction, and timber harvest) in the SFCR basin likely altered the natural flow dynamics and temperature regime and thereby limited stream habitat in the SFCR system for Westslope Cutthroat Trout.

  9. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  10. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  11. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  12. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  13. Retrospect and prospect of watershed hydrological model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.CHEN; Z.F.YANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the development of watershed hydrological models,COnventional Hydrological Model,Grey Hydrological Model,Digital Hydrological Model and Intelligent Hydrological Model are analyzed.The Frameworks of Fuzzy Cognitive Hydrological Model and Integrated Digital Watershed Hydrological Model are presented.

  14. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences betw

  15. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program.…

  16. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan

    2007-08-15

    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  17. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  18. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  19. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    (developed by Levin) engage students in the building and testing of buoys to monitor the environment. Additional hands on science activities include the Levin developed ROVs-in-a-bucket project that Trembanis has incorporated into the University of Delaware high school summer science camp TIDE (Teaching an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/tide/ in which 12-15 high school students annually participate in groups working to design, build, and operate a simple remotely operated vehicle in a series of real work simulation activities such as responding to an oil spill. The new CRW network will be the focus for formal and informal learning partnerships between schools in the watershed. Professional development opportunities for Chester River watershed teachers focus on the use of sensors, utilization of GIS in the classroom, and other resources that become available as shared teaching resources. Federal, state, regional, and local users in government, private industry, and educational venues from grades k-16 will be able to observe the trends and learn together the most prudent ways to sustain and conserve natural resources.

  20. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  1. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  2. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  3. Simulating the Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change in 5 Research Watersheds using a Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Clow, D. W.; Murphy, S.; Shanley, J. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Hay, L.; Regan, R. S.; Markstrom, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    A new focus of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program is the development of watershed models to predict hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. Fine-scale models of 5 WEBB watersheds were constructed and embedded in coarse-scale models of larger stream systems. The WEBB watersheds range in size from 41 to 3,260 hectares; the coarse-scale models range in size from 1,100 to 4,800 square kilometers. The coarse-scale models were calibrated using data collected from 1980 to 2012 and included streamflow, snow-water equivalent (where appropriate), and seasonal distributions of solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration. Solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration were retrieved from a national gridded dataset using the USGS Geodata Portal (GDP) tool. Snowpack data was available as a national gridded dataset from December 2003 through November 2012, and was retrieved using the GDP. A stepwise approach was taken to identify specific hydrologic processes pertinent to the calibration targets. Calibration was carried out using the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) suite of automated calibration tools. Several climate models and three emission scenarios were selected from a range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections to investigate the potential hydrologic effects of climate change in the WEBB watersheds. The GDP was used to construct input data sets for each coarse-scale model using a national dataset of downscaled climate data. Comparisons include projected changes in the dominant hydrologic processes across the five WEBB headwater basins, as well as, differences between headwater streams and higher-order streams at a regional scale.

  4. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  5. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  6. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  7. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  8. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  9. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  10. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  11. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  12. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  13. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  14. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  15. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  16. Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult.

  17. An evaluation and analysis of three dynamic watershed acidification codes (MAGIC, ETD, and ILWAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.; Vail, L.W.; Girvin, D.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Hibler, L.F.; Miley, T.B.; Monsour, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently using the dynamic watershed acidification codes MAGIC, ILWAS, and ETD to assess the potential future impact of the acidic deposition on surface water quality by simulating watershed acid neutralization processes. The reliability of forecasts made with these codes is of considerable concern. The present study evaluates the process formulations (i.e., conceptual and numerical representation of atmospheric, hydrologic geochemical and biogeochemical processes), compares their approaches to calculating acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and estimates the relative effects (sensitivity) of perturbations in the input data on selected output variables for each code. Input data were drawn from three Adirondack (upstate New York) watersheds: Panther Lake, Clear Pond, and Woods Lake. Code calibration was performed by the developers of the codes. Conclusions focus on summarizing the adequacy of process formulations, differences in ANC simulation among codes and recommendations for further research to increase forecast reliability. 87 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  18. An Integrated Mobile Application to Improve the Watershed Management in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, T. Y.; Chen, M. H.; Lee, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to focus on the application of information technology on the reservoir watershed management. For the civil and commercial water usage, reservoirs and its upstream plays a significant role due to water scarcity and inequality, especially in Taiwan. Due to the progress of information technology, apply it can improve the efficiency and accuracy of daily affairs significantly which already proved by previous researches. Taipei Water Resource District (TWRD) is selected as study area for this study, it is the first reservoir watershed which authorized as special protection district by urban planning act. This study has designed a framework of mobile application, which addressed three types of public affairs relate to watershed management, includes building management, illegal land-use investigation, and a dashboard of real time stream information. This mobile application integrated a dis-connected map and interactive interface to collect, record and calculate field information which helps the authority manage the public affairs more efficiency.

  19. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  20. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  1. Developing rapid detection of ecotoxicity on river-watershed scales: Integrating assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Waller, W.T. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Early validation of developing toxicity in river-watershed ecological systems is necessary if long-range environmental management plans are to be effective. In meeting this need, near, real-time watershed monitoring networks are being tested as time-lags found in processing complex ecological information become reduced. Rapid detection of ecotoxic response will improve by coupling established ecological assessment methods to reveal past changes with those giving near, real-time responses found in electronic, super highway-linked networks. Integrated ecosystem monitoring networks are being designed to resolve near, real-time biological response to developing toxicity in a river-watershed by: (1) temporal/spacial characterization of physical and biological attributes on sub-watershed scales through GIS, (2) networking automated biosensing devices at existing water quality and remote monitoring stations, providing a ``finger on the river pulse``, (3) timely updating landscape/watershed attributes from remote sensing imagery for GIS presentation, and (4) coordinating/focusing resources of participating agencies. Through GIS presentations a Compliment to existing monitoring programs can be realized by generating multidimensional, dynamic graphics for quantifying developing ecotoxicity of riverine systems.

  2. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  3. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  4. Using a GIS transfer model to evaluate pollutant loads in the Lake Kinneret watershed, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, D; Somma, F; Evans, B M

    2006-01-01

    Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) is the only large surface water body in Israel, encompassing an area of 167 km2 and supplying some 30% of the country's fresh water. Pollution from anthropogenic sources and water abstraction for domestic and agricultural uses has long been threatening the water quality of the lake. Point-source pollution in the watershed has decreased drastically with the development of wastewater treatment. However, diffuse pollution from agricultural activities is still an unresolved issue. In this paper we present an application of AVGWLF (a GIS-based watershed load model) to the Lake Kinneret watershed. The model allows one to simulate daily stream flows and monthly sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads discharged to the lake from the surrounding watershed. Results from simulations yield a satisfactory correspondence between simulated and measured daily water volume. Partition by source of total phosphorus delivered to the lake in the period of 2000-04 confirms the reduction in point source nutrient contribution due to improvement of wastewater treatment facilities in the area. Future management should focus on reduction of nutrients originating from septic systems (point sources) and pasture and cropland areas (diffuse sources). Results from simulations will enable watershed managers to prioritize effective management alternatives for protecting the water quality in the lake.

  5. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  6. Meaningful Watershed Experiences for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Melinda; Smith, Cynthia; Greene, Joy

    2014-05-01

    Prince William County Public Schools and George Mason University in Virginia, USA, partnered to provide Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for over 25,000 middle and high school students (11-18 year olds) across 34 schools. This school district, situated in a rapidly growing region 55 km southwest of Washington DC, has over 82,000 K-12 students. As native forest cover has been replaced with farming and urbanization, water quality has significantly degraded in the 166,534 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. This project was designed to increase student awareness of their impact on the land and waters of the largest estuary in the United States. MWEE is a long-term comprehensive project that incorporates a classroom preparation phase, a hands-on outdoor field investigation, and a reflection and data-sharing component. Training and technical assistance enhances the capacity of teachers of 6th grade, high school Earth Science and Environmental Science to deliver MWEEs which includes schoolyard stewardship, inquiry driven field study, use of hand-held technology and computer based mapping and analysis, project sharing and outreach. George Mason University researchers worked closely with K-12 science educators to create a comprehensive watershed-focused curriculum. Graduate and undergraduate students with strong interests in environmental science and education were trained to deliver the field investigation component of the MWEE. Representative teachers from each school were provided 3 days of professional development and were responsible for the training of their school's science education team. A comprehensive curriculum provided teachers with activities and tools designed to enhance students' mastery of state science objectives. Watershed concepts were used as the unifying theme to support student understanding of curriculum and STEM objectives including: scientific investigation, data collection and communication, chemistry, energy, erosion, human

  7. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  8. Empirical Relationships Between Watershed Attributes and Headwater Lake Chemistry in the Adirondack Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Surface water acidification may be caused or influenced by both natural watershed processes and anthropogenic actions. Empirical models and observational data can be useful for identifying watershed attributes or processes that require further research or that should be considered in the development of process models. This study focuses on the Adirondack region of New York and has two purposes: to (1) develop empirical models that can be used to assess the chemical status of lakes for which no chemistry data exist and (2) determine on a regional scale watershed attributes that account for variability in lake pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Headwater lakes, rather than lakes linked to upstream lakes, were selected for initial analysis. The Adirondacks Watershed Data Base (AWDB), part of the Acid Deposition Data Network maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), integrates data on physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances, beaver activity, land use, and atmospheric deposition with the water chemistry and morphology for the watersheds of 463 headwater lakes. The AWD8 facilitates both geographic display and statistical analysis of the data. The report, An Adirondack Watershed Data Base: Attribute and Mapping Information for Regional Acidic Deposition Studies (ORNL/TM--10144), describes the AWDB. Both bivariate (correlations and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests) and multivariate analyses were performed. Fifty-seven watershed attributes were selected as input variables to multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis. For model development -200 lakes for which pH and ANC data exist were randomly subdivided into a specification and a verification data set. Several indices were used to select models for predicting lake pH (31 variables) and ANC (27 variables). Twenty-five variables are common to the pH and ANC models: four lake morphology, nine soil/geology, eight land cover, three disturbance, and one watershed aspect. An

  9. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  10. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Clearwater, Salmon, Weiser, and Payette River Basins, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in Idaho, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942.. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. The Idaho portion of the survey consisted of extensive surveys of the Clearwater, Salmon, Weiser, and Payette River Subbasins. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database

  11. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  12. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  13. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  14. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  15. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  16. Dissolved rainfall inputs and streamwater outputs in an undisturbed watershed on highly weathered soils in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewitz, Daniel; Resende, Julio C. F.; Parron, Lucilia; Bustamante, Mercedes; Klink, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo De O.; Davidson, Eric A.

    2006-08-01

    The cerrados of Brazil cover 2 million km2. Despite the extent of these seasonally dry ecosystems, little watershed research has been focused in this region, particularly relative to the watersheds of the Amazon Basin. The cerrado shares pedogenic characteristics with the Amazon Basin in draining portions of the Brazilian shield and in possessing Oxisols over much of the landscape. The objective of this research was to quantify the stream water geochemical relationships of an undisturbed 1200 ha cerrado watershed for comparison to river geochemistry in the Amazon. Furthermore, this undisturbed watershed was used to evaluate stream discharge versus dissolved ion concentration relationships. This research was conducted in the Córrego Roncador watershed of the Reserva Ecológica do Roncador (RECOR) of the Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) near Brasilia, Brazil. Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry were analysed between May 1998 and May 2000. The upland soils of this watershed are nutrient poor possessing total stocks of exchangeable elements in the upper 1 m of 81 +/- 13, 77 +/- 4, 25 +/- 3, and 1 +/- 1 kg ha-1 of K, Ca, Mg, and P, respectively. Bulk precipitation inputs of dissolved nutrients for this watershed are low and consistent with previous estimates. The nutrient-poor soils of this watershed, however, increase the relative importance of precipitation for nutrient replenishment to vegetation during episodes of ecosystem disturbance. Stream water dissolved loads were extremely dilute with conductivities ranging from 4 to 10 μS cm-1 during periods of high- and low-flow, respectively. Despite the low concentrations in this stream, geochemical relationships were similar to other Amazonian streams draining shield geologies. Discharge-concentration relationships for Ca and Mg in these highly weathered soils developed from igneous rocks of the Brazilian shield demonstrated a significant negative relationship indicating a continued

  17. Carbon Metabolism, Uptake Kinetics, and Export: how Watershed Form Influences Carbon Mobilization and In-Stream Transformations in Headwater Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, E. C.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the highly dynamic nature of hydrologic connectivity, and the vertical and spatial expansion of the active watershed area during wet periods. While activation of variable DOM and solute sources during expansion and contraction periods has been well documented in a number of systems, changes in nutrient loading to streams have rarely been linked explicitly to in-stream function. To this end, we investigated the linkages between terrestrial mobilization of DOC and DIC, in-stream biogeochemical cycling, and downstream transport across scales in two geomorphically contrasting watersheds located in Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. We deployed a network of in-situ high frequency sensors with a focus on CO2, dissolved oxygen, fluorescent DOM, nitrate, and a suite of supporting chemical constituents every 30 minutes beginning with the onset of snowmelt and through summer baseflow recession. Our results suggest that DOM and DIC fluxes, as well as ecosystem processes such as metabolism, were coupled to watershed scale carbon accumulation and mobilization. In both watersheds, metabolism tracked the temporal trends of DOM loading from the terrestrial landscape, indicating that the streams are actively transforming allochthonous organic materials during transport. Headwater stream reaches in the watershed with more hydrologically connected riparian source areas exhibited elevated metabolism, carbon uptake, and carbon export as compared to streams in the watershed with less riparian connectivity, suggesting that the degree of riparian connectivity may explain spatial variation in metabolism and in-stream carbon cycling within and across stream networks. Ultimately, this study highlights the tight coupling between terrestrial uplands and in-stream ecosystem processes in headwater catchments, and identifies spatio-temporal variation in hydrologic connectivity as a key driver of in-stream metabolic variation. We posit that the

  18. Hydro-Ecological Linkages in Urbanizing Watersheds: The Role of Small Streams in Controlling Nitrogen Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, L.; Tague, C.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P. M.; Kenworthy, S. T.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial-aquatic interface plays an important role in watershed nitrogen cycling. We assess the relative role of terrestrial and in-stream processes in the retention, transformation and mobilization of nitrogen, by combining hydro-ecological modeling with field measurements, geographic information systems and remote sensing, to address relevant processes and related patterns across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), a terrestrial hydro-ecological watershed model, is coupled within a geographic information system to a flow and water quality model for streams. Model development and application focuses on Baisman Run, a small, urbanizing watershed, located within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long Term Ecological Research program. Here we mainly report on results from our field data collection component. Field measurements include nutrient monitoring, solute additions and nitrate stable isotopes. To estimate nutrient uptake rates from solute additions, we adapted a transient storage model (OTIS) to account for nutrient saturation during the addition. Over time (i.e., several years), we observe a strong relationship between nitrate loss and flow conditions; nitrate loss was detected only at low to medium flows, while dilution dominates higher flows. Over space, stream characteristics exercise a strong control on nitrogen uptake. Ammonium uptake is related to stream size and reflects spatial variation in water/sediment contact. Transient storage, although it effects hydraulic residence time, does not necessarily translate into higher rates of biogeochemical processing in these headwater streams. Overall, our measurements and preliminary modeling results suggest that in urbanizing watersheds, small streams play a spatially and temporally complex role in controlling watershed nitrogen export. Subsequent work will further high-level integration between process-based models, field data collection and

  19. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  20. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  1. Landscape controls on nitrogen availability in a western forest watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Yano, Y.; Jencso, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    Global increases in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and declines in winter snowpack are expected to alter the productivity of montane forests in the Western U.S. In this study, we focused on the topographic controls on seasonal N patterns in a mountainous landscape. The experiment was conducted in the North Fork of the Elk Creek (NFEC) watershed within the Lubrecht Experimental Forest, located in western Montana. The NFEC is a managed watershed and was logged approximately 80 years ago; thus, this watershed offers a unique opportunity to examine topographic and biological controls on N dynamics within a relatively even aged forest. In 2014 and 2015, we examined changes in soil N dynamics in four sites that varied in aspect (north and south) and elevation (high and low). Within each site, we also examined micro-topographic controls by sampling soil from both the hollow and the side slope. From pre-snowmelt to the end of the growing season (March - October), we collected snow cores and soil cores within each site to characterize the heterogeneity of soil N. We also installed resin strips to measure the exchangeable N within the upper soils. Across the entire watershed, we found that seasonal NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were highest in April, as well as at the higher elevation sites. This pattern corresponded with higher snowpack and snow water equivalent values and was likely due to higher mineralization rates during the winter. We also found that across all four sites, hollow soils had higher NH4+ and NO3- concentrations relative to soils from the hillslope, and this was largely due to increased organic matter and high soil moisture content found in the hollows. We also found a significant interaction between time of year, site, and micro-topography, suggesting that during the early growing season, NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were largely modulated by snowpack depth, which in turn was controlled by topography. Soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations for samples

  2. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.

    2001-12-01

    The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will

  3. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed Boundaries, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2002. It is described as 'Watershed Boundaries'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  5. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  6. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  7. Geospatial Estimates of Road Salt Usage Across a Gradient of Urbanizing Watersheds in Southern Ontario:Thesis for Masters in Spatial Analysis (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, G. K.; Oswald, C.

    2015-12-01

    In areas affected by snow, chloride (Cl) salts are widely used as a de-icing agent to improve road conditions. While the improvement in road safety is indisputable, there are environmental consequences to local aquatic ecosystems. In many waterways, Cl concentrations have been increasing since the early 1990s, often exceeding national water quality guidelines. To determine the quantity of Cl that is accumulating in urban and urbanizing watersheds, accurate estimates of road salt usage at the watershed-scale are needed. The complex jurisdictional control over road salt application in southern Ontario lends itself to a geospatial approach for calculating Cl inputs to improve the accuracy of watershed-scale Cl mass balance estimates. This study will develop a geospatial protocol for combining information on road salt applications and road network areas to refine watershed-scale Cl inputs, as well as assess spatiotemporal patterns in road salt application across the southern Ontario study region. The overall objective of this project is to use geospatial methods (predominantly ArcGIS) to develop high-accuracy estimates of road salt usage in urbanizing watersheds in southern Ontario. Specifically, the aims will be to map and summarize the types and areas ("lane-lengths") of roadways in each watershed that have road salt applied to them, to determine the most appropriate source(s) of road salt usage data for each watershed, taking into consideration multiple levels of jurisdiction (e.g. municipal, regional, provincial), to calculate and summarize sub-watershed and watershed-scale road salt usage estimates for multiple years, and to analyze intra-watershed spatiotemporal patterns of road salt usage, especially focusing on impervious surfaces. These analyses will recommend areas of concern exacerbated by high-levels of road salt distribution; recommendations around modifying on-the-ground operations will be the next step in helping to correct these issues.

  8. The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 2 -1 The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model C ol d R eg io n s R es ea rc h an d E n gi n ee ri n g La...14 Table 6. Estimated monthly ET using Hargreaves method and pan...using water balance method A generalized water balance for the Chena River watershed can be written as mS P S ET R     (3) where P

  9. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  10. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart fr

  11. A mean field approach to watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-04-01

    Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.

  12. The Implementation of a Parallel Watershed Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a parallel watershed algorithm is described. The algorithm is implemented on a multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD) ring-architecture using a single program multiple data (SPMD) approach using an asynchronous message passing interface and simulated shared mem

  13. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal employees, holders of Forest Service contracts, or Forest Service agents; (2) The operation, maintenance, and improvement of the municipal water system by Federal and State officials and employees of the... Ranger. (d) Unauthorized entrance upon lands within the watershed is subject to punishment as provided...

  14. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design

  15. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design

  16. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  17. Hydrologic modeling of the Heihe watershed by DLBRM in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo; Demarchi; Thomas; E.Croley; Ⅱ; Tim; Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Water shortage is a chronic problem in arid Northwest China.The rapid population growth and expanding urbanization as well as potential climate change impacts are likely to worsen the situation,threatening domestic,irrigation,and industrial supplies and even the survival of the ecosystems in Northwest China.This paper describes the preliminary work of adapting the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model(DLBRM) to the Heihe watershed(the second largest inland river in arid Northwestern China,with a drainage area of 128,000 km2) for understanding distribution of glacial-snow melt,groundwater,surface runoff,and evapotranspi-ration,and for assessing hydrological impacts of climate change and glacial recession on water supply in the middle and lower reaches of the watershed.Preliminary simulation results show that the Qilian Mountain in the upper reach area produces most runoff in the Heihe watershed.The simulated daily river flows during the period of 1990-2000 indicate that the Heihe River dis-charges about 1×109 m3 of water from the middle reach(at Zhengyixia Station) to lower reach,with surface runoff and interflow contributing 51 and 49 percent respectively.The sandy lower soil zone in the middle reach has the highest evapotranspiration rate and also contributes nearly half of the river flow.Work underway focuses on the DLBRM model improvement and incorporation of the climate change and management scenarios to the hydrological simulations in the watershed.

  18. Hydrologic modeling of the Heihe watershed by DLBRM in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChanSheng He; Carlo Demarchi; Thomas E. Croley Ⅱ; Qi Feng; Tim Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Water shortage is a chronic problem in arid Northwest China. The rapid population growth and expanding urbanization as well as potential climate change impacts are likely to worsen the situation, threatening domestic, irrigation, and industrial supplies and even the survival of the ecosystems in Northwest China. This paper describes the preliminary work of adapting the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) to the Heihe watershed (the second largest inland river in arid Northwestern China, with a drainage area of 128,000 km2) for understanding distribution of glacial-snow melt, groundwater, surface runoff, and evapotranspiration, and for assessing hydrological impacts of climate change and glacial recession on water supply in the middle and lower reaches of the watershed. Preliminary simulation results show that the Qilian Mountain in the upper reach area produces most runoff in the Heihe watershed. The simulated daily river flows during the period of 1990-2000 indicate that the Heihe River discharges about 1×109 m3 of water from the middle reach (at Zhengyixia Station) to lower reach, with surface runoff and interflow contributing 51 and 49 percent respectively. The sandy lower soil zone in the middle reach has the highest evapotranspiration rate and also contributes nearly half of the river flow. Work underway focuses on the DLBRM model improvement and incorporation of the climate change and management scenarios to the hydrological simulations in the watershed.

  19. Watershed-scale effects of urbanization on sediment export: Assessment and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    Built components of watersheds are associated with impervious surfaces that alter hydrology, disrupt ecosystems, and affect water quality. This study focuses on the impervious factor as a tool for assessment and policy design to address water quality impacts. The empirical model uses a combination of watershed simulation and statistical regression modeling to study sediment loading at various stages of urbanization. The policy design is based on private behavior in a watershed setting to develop appropriate economic approaches. The incentives through taxes, subsidies, and cost sharing are based on water quality impacts. It was observed that nonlinearity in response functions resulted in transition effects that are continuous. This is due to gradual shifts in landscape characteristics as a result of urbanization. On a regional basis, impervious factor had a varying effect on water quality and depend on the state of urbanization and spatial characteristics. Economic policies based on a metric like impervious cover can be used to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization in watersheds through use of appropriate BMPs, urban forestry methods, and spatial targeting. While linear rules in policy are easier to implement, nonlinear rules were more effective in representing the changes in marginal social cost of impervious factor, especially initial and late stages of urbanization. There exists excellent scope in using this targeted policy to address specific problems associated with complex urban systems.

  20. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  1. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing Watershed Management Options in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management de...

  2. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014-06-29 to 2015-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0137092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  3. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014-06-24 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0138585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  4. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  5. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  6. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  7. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to

  8. Watershed characteristics and water-quality trends and loads in 12 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, John K.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and was expanded to another six watersheds in 2001. As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured continuously at the 12 watershed monitoring stations for water years 2004–09. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally. The 12 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2009, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2009. Precipitation in water years 2004–09 was about 18 percent below average, and the county experienced exceptional drought conditions and below average runoff in water years 2007 and 2008. Watershed water yields, the percentage of precipitation that results in runoff, typically are lower in low precipitation years and are higher for watersheds with the highest percentages of impervious areas. A comparison of base-flow and stormflow water-quality samples indicates that turbidity and concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total

  9. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  10. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB small watershed research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Greene, Earl A.; Buss, Heather L.; Clow, David W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Murphy, Sheila F.; Peters, Norman E.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Walker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on the effects of climate change, more investigations are needed that examine ecological effects (e.g., evapotranspiration, nutrient uptake) and responses (e.g., species abundances, biodiversity) that are coupled with the physical and chemical processes historically observed in the WEBB program. Greater use of remote sensing, geographic modeling, and habitat/watershed modeling tools is needed, as is closer integration with the USGS-led National Phenology Network. Better understanding of process and system response times is needed. The analysis and observation of land-use and climate change effects over time should be improved by pooling data obtained by the WEBB program during the last two decades with data obtained earlier and (or) concurrently from other research and monitoring studies conducted at or near the five WEBB watershed sites. These data can be supplemented with historical and paleo-environmental information, such as could be obtained from tree rings and lake cores. Because of the relatively pristine nature and small size of its watersheds, the WEBB program could provide process understanding and basic data to better characterize and quantify ecosystem services and to develop and apply indicators of ecosystem health. In collaboration with other Federal and State watershed research programs, the WEBB program has an opportunity to contribute to tracking the short-term dynamics and long-term evolution of ecosystem services and health indicators at a multiplicity of scales across the landscape. 

  11. Couse/Tenmile Creeks Watershed Project Implementation : 2007 Conservtion Projects. [2007 Habitat Projects Completed].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asotin County Conservation District

    2008-12-10

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on private lands within Asotin County watersheds. The Tenmile Creek watershed is a 42 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Asotin Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Couse Creek watershed is a 24 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Tenmile Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Both watersheds are almost exclusively under private ownership. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has documented wild steelhead and rainbow/redband trout spawning and rearing in Tenmile Creek and Couse Creek. The project also provides Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation throughout Asotin County, but the primary focus is for the Couse and Tenmile Creek watersheds. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. The Asotin Subbasin Plan identified priority areas and actions for ESA listed streams within Asotin County. Couse Creek and Tenmile Creek are identified as protection areas in the plan. The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has been successful in working with landowners to protect riparian areas throughout Asotin County. Funding from BPA and other agencies has also been instrumental in protecting streams throughout Asotin County by utilizing the ridge top to ridge top approach.

  12. Can isolated and riparian wetlands mitigate the impact of climate change on watershed hydrology? A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, M; Rousseau, A N

    2016-12-15

    The effects of wetlands on stream flows are well established, namely mitigating flow regimes through water storage and slow water release. However, their effectiveness in reducing flood peaks and sustaining low flows is mainly driven by climate conditions and wetland type with respect to their connectivity to the hydrographic network (i.e. isolated or riparian wetlands). While some studies have demonstrated these hydrological functions/services, few of them have focused on the benefits to the hydrological regimes and their evolution under climate change (CC) and, thus, some gaps persist. The objective of this study was to further advance our knowledge with that respect. The PHYSITEL/HYDROTEL modelling platform was used to assess current and future states of watershed hydrology of the Becancour and Yamaska watersheds, Quebec, Canada. Simulation results showed that CC will induce similar changes on mean seasonal flows, namely larger and earlier spring flows leading to decreases in summer and fall flows. These expected changes will have different effects on 20-year and 100-year peak flows with respect to the considered watershed. Nevertheless, conservation of current wetland states should: (i) for the Becancour watershed, mitigate the potential increase in 2-year, 20-year and 100-year peak flows; and (ii) for the Yamaska watershed, accentuate the potential decrease in the aforementioned indicators. However, any loss of existing wetlands would be detrimental for 7-day 2-year and 10-year as well as 30-day 5-year low flows.

  13. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  14. Contaminants in sediment, food-chain biota, and bird eggs from the Newport Bay watershed, Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolo, Gary M; Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater-related discharges in the San Diego Creek/Newport Bay watershed in Orange County, California have the potential to adversely affect the surface waters within the watershed and would likely not comply with the established total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the watershed. In 2004 and 2005, we studied the concentrations of contaminants of TMDL concern (particularly selenium [Se]) in birds that are at risk of exposure to contaminated food items because they feed and nest in the Newport Bay watershed. Most bioaccumulation is from elevated Se in groundwater downstream of a historic terminal swamp. Se bioaccumulation was observed in all biota tested, and DDE was found in fish and bird egg samples. Effects of contaminants on fish and birds are inconclusive due to the management disturbances in the watershed (e.g., flood control) and lack of bird nesting habitat. Although a significant relationship was observed between DDE concentrations and eggshell thinning in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) eggs, the shell thinning in avocet and other species examined was not enough to result in hatching failure. Further focused monitoring efforts will be needed to characterize the exposure and risk levels.

  15. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  16. Watershed Ecohydrology: How Do Vegetation Patterns and Climate Affect Watershed Storage and Connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Topography and soils have long been recognized as mediators of runoff source areas, but the effect of vegetation patterns on subsurface throughflow is less well understood. While numerous studies have shown that vegetation removal generally leads to increases in streamflow, few studies have examined the intersection between patterns of evapotranspiration and topographically driven patterns of throughflow generation and connectivity. We applied a parsimonious but spatially distributed watershed modeling framework (WECOH: Watershed ECOHydrology Model) to a snow dominated watershed in central Montana to elucidate how different vegetation scenarios and climate forcing can affect the temporal evolution of storage distributions and watershed connectivity. We derived spatially distributed snowmelt and rainfall input from two NRCS SNOTEL sites located in the experimental watershed and actual evapotranspiration from a co-located eddy-covariance tower. We generated different vegetation scenarios to simulate forest harvesting and compared streamflow response, spatial distribution of storage, and runoff source areas across scenarios. Our work aims at better understanding how the intersection of vegetation and topography mediates hydrologic response.

  17. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo-rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro-logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo-metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.’s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo-metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equa-tions was finally obtained.

  18. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN FuQiang; HU HePing; LEI ZhiDong

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. Was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. Extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo- rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro- logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo- metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.'s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo- metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equations was finally obtained.

  19. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in groundwater recharge levels from these activities, with a lower bound benefit–cost ratio of 7.1–18.2. This lower-bound excludes returns from such high value, yet controversial to measure, amenities as species preservation....

  20. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  1. Payments for watershed services: Opportunities and realities

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, I.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record "Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have a limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective, thes...

  2. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vache, Kellie [Oregon State University

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  3. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  4. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Kline, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126CFU/100mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to watershed

  5. Cycling of Organoarsenic Compounds in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Chambers, D. B.; White, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The use of the organoarsenical roxarsone, added to poultry feed to increase weight gain, results in elevated arsenic concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in poultry litter. This litter is extensively applied to crop fields and pastures, both as a fertilizer and as a waste disposal technique, in agricultural regions. Using a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments, we investigated the sources and sinks of arsenic within soils and natural waters in an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA, an area of intense poultry production. Surface, ground, and soil waters were collected in an instrumented field site to examine arsenic and other litter-derived species in different hydrologic compartments and different settings within the field site. We collected soil cores of the Frederick series, common in the Shenandoah Valley, from several areas experiencing different litter application histories in the valley to examine relationships between arsenic and physico-chemical properties of the soils. Last, we conducted a series of batch experiments to examine adsorption and biotransformation characteristics of roxarsone within Ap and Bt soil horizons of the Frederick soils. Results of these combined studies document a complex yet intriguing cycling of arsenic through the watershed, which will provide useful information for management of poultry litter in agricultural watersheds.

  6. Citizen participation in collaborative watershed partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  7. Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use Change: The Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Claire A.; Prince, Stephen D.; Smith, Andrew J.; Varlyguin, Dmitry; Wright, Robb K.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, encompassed by a watershed extending 168,000 km2 over portions of six states and Washington, D.C. Restoration of the Bay has been the focus of a two-decade regional partnership of local, state and federal agencies, including a network of scientists, politicians and activists interacting through various committees, working groups, and advisory panels. The effectiveness of the restoration effort has been mixed, with both notable successes and failures. The overall health of the Bay has not declined since the restoration was initiated in 1983, but many of the advances have been offset by the pressure of increasing population and exurban sprawl across the watershed. The needs of the Chesapeake Bay Program are many, but the greatest is accurate information on land cover and land use change, primarily to assess the implications for water quality, examine various restoration scenarios, and calibrate spatial models of the urbanization process. We report here on a number of new land cover and land use data products, and associated applications to assist vulnerability assessment, integrated ecosystem analysis, and ultimately Bay restoration. We provide brief overviews of applications to model new residential development, assess losses and vulnerability of resource lands, and identify the factors that disrupt the health of streams in small watersheds. These data products and approaches are being applied by a number of agencies involved with the restoration effort, including the Chesapeake Bay Program's activities focused on living resources, water quality, and sound land use.

  8. Predicting Watershed Ecosystems Through Targeted Local Land Use Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Land-use change is arguably the most pervasive socioeconomic force driving the change and degradation of watershed ecosystems. This paper combines an econometric model of land use choice with three models of watershed health indicators (conventional water pollution, toxic water pollution, and the number of aquatic species at risk) to examine the effects of land use policies on watershed ecosystems through their effect on land use choice. The analysis is conducted using parcel-level data from ...

  9. A Linear Systems Approach to Segmented Watershed Contaminant Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs simulation models to estimate concentrations of pesticide residues in surface waters for risk assessment. These models have historically been used to simulate runoff loadings from homogeneous landscapes to isolated, well-mixed lentic systems that generically represent vulnerable waters. Recent efforts to refine this approach in terms of realism and geographic specificity have focused on enhancing the level of detail of the landscape representation, rather than that of receiving water hydrology. Linear systems theory and transfer function based approaches have been applied by various investigators to the representation of contaminant leaching through soils, and to surface water hydrology (e.g., unit hydrographs), but rarely to contaminant transport either within surface waters, or through multi-compartment systems such as stream networks. This poster describes a straightforward approach to simulating watersheds as segmented into collections of linked water bodies. The approach employs convolution integrals, impulse response functions, and the Discrete Fourier Transform to propagate concentration time series from upstream to downstream locations. Given knowledge only of estimated mean stream residence times, with appropriately-scaled segmentations of catchments, realistic representations of concentration dynamics are shown to be achievable. These representations are based upon high-frequency atrazine monitoring data sets collected over common time periods from upstream and downstream locations within the same small watersheds. Simulated concentrations are shown to match measured concentrations well in both the temporal and spectral domains without the need for calibration, and despite inherent simplifying assumptions such as steady flow. The approach may have utility for enhancing surface water hydrologic representation in contaminant modeling used for regulatory purposes.

  10. Three Different Methods of Estimating LAI in a Small Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Beverly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical input of models that improve predictive understanding of ecology, hydrology, and climate change. Multiple techniques exist to quantify LAI, most of which are labor intensive, and all often fail to converge on similar estimates. . Recent large-scale bark beetle induced mortality greatly altered LAI, which is now dominated by younger and more metabolically active trees compared to the pre-beetle forest. Tree mortality increases error in optical LAI estimates due to the lack of differentiation between live and dead branches in dense canopy. Our study aims to quantify LAI using three different LAI methods, and then to compare the techniques to each other and topographic drivers to develop an effective predictive model of LAI. This study focuses on quantifying LAI within a small (~120 ha) beetle infested watershed in Wyoming's Snowy Range Mountains. The first technique estimated LAI using in-situ hemispherical canopy photographs that were then analyzed with Hemisfer software. The second LAI estimation technique was use of the Kaufmann 1982 allometrerics from forest inventories conducted throughout the watershed, accounting for stand basal area, species composition, and the extent of bark beetle driven mortality. The final technique used airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) first DMS returns, which were used to estimating canopy heights and crown area. LIDAR final returns provided topographical information and were then ground-truthed during forest inventories. Once data was collected, a fractural analysis was conducted comparing the three methods. Species composition was driven by slope position and elevation Ultimately the three different techniques provided very different estimations of LAI, but each had their advantage: estimates from hemisphere photos were well correlated with SWE and snow depth measurements, forest inventories provided insight into stand health and composition, and LIDAR were able to quickly and

  11. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  12. Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS (WATERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results (WATERS) is an integrated information system for the nation's surface waters connecting Office of...

  13. Hydrological responses to climate change in Mt. Elgon watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Musau

    2015-03-01

    New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Comparison between the simulated baseline and future streamflow shows that in the Koitobos and Kimilili watersheds, August to December streamflow is likely to be highly altered. In the Kuywa watershed, March to June flows is likely to change considerably due to climate change. Major streamflow changes are likely in March to June and August to November in the Rongai watershed. Projected changes differed between the four watersheds despite their proximity, indicating different sensitivities to climate change and uncertainty about the potential hydrological impacts of climate change in the area.

  14. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  15. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-03-25

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  16. STUDY OF RUNOFF IN UNDA WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATRIA WAHYU 0ETOM0

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When rain falls on the earth, it just does not sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth's groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion. The purpose and objective in this study are to estimate the conditions of land cover of Unda Watershed based on the results of image processing, to estimate the monthly average runoff and discharge in outlet of Unda Watershed from 1999 to 2003. The research location is in Unda Watershed. This watershed lies in Province of Bali which has wide 233.1 km2 (23.310 Ha (Balai Wilayah Sungai Bali-Penida. Administratively this watershed lies in 3 Regencies that are Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli Regency. Mostly the region lies in the Karangasem Regency. In this research, the monthly rainfall data employed to generate the runoff process. Analyze of contour map from topography map obtained the watershed area, physical parameter of river and concentration time. In this research used monthly average rainf all data (from 1999 to 2003 from Pempatan, Besakih, Singarata, Sidemen, Klungkung, Telengan, Rain Gauge Station and Polygon Thiesen method employed to analyze the datas. Apart of rainfall, there are a number of site specific factors which have a direct bearing on the occurrence and volume of runoff, they are soil type, land cover and slope. The soil types in this research area are all Regosol, this soil mapping does not need to be overlayed in obtaining the land unit. Analyze of land cover was employed by Supervised Classification method. By image processing obtained land cover of Unda Watershed estimated consists of 38.129 km2 of forest area (16.357°Ai, 19.122 km2 of grassland area (8.203%, 100.991 km2 of farmland area (43.325%, 62-412 km2 of area housing (26.775%, 2.625 km2

  17. Statewide Watershed Protection and Local Implementation: A Comparison of Washington, Minnesota, and Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In 1991 EPA embraced the watershed protection approach for environmental management. EPA defines watershed protection as â a strategy for effectively protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems and protecting human health.â To encourage statewide watershed protection, EPA developed the â Statewide Watershed Protection Approachâ document, which is designed to aid states in developing their own watershed protection program. The watershed protection approach is n...

  18. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (Rel), resilience (Res) and vulnerability (Vul) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and Rel ResVul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented Rel ResVul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-Rel ResVul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-Rel ResVul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014.

  19. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  20. Hydrologic resilience of a Canadian Foothills watershed to forest harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbrand, Amy; Anderson, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations of long-term hydrometeorological, groundwater, and streamflow data from watersheds on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains showed the streamflow regime was resilient to forest harvest. These watersheds had low levels of harvest relative to their size and a large area of sparsely vegetated alpine talus slopes and exposed bedrock; an area shown to generate the majority of runoff for streamflow. In contrast, watersheds located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains are of lower relief and typically have harvestable timber throughout the watershed; therefore, these watersheds may be more sensitive to forest disturbance and have increased potential for streamflow response. This project assesses the hydrologic resilience of an Alberta Foothills watershed to forest harvest using a 23-year dataset from the Tri-Creeks Experimental Watershed (Tri-Creeks). Tri-Creeks has been the site of intensive streamflow, groundwater, snow accumulation, and precipitation observations from 1967 - 1990. During the early 1980s, forestry experiments were conducted to compare the effects of timber harvest and riparian buffers, and the effectiveness of timber harvesting ground rules in protecting fisheries and maintaining water resources within three sub-watersheds: Eunice (16.8 km2; control); Deerlick (15.2 km2; 36% streamside timber removal); and, Wampus (28.3 km2; 37% clear-cut). Statistical analyses were used to compare the pre-and post-harvest ratios of treatment to control sub-watershed runoff for: water year, monthly (April - October), snowmelt peak flow, and low flow (10th percentile streamflow) periods as an assessment of hydrologic resilience to forest harvest. The only significant post-harvest change was an increase in water yield during May at Wampus (Mann-Whitney (MW), pforest harvest. We hypothesize on the processes and characteristics that result in this watershed to exhibit greater resilience compared to other forested watersheds.

  1. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Little Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Little Bear River drains 185,000 acres at the southern end of Cache Valley in northern Utah. The river has two main forks that travel through relatively narrow and steep valleys, meeting at the approximate midpoint of the watershed near the town of Paradise.

  2. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Hehuan, E-mail: hehuan86@vt.edu [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Krometis, Leigh-Anne H. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Kline, Karen [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Center for Watershed Studies, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126 CFU/100 mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to

  3. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  4. The Watershed Transform : Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the liter

  5. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  6. Effects of conservation practices on fishes within agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...

  7. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment

  8. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  9. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  10. Air Pollution and Watershed Research in the Central Sierra Nevada of California: Nitrogen and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Hunsaker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3 and nitrogenous (N air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100–2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  11. Effects of watershed land use on nitrogen concentrations and δ15 nitrogen in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marci L.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; McClelland, J.W.; Valiela, I.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major agent of change affecting freshwater, estuarine, and marine systems. It is largely driven by transportation of nitrogen from natural and anthropogenic sources. Research is needed to quantify this nitrogen delivery and to link the delivery to specific land-derived sources. In this study we measured nitrogen concentrations and δ 15N values in seepage water entering three freshwater ponds and six estuaries on Cape Cod, Massachusetts and assessed how they varied with different types of land use. Nitrate concentrations and δ 15N values in groundwater reflected land use in developed and pristine watersheds. In particular, watersheds with larger populations delivered larger nitrate loads with higher δ 15N values to receiving waters. The enriched δ 15N values confirmed nitrogen loading model results identifying wastewater contributions from septic tanks as the major N source. Furthermore, it was apparent that N coastal sources had a relatively larger impact on the N loads and isotopic signatures than did inland N sources further upstream in the watersheds. This finding suggests that management priorities could focus on coastal sources as a first course of action. This would require management constraints on a much smaller population.

  12. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  13. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  14. Investigating the Capability of High Resolution ALSM to Provide Accurate Watershed Delineation and Stream Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, A.; Slatton, K. C.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-05-01

    The development of geographic information systems (GIS) and digital elevation models (DEMs) has provided an opportunity to describe the pathways of water movement in a watershed. Adequate DEM resolution is of high importance in stream network detection. Local, state, and federal agencies have relied on US Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps for information on stream networks for planning, management, and regulatory programs related to streams. DEM creation techniques that avoid map contours as the source of digital heights can improve watershed delineation and stream network data quality. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) technology (also referred to as LIDAR) provides DEMs of fine resolution and high accuracy. However, there are shortcomings in using both low resolution and high resolution DEMs. The focus of this work will be in the unique aspects of using ALSM data in watershed delineation and stream network mapping, in comparison to the other sources of DEM. In particular the reliability of both input data and output results of stream network using different resolutions will be evaluated. In this study, stream location resulting from high-resolution ALSM and low- resolution NED are compared to ground truth locations of the stream in Hogtown Creek Watershed, located in Gainesville, Florida. This study shows that ALSM-derived models are more successful at delineating streams and at locating them in their topographically correct position as compared to lower resolution DEMs. However, high resolution ALSM data produce artifacts that can affect the flow of water as predicted by stream network algorithms. Methods for overcoming the challenges with regard to ALSM data in stream network detection are presented.

  15. Structure and evolution of flash flood producing storms in a small urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Smith, Brianne; Tian, Fuqiang; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structure and evolution of storms that produce flash floods in "small" urban watersheds. The study site is Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 urban watershed in Princeton, New Jersey. A catalog of 15 storms is developed for Harry's Brook based on paired observations of streamflow and rainfall. Lagrangian analyses of storm properties are based on storm tracking procedures utilizing 3-D radar reflectivity observations from the KDIX (Fort Dix, New Jersey) Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler. Analyses focus on the storm elements that were responsible for the peak rainfall rates over the watershed. The 22 July 2006 storm, which produced the record flood peak in the catalog (a unit discharge of 26.8 m3 s-1 km-2) was characterized by thunderstorm cells that produced more than 50 cloud-to-ground lightning strikes and "collapsed" over Harry's Brook. The 3 June 2006 storm, which produced the third largest flood peak (a unit discharge of 11.1 m3 s-1 km-2), was a "low-echo centroid" storm with no lightning. We use cloud-to-ground flash rate, echo top height, maximum reflectivity, and height of maximum reflectivity as key variables for characterizing convective intensity. Storm motion is examined through a time series of storm speed and direction. The 22 July 2006 and 3 June 2006 storms provide end-members of storm properties, centering on "convective intensity," which are associated with flash flooding in small urban watersheds. Extreme 1-15 min rainfall rates are produced by warm season convective systems at both ends of the convective intensity spectrum.

  16. Use of Sediment Budgets for Watershed Erosion Control Planning: A Case Study From Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2002-05-01

    Erosion, sedimentation and peak flow increases caused by forest management for commercial timber production may negatively affect aquatic habitat of endangered anadromous fish such as coho salmon ({\\ it O. kisutch}). This paper summarizes a portion of a Watershed Analysis study performed for Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, CA, focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates and downstream sediment routing and water quality in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Hillslope, road and bank erosion, channel sedimentation and sediment rates were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. The resulting sediment budget was validated through comparison using recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield collected by a community watershed group at a downstream monitoring site with technical assistance from the US Forest Service. Another check on the sediment budget was provided by bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study provide sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments for use in the TMDL process. The sediment budget also identifies the most significant sediment sources and suggests a framework within which effective erosion control strategies can be developed.

  17. PDE Based Algorithms for Smooth Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodneland, Erlend; Tai, Xue-Cheng; Kalisch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Watershed segmentation is useful for a number of image segmentation problems with a wide range of practical applications. Traditionally, the tracking of the immersion front is done by applying a fast sorting algorithm. In this work, we explore a continuous approach based on a geometric description of the immersion front which gives rise to a partial differential equation. The main advantage of using a partial differential equation to track the immersion front is that the method becomes versatile and may easily be stabilized by introducing regularization terms. Coupling the geometric approach with a proper "merging strategy" creates a robust algorithm which minimizes over- and under-segmentation even without predefined markers. Since reliable markers defined prior to segmentation can be difficult to construct automatically for various reasons, being able to treat marker-free situations is a major advantage of the proposed method over earlier watershed formulations. The motivation for the methods developed in this paper is taken from high-throughput screening of cells. A fully automated segmentation of single cells enables the extraction of cell properties from large data sets, which can provide substantial insight into a biological model system. Applying smoothing to the boundaries can improve the accuracy in many image analysis tasks requiring a precise delineation of the plasma membrane of the cell. The proposed segmentation method is applied to real images containing fluorescently labeled cells, and the experimental results show that our implementation is robust and reliable for a variety of challenging segmentation tasks.

  18. SWAT ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ATRAZINE LOSS IN THE GOOD WATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Goodwater Creek Watershed is a subwatershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed, an ARS-CEAP benchmark watershed in Northeast Missouri. This 7,250-ha watershed was selected for initial modeling because of its smaller size and the large hydrologic and climatologic dataset available. A SWAT model of ...

  19. Watersheds and Water Policy Funding From USDA-CSREES: Vision, Outlook, and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, N.

    2006-05-01

    The Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) of the United States Department of Agriculture funds research, extension, and education grants in all aspects of agriculture, the environment, human health and well-being, and communities. Water is key natural resource for all of these areas and there are several types of funding opportunities available. The primary sources for watersheds and water management funding within CSREES are the Water and Watersheds program of the National Research Initiative, and the National Integrated Research, Education and Extension Program in Water Quality. These two programs have substantially reduced their focus in the last three years in order to meet the federal budget office demands for measurable outcomes. This paper will discuss the current and priorities and likely trends in funding in these areas. In addition, to the above two programs, agricultural water security is a prominent issue related to water management and policy. A recent listening session on agricultural water security and policy resulted in white paper available on the CSREES website. This paper will also describe a recommended strategy for CSREES efforts and current and projected needs and opportunities. Briefly, six themes for research, education, and extension activities were identified: Irrigation Efficiency and Management; Drought Risk Assessment and Preparedness; General Water Conservation and Management; Rural/Urban Water Reuse; Water Marketing, Distribution and Allocation; and Biotechnology. Of these six themes, it was recommended that CSREES should focus on the three: 1.Exploring new technologies and systems for the use of recycled/reuse water in agricultural, rural, and urbanizing watersheds, 2.Probing the human, social, and economic dimensions of agricultural water security (including water markets) with a focus on adoption-outreach and behavioral change, and 3.Discovering biotechnological improvements in water use efficiency of

  20. Reducing fertilizer-nitrogen losses from rowcrop landscapes: Insights and implications from a spatially explicit watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Schilling, Keith; Robertson, Dale

    2015-01-01

    We present conceptual and quantitative models that predict changes in fertilizer-derived nitrogen delivery from rowcrop landscapes caused by agricultural conservation efforts implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and transport and increase nutrient retention in the landscape. To evaluate the relative importance of changes in the sources, transport, and sinks of fertilizer-derived nitrogen across a region, we use the spatially explicit SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes watershed model to map the distribution, at the small watershed scale within the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB), of: (1) fertilizer inputs; (2) nutrient attenuation during delivery of those inputs to the UMORB outlet; and (3) nitrogen export from the UMORB outlet. Comparing these spatial distributions suggests that the amount of fertilizer input and degree of nutrient attenuation are both important in determining the extent of nitrogen export. From a management perspective, this means that agricultural conservation efforts to reduce nitrogen export would benefit by: (1) expanding their focus to include activities that restore and enhance nutrient processing in these highly altered landscapes; and (2) targeting specific types of best management practices to watersheds where they will be most valuable. Doing so successfully may result in a shift in current approaches to conservation planning, outreach, and funding.

  1. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rebecca L; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy; Riha, Krystin; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen A; Childers, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3-) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3- (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3- during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover--retention basins, pipes, and grass cover--dictated the sourcing of NO3- in runoff. Urban watersheds were strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on runoff, which in turn was inversely related to retention basin density and positively related to imperviousness and precipitation. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the time scale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  2. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  3. Watershed management for water supply in developing world city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川

    2009-01-01

    The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.

  4. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  5. Slope spectrum variation in a simulated loess watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fayuan; Tang, Guoan; Wang, Chun; Cui, Lingzhou; Zhu, Rui

    2016-06-01

    A simulated loess watershed, where the loess material and relief properly represent the true loess surface, is adopted to investigate the variation in slope spectrum with loess watershed evolution. The evolution of the simulated loess watershed was driven by the exogenetic force of artificial rainfall. For a period of three months, twenty artificial rainfall events with different intensities and durations were carried out. In the process, nine DEM data sets, each with 10 mm grid resolution, were established by the method of close-range photogrammetry. The slope spectra were then extracted from these DEMs. Subsequent series of carefully designed quantitative analyses indicated a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Quantitative indices of the slope spectrum varied regularly following the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Mean slope, slope spectrum information entropy ( H), terrain driving force ( T d ), Mean patch area ( AREA_MN), Contagion Index ( CONTAG), and Patch Cohesion Index ( COHESION) kept increasing following the evolution of the simulated watershed, while skewness ( S), Perimeter-Area Fractal Dimension ( PAFRAC), and Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index ( IJI) represented an opposite trend. All the indices changed actively in the early and active development periods, but slowly in the stable development periods. These experimental results indicate that the time series of slope spectra was able to effectively depict the slope distribution of the simulated loess watershed, thus presenting a potential method for modeling loess landforms.

  6. Effects of urbanization on stream chemistry in the Croton Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Boyer, E. W.; Curry, D. S.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We studied the impacts of urbanization on flow paths and water quality in the Croton Watershed, a forested area east of the Hudson River that supplies about 10% of the drinking water to residents of New York City. We focused on three small sub-catchments along an urban gradient: one that is forested and undeveloped, one that is developing a residential base, and one that is fully developed with homes. To evaluate the effects of urbanization on concentration/discharge relationships, we monitored longitudinal profiles of streamflow and chemistry (cations, anions, nutrients, pH) in each catchment under varying flow conditions. Our work shows that urbanization impacts stream chemistry in several ways: by altering flow paths of water and by providing anthropogenic sources of solutes to streamflow. The urbanized catchments had a much higher fraction of quick flow contributing to the stream than the forested catchment. Solutes associated with residential development, such as road salt and septic systems, affected stream chemistry in the developed catchments. Total dissolved solids (TDS) were highest in the urban catchment and lowest in the forested catchment. Chloride, sodium, and calcium were the largest components of TDS in the urban and developing catchments, while calcium, silica, and sulfate were the largest components of TDS in the forested catchment.

  7. At a watershed? Technical developments in wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Paul

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews some of the technical developments that allowed the introduction of the wireless capsule 10 years ago into human usage. Technical advances and commercial competition have substantially improved the performance of clinical capsule endoscopy, especially in optical quality. Optical issues including the airless environment, depth of focus, dome reflection, the development of white light light-emitting diodes, exposure length and the advent of adaptive illumination are discussed. The competition between charge coupled devices and complementary metal oxide silicone technologies for imaging, lens improvements and the requirements for different frame rates and their associated power management strategies and battery type choices and the introduction of field enhancement methods into commercial capsule technology are considered. Capsule technology stands at a watershed. It is mainly confined to diagnostic small intestinal imaging. It might overtake other forms of conventional diagnostic endoscopy, especially colonoscopy but also gastroscopy and esophagoscopy but has to improve both technically and compete in price. It might break out of its optical diagnostic confinement and become a therapeutic modality. To make this leap there have to be several technical advances especially in biopsy, command, micromechanical internal movements, remote controlled manipulation and changes in power management, which may include external power transmission.

  8. Informing watershed connectivity barrier prioritization decisions: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, S. K.; Cooper, A. R.; Diebel, M.W.; Elkins, D.; Oldford, G.; Roghair, C.; Wieferich, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Water resources and transportation infrastructure such as dams and culverts provide countless socio-economic benefits; however, this infrastructure can also disconnect the movement of organisms, sediment, and water through river ecosystems. Trade-offs associated with these competing costs and benefits occur globally, with applications in barrier addition (e.g. dam and road construction), reengineering (e.g. culvert repair), and removal (e.g. dam removal and aging infrastructure). Barrier prioritization provides a unique opportunity to: (i) restore and reconnect potentially large habitat patches quickly and effectively and (ii) avoid impacts prior to occurrence in line with the mitigation hierarchy (i.e. avoid then minimize then mitigate). This paper synthesizes 46 watershed-scale barrier planning studies and presents a procedure to guide barrier prioritization associated with connectivity for aquatic organisms. We focus on practical issues informing prioritization studies such as available data sets, methods, techniques, and tools. We conclude with a discussion of emerging trends and issues in barrier prioritization and key opportunities for enhancing the body of knowledge.

  9. Structural uncertainty in watershed phosphorus modeling: Toward a stochastic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Gong, Yongwei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-06-01

    Structural uncertainty is an important source of model predictive errors, but few studies have been conducted on the error-transitivity from model structure to nonpoint source (NPS) prediction. In this study, we focused on the structural uncertainty caused by the algorithms and equations that are used to describe the phosphorus (P) cycle at the watershed scale. The sensitivity of simulated P to each algorithm/equation was quantified using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. The results indicated that the ratios of C:N and P:N for humic materials, as well as the algorithm of fertilization and P leaching contributed the largest output uncertainties. In comparison, the initiation of inorganic P in the soil layer and the transformation algorithm between P pools are less sensitive for the NPS-P predictions. In addition, the coefficient of variation values were quantified as 0.028-0.086, indicating that the structure-induced uncertainty is minor compared to NPS-P prediction uncertainty caused by the model input and parameters. Using the stochastic framework, the cumulative probability of simulated NPS-P data provided a trade-off between expenditure burden and desired risk. In this sense, this paper provides valuable information for the control of model structural uncertainty, and can be extrapolated to other model-based studies.

  10. Evaluation of Distributed BMPs in an Urban Watershed - High Resolution Modeling for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows which can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Currently there are two modeling approaches used to evaluate BMPs in urban watersheds, conceptually-based coarse resolution hydrologic models and high-resolution physically-based models. Conceptual urban hydrology-hydraulic models typically are used to determine peak flow hydrographs within a watershed based on uniform rainfall, the basins size, shape, and percent of impervious land cover. Physically-based hydrologic models simulate integrated surface and subsurface water flow. Here, we use high-resolution physically based hydrologic models of the urban hydrologic cycle with explicit inclusion of the built environment. We compare the inclusion and exclusion of LID features to evaluate the parameterizations used to model these components in more conceptually based models. Differences in response are discussed and a road map is put forth for improving LID representation in commonly used urban water models.

  11. Nutrient inputs to the Laurentian Great Lakes by source and watershed estimated using SPARROW watershed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient input to the Laurentian Great Lakes continues to cause problems with eutrophication. To reduce the extent and severity of these problems, target nutrient loads were established and Total Maximum Daily Loads are being developed for many tributaries. Without detailed loading information it is difficult to determine if the targets are being met and how to prioritize rehabilitation efforts. To help address these issues, SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed for estimating loads and sources of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from the United States (U.S.) portion of the Great Lakes, Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Red River Basins. Results indicated that recent U.S. loadings to Lakes Michigan and Ontario are similar to those in the 1980s, whereas loadings to Lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie decreased. Highest loads were from tributaries with the largest watersheds, whereas highest yields were from areas with intense agriculture and large point sources of nutrients. Tributaries were ranked based on their relative loads and yields to each lake. Input from agricultural areas was a significant source of nutrients, contributing ∼33-44% of the P and ∼33-58% of the N, except for areas around Superior with little agriculture. Point sources were also significant, contributing ∼14-44% of the P and 13-34% of the N. Watersheds around Lake Erie contributed nutrients at the highest rate (similar to intensively farmed areas in the Midwest) because they have the largest nutrient inputs and highest delivery ratio.

  12. LANDSLIDE POTENTIALITY OF THE TSENGWEN RESERVOIR WATERSHED,TAIWAN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-yu LEE

    2004-01-01

    To recognize the geographical characteristics of the landslide areas will be helpful for the watershed management in the reservoir watershed.According to the quantitative analysis,we'll take different scores and weighting for the potential parameters of the landslide areas in the Tsengwen reservoir watershed,and in the meanwhile,we'll extract the different factors,including the slope,aspect,altitude,soil and geological textures etc.,and the results shown as maximum one-day rainfall,ratio of forests and average relief is the most affecting parameters on the potential risk map of landslide areas.

  13. Water-quality investigation of the Tyronza River watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Tyronza River Watershed, Arkansas, are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service Programs. The report includes a general description of the watershed 's topography, geology, and aquifers, and the results of monthly measurements of discharge at five sites, and several physical and chemical parameters, plus quarterly analyses for several ions and semiannual analyses of bottom material for various pesticides. The results indicate that the quality of the water in the streams and ditches samples is normal for an intensely farmed area such as this watershed. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Design of Water Discharge of Medewi Watershed Using Avswat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, Y. H.; Purwanto, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Medewi watersheds is located in the southern of Bali Island and its estuary is located in Medewi Beach at Kabupaten Jembrana. The exact location of Medewi watersheds is between Desa Medewi and Desa Pulukan, Kecamatan Pekutatan, Kabupaten Jembrana. The watersheds itself, due to its strategic location is used as a territorial border between the two villages. Geographically, Medewi watersheds is between 114o48'00' - 114o50'00' east longitude and 08o20'00' - 08o26,5'00' south latitude. The main river of Medewi Watersheds is 25,64 km long and is classified as a continuous river, the width of the watersheds itself is measured 128,2 km2. Medewi watersheds have two tributaries which is Medaan watersheds and Pangliman watersheds, both watersheds' heads are located in Medewi Beach. Medewi watersheds is often flooded and brings heavy toll to its surrounding areas and citizen. Therefore, there is an urgent need to perform engineering techniques to overcome the aforementioned problem. However, there is a slight issue in the definition of water discharge plan in the location. The water discharge plan, which is used as a basis to prevent flooding, is often inaccurate. That is the reason why it is needed to build a model in order to accurately find out the amount of water discharge in the study location. Medewi watersheds' area usage is as follow: bushes (9,44%), forestation (77,10%), farm (7,76%), settlement (2,15%), irrigation field (1,64%), rainfed field (1,88%) and crops field (0,48%). The result of our modeling using ASVAT shows that the maximum water discharge is 149,9 m3/sec. The discharge is calibrated with the available water discharge data log. According to AWLR data, it is known that the largest discharge occurred on June 2nd, 2009 and measured at 147,9 m3/sec. Our conclusion is that the model used in this study managed to approach the field result with minimum error.

  15. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  16. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  17. Watershed services: who pays and for what?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2007-08-15

    There is increasing interest in using payments to promote sound watershed management. Schemes range from small pilot projects involving just five families to a massive Chinese project that aims to reach 15 million farmers. The expectation is that such schemes will help to resolve problems such as declining water flows, flooding and deteriorating water quality by bringing in new funding from water users, the private sector in particular, and by providing incentives for sustainable management to those closest to natural resources. A review of active and proposed schemes in developing nations shows, however, that most schemes still depend on donor or government funding, and few are driven by water users. Meanwhile, evidence of benefits remains patchy.

  18. Impact of watershed topography on hyporheic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Among the interactions between surface water bodies and aquifers, hyporheic exchange has been recognized as a key process for nutrient cycling and contaminant transport. Even though hyporheic exchange is strongly controlled by groundwater discharge, our understanding of the impact of the regional groundwater flow on hyporheic fluxes is still limited because of the complexity arising from the multi-scale nature of these interactions. In this work, we investigate the role of watershed topography on river-aquifer interactions by way of a semi-analytical model, in which the landscape topography is used to approximate the groundwater head distribution. The analysis of a case study shows how the complex topographic structure is the direct cause of a substantial spatial variability of the aquifer-river exchange. Groundwater upwelling along the river corridor is estimated and its influence on the hyporheic zone is discussed. In particular, the fragmentation of the hyporeic corridor induced by groundwater discharge at the basin scale is highlighted.

  19. Using Streamwater Chemistry in Flowpath Analysis of Large-Scale Forested Watersheds Near Stowe, VT: Developed vs. Undeveloped Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinni, B. J.; Wemple, B. C.; Lini, A.; James, S. B.

    2004-05-01

    The analysis of flowpaths in small alpine watersheds has provided insight into the interrelationships between overall streamwater chemistry and the various flowpaths contributing to it. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the methods used in determining the flowpaths of small watersheds are applicable in a large-scale watershed. The two sites being studied are in the Mt. Mansfield region of Vermont. They are the Ranch Brook (9.6km2) and West Branch (11.7km2) watersheds. The techniques being implemented include the isotopic characterization of streamwater samples following a precipitation event, basic streamwater chemistry data and their relationship to stream discharge, and the determination of endmembers to the overall streamwater chemistry. Analysis of stream chemistry data suggests that up to three end members contribute to run-off production in both watersheds. A second aspect of this study is a comparison of the two watersheds. These watersheds are similar in all aspects except for the amount of development within each. Ranch Brook is undeveloped forestland while West Branch encompasses an alpine ski resort. Elevated chloride concentrations in the managed watershed suggest the possibility of contamination due to the application of road-salt. Initial oxygen isotope data suggests different flowpath patterns during snowmelt events, which may be the result of the impacts of ski trails and artificial snow on the West Branch site. These two sites provide the unique opportunity to determine impacts of ski development on the streamwater chemistry of alpine watersheds. Future plans include sampling of potential end members such as soilwater, groundwater and snowpack and analysis of additional isotopic data in order to constrain our assessment of flowpaths contributing to the runoff in these basins.

  20. An integrated multi-level watershed-reservoir modeling system for examining hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Guo H; Wang, Dunling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Gongchen; An, Chunjiang; Cui, Zheng; Liao, Renfei; Nie, Xianghui

    2012-03-15

    Eutrophication of small prairie reservoirs presents a major challenge in water quality management and has led to a need for predictive water quality modeling. Studies are lacking in effectively integrating watershed models and reservoir models to explore nutrient dynamics and eutrophication pattern. A water quality model specific to small prairie water bodies is also desired in order to highlight key biogeochemical processes with an acceptable degree of parameterization. This study presents a Multi-level Watershed-Reservoir Modeling System (MWRMS) to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds. It integrated a watershed model, a hydrodynamic model and an eutrophication model into a flexible modeling framework. It can comprehensively describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes across different spatial scales and effectively deal with the special drainage structure of small prairie watersheds. As a key component of MWRMS, a three-dimensional Willows Reservoir Eutrophication Model (WREM) is developed to addresses essential biogeochemical processes in prairie reservoirs and to generate 3D distributions of various water quality constituents; with a modest degree of parameterization, WREM is able to meet the limit of data availability that often confronts the modeling practices in small watersheds. MWRMS was applied to the Assiniboia Watershed in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Extensive efforts of field work and lab analysis were undertaken to support model calibration and validation. MWRMS demonstrated its ability to reproduce the observed watershed water yield, reservoir water levels and temperatures, and concentrations of several water constituents. Results showed that the aquatic systems in the Assiniboia Watershed were nitrogen-limited and sediment flux played a crucial role in reservoir nutrient budget and dynamics. MWRMS can provide a broad context of decision support for water resources management and water quality

  1. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  2. Techniques for detecting effects of urban and rural land-use practices on stream-water chemistry in selected watersheds in Texas, Minnesota,and Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable effort has been expended during the past two decades to control nonpoint-source contamination of streams and lakes in urban and rural watersheds, little has been published on the effectiveness of various management practices at the watershed scale. This report presents a discussion of several parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques for detecting changes in water-chemistry data. The need for reducing the influence of natural variability was recognized and accomplished through the use of regression equations. Traditional analyses have focused on fixed-frequency instantaneous concentration data; this report describes the use of storm load data as an alternative.

  3. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  4. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  5. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  6. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2005-01-01

    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  7. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  8. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  9. Baseline Contaminants Investigation of the Patoka River Watershed, Southwest Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment and fish tissue samples were collected from various locations within the Patoka River watershed (PRW) as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's...

  10. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  11. Possible climate change evidence in ten Mexican watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Efrain; Santana, Julio-Sergio; Montero-Martínez, Martin J.; Deeb, Alejandro; Grunwaldt, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    This paper suggests possible evidence of climate change in Mexico at the watershed level, based solely on historical data. The official Mexican climate dataset was used to find the best set of stations for each watershed. Maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall in ten watersheds are analyzed from 1970 to 2009. Maximum temperature trends show a significant increment in most of these watersheds. Furthermore, Daily Temperature Range (DTR) exhibits a positive trend (increments), thus implying an increase in temperature extremes. This study also shows that the difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperature trends is negatively correlated with monthly precipitation trends. As a result, land-use and land-cover changes could be the main drivers of climate change in the region.

  12. Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this project is to establish a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural...

  13. Watersheds, waterfalls, on edge or node weighted graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    We present an algebraic approach to the watershed adapted to edge or node weighted graphs. Starting with the flooding adjunction, we introduce the flooding graphs, for which node and edge weights may be deduced one from the other. Each node weighted or edge weighted graph may be transformed in a flooding graph, showing that there is no superiority in using one or the other, both being equivalent. We then introduce pruning operators extract subgraphs of increasing steepness. For an increasing steepness, the number of never ascending paths becomes smaller and smaller. This reduces the watershed zone, where catchment basins overlap. A last pruning operator called scissor associates to each node outside the regional minima one and only one edge. The catchment basins of this new graph do not overlap and form a watershed partition. Again, with an increasing steepness, the number of distinct watershed partitions contained in a graph becomes smaller and smaller. Ultimately, for natural image, an infinite steepness le...

  14. Geographically isolated wetlands and watershed hydrology: A modified

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for "An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic model". This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project, Final Report [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project is an interagency effort to demonstrate effective control of the invasive wetland plant, common reed, while...

  16. Hydrography - MO 2014 Outstanding National Resource Water Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for waters listed in Table D - Outstanding National Resource Waters of the Water...

  17. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  18. 2011 FEMA Lidar: Chemung Watershed (NY) (AOI 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was acquired by Tuck Mapping Solutions, Inc. (TMSI) for the Chemung Watershed and broken down into two AOIs based on the level of processing performed on...

  19. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  20. Hydrological responses of a watershed to historical land use evolution and future land use scenarios under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quilbé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed runoff is closely related to land use but this influence is difficult to quantify. This study focused on the Chaudière River watershed (Québec, Canada and had two objectives: (i to quantify the influence of historical agricultural land use evolution on watershed runoff; and (ii to assess the effect of future land use evolution scenarios under climate change conditions (CC. To achieve this, we used the integrated modeling system GIBSI. Past land use evolution was constructed using satellite images that were integrated into GIBSI. The general trend was an increase of agricultural land in the 80's, a slight decrease in the beginning of the 90's and a steady state over the last ten years. Simulations showed strong correlations between land use evolution and water discharge at the watershed outlet. For the prospective approach, we first assessed the effect of CC and then defined two opposite land use evolution scenarios for the horizon 2025 based on two different trends: agriculture intensification and sustainable development. Simulations led to a wide range of results depending on the climatologic models and gas emission scenarios considered, varying from a decrease to an increase of annual and monthly water discharge. In this context, the two land use scenarios induced opposite effects on water discharge and low flow sequences, especially during the growing season. However, due to the large uncertainty linked to CC simulations, it is difficult to conclude that one land use scenario provides a better adaptation to CC than another. Nevertheless, this study shows that land use is a key factor that has to be taken into account when predicting potential future hydrological responses of a watershed.

  1. Integrating Ecology and Watershed Processes: Historical Rangeland Change as a Driver of Sediment Yield and Impacts on Reservoir Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M.; Wilcox, B. P.; Marcantonio, F.; Popescu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Rural lands increasingly are receiving attention for the ecosystem services they provide to growing populations. Among the most important of these is water yield and storage in rangelands. Yet rangelands are dynamic, with large land use/land cover changes over time. Uncertainty remains about the effects of these changes on rangeland function and how they affect potential benefits to populations that depend on them. We investigated rangelands in central Texas, USA to quantify changes in land cover and land use and resulting trends in sediment yield over time. Examining eight watersheds totaling 230 km2, we classified land cover using aerial photos from the late 1930s to 2012, focusing on woody plant cover. In addition, we digitized cultivated areas over time. Finally, we collected sediment cores from reservoirs at the base of each watershed and created a chronosequence of sedimentation trends using cesium-137 and lead-210 tracers. Cropland exhibited major reductions nearing 80% in all areas. Woody plant cover trends varied geographically, from steady decreases to decline followed by rebound to consistent increases in shrub extent. Cesium-137 profiles indicated sedimentation rates generally have decreased by more than 50% since 1963. Since then, rates in all areas have been quite stable. Cesium-137 and lead-210 rate estimates were similar (p = 0.69). At its peak, sedimentation in the smaller, semi-urban watershed occurred 1400% faster per unit area than in rural watersheds. Results indicate changing shrub cover is not a primary driver of sediment dynamics in these watersheds. Rather, it is likely that a combination of severe drought and land use history is responsible for periods of high sediment yield and reservoir storage loss

  2. Watershed Modeling with ArcSWAT and SUFI2 In Cisadane Catchment Area: Calibration and Validation of River Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Ridwansyah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of natural resources utilization as a result of population growth and economic development has caused severe damage on the watershed. The impacts of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts become more frequent. Cisadane Catchment Area is one of 108 priority watershed in Indonesia. SWAT is currently applied world wide and considered as a versatile model that can be used to integrate multiple environmental processes, which support more effective watershed management and the development of better informed policy decision. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of SWAT model for modeling mountainous catchments, focusing on Cisadane catchment Area in west Java Province, Indonesia. The SWAT model simulation was done for the periods of 2005 – 2010 while it used landuse information in 2009. Methods of Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI2 and combine with manual calibration were used in this study to calibrate a rainfall-runoff. The Calibration is done on 2007 and the validation on 2009, the R2 and Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE of the calibration were 0.71 and 0.72 respectively and the validation are 0.708 and 0.7 respectively. The monthly average of surface runoff and total water yield from the simulation were 27.7 mm and 2718.4 mm respectively. This study showed SWAT model can be a potential monitoring tool especially for watersheds in Cisadane Catchment Area or in the tropical regions. The model can be used for another purpose, especially in watershed management.

  3. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  4. Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gen-wei CHENG; Zhong-bo YU; Li, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM) was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed). A phenological index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the gro...

  5. GIS-ROUT: a river model for watershed planning

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhao Wang; Charlotte White-Hull; Scott Dyer; Ying Yang

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that significant environmental changes are the result of human activities such as urbanization occurring at the spatial scale of landscapes. The challenge faced by many planners today is how to understand such relationships in order to support integrated watershed planning and management. Although many mathematical models have been developed to simulate the chemical transport process in a river, few are actually used in watershed assessment and management. Recently...

  6. Vertical Collective Action: Addressing Vertical Asymmetries in Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds and irrigation systems have the characteristic of connecting people vertically by water flows. The location of users along these systems defines their role in the provision and appropriation of water which adds complexity to the potential for cooperation. Verticality thus imposes a challenge to collective action. This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in four watersheds of Colombia (South America) and Kenya (East Africa) to study the role that location plays...

  7. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  8. Temporal and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed: a cluster analysis based on crude and Bayesian risk estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussni O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important biological contaminants in drinking water that produces life threatening infection in people with compromised immune systems. Dairy calves are thought to be the primary source of C. parvum contamination in watersheds. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in the risk of C. parvum infection in dairy cattle is essential for designing cost-effective watershed management strategies to protect drinking water sources. Crude and Bayesian seasonal risk estimates for Cryptosporidium in dairy calves were used to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of C. parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City watershed. Results Both global (Global Moran's I and specific (SaTScan cluster analysis methods revealed a significant (p C. parvum infection in all herds in the summer (p = 0.002, compared to the rest of the year. Bayesian estimates did not show significant spatial autocorrelation in any season. Conclusions Although we were not able to identify seasonal clusters using Bayesian approach, crude estimates highlighted both temporal and spatial clusters of C. parvum infection in dairy herds in a major watershed. We recommend that further studies focus on the factors that may lead to the presence of C. parvum clusters within the watershed, so that monitoring and prevention practices such as stream monitoring, riparian buffers, fencing and manure management can be prioritized and improved, to protect drinking water supplies and public health.

  9. Assessment of the Impact of the Spatial Distribution of Isolated and Riparian Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology using a Mathematical Modelling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, M.; Rousseau, A. N.; Savary, S.; Royer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands play a significant role on the hydrological cycle, reducing peak flows through water storage functions and sustaining low flows through slow release of water. However, their impacts on water resource availability and flood control are mainly driven by wetland types and locations within a watershed. So, despite the general agreement about these major hydrological functions, little is known about their spatial and typological influences. Consequently, assessing the quantitative impact of wetlands on hydrological regimes has become a relevant issue for both the scientific community and the decision-maker community. To investigate the hydrologic response at the watershed scale, mathematical modelling has been a well-accepted framework. Specific isolated and riparian wetland modules were implemented in the PHYSITEL/HYDROTEL distributed hydrological modelling platform to assess the impact of the spatial distribution of isolated and riparian wetlands on the stream flows of the Becancour River watershed, Quebec, Canada. More specifically, the focus was on assessing whether stream flow parameters, including peak flow, low flow and flow volume, were related to: (i) the percentage and the distribution of wetlands in the watershed, (ii) geographic location of wetlands, and (iii) seasons. Preliminary results suggest that: (i) integration of specific wetland modules can slightly improve HYDROTEL's ability to replicate basic hydrograph characteristics; and (ii) isolated and riparian wetlands have individual space- and time-dependent impacts on the hydrologic response of the study watershed.

  10. Optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2006-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.

  11. Environmental indicators as an integrated management instrument for watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Lopes de Mello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems at the watershed level are complex and require solutions that minimize socioeconomic, environmental, and political-institutional impacts. Within this context, a crosscutting analysis of concepts related to sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, watershed structure, and the use of indicators to measure local sustainability is of paramount importance for planning development at the local level. The objective of this research was to collect information related to management practices and rural development regarding the watersheds of Ribeirão Cachoeirinha and Córrego do Meio in the municipality of São Luiz do Paraitinga, SP. The goal was to propose sustainability indicators that would support an integrated watershed management strategy and promote sustainable development. Indicators should be based on the sustainability of watershed activities, be useful tools for implementing sustainable development and serve as reference in the decision-making process. Methods involved a general characterization of the area and the community using field surveys and published sources. The criteria utilized for defining the boundaries of the area were based on the Watershed State Program developed by the Agriculture and Supply Secretariat of the State of São Paulo. The results led to the development of 83 sustainability indicators and indicated the need for the community to develop an integrated strategy to promote local sustainable development.

  12. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  13. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  14. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  15. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  16. Watershed Boundaries, Watersheds within Winnebago County, Published in 1994, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Winnebago County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1994. It is described as...

  17. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed_boundaries, Published in 2002, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as...

  18. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  19. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  20. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  1. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  2. Chinese Policies and Practices regarding Payments for Ecological Services in Watersheds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guihuan; Zhang Huiyuan; Wan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecological services including soil and water conservation,carbon sequestration and biodiversity protection.However,activities in a fast-growing economy significantly impact the supply and demand of these watershed services.To mitigate these impacts,the concept of payment for environmental and ecosystem services from watersheds has emerged in global academic and policy circles.The governments and academic communities in China have increasingly described payments for ecological services from watersheds with the concept of watershed eco-compensation as it is urgent to protect watershed ecosystems.Watershed eco-compensation has proved to be one of the most economically effective means of solving environmental problems of watersheds to be adopted by the Chinese government.This paper presents an objective analysis of the Chinese market for watershed ecosystem services,including supply and demand for the services.It also summarizes Chinese policies on watershed eco-compensation,including relevant laws and regulations and fiscal policies.In addition,it presents a review of Chinese practices in watershed eco-compensation,including the analysis of an ecological construction project in Westem China,inter-provincial watershed cco-compensation practices and plans,and payment for ecological services at the provincial and small watershed levels.Finally,it summarizes the key components of the process of payment in Chinese watershed eco-compensation.This discussion forms the basis of concluding suggestions for ecosystem services compensation and ecological protection in the large scale river basin.

  3. Integrating operational watershed and coastal models for the Iberian Coast: Watershed model implementation - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, David; Campuzano, F. J.; Sobrinho, J.; Fernandes, R.; Neves, R.

    2015-12-01

    River discharges and loads are essential inputs to coastal seas, and thus for coastal seas modelling, and their properties are the result of all activities and policies carried inland. For these reasons main rivers were object of intense monitoring programs having been generated some important amount of historical data. Due to the decline in the Portuguese hydrometric network and in order to quantify and forecast surface water streamflow and nutrients to coastal areas, the MOHID Land model was applied to the Western Iberia Region with a 2 km horizontal resolution and to the Iberian Peninsula with 10 km horizontal resolution. The domains were populated with land use and soil properties and forced with existing meteorological models. This approach also permits to understand how the flows and loads are generated and to forecast their values which are of utmost importance to perform coastal ocean and estuarine forecasts. The final purpose of the implementation is to obtain fresh water quantity and quality that could be used to support management decisions in the watershed, reservoirs and also to estuaries and coastal areas. A process oriented model as MOHID Land is essential to perform this type of simulations, as the model is independent of the number of river catchments. In this work, the Mohid Land model equations and parameterisations were described and an innovative methodology for watershed modelling is presented and validated for a large international river, the Tagus River, and the largest national river of Portugal, the Mondego River. Precipitation, streamflow and nutrients modelling results for these two rivers were compared with observations near their coastal outlet in order to evaluate the model capacity to represent the main watershed trends. Finally, an annual budget of fresh water and nutrient transported by the main twenty five rivers discharging in the Portuguese coast is presented.

  4. Northern Watershed Change, Modeled Permafrost Temperatures in the Yukon River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in northern watersheds can be seen through permafrost warming. Furthermore, vegetation shifts occur with climate changes coupled with permafrost degradation. Permafrost warming is resultant from warming air temperatures and the collection of buffers between the atmosphere and the cryosphere: the active layer, snow, and vegetation. Our modeling methods combine a meteorological model with a permafrost temperature model in 1 km2 resolution in the 847,642 km2 Yukon River Watershed. The MicroMet model is a quasi-physically based model developed in 2006 by Liston & Elder to spatially interpolate irregularly spaced point meteorological data using known temperature-elevation, wind-topography, humidity-cloudiness, and radiation-cloud-topography relationships. We call on 1997-2007 data from 104 Integrated Surface Data meteorological stations and 100 grid points in a 5 best models ensemble A1B 2090-2100 projection. The Temperature at the Top of the Permafrost (TTOP) model is a numerical model for estimating the thermal state of permafrost. This model is attributed to Smith & Riseborough, 1996. TTOP relates more readily available near surface temperatures to temperatures at the depth of seasonal variation using user-defined landcover n-factors (to relate air temperature to soil surface temperature) and soil thermal conductivities (to simulate the propagation of heat through the active layer). TTOP simulates warm top of the permafrost temperatures for high soil thermal conductivity, land cover with high n-factor, and a high number of thawing degree-days/ year. Here we compare the present and future thermal stability of permafrost in the Yukon River Watershed.

  5. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  6. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  8. Coupling stable isotope and satellite to inform a snow accumulation and melt model for data poor, semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublart, Paul; Sproles, Eric; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Hevía, Andres

    2016-04-01

    At the most basic level watersheds catch, store, and release water. In semi-arid northern central Chile (29°-32°) snow and glacier melt dominate these basic hydrological stages. In this region precipitation is typically limited to three to five events per year that falls as snow in the High Cordillera at elevations above 3000 m a.s.l. The rugged topography and steep gradient makes snowfall rates highly variable in space and time. Despite its critical importance for water supply, high elevation meteorological data and measurements of snowpack are scarce due to limited winter access above 3000 m a.s.l. Due to the critically limited understanding of catch, store, and release processes most conceptual watershed models for this region remain speculative, are prone to over-parameterization, and greatly inhibits hydrological prediction in the region. Focused on two headwater watersheds of the Elqui River basin (1615-6040 m a.s.l., 429-566 km2) this study couples stable isotope and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to develop an improved conceptual model of how semi-arid mountain watersheds catch, store, and release water. MODIS snow-cover and land surface temperature data are used to inform an enhanced temperature-index Snow Accumulation and Melt (SAM) model. The use of remotely-sensed temperature data as input to this model is evaluated by comparison with an interpolated dataset derived from a few available meteorological stations. The outputs from the SAM model are used as inputs to a conceptual catchment model including two water stores (one standing for surface/subsurface processes and the other for deeper groundwater storage). The model is calibrated and evaluated from a Bayesian perspective using discharge data measured at the catchment outlets over a 15-year period (2000-2015). Stable isotope data collected during 2015-2016 is applied to better constrain model outputs. The combination of MODIS-based and isotope-based information proves very

  9. 流域生态系统服务研究进展与展望%Watershed Scale Ecosystem Services: Progress and Prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈能汪; 王龙剑; 鲁婷

    2012-01-01

    在分析国内外流域生态系统服务研究动态的基础上,归纳全球流域(河流、湿地)尺度生态系统服务研究案例的分类和评估方法,重点阐述以水循环和水生态过程为纽带的流域生态系统产品和服务的特点和内涵,总结提出流域生态系统服务的研究重点是与水有关的水资源服务和水生态服务.强调今后要加强流域尺度上的科学研究与政策、管理的对接和应用,通过科学规范的流域生态系统服务评估,为流域生态补偿、生态修复机制的建立和流域水环境综合管理提供有力支撑.%In the context of increased stresses of global climate change and human activities, watershed scale problems such as water quality degradation, eutrophication, soil erosion, as well as destruction of habitat, have greatly influenced the provision and sustainability of ecosystem services. Based on analysis of global research progress with focus on watershed ecosystem services, methods for classification and evaluation of cases of watershed ( river, wetland) ecosystem services for study the world over have been summarized, characteristics and connotation of the products and services of watershed ecosystem with water cycling and water ecology as link are elaborated. It is concluded that the key of the research on watershed ecosystem services is water related water resource services and water ecological services, and it is emphasized that watershed scaled scientific research in future should be intensified and oriented toward serving policy-making and management and towards application. A scientific normalized evaluation of watershed ecosystem services is required to provide a solid knowledge basis for watershed ecological compensation, establishment of mechanisms for ecology restoration and integrated management of watershed water environment.

  10. Watershed Watch: Using undergraduate student-driven inquiry-based research projects as a means of engaging undeclared students in the biogeosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Graham, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). The program focuses on two watersheds: the Merrimack Ricer Watershed in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and the Pasquotank River Watershed in Virginia and North Carolina. Both the terrestrial and aquatic components of both watersheds are evaluated using the student-driven projects. A significant component of this program is an intensive two-week Summer Research Institute (SRI), in which undeclared freshmen and sophomores investigate various aspects of their local watershed. Two Summer Research Institutes have been held on the UNH campus (2006 and 2008) and two on the ECSU campus (2007 and 2009). Students develop their own research questions and study design, collect and analyze data, and produce a scientific oral or poster presentation on the last day of the SRI. The course objectives, curriculum and schedule are presented as a model for dissemination for other institutions and programs seeking to develop inquiry-rich programs or courses designed to attract students into biogeoscience disciplines. Data from self-reported student feedback indicate the most important factors explaining high-levels of student motivation and research excellence in the program are: 1) working with committed, energetic, and enthusiastic faculty mentors, and 2) faculty mentors demonstrating high degrees of

  11. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  12. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    , not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  13. Focusing Vacuum Fluctuations, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, L H

    2002-01-01

    The quantization of the scalar and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a parabolic mirror is further developed in the context of a geometric optics approximation. We calculate the mean squared scalar and electric fields near the focal line of a parabolic cylindrical mirror. These quantities are found to grow as inverse powers of the distance from the focus. We give a combination of analytic and numerical results for the mean squared fields. In particular, we find that the mean squared electric field can be either negative or positive, depending upon the choice of parameters. The case of a negative mean squared electric field corresponds to a repulsive Van der Waals force on an atom near the focus, and to a region of negative energy density. Similarly, a positive value corresponds to an attractive force and a possibility of atom trapping in the vicinity of the focus.

  14. Agile data management for curation of genomes to watershed datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Versteeg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A software platform is being developed for data management and assimilation [DMA] as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Genomes to Watershed Sustainable Systems Science Focus Area 2.0. The DMA components and capabilities are driven by the project science priorities and the development is based on agile development techniques. The goal of the DMA software platform is to enable users to integrate and synthesize diverse and disparate field, laboratory, and simulation datasets, including geological, geochemical, geophysical, microbiological, hydrological, and meteorological data across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The DMA objectives are (a) developing an integrated interface to the datasets, (b) storing field monitoring data, laboratory analytical results of water and sediments samples collected into a database, (c) providing automated QA/QC analysis of data and (d) working with data providers to modify high-priority field and laboratory data collection and reporting procedures as needed. The first three objectives are driven by user needs, while the last objective is driven by data management needs. The project needs and priorities are reassessed regularly with the users. After each user session we identify development priorities to match the identified user priorities. For instance, data QA/QC and collection activities have focused on the data and products needed for on-going scientific analyses (e.g. water level and geochemistry). We have also developed, tested and released a broker and portal that integrates diverse datasets from two different databases used for curation of project data. The development of the user interface was based on a user-centered design process involving several user interviews and constant interaction with data providers. The initial version focuses on the most requested feature - i.e. finding the data needed for analyses through an intuitive interface. Once the data is found, the user can immediately plot and download data

  15. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  16. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  17. Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

  18. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  19. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  20. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  1. Neocortical focus: experimental view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation.

  2. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...

  3. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  4. Curriculum Mapping. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This "Focus On" discusses curriculum mapping, a process that allows educators to align the curriculum both within and across grades and to ensure that the curriculum is in line with school, local, and state standards. It outlines the steps of the curriculum mapping process from planning the mapping initiative to creating and editing curriculum…

  5. Where does streamwater come from in low relief forested watersheds? A dual isotope approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The time- and geographic sources of streamwater in low relief watersheds are poorly understood. This is partly due to the difficult combination of low runoff coefficients and often damped streamwater isotopic signals precluding traditional hydrograph separation and convolution integral approaches. Here we present a dual isotope approach involving 18O and 2H of water in a low angle forested watershed to determine streamwater source components and then build a conceptual model of streamflow generation. We focus on three headwater lowland sub-catchments draining the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Our results for a 3 year sampling period show that the slopes of the meteoric water lines/evaporation water lines (MWL/EWL of the catchment water sources can be used to extract information on runoff source in ways not considered before. Our dual isotope approach was able to identify unique hillslope, riparian and deep groundwater, and streamflow compositions. The streams showed strong evaporative enrichment compared to the local meteoric water line (δ2H = 6.45 × δ18O + 6.26‰ with slopes of 2.52, 2.84, and 2.86. Based on the unique and unambiguous slopes of the EWLs of the different water cycle components and the isotopic time series of the individual components, we were able to show how the riparian zone controls baseflow in this system and how the riparian zone "resets" the stable isotope composition of the observed streams in our low angle, forested watersheds. Although this approach is limited in terms of quantifying mixing percentages between different end-members, our dual isotope approach enable extraction of hydrologically useful information in a region with little change in individual isotope time series.

  6. Comparison of sampling strategies for monitoring water quality in mesoscale Canadian Prairie watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody; Petzold, Halya; Penner, Amber; Ali, Genevieve

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Prairies are subject to cold winter dynamics, spring snowmelt runoff, and summer storms; a process variability that makes it difficult to identify an adequate sampling strategy for capturing representative water quality data. Hence, our research objective was to compare multiple water quality sampling strategies for Prairie watersheds and rank them based on operational and statistical criteria. The focus was on the Catfish Creek Watershed (Manitoba, Canada), which drains into the hypereutrophic Lake Winnipeg. Water samples were collected every 7 h during the 2013 open-water season and notably analyzed for nitrate and orthophosphate. The original high-frequency dataset (7 h) was then deconstructed into lower-frequency datasets to mimic strategies involving sample collection on a daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, and seasonal basis. A comparison and decision matrix was also built to assess the ability of the lower-frequency datasets to retain the statistical properties of the original (7 h) dataset. Results indicate that nutrient concentrations vary significantly over short timescales and are affected by both sampling time (day versus night) and water level fluctuations. The decision matrix revealed that seasonal sampling is sufficient when the goal is only to capture mean water quality conditions; however, sub-daily to daily sampling is required for accurate process signal representation. While we acknowledge that sampling programs designed by researchers and public agencies are often driven by different goals, we found daily sampling to be the most parsimonious strategy for the study watershed and suggest that it would help to better quantify nutrient loads to Lake Winnipeg.

  7. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses.

  8. Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sène

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

  9. Hydrological modeling of the Jiaoyi watershed (China) using HSPF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001-2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R (2)), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin.

  10. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed.

  11. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  12. Hydrology of C-3 watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed.Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter.A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.

  13. Potential stream density in Mid-Atlantic US watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elmore

    Full Text Available Stream network density exerts a strong influence on ecohydrologic processes in watersheds, yet existing stream maps fail to capture most headwater streams and therefore underestimate stream density. Furthermore, discrepancies between mapped and actual stream length vary between watersheds, confounding efforts to understand the impacts of land use on stream ecosystems. Here we report on research that predicts stream presence from coupled field observations of headwater stream channels and terrain variables that were calculated both locally and as an average across the watershed upstream of any location on the landscape. Our approach used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt, a robust method commonly implemented to model species distributions that requires information only on the presence of the entity of interest. In validation, the method correctly predicts the presence of 86% of all 10-m stream segments and errors are low (<1% for catchments larger than 10 ha. We apply this model to the entire Potomac River watershed (37,800 km(2 and several adjacent watersheds to map stream density and compare our results with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD. We find that NHD underestimates stream density by up to 250%, with errors being greatest in the densely urbanized cities of Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD and in regions where the NHD has never been updated from its original, coarse-grain mapping. This work is the most ambitious attempt yet to map stream networks over a large region and will have lasting implications for modeling and conservation efforts.

  14. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kwan Tun Lee; Jen-Kuo Huang

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude andwatershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfallrunoffdynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peakdischarge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was firstdemonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation ofthe watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak dischargeand time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intentionof deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast,the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensitywithout relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity.Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainagearea was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate thatthe scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting toa small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively greatdrainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scalingrelationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  15. Hydrological Modeling of the Jiaoyi Watershed (China Using HSPF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-An Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF, was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001–2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, coefficient of correlation (R2, and the relative error (RE. The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin.

  16. Comparison of radar and gauge precipitation data in watershed models across varying spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation is a key control on watershed hydrologic modelling output, with errors in rainfall propagating through subsequent stages of water quantity and quality analysis. Most watershed models incorporate precipitation data from rain gauges; higher-resolution data sources are...

  17. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watersh...

  18. Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; Weijden, C.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    Weathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides

  19. Application of PCARES in locating the soil erosion Hotspots in the Manupali River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Paningbatan, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation the author covers: GIS mapping of land attributes, dynamic modeling of soil erosion at watershed scale using PCARES (Predicting Catchment Runoff and Soil Erosion for Sustainability), identifying soil erosion "hotspots" in the Manupali River watershed

  20. Optimization Tool For Allocation Of Watershed Management Practices For Sediment And Nutrient Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from nonpoint source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Herein...

  1. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  2. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  3. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-12-31

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs.

  4. Focus on Succes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Slimák; Kristina Zgodavova

    2011-01-01

    The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physi...

  5. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  7. Towards Sustaining Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems: Forecasting Watershed Risks to Current and Future Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Newburn, D.; Opperman, J. J.; Brooks, C.; Merenlender, A.

    2005-05-01

    Sustaining aquatic resources requires managing existing threats and anticipating future impacts. Resource managers and planners often have limited understanding of the relative effects of human activities on stream conditions and how these effects will change over time. Here we assess and forecast the relative impacts of land use on sediment concentrations in Mediterranean-climate watersheds in California. We focus on the Russian River basin, which supports threatened salmonid populations vulnerable to high levels of fine sediment. We ask the following questions: (1) What are the relative impacts of three different land uses (urban, exurban and agriculture) on the patterns of fine sediment in streams? (2) What is the relative contribution of past and current changes in land use activities on these patterns? and (3) What are the effects of future development on these sediment levels? First, we characterized land use at the parcel scale to calibrate the relative impacts of exurban and urban land use on stream substrate quality, characterized by the concentration of fine sediment surrounding spawning gravels (`embeddedness') in 105 stream reaches. Second, we built multiple ordinal logistic regression models on a subset of watersheds (n=64) and then evaluated substrate quality predictions against observed data from another set of watersheds (n=41). Finally, we coupled these models with spatially explicit land use change models to project future stream conditions and associated uncertainties under different development scenarios for the year 2010. We found that the percent of urban housing and agriculture were significant predictors of in-stream embeddedness. Model results from parcel-level land use data indicated that changes in development were better predictors of fine sediment than total development in a single time period. In addition, our results indicate that exurban development is an important threat to stream systems; increases in the percent of total exurban

  8. A Cosmic Watershed: the WVF Void Detection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Platen, Erwin; Jones, Bernard J T

    2007-01-01

    On megaparsec scales the Universe is permeated by an intricate filigree of clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, the Cosmic Web. For the understanding of its dynamical and hierarchical history it is crucial to identify objectively its complex morphological components. One of the most characteristic aspects is that of the dominant underdense Voids, the product of a hierarchical process driven by the collapse of minor voids in addition to the merging of large ones. In this study we present an objective void finder technique which involves a minimum of assumptions about the scale, structure and shape of voids. Our void finding method, the Watershed Void Finder (WVF), is based upon the Watershed Transform, a well-known technique for the segmentation of images. Importantly, the technique has the potential to trace the existing manifestations of a void hierarchy. The basic watershed transform is augmented by a variety of correction procedures to remove spurious structure resulting from sampling noise. This study c...

  9. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion......Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210...

  10. Land degradation and integrated watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan

    2013-06-01

    Government of India has launched various centre-sector, state-sector and foreign aided schemes for prevention of land degradation, reclamation of special problem areas for ensuring productivity of the land, preservation of land resources and improvement of ecology and environment. These schemes are being implemented on watershed basis in rainfed areas. Soil conservation measures and reclamation of degraded lands are decided considering the land capability and land uses. The efforts made so far resulted in enhancement of agricultural production and productivity of lands, increase in employment generation, improving the environment of the areas and socio-economic upgradation of the people. Integrated watershed management approach has been adopted as a key national strategy for sustainable development of rural areas. This has been proved by conducting monitoring and impact evaluation studies of the integrated watershed projects by external agencies.

  11. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  12. An analysis of watershed hydrological double mass curve based on elasticity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Ning, Tingting; Lin, Wen; Cheng, Liping; Han, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    The method of double mass curve (DMC) is often used in the analysis of the consistency of hydro-meteorological factors and their inter-annual variations. The trend and slope of DMC are the focus of general concern. By taking the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff in a watershed as an example, this paper analyzed the characteristics of DMC variations by means of the elasticity index obtained by the curve slope divided by the ratio of accumulated runoff to accumulated precipitation at corresponding location. Using a year as a time step, the index was further simplified to be the ratio of annual runoff coefficient to the runoff coefficient averaged over the period from starting year to computing year. An elasticity index greater than, less than, or equal to one indicated rising, decline, or stability of average annual runoff coefficient, respectively. Variation trend of elasticity index was analyzed to extract the information on the years with significant change and then, dominant factors and their impacts could be enquired further. The Jinghe River is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, being the largest tributary of the Weihe River. The elasticity index was used to analyze the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff on the scale of water year for the Jinghe River watershed from 1961 to 2012 and the two years of 1971 and 1997 were first chosen as the years showing abrupt changes. The elasticity indices in three periods separated by the two years in the past 50 years averaged 1.08, 0.89 and 0.64 and annual runoff coefficients, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05, respectively. The human activities disturbing underlying surface were found to be the important factor responsible for the remarkable decline of runoff coefficient. The large-scale comprehensive control of soil erosion and the adjustment of landuse structure had made some achievements in the recent twenty years. However, their disturbing effects on underlying surface interacted with the impacts of climate change

  13. Watershed Scale Monitoring and Modeling of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Generation and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R.; Rees, P. L.; Reckhow, D. A.; Castellon, C. M.

    2006-05-01

    This study describes a coupled watershed scale monitoring campaign, laboratory study, and hydrological modeling study which has been focused on determining the sources and transport mechanisms for Natural Organic Matter (NOM), in a small, mostly forested New England watershed. For some time, the state conservation authorities and a large metropolitan water authority have been concerned that the level of naturally-occurring disinfection byproducts in drinking water supplied by a large surface water reservoir (Watchusett Reservoir, MA) have been increasing over time. The resulting study has attempted to investigate how these compounds, which are mostly formed by the chlorination process at the water treatment plant, are related to NOM precursor compounds which are generated from organic matter and transported by runoff processes in the watershed of the Watchusett Reservoir. The laboratory study measures disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) through chlorination of raw water samples obtained through field monitoring. Samples are analysed for trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Samples are also analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The samples have been collected from as many components of the hydrological cycle as possible in one of the subcatchments of Watchusett Reservoir (Stillwater River). To date the samples include, stream runoff, water impounded naturally in small ponds by beaver dams, rainfall, snow, throughfall (drainage from tree canopies) and samples pumped from shallow suction lysimeters which were installed to monitor soil water in the riparian zone. The current monitoring program began in late-Summer 2005, however infrequent stream samples are available dating back to 2000 from an earlier research project and water quality monitoring by various regulatory authorities. The monitoring program has been designed to capture as much seasonal variation in water chemistry as

  14. Predicting groundwater flow system discharge in the river network at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between rivers and aquifers affects the quality and the quantity of surface and subsurface water since it plays a crucial role for solute transport, nutrient cycling and microbial transformations. The groundwater-surface water interface, better known as hyporheic zone, has a functional significance for the biogeochemical and ecological conditions of the fluvial ecosystem since it controls the flux of groundwater solutes discharging into rivers, and vice versa. The hyporheic processes are affected by the complex surrounding aquifer because the groundwater flow system obstructs the penetration of stream water into the sediments. The impact of large-scale stream-aquifer interactions on small scale exchange has generally been analyzed at local scales of a river reach, or even smaller. However, a complete comprehension of how hyporheic fluxes are affected by the groundwater system at watershed scale is still missing. Evaluating this influence is fundamental to predict the consequences of hyporheic exchange on water quality and stream ecology. In order to better understand the actual structure of hyporheic exchange along the river network, we firstly examine the role of basin topography complexity in controlling river-aquifer interactions. To reach this target, we focus on the analysis of surface-subsurface water exchange at the watershed scale, taking into account the river-aquifer interactions induced by landscape topography. By way of a mathematical model, we aim to improve the estimation of the role of large scale hydraulic gradients on hyporheic exchange. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of a benchmark case's study, which shows how the topographic conformation influences the stream-aquifer interaction and induces a substantial spatial variability of the groundwater discharge even among adjacent reaches along the stream. The vertical exchange velocity along the river evidences a lack of autocorrelation. Both the groundwater

  15. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  16. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: User Manual and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  17. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ssegane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment during the calibration (pre-treatment and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control, and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  18. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  19. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  20. Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies Provide Science-Society Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. M.; Hancock, G. S.; Swaddle, J. P.; Hicks, R. L.; Roberts, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental issues typically occur at the intersection of traditional disciplines such as biology, geology, economics, public policy, and sociology, but many undergraduate students possess neither the tools nor the required interdisciplinary skills to effectively work together to address these complex issues. Our REU program--Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies at the College of William and Mary--with its common watershed theme, improves our students' independence as scientists, increases environmental science literacy across disciplines, and contributes to the educational development of undergraduates as environmental spokespersons. The cohort of students work with W&M faculty mentors on aquatic and associated upland habitats under increasing pressures from urbanization, posing questions integrated across disciplines to address relevant management issues identified by local government agencies and NGOs. Investigations of current hydrogeologic and ecological status in watersheds are completed by analyzing riparian corridor impacts associated with channel incision, stormwater management effectiveness, spatial variation in water quality, lake-wide budgets for water, sediment and nutrients, and population/community structure in aquatic and terrestrial portions of the watershed. Because the status of any watershed system is the result of historical changes in land use, sociologic and economic surveys of residents' perception of development, environmental protection and water and property rights are used to determine the current direction and strength of population and market forcing functions. Students work on each other's projects and develop an understanding of research approaches among fields. In addition to presenting their work at scientific conferences, many students give presentations at local meetings and agency workshops to enhance science-society links. Watershed analysis provides a comprehensive approach to environmental instruction that strengthens the

  1. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.Keywords: geometric data, forest cover, water yield, return period

  2. LIMNOLOGY AND WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED IN NORTH PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alexandre Jesus Gomes-Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies focused on limnology and quality of water bodies are essential to produce data that support the planning and management, diagnose the current situation and propose measures to minimize the possible negative impacts on water resources. The Tereza Botas creek drains the town of Poconé-MT, situated in the Pantanal border. In this sense, the objective of this study was to verify the variations in limnological characteristics along the longitudinal gradient and evaluate the water quality of the Tereza Botas watershed, identifying the impacts from anthropogenic activities of this important Pantanal watershed. Four sampling points along the longitudinal gradient of the water stream have been defined, and physical, chemical and microbiological variables were analyzed. The results indicated that the changes in limnological and water quality derive from the riparian vegetation removal, erosion and discharge of sewage in natura. In addition, high density of E. coli was observed in most of the sampled points, demonstrating that the lack of proper sanitation as well as the presence of rudimentary cesspit are negatively affecting water quality in the headwaters region.

  3. Economics of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Yoon, Taeyeon; Shah, Farhed A.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an optimal control model of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam. Management efforts focus on upstream soil conservation, reservoir-level sediment removal, and downstream damage control from water pollution. Increased soil conservation potentially benefits farmers and also has the external benefit of reducing sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Sediment is released downstream of the reservoir using the hydrosuction sediment removal system (HSRS). This sediment release extends reservoir life and provides nutrients to downstream farmers who then use less fertilizer. Also included in the functions of the dam manager are the provision of water to downstream farms, the control of instream flow to mitigate downstream damages from water pollution, and the use of water treatment to meet quality standards for water supplied directly from the reservoir to residential users. An illustrative application of the model to Lake Aswan, located between Egypt and Sudan, indicates substantial benefits from far-sighted behavior and cooperation across all agents. Moving from the baseline case that reflects the status quo to the socially optimal solution increases watershed net present value by more than $500 billion. Other scenarios with varying types of collaboration among the agents are also explored. Interestingly, while decisions with respect to soil conservation do impact the welfare of upstream farmers, the benefits to reservoir management and agriculture in Egypt are modest compared to benefits Egypt gets from improved control of instream flow. Also, subject to technical limits, increasing reservoir life through practice of HSRS is economically desirable.

  4. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I argue—with an example—that under certain conditions replacement of audio transcriptions with a combination of simultaneously taken and jointly produced notes can be done without affecting reliability, validity, and transparency. These conditions are: (1) professional or otherwise...... relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...

  5. antiproton focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  6. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  7. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  8. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  9. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  10. Statistical approach for the estimation of watershed scale nitrate export: a case study from Melen watershed of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiner Muhammed Ernur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution such as nitrate (NO3− can cause water quality degradation in rivers used as a source of drinking water. This situation raises the question of how the nutrients have moved depending on many factors such as land use and anthropogenic sources. Researchers developed several nutrient export coefficient models depending on the aforementioned factors. To this purpose, statistical data including a number of factors such as historical water quality and land use data for the Melen Watershed were used. Nitrate export coefficients are estimates of the total load or mass of nitrate (NO3− exported from a watershed standardized to unit area and unit time (e.g. kg/km2/day. In this study, nitrate export coefficients for the Melen Watershed were determined using the model that covers the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches. River retention coefficient was determined and introduced into the model as an important variable.

  11. CERN In Focus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  12. Watershed Analysis of Nitrate Transport as a Result of Agricultural Inputs for Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. E.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Grand River Watershed is one of the largest watersheds in southwestern Ontario with an area of approximately 7000 square kilometers. Ninety percent of the watershed is classified as rural, and 80 percent of the watershed population relies on groundwater as their source of drinking water. Management of the watershed requires the determination of the effect of agricultural practices on long-term groundwater quality and to identify locations within the watershed that are at a higher risk of contamination. The study focuses on the transport of nitrate through the root zone as a result of agricultural inputs with attenuation due to biodegradation. The driving force for transport is spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge that is a function of land use/land cover, soil and meteorological inputs that yields 47,229 unique soil columns within the watershed. Fertilizer sources are determined from Statistics Canada's Agricultural Census and include livestock manure and a popular commercial fertilizer, urea. Accounting for different application rates yields 60,066 unique land parcels of which 22,809 are classified as croplands where manure and inorganic fertilizes are directly applied. The transport for the croplands is simulated over a 14-year period to investigate the impact of seasonal applications of nitrate fertilizers on the concentration leaching from the root zone to the water table. Based on land use/land cover maps, ArcView GIS is used to define the location of fertilizer applications within the watershed and to spatially visualize data and analyze results. The large quantity of input data is stored and managed using MS-Access and a relational database management system. Nitrogen transformations and ammonium and nitrate uptake by plants and transport through the soil column are simulated on a daily basis using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) within MS-Access modules. Nitrogen transformations within the soil column were simplified using

  13. Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and

  14. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  15. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    2016-01-01

    to prevent severe perineal injury. This paper describes midwives’ and students’ experiences of performing a structured reflection on clinical skills together. Method: During a six week period in October 2015 midwives and students at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen) used a Reflection Assessment Tool after having...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...

  16. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...... functioning, psychosis-like symptoms, negative symptomatology, and depressive symptomatology as measured with the Personal and Social Performance Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. DISCUSSION......: This is the first trial to evaluate the effects of neurocognitive and social cognitive remediation in UHR patients. The FOCUS trial results will provide evidence on the effect of targeted and comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation on cognition, daily living, and symptomatology as well as long-term outcome...

  17. Alliance-focused training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  18. The Challenging Topics and Future Directions of the Research in Limnology and Watershed Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LengShuying; YangGuishan; LiuZhengwen; WuRuijin; SongChangqing

    2003-01-01

    Based on reviewing the problems in limnology and watershed sciences in meeting the national demands and the development of theories and methodology, this paper proposed some challeng-ing topics to the sciences, covering the process of lake evolution and the quantitative analysis of hu-man impacts, in-lake nutrient cycling an biogeo-chemical process, the process and mechanisms of material flow in lake-watershed system, digital watershed and the modeling of the surface pro-cess of lake-watershed, and ecosystem health and scientific management of lake- watershed.

  19. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  20. A planning approach for agricultural watersheds using precision conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief article, written for a non-technical audience, discusses a recently-developed approach for watershed planning and nutrient reduction. The approach can help local stakeholders identify conservation practices that are locally preferred and determine how those practices can be distributed ac...

  1. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  2. Dynamic phosphorus budget for lake-watershed ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; GUO Huai-cheng; WANG Li-jing; DAI Yong-li; ZHANG Xiu-min; LI Zi-hai; HE Bin

    2006-01-01

    Lake eutrophication caused by excess phosphorus (P) loading from point sources (PS) and nonpoint sources (NPS) is a persistent and serious ecological problem in China. A phosphorus budget, based on material flow analysis(MFA) and system dynamic(SD), is proposed and applied for the agriculture-dominated Qionghai Lake watershed located in southwestern China. The MFA-SD approach will not only cover the transporting process of P in the lake-watershed ecosystems, but also can deal with the changes of P budget due to the dynamics of watershed. P inflows include the fertilizer for agricultural croplands, soil losses, domestic sewage discharges, and the atmospheric disposition such as precipitation and dust sinking. Outflows are consisted of hydrologic export, water resources development, fishery and aquatic plants harvesting. The internal P recycling processes are also considered in this paper.From 1988 to 2015, the total P inflows for Lake Qionghai are in a rapid increase from 35.65 to 78.73 t/a, which results in the rising of P concentration in the lake. Among the total P load 2015, agricultural loss and domestic sewage account for 70.60% and 17.27%respectively, directly related to the rapid social-economic development and the swift urbanization. Future management programs designed to reduce P inputs must be put into practices in the coming years to ensure the ecosystem health in the watershed.

  3. Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most states in the U.S. have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles whereby frequently occurring storms have a given potential to in...

  4. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  5. Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Desert Research Inst., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

  6. Hydrosedimentological modeling of watershed in southeast Brazil, using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative evaluation of soil loss due to erosion, of water loss and of load sediments that reach water bodies is fundamental to the environmental planning of a watershed, contributing to the process of decision for best options for soil tillage and water quality maintenance. Estimates of these data have been accomplished throughout the world using empiric or conceptual models. Besides being economically viable in scenarios development, environmental models may contribute to the location of critical areas, leading to emergency contention operations caused by erosive processes. Among these models, we highlight the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool which was applied in São Bartolomeu watershed, located in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, to identify areas of greater sensitivity to erosion considering the soil type and land use. To validate the model, 10 experimental plots were installed in the dominant crops of the watershed between 2006 and 2008, for monitoring the runoff and soil losses under natural rainfall. Field results and simulations showed the SWAT efficiency for sediment yield and soil losses estimations, as they are influenced by factors such as soil moisture, rainfall intensity, soil type and land use (dominated by Oxisols, Ultisols, Inceptisols and Entisols. These losses can be reduced significantly by improving crops management of. A simulation scenario replacing pastures cover by Eucalyptus was introduced, which significantly reduced soil loss in many parts of the watershed.

  7. Evapotranspiration and runoff in a forest watershed, western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Shimizu, T.; Miyabuchi, Y.; Ogawa, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Both water and heat balances were studied in a conifer plantation watershed in south-west Japan, within the warm-temperate East Asia monsoon area. Forest cover in the watershed consists mainly of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations. Precipitation and runoff have been observed since 1991, so evapotranspiration can be compared with the water balance. Two meteorological observation towers were built to monitor evapotranspiration in the watershed. The annual average precipitation, amount of runoff and losses were 2166, 1243 and 923 mm, respectively. The evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) agreed well with the water balance losses. The average annual evapotranspiration at the tower built in the centre of the watershed was 902 mm; evapotranspiration at the other tower, further upslope, was 875 mm. The observed evapotranspiration was 39% to 40% of the average precipitation (2166 mm). The mean net radiation was c. 2·6 GJ m-2 year-1, and is considered a representative value of the net radiation (Rn) in coniferous plantations in this region. This region is classified in the humid zone based on the ratio of net radiation (Rn) to the energy required to evaporate the rainfall (R). The mean annual evaporation of canopy-intercepted water was 356 mm or about 15% of the average precipitation. Copyright

  8. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  9. Can Forest Transformation Help Reducing Floods in Forested Watersheds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Wöllecke, B.; Benz, O.;

    2005-01-01

    Former floodplains in many European countries increasingly suffer from serious floods due to intensified human activity. These floods have caused safety and ecological problems as well as they have resulted in economic losses in agricultural used watersheds. In this context, the influence of the ...

  10. Exact and approximate computations of watersheds on triangulated terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Konstantinos; de Berg, Mark

    2011-01-01

    computations and the computation of an intermediate structure called the strip map. • Using our exact algorithm as a point of reference, we evaluate the quality of several existing heuristics for computing watersheds. We also investigate hybrid methods, which use heuristics in a first phase of the algorithm...

  11. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerbandono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  12. Critical sampling points methodology: case studies of geographically diverse watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Robert O; Robillard, Paul D; Debels, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Only with a properly designed water quality monitoring network can data be collected that can lead to accurate information extraction. One of the main components of water quality monitoring network design is the allocation of sampling locations. For this purpose, a design methodology, called critical sampling points (CSP), has been developed for the determination of the critical sampling locations in small, rural watersheds with regard to total phosphorus (TP) load pollution. It considers hydrologic, topographic, soil, vegetative, and land use factors. The objective of the monitoring network design in this methodology is to identify the stream locations which receive the greatest TP loads from the upstream portions of a watershed. The CSP methodology has been translated into a model, called water quality monitoring station analysis (WQMSA), which integrates a geographic information system (GIS) for the handling of the spatial aspect of the data, a hydrologic/water quality simulation model for TP load estimation, and fuzzy logic for improved input data representation. In addition, the methodology was purposely designed to be useful in diverse rural watersheds, independent of geographic location. Three watershed case studies in Pennsylvania, Amazonian Ecuador, and central Chile were examined. Each case study offered a different degree of data availability. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology could be successfully used in all three case studies. The case studies suggest that the CSP methodology, in form of the WQMSA model, has potential in applications world-wide.

  13. Sub-watershed prioritization based on sediment yield using game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Maryam; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-10-01

    The proper placement of soil and water conservation measures cannot be designated due to lack of appropriate technical prioritization of different areas of a watershed. Therefore, quantifying soil erosion hazard and spatial prioritization of sub-watersheds would aid in better watershed management planning. Although, many approaches have been applied to prioritize sub-watersheds, but still the efficient techniques like game theory have not been practically applied to prioritize sub-watersheds. The present study therefore has used the game theory to prioritize sub-watersheds in Gorganroud and Qareh Sou watersheds in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Towards this goal, 38 independent factors were classified in seven components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method with one representative variable in each component. The Condorcet method used for prioritization of effective variables indicated that the percent of forestry lands (52 scores) and discharge with 10 years of return period (32 scores) were respectively the most and the least effective variables on sediment yield. The Fallback bargaining and the Borda Scoring algorithms were also selected to prioritize study sub-watersheds based on weighted grades of total score for each variable. Accordingly, the aforesaid algorithms classified sub-watersheds in three categories. Comparison of results similarly introduced Galikesh, Qazaqli, Gonbad, Siyah Ab and Tamar as first ranked sub-watersheds with the worth condition, Tangrah and Naharkhoran as second priority and eventually Pole Ordougah as sub-watershed with the lowest priority.

  14. Effects of urbanization on groundwater evolution in an urbanizing watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Banner, J. L.; Bendik, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Jollyville Plateau Salamander (Eurycea tonkawae), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, is endemic to springs and caves within the Bull Creek Watershed of Austin, Texas. Rapid urbanization endangers known populations of this salamander. Conservation strategies lack information on the extent of groundwater contamination from anthropogenic sources in this karst watershed. Spring water was analyzed for strontium (Sr) isotopes and major ions from sites classified as "urban" or "rural" based on impervious cover estimates. Previous studies have shown that the 87Sr/86Sr value of municipal water is significantly higher than values for natural streamwater, which are similar to those for the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the region's watersheds. We investigate the application of this relationship to understanding the effects of urbanization on groundwater quality. The use of Sr isotopes as hydrochemical tracers is complemented by major ion concentrations, specifically the dominant ions in natural groundwater (Ca and HCO3) and the ions associated with the addition of wastewater (Na and Cl). To identify high priority salamander-inhabited springs for water quality remediation, we explore the processes controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater such as municipal water inputs, groundwater-soil interactions, and solution/dissolution reactions. 87Sr/86Sr values for water samples from within the watershed range from 0.70760 to 0.70875, the highest values corresponding to sites located in the urbanized areas of the watershed. Analyses of the covariation of Sr isotopes with major ion concentrations help elucidate controls on spring water evolution. Springs located in rural portions of the watershed have low 87Sr/86Sr, high concentrations of Ca and HCO3, and low concentrations of Na and Cl. This is consistent with small inputs of municipal water. Three springs located in urban portions of the watershed have high 87Sr/86Sr, low Ca and HCO3, and

  15. Aluminum availability in forest floor of two acidified mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaåa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina

    2010-05-01

    We measured seasonal variability of soil chemistry in upper organic soil horizons (O and A) in watersheds of two acidified mountain lakes, Plešné (PL) and Čertovo (CT) in Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic). Both the localities are acidified, PL watershed recently undergoes strong changes due to bark beetle infestation followed by forest dieback. Soils were sampled in 6-week period during the years 2008 - 2009. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in Al availability in upper organic soil horizons during year together with changes in nutrient availability and transformations. We observed significant seasonal variability in concentration of water extractable Al (AlH2O) and exchangeable Al (AlEX, determined as 1M KCl extractable). Concentrations of AlH2O, which represents quickly releasable form of Al, varied between 0.5 - 2.7 mg kg-1and 0.5 - 4.4 mg kg-1in the PL - O and PL - A horizons, respectively, and between 0.4 - 1.4 and 0.6 - 3.5 mg kg-1in the CT - O and CT - A horizons, respectively. Concentrations of AlH2O in PL watershed compared to AlH2O concentrations in CT watershed were higher, despite higher soil pH values there. The main peaks of AlH2O concentrations were observed during the winters, while the concentrations were lowest during the springs and the falls. The major part (>90%) of AlH2O was the organically bound Al. Concentrations of AlEX, representing potentially toxic Al form, were approximately 2 - 3 orders of magnitude higher compared to AlH2O concentrations, and were consistently lower in PL watershed. In H2O extracts, we observed dramatic increase of available P concentrations in upper organic horizons in PL watershed after elevated litter fall associated with forest dieback. In parallel we also observed changes in nitrogen chemistry, especially significant increase of NH4-N concentrations in both the horizons. Both the changes in P and N availability in the PL watershed are probably connected with the forest dieback. (For more details

  16. Segmentation of White Blood Cells through Nucleus Mark Watershed Operations and Mean Shift Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs in peripheral blood and bone marrow images under different lights through mean shift clustering, color space conversion and nucleus mark watershed operation (NMWO. The proposed method focuses on obtaining seed points. First, color space transformation and image enhancement techniques are used to obtain nucleus groups as inside seeds. Second, mean shift clustering, selection of the C channel component in the CMYK model, and illumination intensity adjustment are employed to acquire WBCs as outside seeds. Third, the seeds and NMWO are employed to precisely determine WBCs and solve the cell adhesion problem. Morphological operations are further used to improve segmentation accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm exhibits higher segmentation accuracy and robustness compared with traditional methods.

  17. Using a coupled groundwater/surface-water model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake Watershed, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall; Walker, John F.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John; Webb, Richard M.T.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2009-01-01

    A major focus of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Trout Lake Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) project is the development of a watershed model to allow predictions of hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. The coupled groundwater/surface-water model GSFLOW was chosen for this purpose because it could easily incorporate an existing groundwater flow model and it provides for simulation of surface-water processes.

  18. White Light Focusing Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  19. Export and Metabolism of Carbon in Urban Watersheds: Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (P<0.05) relationship between gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, suggesting that autotrophic respiration is an important fraction of ER, and labile algal biomass may influence oxygen demand downstream. Our results suggest that urban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.

  20. Nitrogen sink in a small forested watershed of subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laiming Huang; Jinling Yang; Ganlin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) emission and deposition have been increased rapidly due to massive mobilization of N which may have longreaching impacts on ecosystems. Many agricultural and forest ecosystems have been identified as secondary N sources. In the present study, the input-output budget of inorganic N in a small forested watershed of subtropical China was investigated. Inorganic N wet deposition and discharge by stream water were monitored from March, 2007 to February, 2009. The concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in wet precipitation and stream water and net retention of N were calculated. Global N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and N output by denitrification for forested watersheds elsewhere were reported as references to evaluate whether the studied forested watershed is a source or a sink for N. The results show that the inorganic N output by the stream water is mainly caused by NO3--N even though the input is dominated by NH4+-N. The mean flux of inorganic N input by wet precipitation and output by stream water is 1.672 and 0.537 g N/(m2·yr), respectively, which indicates that most of inorganic N input is retained in the forested watershed. Net retention of inorganic N reaches 1.135 g N/(m2·yr) considering wet precipitation as the main input and stream water as the main output. If N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and output by denitrification are taken into account, this subtropical forested watershed currently acts as a considerable sink for N, with a net sink ranging from 1.309 to 1.913 g N/(m2·yr)which may enhance carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem.

  1. Nitrogen sink in a small forested watershed of subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiming; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Ganlin

    2011-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) emission and deposition have been increased rapidly due to massive mobilization of N which may have long-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Many agricultural and forest ecosystems have been identified as secondary N sources. In the present study, the input-output budget of inorganic N in a small forested watershed of subtropical China was investigated. Inorganic N wet deposition and discharge by stream water were monitored from March, 2007 to February, 2009. The concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in wet precipitation and stream water and net retention of N were calculated. Global N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and N output by denitrification for forested watersheds elsewhere were reported as references to evaluate whether the studied forested watershed is a source or a sink for N. The results show that the inorganic N output by the stream water is mainly caused by NO3(-)-N even though the input is dominated by NH4(+)-N. The mean flux of inorganic N input by wet precipitation and output by stream water is 1.672 and 0.537 g N/(m2 x yr), respectively, which indicates that most of inorganic N input is retained in the forested watershed. Net retention of inorganic N reaches 1.135 g N/(m2 x yr) considering wet precipitation as the main input and stream water as the main output. If N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and output by denitrification are taken into account, this subtropical forested watershed currently acts as a considerable sink for N, with a net sink ranging from 1.309 to 1.913 g N/(m2 x yr) which may enhance carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem.

  2. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  3. Monitoring Phenology as Indicator for Timing of Nutrient Inputs in Northern Gulf Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Spiering, Bruce A.; Kalcic, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the anthropogenic addition of nutrients, in addition to any natural processes, causing adverse effects or impairments to the beneficial uses of a water body has been identified as one of the most significant environmental problems facing sensitive estuaries and coastal waters. Understanding the timing of nutrient inputs into those waters through remote sensing observables helps define monitoring and mitigation strategies. Remotely sensed data products can trace both forcings and effects of the nutrient system from landscape to estuary. This project is focused on extracting nutrient information from the landscape. The timing of nutrients entering coastal waters from the land boundary is greatly influenced by hydrologic processes, but can also be affected by the timing of nutrient additions across the landscape through natural or anthropogenic means. Non-point source nutrient additions to watersheds are often associated with specific seasonal cycles, such as decomposition of organic materials in fall and winter or addition of fertilizers to crop lands in the spring. These seasonal cycles or phenology may in turn be observed through the use of satellite sensors. Characterization of the phenology of various land cover types may be of particular interest in Gulf of Mexico estuarine systems with relatively short pathways between intensively managed systems and the land/estuarine boundary. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the capability of monitoring phenology of specific classes of land, such as agriculture and managed timberlands, at a refined watershed level. The extraction of phenological information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data record is accomplished using analytical tools developed for NASA at Stennis Space Center: the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool. MODIS reflectance data (product MOD09) were

  4. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  5. An evaluation of a professional development course for secondary school science teachers: Chesapeake Watershed Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Barbara Bonsall

    1997-12-01

    Concern about the quality of schools has grown to the point that it has become a national goal to improve education in the United States. Science education in particular has been under attack. Improvement requires not only changes in science content, but also in instructional approach. Implicit in this reform is an equally substantive change in professional development practice because too many science teachers are unprepared to meet these challenges. Unfortunately, courses to instruct secondary science teachers both in research techniques and instructional strategies are rare. Chesapeake Watershed Ecology, a professional development course, was created to meet this need. The course was evaluated within the framework of Stake's Countenance Model, using an objectives-based approach liberally embedded with qualitative methods. Research questions and findings focused on congruence between what was intended to occur and what was actually observed to occur before, during, and after instruction. Specifically, this formative study judged the effectiveness of the course at providing secondary science teachers with realistic research skills and strategies for the high school classroom. Research questions focused on 10 program features: teacher background, appropriate curriculum, resource availability, teacher participation, course choreography, classroom interactions, improved performance, teacher attitudes, intent of the teachers to use course activities in their own classrooms, and unexpected outcomes. Because nine of the ten features well exceeded criterion standards, the course was deemed effective and worthy of adoption. The findings of the evaluation led to four major implications beyond the course: (1) The Stake Model was an effective assessment tool that may be useful in other professional development course evaluations. (2) Chesapeake Watershed Ecology was an effective model for conceptual integration of scientific disciplines with pedagogical methods. (3

  6. Travel time analysis for a subsurface drained sub-watershed in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff travel time, which is a function of watershed and storm characteristics, is an important parameter affecting the prediction accuracy of hydrologic models. Although, time of concentration (tc) is a most widely used time parameter, it has multiple conceptual and computational definitions. Most ...

  7. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  8. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  9. Vermont EPSCoR Streams Project: Engaging High School and Undergraduate Students in Watershed Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, E.; McCabe, D.; Sheldon, S.; Jankowski, K.; Haselton, L.; Luck, M.; van Houten, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Vermont EPSCoR Streams Project engages a diverse group of undergraduates, high school students, and their teachers in hands-on water quality research and exposes them to the process of science. The project aims to (1) recruit students to science careers and (2) create a water quality database comprised of high-quality data collected by undergraduates and high school groups. The project is the training and outreach mechanism of the Complex Systems Modeling for Environmental Problem Solving research program, an NSF-funded program at the University of Vermont (UVM) that provides computational strategies and fresh approaches for understanding how natural and built environments interact. The Streams Project trains participants to collect and analyze data from streams throughout Vermont and at limited sites in Connecticut, New York, and Puerto Rico. Participants contribute their data to an online database and use it to complete individual research projects that focus on the effect of land use and precipitation patterns on selected measures of stream water quality. All undergraduates and some high school groups are paired with a mentor, who is either a graduate student or a faculty member at UVM or other college. Each year, undergraduate students and high school groups are trained to (1) collect water and macroinvertebrate samples from streams, (2) analyze water samples for total phosphorus, bacteria, and total suspended solids in an analytical laboratory, and/or (3) use geographic information systems (GIS) to assess landscape-level data for their watersheds. After training, high school groups collect samples from stream sites on a twice-monthly basis while undergraduates conduct semi-autonomous field and laboratory research. High school groups monitor sites in two watersheds with contrasting land uses. Undergraduate projects are shaped by the interests of students and their mentors. Contribution to a common database provides students with the option to expand the

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of land cover changes and water quality in the Lake Issaqueena watershed, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, C M; Mikhailova, E A; Post, C J; Hains, J J

    2014-11-01

    farms were abandoned, leaving large bare areas with highly eroded soil. Starting in 1938, Clemson reforested almost 30 % of the watershed. Currently, three fourths of the watershed is forestland, with a limited coverage of small farms and residential developments. Monitoring water quality is essential in maintaining adequate freshwater supply. Water quality monitoring focuses mainly on the collection of field data, but current water quality conditions depend on the cumulative impacts of land cover change over time.

  11. Variations of deep soil moisture under different vegetation types and influencing factors in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuening; Zhao, Wenwu; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Qiang; Ding, Jingyi; Liu, Yuanxin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Soil moisture in deep soil layers is a relatively stable water resource for vegetation growth in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the variations in deep soil moisture and its influencing factors at a moderate watershed scale is important to ensure the sustainability of vegetation restoration efforts. In this study, we focus on analyzing the variations and factors that influence the deep soil moisture (DSM) in 80-500 cm soil layers based on a soil moisture survey of the Ansai watershed in Yan'an in Shanxi Province. Our results can be divided into four main findings. (1) At the watershed scale, higher variations in the DSM occurred at 120-140 and 480-500 cm in the vertical direction. At the comparable depths, the variation in the DSM under native vegetation was much lower than that in human-managed vegetation and introduced vegetation. (2) The DSM in native vegetation and human-managed vegetation was significantly higher than that in introduced vegetation, and different degrees of soil desiccation occurred under all the introduced vegetation types. Caragana korshinskii and black locust caused the most serious desiccation. (3) Taking the DSM conditions of native vegetation as a reference, the DSM in this watershed could be divided into three layers: (i) a rainfall transpiration layer (80-220 cm); (ii) a transition layer (220-400 cm); and (iii) a stable layer (400-500 cm). (4) The factors influencing DSM at the watershed scale varied with vegetation types. The main local controls of the DSM variations were the soil particle composition and mean annual rainfall; human agricultural management measures can alter the soil bulk density, which contributes to higher DSM in farmland and apple orchards. The plant growth conditions, planting density, and litter water holding capacity of introduced vegetation showed significant relationships with the DSM. The results of this study are of practical significance for vegetation restoration strategies, especially

  12. Genetic Diversity of Black Salamanders (Aneides flavipunctatus across Watersheds in the Klamath Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Wake

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we characterize the genetic structure of Black Salamanders (Aneides flavipunctatus in the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. We hypothesized that the Sacramento, Smith, Klamath, and Rogue River watersheds would represent distinct genetic populations based on prior ecological results, which suggest that Black Salamanders avoid high elevations such as the ridges that separate watersheds. Our mitochondrial results revealed two major lineages, one in the Sacramento River watershed, and another containing the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue River watersheds. Clustering analyses of our thirteen nuclear loci show the Sacramento watershed population to be genetically distinctive. Populations in the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue watersheds are also distinctive but not as differentiated and their boundaries do not correspond to watersheds. Our historical demographic analyses suggest that the Sacramento population has been isolated from the Klamath populations since the mid-Pleistocene, with negligible subsequent gene flow (2 Nm ≤ 0.1. The Smith and Rogue River watershed populations show genetic signals of recent population expansion. These results suggest that the Sacramento River and Klamath River watersheds served as Pleistocene refugia, and that the Rogue and Smith River watersheds were colonized more recently by northward range expansion from the Klamath.

  13. Controls on mercury and methylmercury deposition for two watersheds in Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.B.; Haines, T.A.; Kahl, J.S.; Norton, S.A.; Amirbahman, A.; Sheehan, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected for two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, from 3 May to 16 November 2000, to determine which landscape factors affected mercury (Hg) deposition. One of these watersheds, Cadillac Brook, burned in 1947, providing a natural experimental design to study the effects of forest type on deposition to forested watersheds. Sites that face southwest received the highest Hg deposition, which may be due to the interception of cross-continental movement of contaminated air masses. Sites covered with softwood vegetation also received higher Hg deposition than other vegetation types because of the higher scavenging efficiency of the canopy structure. Methyl mercury (MeHg) deposition was not affected by these factors. Hg deposition, as bulk precipitation and throughfall was lower in Cadillac Brook watershed (burned) than in Hadlock Brook watershed (unburned) because of vegetation type and watershed aspect. Hg and MeHg inputs were weighted by season and vegetation type because these two factors had the most influence on deposition. Hg volatilization was not determined. The total Hg deposition via throughfall and bulk precipitation was 9.4 ??g/m2/year in Cadillac Brook watershed and 10.2 ??g/m2/year in Hadlock Brook watershed. The total MeHg deposition via throughfall and bulk precipitation was 0.05 ??g/m2/year in Cadillac Brook watershed and 0.10 ??g/m2/year in Hadlock Brook watershed. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006.

  14. Multiyear riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for a semiarid watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.L.; Cable, W.L.; Huxman, T. E.; Nagler, P.L.; Hernandez, M.; Goodrich, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the surface and subsurface water balance for many semiarid watersheds. Measurement or model-based estimates of ET are often made on a local scale, but spatially distributed estimates are needed to determine ET over catchments. In this paper, we document the ET that was quantified over 3 years using eddy covariance for three riparian ecosystems along the Upper San Pedro River of southeastern Arizona, USA, and we use a water balance equation to determine annual groundwater use. Riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for the watershed were then determined by using a calibrated, empirical model that uses 16-day, 250-1000 m remote-sensing products for the years of 2001-2005. The inputs for the model were derived entirely from the NASA MODIS sensor and consisted of the Enhanced Vegetation Index and land surface temperature. The scaling model was validated using subsets of the entire dataset (omitting different sites or years) and its capable performance for well-watered sites (MAD=0.32 mm day-1, R2=0.93) gave us confidence in using it to determine ET over the watershed. Three years of eddy covariance data for the riparian sites reveal that ET and groundwater use increased as woody plant density increased. Groundwater use was less variable at the woodland site, which had the greatest density of phreatophytes. Annual riparian groundwater use within the watershed was nearly constant over the study period despite an on-going drought. For the San Pedro alone, the amounts determined in this paper are within the range of most recently reported values that were derived using an entirely different approach. However, because of our larger estimates for groundwater use for the main tributary of the San Pedro, the watershed totals were higher. The approach presented here can provide riparian ET and groundwater use amounts that reflect real natural variability in phreatophyte withdrawals and improve the accuracy of a

  15. Screening Level Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Streambed Sediments and Floodplain Soils within the Grand Lake Watershed in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Ean M; Bridge, Cas F; Garvin, Meredith S

    2017-04-01

    Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The biomass of benthic invertebrates was highly impacted at Tar Creek, highly to moderately impacted at Spring River and Elm Creek, and unimpacted at Lost Creek and Grand Lake as a result of sediment metal concentrations. It also was found that soil metal concentrations were likely sufficient to impact plant populations at all streams. Within the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, the majority of environmental studies, remediation, and restoration efforts by local, state, and federal agencies have been primarily focused within the Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSS) boundary. Importantly, the findings of this study highlighted the downstream extent of metals contamination as well as the resulting potential toxicities to benthic invertebrates and plants that is present outside of the TCSS boundary. Because the Oklahoma portion of the watershed comprises the jurisdictional lands of ten tribes, these results emphasized the potential tribal loss of use of benthic invertebrates and plants due to their decline in population as a result of metal toxicity. These overall findings provide an important basis for future data needs in assessing metal concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial biota that are consumed by tribal communities within the watershed to determine if certain organisms are unsafe to consume or warrant consumption advisories. This will allow risk assessors and risk managers to better understand the potential loss of use of tribal biological resources as well as improving risk-based decision making to be protective of these resources and tribal human health.

  16. Assessment and modelling of the influence of man-made networks on the hydrology of a small watershed: implications for fast flow components, water quality and landscape management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluer, Nadia; Marsily, Ghislain De

    2004-01-01

    Up to now, most watershed models have been focused on the representation of 'natural' flow and transport processes. In this paper, we discuss the role of man-made networks, such as ditches, roads, hedge rows and hedges, underground drainage by buried pipes, etc. The influence of such features on the hydrology of a watershed may be of particular importance if the aim of the modelling is to predict the effect of landscape management or the fate of contaminants, e.g. pesticides, when a rain event occurs very soon after their spreading on the soil surface. It is likely that such artificial networks may act as conduits or short-circuits for the transport of contaminants, either dissolved or sorbed on soil particles, by-passing some of the retardation mechanisms such as sorption in the soil, retention of surface runoff by grass verges, biodegradation in the unsaturated zone, etc. We first present a small watershed on which the study was conducted, the Kervidy, which is a 5 km 2 'bocage ' catchment in Brittany, France. The man-made networks were observed and their extent and functioning described. We then included the potential hydraulic role of these networks in a distributed watershed model (TOPOG, [J. Hydrol. 150 (1993) 665]). This modified model, ANTHROPOG, was run, for comparison, with and without the man-made network; sensitivity tests were also made to assess the hydrologic importance of these networks. It was shown that they can have a very significant effect on the functioning of a watershed. We conclude on the relevance of the improved distributed model for the management of rural landscapes, and on the type of additional data needed to calibrate the model with parameters representative of the true processes. Bocage is a landscape with grassland, hedges, and occasional trees—often apple trees—typical of Brittany and Normandy.

  17. Vulnerability Resilience in the Major Watersheds of the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources management requires policy enforcement in a changing environment. Climate change must be considered in major watershed river restorations in Korea. The aim of river restorations is to provide better water resource control - now and in the future. To aid in policy making in the government sector, ¡§vulnerability-resilience indexes¡¨ (VRIs with a Delphi survey method have been adopted to provide a possible reference. The Delphi survey offers prioritized vulnerability proxy variables based on expert opinions regarding the changing environment in terms of climate change and river restorations. The VRIs of watersheds were improved after river restorations, with the exception of some locations. However, when climate change was taken into consideration in the analysis of conditions after the restorations were completed, the results showed that governments need to provide better mitigation strategies to increase vulnerability resilience in the face of climate change.

  18. Watershed Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Ozelsancak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure can cause neurologic manifestations such as mood swings, impaired concentration, tremor, stupor, coma, asterixis, dysarthria. Those findings can also be a sign of cerebral infarct. Here, we report a case of watershed cerebral infarction in a 70-year-old female patient with acute renal failure secondary to contrast administration and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Patient was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging because of dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed milimmetric acute ischemic lesion in the frontal and parietal deep white matter region of both cerebral hemisphere which clearly demonstrated watershed cerebral infarction affecting internal border zone. Her renal function returned to normal levels on fifth day of admission (BUN 32 mg/dl, creatinine 1.36 mg/dl and she was discharged. Dysarthria continued for 20 days.

  19. Master planning for stream protection in urban watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, B R; Doerter, J T

    2005-01-01

    Urbanization results in great changes to the landscape and the water environment simply because stormwater runoff differs in quantity and quality from the pre-urbanization state. Streams, rivers, lakes, estuaries and other receiving water bodies experience the changes to runoff frequencies and volumes and react accordingly. The forces behind the observed changes in the receiving waters are discussed in this paper and suggestions are made on how to plan to deal with them. Urban watershed and waterway master planning can help to mitigate, in large part, the impacts imposed on these waters by land-use changes. Although each watershed is unique, some general principles are suggested to deal with these emergent problems.

  20. Comprehensive flood control involving citizens in a Japanese watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Sampei; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Ryoichi; Moriyama, Toshiyuki; Minagawa, Tomoko; Kakudo, Kumiko; Yamashita, Terukazu

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the city of Fukuoka, Japan experienced a flood disaster along the Hii River, which runs through densely populated, concrete-covered areas of the city. The drainage system was overwhelmed and the river overflowed due to heavy rainfall and rapid runoff. The event led citizens in its watershed to plan and implement comprehensive flood control. The plan aims not only to mitigate floods but also to revitalize the river environment and populated communities in urban areas. This study reports the activities led by the citizens. They organized and carried out civic forums, workshops, and fieldwork to share views as to how the flood disaster was caused, how floods in the watershed should be controlled, and how the river environment should be rehabilitated. This study illuminates how people, including the flood victims and municipal engineers, can change drastically and communicate effectively in the course of discussing and implementing the comprehensive flood control measures.

  1. Assessment of morphotectonic properties of Mahan Tigrani watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosain Ramesht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic geomorphology can be explained as the study of landforms produced by tectonic processes, or the application of geomorphic principles to the suggestion of tectonic problems. Tigrani's watershed is located in north part of hillside. Nayband Fault sub branch pass from the east of zone and kuhbanan fault from the north of zone supplies an appropriate theme for survey tectonic activities. For access to this aim geomorphic indexes contain Stream Length Gradient, Drainage Basin Shape Ratio, Ratio of Valley-floor with to Valley Height, Topographic Symmetry, Mountain Front Sinuosity and Asymmetry Factor with use of topographic maps, DEM, Arc GIS and Global mapper softwares have gained. The results of research which calculated with Iat index show west sub basin have medium tectonic activity (Iat=2, and east sub basin have high tectonic activity(Iat=1.5. Overall the results show that assessment of tectonic activities in Tigrani watershed this basin is active because of tectonic movements.

  2. Teaching a New Generation of Students: Developing an Interdisciplinary Watershed Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, A. R.; Bierman, P. R.; Druschel, G. K.; Massey, C. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Wemple, B. C.

    2007-12-01

    As the scientific world becomes more interconnected, careers in geosciences regularly require cooperation, communication, and comprehension across disciplines. In response, faculty at the University of Vermont (UVM) have developed and are modifying an interdisciplinary watershed field course to provide both a valuable learning experience in watershed science for students and a tested prototype for collaboration and cooperation between faculty, departments, and administrators. The field course introduces concepts of watershed science, an inherently interdisciplinary field of study for which there is often no specific academic department (www.uvm.edu/watercamp). The field exercises begin in Lake Champlain, New England's&plargest inland water body. To maximize relevance, the focus is on threats and current problems associated with large water bodies. The students then move to the mountainous headwaters of a major drainage into Lake Champlain and follow it back down into Lake Champlain. The 3.5-week, 4-credit course consists of exercises created by faculty from different academic departments representing three different schools within the university including: civil and environmental engineering, geography, geology, and natural resources. A pair of faculty members from different departments lead each day's activities ensuring that students are exposed to a range of faculty interaction, connections, and cooperation between specialties. The general design of the course is modular; content and faculty can be changed as desired from year to year to take advantage of current field research projects, visiting or absent faculty, or unusual and unique field opportunities. Surveys collected from students taking the first offering show learning over a broad range of disciplines and positive attitudes about the teaching and learning styles associated with field courses. Knowledge surveys completed by the students before and after the class showed an overall increase in self

  3. WATERSHED SELECTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION USING MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Anhumas creek watershed, in the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, is degraded also as a result of unplanned land use of its riparian zones, considered Permanent Preservation Areas (APP. Therefore, river flow is unstable, promoting frequent flood damages, besides the lack of several environmental functions of its APPs. Environmental recovery of a degraded area requires a comprehensive effort, often multidisciplinary. Multicriterial analysis is a tool which allows gathering a diversity of attributes of the studied subject, weighing and valuating them, helping in the decision making effort. This work aims to apply two methods of multicriteria analysis to optimize the selection of a watershed for an environmental recovery study of APPs in the Anhumas watershed. The Anhumas watershed was divided in 7 sub-basins aiming the selection of one of those to implement an environmental planning study and to establish and rank areas that should be prioritized for recovery. Thirteen environmental criteria were selected for application of multicriteria analysis using the methods of Compromise Programming (PC and Cooperative Game Theory (CGT. Relevance of each criterion to the analysis was given by a questionnaire answered by specialists. Basin selection results showed no difference neither between PC and CGT nor between mean or mode used to standardize weights given by specialists. Multicriteria analysis was effective, but allowed enough flexibility for the decision maker (DM to adjust undesired analysis distortions. After DM adjustments, the priority basins were ranked as basins 4 > 7 > 5 > 6 > 2 > 3 > 1. Important procedures when carrying out such an analysis were to avoid conceptual overlapping among different criteria, to implement appropriate value judgment for each criterion and to use decision maker expertise to supplement weights obtained with specialists.

  4. Thermal Pollution Mitigation in Cold Water Stream Watersheds Using Bioretention

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Daniel Lewis

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of bioretention as a strategy to reduce the thermal impact associated with urban stormwater runoff in developing cold water stream watersheds. Temperature and flow data were collected during ten controlled trials at a bioretention facility located in Blacksburg, Virginia. It was determined that bioretention has the ability to reduce the temperature of thermally charged stormwater runoff received from an asphalt surface. Significant reductions in average and peak te...

  5. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  6. The quantitative/qualitative watershed for rules of uncertain inference

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, James; Makinson, David C.

    2007-01-01

    We chart the ways in which closure properties of consequence relations for uncertain inference take on different forms according to whether the relations are generated in a quantitative or a qualitative manner. Among the main themes are: the identification of watershed conditions between probabilistically and qualitatively sound rules; failsafe and classicality transforms of qualitatively sound rules; non-Horn conditions satisfied by probabilistic consequence; representation and completeness ...

  7. Contingent Valuation of Watershed Protection in Nigeria: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Olokesusi

    2013-07-01

    This paper focusses on the use of the willingness-to-pay (WTP approach for determining the amount of money that people in selected large-scale irrigation and dam project areas in the Sudano-Saludian zone of Nigeria are willing to forego for the sake of environmental protection in the watershed. After a general description of the problems and approaches to valuing and monetising environmental resources and their protection, the details of the study findings and policy implications are discussed.

  8. Analysis of subsurface storage and streamflow generation in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Welty, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Subsurface storage as a regulator of streamflow was investigated as an explanation for the large proportion of pre-event water observed in urban streams during storm events. We used multiple lines of inquiry to explore the relationship between pre-event water proportion, subsurface storage, and streamflow under storm conditions. First, we used a three-dimensional model of integrated subsurface and surface flow and solute transport to simulate an idealized hillslope to perform model-based chemical hydrograph separation of stormflow. Second, we employed simple dynamical systems analysis to derive the relationship between subsurface storage and streamflow for three Baltimore, Maryland watersheds (3.8-14 km2 in area) along an urban-to-rural gradient. Last, we applied chemical hydrograph separation to high-frequency specific conductance data in nested urban watersheds (˜50% impervious surface cover) in Dead Run, Baltimore County, Maryland. Unlike the importance of antecedent subsurface storage observed in some systems, we found that rainfall depth and not subsurface storage was the primary control on pre-event water proportion in both field observations and hillslope numerical experiments. Field observations showed that antecedent stream base flow did not affect pre-event water proportion or streamflow values under storm conditions. Hillslope model results showed that the relationship between streamflow values under storm conditions and subsurface storage was clockwise hysteretic. The simple dynamical systems approach showed that stream base flow in the most urbanized of three watersheds exhibited the largest sensitivity to changes in storage. This work raises questions about the streamflow generation mechanisms by which pre-event water dominates urban storm hydrographs, and the shifts between mechanisms in rural and urban watersheds.

  9. Classification of Kelantan watershed using mapwindow GIS integrated with soil and water analysis tool (MWSWAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, A.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Watershed delineation is one of the techniques used to identify and analyze spatial characteristics and distribution of an area. Spatial and physical characteristics of each sub basin for example the area of watershed and identification of soil type can contribute to the determination of areas that are vulnerable to flood. Determination of these physical characteristics can be implemented by using Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) analysis with combination of land-use data, soil and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The objectives of this study are to delineate Kelantan watershed, and to divide the watershed into sub basins using open source Mapwindow GIS integrated with Soil And Water Analysis Tool (MWSWAT). Data such as DEM, land use and soil data were analyzed. The study identified a total watershed area of 9755.55 km2 (65 percent of Kelantan area), which were divided into 18 sub basins. Applicability of the approach in classifying Kelantan watershed depends on the data and technique.

  10. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  11. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, Atrazine concentrations were, on average, atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  12. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Information about total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in water samples and mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples was summarized for 26 watersheds in Indiana that drain most of the land area of the State. Mercury levels were interpreted with information on streamflow, atmospheric mercury deposition, mercury emissions to the atmosphere, mercury in wastewater, and landscape characteristics. Unfiltered total mercury concentrations in 411 water samples from streams in the 26 watersheds had a median of 2.32 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and a maximum of 28.2 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 5.4 percent exceeded the 12-ng/L chronic-aquatic criterion, 59 percent exceeded the 1.8-ng/L Great Lakes human-health criterion, and 72.5 percent exceeded the 1.3-ng/L Great Lakes wildlife criterion. Mercury concentrations in water were related to streamflow, and the highest mercury concentrations were associated with the highest streamflows. On average, 67 percent of total mercury in streams was in a particulate form, and particulate mercury concentrations were significantly lower downstream from dams than at monitoring stations not affected by dams. Methylmercury is the organic fraction of total mercury and is the form of mercury that accumulates and magnifies in food chains. It is made from inorganic mercury by natural processes under specific conditions. Unfiltered methylmercury concentrations in 411 water samples had a median of 0.10 ng/L and a maximum of 0.66 ng/L. Methylmercury was a median 3.7 percent and maximum 64.8 percent of the total mercury in 252 samples for which methylmercury was reported. The percentages of methylmercury in water samples were significantly higher downstream from dams than at other monitoring stations. Nearly all of the total mercury detected in fish tissue was assumed to be methylmercury. Fish-tissue samples from the 26 watersheds had wet-weight mercury concentrations that

  13. Water resources of the Sycamore Creek watershed, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, B.W.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Sycamore Creek watershed is representative of many small watersheds in the Southwest where much of the streamflow originates in the mountainous areas and disappears rather quickly into the alluvial deposits adjacent to the mountains. Five years of .streamflow records from the Sycamore Creek watershed show that an average annual water yield of 6,110 acre-feet was obtained from the 165 square miles (105,000 acres) of the upper hard-rock mountain area, which receives an average annual precipitation of about 20 inches. Only a small percentage of the ,annual water yield, however, reaches the Verde River as surface flow over the 9-mile reach of the alluvial channel below the mountain front. Flows must be more ,than 200 cubic feet per second to reach the river; flows less than this rate disappear into the 1,ower alluvial area and are stored temporarily in the ground-Water reservoir : most of this water is released as ground-water discharge to the Verde River at a relatively constant rate of about 4,000 acre-feet per year. Evapotranspiration losses in the lower alluvial area are controlled by the depth of the water table and averaged about 1,500 acre-feet per year.

  14. Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-wei CHENG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed. A phenological index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the groundwater level in winter due to soil freezing and rise in spring due to snow and ice melting compare well with the observed data. Because the evapotranspiration and interaction of surface water and groundwater are included in the model, the modeled seasonal trend of the groundwater level in the sub-tropic region is in agreement with observations. The comparison between modeled and observed hydrographs indicates that the simulations in the large-scale watershed managed to capture the water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zones.

  15. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  16. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  17. Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Genwei; Yu Zhongbo; Li Changsheng; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM) was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed). A phenoiogical index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the groundwater level in winter due to soil freezing and rise in spring due to snow and ice melting compare well with the observed data. Because the evapotranspiration and interaction of surface water and groundwater are included in the model, the modeled seasonal trend of the groundwater level in the sub-tropic region is in agreement with observations. The comparison between modeled and observed hydrographs indicates that the simulations in the large-scale watershed managed to capture the water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zones.

  18. Tracking Carbon along the Urban Watershed Continuum to Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing urbanization are constantly evolving in their structure and function, and their carbon cycle subsequently evolves across both space and time. We investigate how urbanization influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed using a variety of approaches such as stable isotopes, in situ water quality sensors, and remote sensing. Along the urban watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and reactivity of carbon, and (2) ecosystem metabolism and transformation of carbon sources from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as revealed by stable isotopes and in situ sensors. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered particulate carbon transport in coastal waters and the evolution of river sediment plumes as suggested by remote sensing data. Furthermore, there are increased long-term bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in streams and rivers, and we present new analytical approaches for studying river alkalinization due to human inputs and accelerated chemical weathering. In summary, urbanization alters carbon over space and time with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  19. IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELD AND WATERSHED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  20. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  1. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  2. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  3. Understanding the Occurrence and Transport of Current-use Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and potential effects of current-use pesticides are of concern in the San Francisco Estuary watershed but our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination is limited. This paper summarizes almost two decades of historical data and uses it to describe our current knowledge of the processes controlling the occurrence of current-use pesticides in the watershed. Monitoring studies analyze fewer than half of the pesticides applied in the watershed and most...

  4. Parameter uncertainty-based pattern identification and optimization for robust decision making on watershed load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingsong; Su, Han; Liu, Yong; Zou, Rui; Ye, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

    2017-04-01

    Nutrients loading reduction in watershed is essential for lake restoration from eutrophication. The efficient and optimal decision-making on loading reduction is generally based on water quality modeling and the quantitative identification of nutrient sources at the watershed scale. The modeling process is influenced inevitably by inherent uncertainties, especially by uncertain parameters due to equifinality. Therefore, the emerging question is: if there is parameter uncertainty, how to ensure the robustness of the optimal decisions? Based on simulation-optimization models, an integrated approach of pattern identification and analysis of robustness was proposed in this study that focuses on the impact of parameter uncertainty in water quality modeling. Here the pattern represents the discernable regularity of solutions for load reduction under multiple parameter sets. Pattern identification is achieved by using a hybrid clustering analysis (i.e., Ward-Hierarchical and K-means), which was flexible and efficient in analyzing Lake Bali near the Yangtze River in China. The results demonstrated that urban domestic nutrient load is the most potential source that should be reduced, and there are two patterns for Total Nitrogen (TN) reduction and three patterns for Total Phosphorus (TP) reduction. The patterns indicated different total reduction of nutrient loads, which reflect diverse decision preferences. The robust solution was identified by the highest accomplishment with the water quality at monitoring stations that were improved uniformly with this solution. We conducted a process analysis of robust decision-making that was based on pattern identification and uncertainty, which provides effective support for decision-making with preference under uncertainty.

  5. Marker-controlled watershed for lymphoma segmentation in sequential CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayong; Zhao, Binsheng; Wang, Liang; Zelenetz, Andrew; Schwartz, Lawrence H

    2006-07-01

    Segmentation of lymphoma containing lymph nodes is a difficult task because of multiple variables associated with the tumor's location, intensity distribution, and contrast to its surrounding tissues. In this paper, we present a reliable and practical marker-controlled watershed algorithm for semi-automated segmentation of lymphoma in sequential CT images. Robust determination of internal and external markers is the key to successful use of the marker-controlled watershed transform in the segmentation of lymphoma and is the focus of this work. The external marker in our algorithm is the circle enclosing the lymphoma in a single slice. The internal marker, however, is determined automatically by combining techniques including Canny edge detection, thresholding, morphological operation, and distance map estimation. To obtain tumor volume, the segmented lymphoma in the current slice needs to be propagated to the adjacent slice to help determine the external and internal markers for delineation of the lymphoma in that slice. The algorithm was applied to 29 lymphomas (size range, 9-53 mm in diameter; mean, 23 mm) in nine patients. A blinded radiologist manually delineated all lymphomas on all slices. The manual result served as the "gold standard" for comparison. Several quantitative methods were applied to objectively evaluate the performance of the segmentation algorithm. The algorithm received a mean overlap, overestimation, and underestimation ratios of 83.2%, 13.5%, and 5.5%, respectively. The mean average boundary distance and Hausdorff boundary distance were 0.7 and 3.7 mm. Preliminary results have shown the potential of this computer algorithm to allow reliable segmentation and quantification of lymphomas on sequential CT images.

  6. Improving predictions of the effects of extreme events, land use, and climate change on the hydrology of watersheds in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Rubianca; Jackson, Bethanna; Maxwell, Deborah; Paringit, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Due to its location within the typhoon belt, the Philippines is vulnerable to tropical cyclones that can cause destructive floods. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these risks through increases in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity. To protect populations and infrastructure, disaster risk management in the Philippines focuses on real-time flood forecasting and structural measures such as dikes and retaining walls. Real-time flood forecasting in the Philippines mostly utilises two models from the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC): the Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) for watershed modelling, and the River Analysis System (RAS) for inundation modelling. This research focuses on using non-structural measures for flood mitigation, such as changing land use management or watershed rehabilitation. This is being done by parameterising and applying the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) model to the Cagayan de Oro watershed (1400 km2) in southern Philippines. The LUCI model is capable of identifying areas providing ecosystem services such as flood mitigation and agricultural productivity, and analysing trade-offs between services. It can also assess whether management interventions could enhance or degrade ecosystem services at fine spatial scales. The LUCI model was used to identify areas within the watershed that are providing flood mitigating services and areas that would benefit from management interventions. For the preliminary comparison, LUCI and HEC-HMS were run under the same scenario: baseline land use and the extreme rainfall event of Typhoon Bopha. The hydrographs from both models were then input to HEC-RAS to produce inundation maps. The novelty of this research is two-fold: (1) this type of ecosystem service modelling has not been carried out in the Cagayan de Oro watershed; and (2) this is the first application of the LUCI model in the Philippines. Since this research is still ongoing, the results presented in this paper are

  7. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  8. A digraph permanent approach to evaluation and analysis of integrated watershed management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Dwarikanath; Agrawal, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study a deterministic quantitative model based on graph theory has been developed for the better development and management of watershed. Graph theory is an integrative systems approach to consider and model structural components of watershed management system along with the interrelationships between them concurrently and integratively. The factors responsible for the development of watershed system are identified. The degree of interaction between one subsystem with others are determined. The eigenvalue formulation is used to take care the inconsistencies arises due to inaccurate judgement in the degree of interaction between the subsystems. In this model the visual analysis is done to abstract the information using the directed graph or digraph. Then the matrix model is developed for computer processing. Variable permanent function in the form of multinomial represents the watershed system uniquely and completely by an index value. Different terms of the multinomial represent all possible subsystems of integrated watershed management system and thus different solutions for watershed management, leading to optimum solution. This index value is used to compare the suitability of the watershed with different alternatives available for its development. So the graph theory analysis presents a powerful tool to generate the optimum solutions for the decision maker for benefit of local people living in the watershed as well as the stakeholders. The proposed methodology is also demonstrated by a suitable example and is applied to the ecosystem and environment subsystem of the lake Qionghai watershed in China.

  9. Data to support "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations & Biological Condition"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets are included here to support the manuscript "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition". This...

  10. Simulation of the Surface Hydrology of Dalinghe Watershed Automatically Based on SRTM DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to simulate the surface water flow of Dalinghe watershed based on SRTM DEM.[Method] By using ArcGIS ModelBuilder,and SRTM DEM data of Dalinghe watershed as input data,the model to simulate the water flow of Dalinghe watershed was set up.[Result] The model realized automatic division of Dalinghe watershed area and extraction of stream network.In the meantime,it also made the choice of threshold during filling DEM and extracting stream network much easier.The division of the Dalinghe w...

  11. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  12. Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management: An Integrated Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002

  13. Large Wood Storage Does Not Decrease Downstream Through a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M.; Pasternack, G. B.; Senter, A. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    The storage of large wood in streams at the watershed scale has long been characterized as decreasing downstream due to a transport limitation in headwater streams, and a supply limitation in larger rivers. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis through a field study in the Upper Yuba River watershed in Northern California, USA. While most studies surveyed within the wetted channel at selected reaches of different sizes, this study measured overbank deposits of large wood in addition to those in-channel to reflect the total storage within the active river corridor, and used a stratified random sampling scheme to see if relations held at the watershed scale. The watershed is large (2,874 km2), mountainous, mostly forested, and has been dramatically altered by human activities primarily related to gold mining. One hundred fourteen field sites of varied drainage area sizes were visited, inventoried for large wood (length > 1 m, diameter > 10 cm) storage within the active river corridor, and the volume storage per river length was calculated. Inclusion of floodplains in field surveys illuminates the fact that the distribution of large wood changes within the active river corridor, while the total storage does not decrease downstream. Among many watershed-scale control variables, such as drainage area, stream order, and upslope distance, the local amount of shrub cover and bankfull channel width were the only significant predictors of large wood storage in a multiple linear regression model, both with positive coefficients. A critical literature review was also conducted to investigate the evidence for the common conceptual model. Findings were that (1) the observed downstream trend of large wood storage is largely a function of the methods employed by each study, (2) the use of storage per channel area has confounded the commonly held conceptual model, due to its correlation with channel width, and (3) there is little evidence to support the hypothesis

  14. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  15. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Personal Information Protection Law Under Legislative Procedure;China's Most Populous Province;New Marriage Law Brings New Trends;Beijing Repeals Regulations Governing Migrant Workers;A New Law to Regulate Electrical Junk in China;Highly-educated Jobless;Growing Up Alone;Internet Gambling Invades the Chinese Mainland;Dreams of Stardom;Chinese Smokers Consume1/3 of the World's Cigarettes.

  16. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's Police Force Understaffed;Newlyweds Pledge Lifelong Fidelity Before Confucius;Government Officials to Forgo "No Comment" Line;Fewer Chinese Students Study Engineering;60 Percent of Middle School Students Study-Weary;Tipping Still Not Done in China;

  17. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China has launched a crackdown on Internet pornography. Of China's Netizens, 70 percent are students and 20 percent are juveniles. According to conservative estimates, 46 percent of juvenile Netizens visit porn websites.

  18. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Ninth Congress of CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee has 880 formal delegates. This is the first timefor people representing private entrepreneurs to attend the provincial congress. In addition to eight such del-egates, there are also three representing Sino--foreign joint ventures in the province, seven from share-holding

  19. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese railway department has decided to make significant adjustments to its railway network.It is tobuild a second Beijing-Guangzhou Railway line exclusively for passenger transport.The new railway,over2.000kilometers long,will take only 10hours to cover the distance between Beijing and Guangzhou.The

  20. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    400 Million People Shake off PovertyUN World Food Program (WFP) Executive Director James Morris recently praised the Chinese government, saying, "China has lifted several hundred million people out of poverty in less than a generation. That is an extraordinary achievement." Morris congratulated the Chinese government on its "remarkable success," adding that

  1. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to a joint investigation by a group of top world companies, China has for the first time surpassed the U.S. to become the most favored destination for direct foreign investment. The Financial Times reports that the September 11th incident has provoked worries about security in the U.S among foreign investors. According to UN statistics, nearly US $50 billion of direct foreign investment was channeled into China in 2001, and still more is on its way. Foreign investment in the United States, on the other hand, dropped from its 2000 level of US $301 billion to US $125 biinon.

  2. FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    More than 600 Posionous Trees Found in Hainan;Cyber Counseling Service for Prisoners;""Super"" Maize Bred in China;English Level Improves as Proficiency in Mother Tongue Declines;Greater Proportion oF Chinese Leaders Graduates in Liberal Arts.

  3. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Non-public Owned Enterprises Burgeon Recently the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce published the results of its member enterprise 2001 survey. According to survey statistics, the total business income of

  4. Assessment of Watershed Drought Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataut, S.; Piechota, T.

    2005-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought assessment of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) using remote sensing. Lee's Ferry discharge data for Colorado river in the UCRB and the various Palmer Drought Indices (PDI) such as Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (PHDI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Palmer Z Index (ZINDX) for the five climatic divisions of the UCRB for last 100 years will be analyzed to find out the best climatic division in the UCRB for carrying out the further analysis between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from 5 km resolution Advanced Very High Radiometric Radar (AVHRR) data and the various PDI. The multivariate statistical technique called rotated principal component analysis will be carried out in the time series of the NDVI data in order to avoid multicollinearity and to extract the component that significantly explains the variance in the dataset. The corresponding significant principal scores will be correlated with the PDI to derive relationship between the NDVI and PDI. Preliminary analysis has shown that there is significant correlation between the NDVI and the various PDI, which implies that NDVI could be used as an important data source to detect and monitor the drought condition in the UCRB.

  5. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC08_2009_USDA_IN: Eight-digit Subbasin Watershed Boundaries for Indiana (United States Department of Agriculture, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is extracted from USDA, NRCS metadata -- "This data set, part of the Watershed Boundary data set (WBD), is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary...

  6. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC10_2009_USDA_IN: Ten-digit Watershed Boundaries for Indiana (United States Department of Agriculture, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is extracted from USDA, NRCS metadata -- "This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Watershed (10-digit) 5th level for...

  7. The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Park

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of permafrost active layer thickness (ALT during 1948–2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE. The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while ALT in North American watersheds showed decreases. An opposition of ALT variations implicated with climate and hydrological variables was most significant when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher Annual Thawing Index in the Mackenzie and Yukon Basins was offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing Annual Thawing Index together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. While it is widely believed that ALT will increase with global warming, this hypothesis may need modification because the ALT also shows responses to variations in snow depth and soil moisture that can over-ride the effect of air temperature. The dependence of the hydrological variables driven by the atmosphere further increases the uncertainty in future changes of the permafrost active layer.

  8. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  9. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  10. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  11. Streamflow and Soil Moisture of Agroforestry and Grass Watersheds in Hilly Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-Cai; TIAN Guang-Long; SHU Dong-Cai; LIN San-Yi; LIU Shu-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted in a hilly area of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, to compare the streamflow and soil moisture in two upland watersheds with different land use patterns. One was an agroforestry watershed, which consisted mainly of trees with alder (Alnus cremastogyne Burkill) and cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) planted in belts or strips with a coverage of about 46%, and the other was a grassland primarily composed of lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb.), filamentary clematis (Clematis filamentosa Dunn) and common eulaliopsis (Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C. E. Hubb) with a coverage of about 44%. Streamflow measurement with a hydrograph established at the watershed outlet showed that the average annual streamflow per 100 mm rainfall from 1983 to 1992 was 0.36 and 1.08 L s-1 km-2 for the agroforestry watershed and the grass watershed, respectively. This showed that the streamflow of the agroforestry watershed was reduced by 67% when compared to that of the grass watershed. The peak average monthly streamflow in the agroforestry watershed was over 5 times lower than that of the grass watershed and lagged by one month. In addition, the peak streamflow during a typical rainfall event of 38.3 mm in August 1986 was 37% lower in the agroforestry watershed than in the grass watershed. Results of the moisture contents of the soil samples from 3 slope locations (upper, middle and lower slopes) indicated that the agroforestry watershed maintained generally higher soil moisture contents than the grass watershed within 0-20 and 20-80 cm soil depths for the upper slope, especially for the period from May through July. For the other (middle and lower) slopes, soil moisture contents within 20-80 cm depth in the agroforestry watershed was generally lower than those in the grass watershed, particularly in September, revealing that water consumption by trees took place mainly below the plow layer. Therefore, agroforestry land use types might

  12. Influence of Agricultural Activity on Nitrogen Budget in Chinese and Japanese Watersheds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. D. KIMURA; K. KURAMOCHI; CAI Zu-Cong; M. SAITO; YAN Xiao-Yuan; R. HATANO; A. HAYAKAWA; K. KOHYAMA; TI Chao-Pu; DENG Mei-Hua; M. HOJITO; S. ITAHASHI

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the effect of agricultural activity on nitrogen (N) budget at the watershed scale,a comparative study was conducted at two Japanese watersheds,the Shibetsu River watershed (SRW) and Upper-Naka River watershed (UNRW),and one Chinese watershed,the Jurong Reservoir watershed (JRW).The total area and the proportion of agricultural area (in parentheses) of the watersheds were 685 (51%),1 299 (21%),and 46 km2 (55%) for SRW,UNRW,and JRW,respectively.The main agricultural land use in SRW was forage grassland,while paddy fields occupied the highest proportion of cropland in UNRW (11% of total area) and JRW (31% of total area).The farmland surplus N was 61,48,and 205 kg N ha-1 year-1 for SRW,UNRW,and JRW,respectively.The total input and output for the whole watershed were 89 and 76,83 and 61,and 353 and 176 kg N ha-1 year-1 for SRW,UNRW,and JRW,respectively.The proportion of discharged N to net anthropogenic N input was 31%,37%,and 1.7% for SRW,UNRW,and JRW,respectively.The two watersheds in Japan showed similar proportions of discharged N to those of previous reports,while the watershed in China (JRW) showed a totally different characteristic compared to previous studies.The high N input in JRW did not increase the amount of discharged N at the outlet of the watershed due to high proportions of paddy fields and water bodies,which was an underestimated N sink at the landscape scale.

  13. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  14. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  15. Climate and Land Use Change Effects on Ecological Resources in Three Watersheds: A Synthesis Report (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this final report is to provide a summary of climate change impacts to selected watersheds and recommendations for how to improve the process of conducting watershed assessments in the future.

  16. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  17. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  18. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  19. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  20. Urban Stormwater Temperature Surges: A Central US Watershed Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J. Zeiger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of urban land use can include increased stormwater runoff temperature (Tw leading to receiving water quality impairment. There is therefore a need to target and mitigate sources of thermal pollution in urban areas. However, complex relationships between urban development, stormwater runoff and stream water heating processes are poorly understood. A nested-scale experimental watershed study design was used to investigate stormwater runoff temperature impacts to receiving waters in a representative mixed-use urbanizing watershed of the central US. Daily maximum Tw exceeded 35.0 °C (threshold for potential mortality of warm-water biota at an urban monitoring site for a total of five days during the study period (2011–2013. Sudden increases of more than 1.0 °C within a 15 min time interval of Tw following summer thunderstorms were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p < 0.01 to cumulative percent urban land use (r2 = 0.98; n = 29. Differences in mean Tw between monitoring sites were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p = 0.02 to urban land use practices, stream distance and increasing discharge. The effects of the 2012 Midwest USA drought and land use on Tw were also observed with maximum Tw 4.0 °C higher at an urban monitoring site relative to a rural site for 10.5 h. The current work provides quantitative evidence of acute increases in Tw related to urban land use. Results better inform land managers wishing to create management strategies designed to preserve suitable thermal stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.