WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleared science reviews

  1. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  2. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  3. Science & technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is the August, 1995 issue of the Science and Technology review, a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory publication. It contains two major articles, one on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - as applied to materials engineering studies, and one on risk assessment, in this case looking primarily at a health care problem. Separate articles will be indexed from this journal to the energy database.

  4. Science& Technology Review October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2003-10-01

    The October 2003 issue of Science & Technology Review consists of the following articles: (1) Award-Winning Technologies from Collaborative Efforts--Commentary by Hal Graboske; (2) BASIS Counters Airborne Bioterrorism--The Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System is the first integrated biodefense system; (3) In the Chips for the Coming Decade--A new system is the first full-field lithography tool for use at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths; (4) Smoothing the Way to Print the Next Generation of Computer Chips--With ion-beam thin-film planarization, the reticles and projection optics made for extreme ultraviolet lithography are nearly defect-free; (5) Eyes Can See Clearly Now--The MEMS-based adaptive optics phoropter improves the process of measuring and correcting eyesight aberrations; (6) This Switch Takes the Heat--A thermally compensated Q-switch reduces the light leakage on high-average-power lasers; (7) Laser Process Forms Thick, Curved Metal Parts--A new process shapes parts to exact specifications, improving their resistance to fatigue and corrosion cracking; and (8) Characterizing Tiny Objects without Damaging Them--Livermore researchers are developing nondestructive techniques to probe the Lilliputian world of mesoscale objects.

  5. Science & Technology Review March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, V E

    2005-01-25

    This issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) Enhanced National Security through International Research Collaborations--Commentary by Stephen G. Cochran; (2) Building Networks of Trust through Collaborative Science--Livermore scientists are leading collaborative science and technology projects with colleagues from Central and South Asia and the Middle East; (3) Tracing the Steps in Nuclear Material Trafficking--The Laboratory.s nuclear science expertise is helping to thwart the illicit trafficking of nuclear material; (4) Looking at Earth in Action--Geophysicists at Livermore are using laboratory experiments to examine such issues as how best to store nuclear wastes and how to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases; and (5) Gamma-Ray Bursts Shower the Universe with Metals--Computer models indicate that gamma-ray bursts from dying stars may be important sources of elements such as iron, zinc, titanium, and copper.

  6. A gallbladder tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma: report of case and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaouti Merieme; Znati Kaoutar; Jahid Ahmed; Zouaidia Fouad; Bernoussi Zakiya; Fakir Youssef El; Mahassini Najat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the gallbladder is extremely rare, with reported frequencies of less than 0.6% in large autopsy reviews. Only 40 cases were reported in the literature. We report a first case of gallbladder polypoid tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which demonstrates the importance of radiological tests, histology and immunohistochemistry when making a definitive diagnosis. These examinations also allow differentiating metastatic clear cel...

  7. Science & Technology Review June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-04-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on ensuring our nation's security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  8. Science & Technology Review June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  9. Science& Technology Review November 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Science & Technology Review covers the following topics: (1) We Will Always Need Basic Science--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) When Semiconductors Go Nano--experiments and computer simulations reveal some surprising behavior of semiconductors at the nanoscale; (3) Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight--A microelectrode array is being developed for a retinal prosthesis; (4) Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation--Inductrack, a Livermore concept to levitate train cars using permanent magnets, will be demonstrated on a 120-meter-long test track; and (5) Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality--Laboratory-designed fuel processor gives power boost to dime-size fuel cell.

  10. Science & Technology Review October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-08-21

    Livermore researchers won five R&D 100 awards in R&D Magazine's annual competition for the top 100 industrial innovations worldwide. This issue of Science & Technology Review highlights the award-winning technologies: noninvasive pneumothorax detector, microelectromechanical system-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, large-area imager, hyper library of linear solvers, and continuous-phase-plate optics system manufactured using magnetorheological finishing. Since 1978, Laboratory researchers have received 118 R&D 100 awards. The R&D 100 logo (on the cover and p 1) is reprinted courtesy of R&D Magazine.

  11. CMB anisotropy science: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Challinor, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides us with our most direct observational window to the early universe. Observations of the temperature and polarization anisotropies in the CMB have played a critical role in defining the now-standard cosmological model. In this contribution we review some of the basics of CMB science, highlighting the role of observations made with ground-based and balloon-borne Antarctic telescopes. Most of the ingredients of the standard cosmological model are poorly understood in terms of fundamental physics. We discuss how current and future CMB observations can address some of these issues, focusing on two directly relevant for Antarctic programmes: searching for gravitational waves from inflation via B-mode polarization, and mapping dark matter through CMB lensing.

  12. Science & Technology Review November 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K

    2002-09-25

    This months issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) High-Tech Help for Fighting Wildfires--Commentary by Leland W. Younker; (2) This Model Can Take the Heat--A physics-based simulation program to combat wildfires combines the capabilities and resources of Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos national laboratories. (3) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory. (4) A view to Kill--Livermore sensors are aimed at the ''kill'' vehicle when it intercepts an incoming ballistic missile. (5) 50th Anniversary Highlight--Biological Research Evolves at Livermore--Livermore's biological research program keeps pace with emerging national issues, from studying the effects of ionizing radiation to detecting agents of biological warfare.

  13. Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyotic cyst: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Akira; Yamazoe, Shinji; Dogru, Murat; Ogawa, Mariko; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Miyauchi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Ovaries are the primary sites of cancerous disease that is derived from endometriosis. Uterine cancer originating from endometriosis is very rare. The most frequent histological subtype of cancer derived from endometriosis is endometrioid adenocarcinoma, a subtype of clear cell carcinoma which is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 40-year-old Japanese woman with a six year history of uterine leiomyoma. The patient was clinically and radiologically suspected to have degenerative uterine myoma with a possible malignant association and underwent a transabdominal total hysterectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimens revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the adenomyotic cyst. A literature review of clear cell adenocarcinomas arising from uterine adenomyotic cysts (cystic adenomyosis), emphasizes the clinically and radiologically important features of this very rare entity. Clear cell carcinoma association should be suspected in patients who are under follow-up for uterine myomas and present with cystic uterine changes with solid component on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans. PMID:26530432

  14. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  15. Science& Technology Review October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K S

    2002-10-01

    The October 2002 issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) Applied Science Is a Hallmark of This Laboratory--Commentary by Hal Graboske. (2) Sending Up Signals for Genetic Variation--In situ rolling circle amplification promises to advance the detection and treatment of cancer and other diseases. (3) SiMM Is Anything But Simple--Modules of silicon microchannels and microlenses result in the smallest, most powerful, and least expensive laser diode pumps ever. (4) World's Most Powerful Solid-State Laser--A new design allows tremendous scaling up of solid-state laser power. (5) Stepping Up to Extreme Lithography--The next generation of computer chips can now be produced on a commercial scale. (6) Relief for Acute and Chronic Pain--New technology turns an ancient pain management method into a modern medical tool. (7)50th Anniversary Highlight--14 Energy and Environment: Understanding Our World--The Laboratory's energy and environmental research is an important adjunct to its core national security mission.

  16. Science& Technology Review May 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2003-05-01

    This May 2003 issue of ''Science and Technology Review'' covers the following articles: (1) ''Another Weapon in the Battle against Proliferation''; (2) ''Chemical Weapons Can't Evade This Lab'', Livermore's Forensic Science Center is certified to analyze samples collected during inspections conducted to monitor the Chemical Weapons Convention. (3) ''Bird's-Eye View Clarifies Research on the Ground'' Geobotanical remote sensing has applications in homeland security and energy resource development and provides new insights into complex ecologic systems. (4) ''Age Does Make a Difference'' Age-dating techniques and ultrasensitive technologies provide a comprehensive map of California's groundwater and indicate where it is most vulnerable to contaminants. (5) ''Reducing Aerodynamic Drag'' Simulations and experiments reveal ways to make heavy trucks more aerodynamic and fuel efficient.

  17. A review on fuzzy multi-criteria decision making land clearing for oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani Hamdani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our review paper research categorize the methods in the method of Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making (FMCDM to find the method is widely used in the case of land clearing for plantation. Model FMCDM is used to assess the parameter in multi-criteria-based decision making. The dominant percentage of the result was obtained using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP method. While the application of other methods for the same problem are Fuzzy Ordered Weighted Averaging (FOWA, Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite or Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (FELECTRE, Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS, Fuzzy, Artificial Neural Networks (FANNs has less. Some the research result also implemented hybrid in FMCDM Method to give some weight in the assessment of decision making. There was also a paper which integrates FMCDM to the GIS method on the land clearing. Therefore, it is concluded that the issue on the land clearing can be done through collaboration of several models of FMCDM, so that it can be developed by involving the decision model using multi-stakeholder model

  18. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  19. Chronic Pain Without Clear Etiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tracy; Thomas, Sarah; Stabile, Victoria; Han, Xue; Shotwell, Matthew; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Globally, 8 of the top 12 disabling conditions are related either to chronic pain or to the psychological conditions strongly associated with persistent pain. In this narrative review, we explore the demographic and psychosocial associations with chronic pain exclusively from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and compare them with current global data. One hundred nineteen publications in 28 LMICs were identified for review; associations with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, insomnia, disability, gender, age, rural/urban location, education level, income, and additional sites of pain were analyzed for each type of chronic pain without clear etiology. Of the 119 publications reviewed, pain was described in association with disability in 50 publications, female gender in 40 publications, older age in 34 publications, depression in 36 publications, anxiety in 19 publications, and multiple somatic complaints in 13 publications. Women, elderly patients, and workers, especially in low-income and low-education subgroups, were more likely to have pain in multiple sites, mood disorders, and disabilities. In high-income countries, multisite pain without etiology, female gender, and association with mood disturbance and disability may be suggestive of a central sensitization syndrome (CSS). Because each type of prevalent chronic pain without known etiology reviewed had similar associations in LMICs, strategies for assessment and treatment of chronic pain worldwide should consider the possibility of prevalent CSS. Recognition is especially critical in resource-poor areas, because treatment of CSS is vastly different than localized chronic pain. PMID:27195643

  20. Science& Technology Review September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D

    2003-09-01

    This September 2003 issue of ''Science and Technology Review'' covers the following articles: (1) ''The National Ignition Facility Is Born''; (2) ''The National Ignition Facility Comes to Life'' Over the last 15 years, thousands of Livermore engineers, scientists, and technicians as well as hundreds of industrial partners have worked to bring the National Ignition Facility into being. (3) ''Tracking the Activity of Bacteria Underground'' Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, researchers at Livermore are gaining knowledge on how bacteria work underground to break down compounds of environmental concern. (4) ''When Every Second Counts--Pathogen Identification in Less Than a Minute'' Livermore has developed a system that can quickly identify airborne pathogens such as anthrax. (5) ''Portable Radiation Detector Provides Laboratory-Scale Precision in the Field'' A team of Livermore physicists and engineers has developed a handheld, mechanically cooled germanium detector designed to identify radioisotopes.

  1. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Taru

    2014-01-01

    Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational leve...

  2. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo T; Nordström A

    2014-01-01

    Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to fiel...

  3. The Clear Sky Experience: NASA Jumpstarts an Elementary Science Teaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P. N.; Faszewski, E. E.

    2006-03-01

    Wheelock College has moved forward with a new program to produce scientifically skilled and knowledgeable pre-service elementary teachers. A science design team consisting of science and education faculty has planned and begun implementation of the program working through NASA's NOVA Program.

  4. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M. Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diag...

  5. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  6. Sscience & technology review; Science Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. This review for the month of July 1996 discusses: Frontiers of research in advanced computations, The multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimeter: Efficient measurement of high velocities, High-tech tools for the American textile industry, and Rock mechanics: can the Tuff take the stress.

  7. Adenoma clear cell carcinoma of prostatic utricle. Report of a case. Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prostatic utricle (UP) is a rudimentary structure derived from the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric), which gives rise to the female genital tract in its portion flow and Wollfianos products (mesonephric), which causes the male seminal tubes urogenital sinus and in the caudal segment. It is located in the central portion of the prostatic urethra. UP pathology is rare in the literature and only few isolated cases have been reported and rare reviews. UP neoplasms are extremely rare. The first report on the literature is the year 1967 in a man 66 years in which the diagnosis was incidental in a piece of prostatectomy. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on this rare condition from the report of a clinical case. Case report: Male patient, 15 years who presented with hematuria. the tomography showed right renal agenesis, hypertrophic left kidney and a solid mass retrovesical in prostate topography. The transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy remains informed embryonic kidney blastoma and immunohistochemical profile is specific to urothelial epithelium and glomerular (BPM CK7 strongly positive). It is involved, resecting the tumor whose pelvic pathology (AP) corresponded to clear cell adenocarcinoma UP. Pursuing a post-operative complications and remains without clinical tomographic control locoregional relapse was diagnosed 5 months after. Get chemotherapy type adriamycin-cisplatin with complete clinical response after the 2nd cycle of treatment and rapid lesion progression at the end of the 6th cycle. Was re hospitalized resecting one laterovesical mass right, leaving in situ a left laterovesical similar mass. the AP was similar to the original. Currently, the patient underwent a left nephrostomy is planned initiation of palliative chemotherapy of weekly Docetaxel type. Conclusions: Given the rarity of the disease, and little literature there is no data on evolution and sensitivity to treatment. In the case of this patient highlight the high

  8. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Yashpal Modi; Hamid Shaaban; Dron Gauchan; Michael Maroules; Nalini Parikh; Gunwant Guron

    2014-01-01

    We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staini...

  9. MADE CLEAR: Riding the waves of new science standards and environmental literacy requirements to enhance climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, D. F.; Griswold, M.; Targett, N. M.; Stylinski, C.; Merrill, J. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing development of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to engage K-12 educators in climate change education. In particular, scientists and educators can collaborate on NGSS performance expectations, materials and interpretation for instruction and assessment. This could include working together to incorporate real world science and engineering practices, such as data analysis, model development and interpretation, arguments from evidence and critical evaluation of solutions. NGSS learning progressions allow the ramping up of science relevant to climate change starting from a broad foundation in elementary school to a focus on the interdisciplinary concepts in high school. The Maryland-Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR) partnership is fostering such an integrated approach through collaborations among environmental scientists, learning scientists, K-12 educators, and informal educators in our states. First, we are engaging and assisting the state departments of education in Maryland and Delaware to inform the development and implementation of climate change science in curricula not only for inclusion in the NGSS, but also new environmental literacy requirements. Second, we are convening informal and formal educators to refine approaches and address gaps in teaching about climate change science, with a particular focus on regional consequences. Lastly, K-12 and informal educators are provided access to experts in the fields of climate science, adaptation, and energy production and conservation. This will be achieved through professional development and creation of regionally focused resources in an iterative approach, assessed and guided by learning scientists. When fully implemented, we believe that our frameworks, curricula, processes and lessons learned can serve as models for other states in developing strategies for implementing science standards that also improve literacy in

  10. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of a female urethra: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Trabelsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is an extremely rare tumour. Its histogenetic derivation remains controversial. Case report : We report a new case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra in a 56-year-old woman who presented with grossly hematuria. Urethral cystoscopy revealed a tumour protruding from the posterior urethral wall at the bladder neck. Treatment consisted of urethrocystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra. Conclusion : It appears that female urethral adenocarcinoma has more than one tissue of origin.

  11. Clear cell carcinoma of the larynx: one case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell carcinoma of the larynx is exceptional. Only six cases are described in the literature. We report a new case occurring in a 58-year-old man. The treatment consisted of a total laryngectomy with lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant irradiation. Local and regional recurrence occurred after 5 months. The patient died from the tumor's evolution 12 months after the diagnosis. The prognosis of clear cell carcinoma of the larynx is similar to the clear cell carcinoma of the lung and is unfavorable. (authors)

  12. Science & Technology Review June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-04-28

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Leader in High-Pressure Science--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Diamonds Put the Pressure on Materials--New experimental capabilities are helping Livermore scientists better understand how extreme pressure affects a material's structure; (3) Exploring the Unusual Behavior of Granular Materials--Livermore scientists are developing new techniques for predicting the response of granular materials under pressure; (4) A 1-Ton Device in a Briefcase--A new briefcase-sized tool for nuclear magnetic resonance is designed for onsite analysis of suspected chemical weapons; and (5) Targets Designed for Ignition--A series of experiments at the National Ignition Facility is helping scientists finalize the ignition target design.

  13. Science & Technology Review November 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H

    2006-09-29

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Expanded Supercomputing Maximizes Scientific Discovery--Commentary by Dona Crawford; (2) Thunder's Power Delivers Breakthrough Science--Livermore's Thunder supercomputer allows researchers to model systems at scales never before possible. (3) Extracting Key Content from Images--A new system called the Image Content Engine is helping analysts find significant but hard-to-recognize details in overhead images. (4) Got Oxygen?--Oxygen, especially oxygen metabolism, was key to evolution, and a Livermore project helps find out why. (5) A Shocking New Form of Laserlike Light--According to research at Livermore, smashing a crystal with a shock wave can result in coherent light.

  14. Science & Technology Review April 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-27

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Shaking the Foundations of Solar-System Science--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Stardust Results Challenge Astronomical Convention--The first samples retrieved from a comet are a treasure trove of surprises to Laboratory researchers; (3) Fire in the Hole--Underground coal gasification may help to meet future energy supply challenges with a production process from the past; (4) Big Physics in Small Spaces--A newly developed computer model successfully simulates particle-laden fluids flowing through complex microfluidic systems; (5) A New Block on the Periodic Table--Livermore and Russian scientists add a new block to the periodic table with the creation of element 118; and (6) A Search for Patterns and Connections--Throughout his career, Edward Teller searched for mathematical solutions to explain the physical world.

  15. Science & Technology Review May 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide III, M B

    2006-04-03

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Science and Technology Help the Nation Counter Terrorism--Commentary by Raymond J. Juzaitis; (2) Imagers Provide Eyes to See Gamma Rays--Gamma-ray imagers provide increased radiation detection capabilities and enhance the nation's arsenal for homeland security; (3) Protecting the Nation's Livestock--Foot-and-mouth disease could devastate America's livestock; a new assay provides a rapid means to detect it; (4) Measures for Measures--Laboratory physicists combine emissivity and reflectivity to achieve highly accurate temperature measurements of metal foils; and (5) Looping through the Lamb Shift--Livermore scientists measured a small perturbation in the spectra of highly ionized uranium--the first measurement of the two-loop Lamb shift in a bound state.

  16. Science & Technology Review September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-07-24

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Remembering the Laboratory's First Director - Commentary by Harold Brown; (2) Herbert F. York (1921-2009): A Life of Firsts, an Ambassador for Peace - The Laboratory's first director, who died on May 19, 2009, used his expertise in science and technology to advance arms control and prevent nuclear war; (3) Searching for Life in Extreme Environments - DNA will help researchers discover new marine species and prepare to search for life on other planets; (4) Energy Goes with the Flow - Lawrence Livermore is one of the few organizations that distills the big picture about energy resources and use into a concise diagram; and (5) The Radiant Side of Sound - An experimental method that converts sound waves into light may lead to new technologies for scientific and industrial applications.

  17. Science & Technology Review June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Safer and Even More Effective TATB - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (2) Dissolving Molecules to Improve Their Performance - Computer scientists and chemists have teamed to develop a green method for recycling a valuable high explosive that is no longer manufactured; (3) Exceptional People Producing Great Science - Postdoctoral researchers lend their expertise to projects that support the Laboratory's missions; (4) Revealing the Identities and Functions of Microbes - A new imaging technique illuminates bacterial metabolic pathways and complex relationships; and (5) A Laser Look inside Planets - Laser-driven ramp compression may one day reveal the interior structure of Earth-like planets in other solar systems.

  18. Science & Technology Review March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-01-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Seismic Science and Nonproliferation--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Sleuthing Seismic Signals--Supercomputer simulations improve the accuracy of models used to distinguish nuclear explosions from earthquakes and pinpoint their location; (3) Wind and the Grid--The Laboratory lends technical expertise to government and industry to more effectively integrate wind energy into the nation's electrical infrastructure; (4) Searching for Tiny Signals from Dark Matter--Powerful amplifiers may for the first time allow researchers to detect axions, hypothesized particles that may constitute 'dark matter', and (5) A Better Method for Self-Decontamination--A prototype decontamination system could one day allow military personnel and civilians to better treat themselves for exposure to toxic chemicals.

  19. Science & Technology Review September 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K

    2002-09-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Livermore--Poised for the Future, Commentary by Michael R. Anastasio; (2) A Hitchhiker's Guide to Early Earth--Experiments examine the possibility that the building blocks of life arrived on Earth as hitchhikers on comets; (3) A New World of Maps--More than pretty pictures, maps prepared with the tools of geographic information sciences allow researchers to find new relationships among spatial information; (4) Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Stack Up to Efficient, Clean Power--The goal of Livermore's research in solid-oxide fuel cells is electric power generated cleanly and efficiently at an affordable cost; and (5) Empowering Light, Historic Accomplishments in Laser Research--During the past 40 plus years, the laser program at Livermore has played a seminal role in taking high-energy lasers from concept to reality.

  20. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas -A Case Report and Review of the Literature-

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Dong-Gyu; Chun, Kwangjin; Lee, Seungkoo; SONG, SEO-YOUNG

    2009-01-01

    Most of the malignant neoplasms of the pancreas demonstrate features that are consistent with adenocarcinoma. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is rare and it is classified as a "miscellaneous" carcinoma. In addition, there is not an adequate systematic overview that can demonstrate its true existence as a definable entity. We report here on an unusual case of primary pancreatic clear cell carcinoma, which is the first such reported case in Kore...

  1. Potential targets for ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a review of updates and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Matsuzaki, Satoko; Kakuda, Mamoru; Okazawa, Akiko; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in surgical and medical treatments for ovarian cancer have improved prognoses. Platinum drugs in particular are pivotal for the medical treatment of ovarian cancer. However, previous studies have revealed that some histological subtypes, such as clear cell carcinoma, are resistant to medical treatment, including that with platinum drugs. Consequently, the clinical prognosis of advanced clear cell carcinoma is remarkably inferior, primarily because of its chemoresistant behavior. The ...

  2. Science & Technology Review March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Partnering to Enhance Americans Health--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research--Researchers at the University of California Davis Cancer Center and Lawrence Livermore are teaming up to fight cancer; (3) On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions--Continual research and development at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center help mitigate the consequences of toxic airborne hazards; (4) Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change--A Livermore researcher is using computer models to explore how a warmer climate may affect crop yields in California; (5) New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures--With functionally graded density impactors composed of thin metal and polyethylene films, researchers can explore new areas of experimental physics; and (6) From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller's Contributions to Shock Physics--Edward Teller's interest in shock physics led to significant developments in both basic and applied science.

  3. Science & Technology Review October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide III, M B

    2005-08-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Important Missions, Great Science, and Innovative Technology--Commentary by Cherry A. Murray; (2) NanoFoil{reg_sign} Solders with Less Heat--Soldering and brazing to join an array of materials are now Soldering and brazing to join an array of materials are now possible without furnaces, torches, or lead; (3) Detecting Radiation on the Move--An award-winning technology can detect even small amounts An award-winning technology can detect even small amounts of radioactive material in transit; (4) Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond--A mass spectrometer identifies airborne spores in less than A mass spectrometer identifies airborne spores in less than a minute with no false positives; (5) Picture Perfect with VisIt--The Livermore-developed software tool VisIt helps scientists The Livermore-developed software tool VisIt helps scientists visualize and analyze large data sets; (6) Revealing the Mysteries of Water--Scientists are using Livermore's Thunder supercomputer and new algorithms to understand the phases of water; and (7) Lightweight Target Generates Bright, Energetic X Rays--Livermore scientists are producing aerogel targets for use in inertial Livermore scientists are producing aerogel targets for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments and radiation-effects testing.

  4. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with vaginal and brain metastases: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe Samuel Momah; Dhanan Etwaru; Phillip Xiao; Vasantha Kondamudi

    2009-01-01

    There are very few cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with metastases to the vagina and brain reported in the literature. Our case study highlights this rare clinical occurrence and its associated complications including pulmonary embolism. In addition we discuss current management guidelines for treating and diagnosing the disease, and how this management improves prognosis.

  5. Science and Technology Review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1998-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on assuring our nationÕs security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the LaboratoryÕs scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publicationÕs goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  6. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  7. Science & Technology Review October/November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  8. Science & Technology Review January/February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  9. Science and Technology Review, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1998-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on assuring our nationÕs security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the LaboratoryÕs scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publicationÕs goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  10. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Daniel Barrera-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon has been described scarcely in the literature. It affects elderly men more commonly than women and usually appears in the left side of the colon. A Hispanic 41-year-old female came to the emergency room with abdominal pain, vomiting, and distension. Physical exam revealed generalized tenderness without peritoneal signs. Laboratory data was unremarkable. A CT scan showed an apple-core lesion in the distal colon. A flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed an obstructive mass that made further evaluation impossible. Exploratory surgery revealed a hard mass obstructing the descending colon, which was resected. Histopathology analysis with immunohistochemistry staining was positive for cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 10, CDX2, and villin, while it was negative for cytokeratin 7, RCC, vimentin, and CD31. These results confirmed the clear cell variant of the adenocarcinoma. Clear cell adenocarcinomas usually arise from the kidneys and Müllerian organs. Immunohistochemistry is crucial for establishing the origin of these neoplastic cells. A cytokeratin 20+/7− with positive CDX2 is highly specific and sensitive for intestinal neoplastic origin. The main treatment has been surgery alone with moderately good results. More research and information about this malignancy is needed, especially in regard to prognosis and in order to provide the best treatment option.

  11. Science & Technology Review July/August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for the months of July and August 2016, there are two features: one on Science and Technology in Support of Nuclear Nonproliferation, and another on Seeking Out Hidden Radioactive Materials. Then there are highlights are three research projects, along with a news section and patents and awards.

  12. Skull Base Clear Cell Carcinoma, Metastasis of Renal Primary Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilson Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient who presented with cranial nerve VI bilateral paresis, absence of pharyngeal reflex, dysarthria, right tongue deviation, and right facial paralysis. Imaging studies showed an expansive process in the cranial base with clivus and petrous apex osteolysis. A biopsy confirmed the presence of clear cell adenocarcinoma and suspicion of renal tumor metastases. Abdominal imaging studies revealed a mass in the right kidney. Consequently, radiotherapy was performed, and the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program.

  13. Lymph node location of a clear cell hidradenoma: report of a patient and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingaud, Claire; Costes, Valérie; Frouin, Eric; Delfour, Christophe; Cribier, Bernard; Guillot, Bernard; Szablewski, Vanessa

    2016-08-01

    Cutaneous clear cell hidradenoma is an uncommon benign adnexal tumor which is not supposed to metastasize, contrary to its rare malignant counterpart, hidradenocarcinoma. We report the case of a 49-year-old man, who had had a stable inguinal lymph node enlargement for 6 years. An excision was performed and revealed an intra-nodal tumor, made of large clear cells with abundant cytoplasm and round nuclei without atypia or mitosis. The immunohistochemical staining showed diffuse positivity for keratin AE1/AE3, keratin 5/6 and p63, and focal staining with keratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinous epithelial antigen (CEA), which underlined some ductular structures. Tumor cells were negative for renal markers PAX8 and CD10. Ki67 stained less than 1% of tumor cells. A translocation involving MAML2 gene was evidenced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. No primary cutaneous tumor was found after extensive examination. Altogether, these results are in favor of an isolated nodal hidradenoma, for which we discuss two hypothesis: a primary nodal lesion, or a 'benign metastasis' of a cutaneous tumor. Cases of morphologically benign hidradenoma with lymph node involvement are exceptional. Our case, similar to every other reported case, was associated with an excellent prognosis, supporting the idea that these patients should not be overtreated. PMID:27080562

  14. Science and Technology Review October 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livermore researchers won five R and D 100 awards in R and D Magazine's annual competition for the top 100 industrial innovations worldwide. This issue of Science and Technology Review highlights the award-winning technologies: noninvasive pneumothorax detector, microelectromechanical system-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, large-area imager, hyper library of linear solvers, and continuous-phase-plate optics system manufactured using magnetorheological finishing. Since 1978, Laboratory researchers have received 118 R and D 100 awards. The R and D 100 logo (on the cover and p 1) is reprinted courtesy of R and D Magazine

  15. Network science: a review focused on tourism

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, R; Cooper, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the methods of the science of networks with an application to the field of tourism studies. The basic definitions and computational techniques are described and a case study (Elba, Italy) used to illustrate the effect of network typology on information diffusion. A static structural characterization of the network formed by destination stakeholders is derived from stakeholder interviews and website link analysis. This is followed by a dynamic analysis of the information diffusion process within the destination demonstrating that stakeholder cohesion and adaptive capacity have a positive effect on information diffusion. The outcomes and the implications of this analysis for improving destination management are discussed.

  16. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  17. Science and Technology Review June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.

    2002-06-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Fighting Bioterrorism, Fighting Cancer; (2) A Two-Pronged Attack on Bioterrorism--synthetic two-legged molecules will be excellent detectors of biowarfare agents and cancer cells; (3) Adaptive Optics Sharpen the View from Earth--astronomers are obtaining images with unprecedented resolution, thanks to telescopes equipped with adaptive optics developed at Livermore; (4) Experiments Re-create X Rays from Comets--Experiments using the Laboratory's electron beam ion trap and an x-ray spectrometer designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are shedding light on how comets emit x rays as they pass the Sun; (5) Chemistry--50 Years of exploring the Material World--from isotopic analysis to atomic-level simulations of material behavior, Livermore's chemists and materials scientists apply their expertise to fulfill the Laboratory's mission.

  18. Review of compartmental analysis in ecosystem science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The compartment model has a large number of applications in ecosystem science. An attempt is made to outline the problem areas and objectives for which this type of model has particular advantages. The areas identified are an adequate model of tracer movement through an undisturbed but non-equilibrium ecosystem; an adequate model of the movement of material in greater than tracer quantity through an ecosystem near steady state; a minimal model based on limited data; a tool for extrapolating past trends; a framework for the summarization of large data sets; and a theoretical tool for exploring and comparing limited aspects of ecosystem dynamics. The review is set in an historical perspective which helps explain why these models were adopted in ecology. References are also provided to literature which documents available mathematical techniques in an ecological context.

  19. Science and Technology Review September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This September 2003 issue of ''Science and Technology Review'' covers the following articles: (1) ''The National Ignition Facility Is Born''; (2) ''The National Ignition Facility Comes to Life'' Over the last 15 years, thousands of Livermore engineers, scientists, and technicians as well as hundreds of industrial partners have worked to bring the National Ignition Facility into being. (3) ''Tracking the Activity of Bacteria Underground'' Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, researchers at Livermore are gaining knowledge on how bacteria work underground to break down compounds of environmental concern. (4) ''When Every Second Counts--Pathogen Identification in Less Than a Minute'' Livermore has developed a system that can quickly identify airborne pathogens such as anthrax. (5) ''Portable Radiation Detector Provides Laboratory-Scale Precision in the Field'' A team of Livermore physicists and engineers has developed a handheld, mechanically cooled germanium detector designed to identify radioisotopes

  20. Science Books, A Quarterly Review, Volume 8 Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This quarterly journal reviews books in different science fields which could be used by teachers in elementary school, secondary school, and in the first two years of college. Not only are the textbooks reviewed, but trade books and reference works in pure and applied sciences are included. Annotations are listed in order of Dewey Decimal…

  1. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  2. Peer Review and the Relevance of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alister Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent science-policy debates have emphasised a growing role for science in helping to address some of society's most pressing challenges such as global environmental change, caring for the needs of ageing populations, and competitiveness in a global age. Other 'relevance' pressures include drives for public accountability, pressure for the 'democratisation' of science and demands from industry for usable knowledge. Underlying the question of the social relevance of science is the matter of d...

  3. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at…

  4. Impacts and Viability of Open Source Software on Earth Science Metadata Clearing House and Service Registry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilone, D.; Cechini, M. F.; Mitchell, A.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Science applications typically deal with large amounts of data and high throughput rates, if not also high transaction rates. While Open Source is frequently used for smaller scientific applications, large scale, highly available systems frequently fall back to "enterprise" class solutions like Oracle RAC or commercial grade JEE Application Servers. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides end-to-end capabilities for managing NASA's Earth science data from multiple sources - satellites, aircraft, field measurements, and various other programs. A core capability of EOSDIS, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO), is a highly available search and order clearinghouse of over 100 million pieces of science data that has evolved from its early R&D days to a fully operational system. Over the course of this maturity ECHO has largely transitioned from commercial frameworks, databases, and operating systems to Open Source solutions...and in some cases, back. In this talk we discuss the progression of our technological solutions and our lessons learned in the areas of: ? High performance, large scale searching solutions ? GeoSpatial search capabilities and dealing with multiple coordinate systems ? Search and storage of variable format source (science) data ? Highly available deployment solutions ? Scalable (elastic) solutions to visual searching and image handling Throughout the evolution of the ECHO system we have had to evaluate solutions with respect to performance, cost, developer productivity, reliability, and maintainability in the context of supporting global science users. Open Source solutions have played a significant role in our architecture and development but several critical commercial components remain (or have been reinserted) to meet our operational demands.

  5. Science and Technology Review May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-05-01

    The following two abstracts are for the 2 feature stories in this issue of ''Science and Technology Review''. (1) ''Leveraging Science and Technology in the National Interest''--A sampling of current projects at Lawrence Livermore demonstrates the many ways in which the Laboratory's science and technology support Department of Defense missions. These projects range from engineering and fabricating munitions and explosives to developing the advanced computer codes that optimize warhead design or assess their hazards. The Penetration Augmented Munition is a portable, multistage weapon that not only provides offensive capability for diminishing adversaries' mobility and capability but also gives US soldiers an additional margin of security in a hostile encounter. Livermore's fiber-composite sabot makes weapons more lethal and is particularly effective in tank warfare. The GLO (global local optimizer) code optimizes the design of shaped-charge warheads, while the CHEETAH thermochemical code improves explosives formulation. CALE, a multiuse mechanical code, is used to help the Air Force assess missile launch site safety and in particular to predict hazards from propellant that falls to the ground when rockets misfire. ALE3D, now being upgraded, will increase the capability of codes to assess safety hazards. (2) ''Extracting Valuable Information from Acoustic Waves''--Lawrence Livermore researchers are developing advanced techniques for interpreting acoustic signals, focusing on complex algorithms that at times mimic the reasoning processes of the human brain. Three current acoustic signal-processing projects, involving heart valve classification, oil exploration, and large-structure analysis, demonstrate the wide range of acoustic signal usefulness. To determine whether an artificial heart valve is intact or needs replacing, a suite of Livermore algorithms sift through heart and body sounds to

  6. Science and Technology Review, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following two abstracts are for the 2 feature stories in this issue of ''Science and Technology Review''. (1) ''Forewarnings of Coming Hazards''--The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore is an emergency response organization chartered to aid Department of Energy and Department of Defense sites when radioactive or toxic material is released into the atmosphere. Developed from studies beginning in the 1960s, it became a funded operational program in the late 1970s. Using an emergency response modeling system now in its third generation, ARAC scientists predict how atmospheric releases that could affect public health and safety will disperse. The ARAC system has evolved through experience gained during regular training exercises and in over 160 alerts and emergency responses to date. The work of ARAC scientists described in the article demonstrates the different modeling challenges they encounter in preparing for and responding to a variety of atmospheric emergencies. (2) ''Unraveling the Mystery of Detonation''--Laboratory experts in the detonation of high explosives are putting the computational power of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to the test. Their research centers on insensitive explosives, whose behavior during detonation is slower and more complex than that of sensitive explosives. The article features three research projects, which are exploring detonation from different angles: the initiation phase, the molecules produced during detonation, and further development of CHEETAH, a thermochemical detonation code. All research teams are using ASCI supercomputers, which have increased their ability to simulate the detonation process by a factor of 100,000

  7. Thank you to 2015 reviewers of Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Phil; Salous, Sana

    2016-04-01

    On behalf of Radio Science, AGU, and the scientific community, the editors and associate editors would like to thank everybody who reviewed manuscripts for Radio Science in 2015. Peer review is widely accepted as an indispensable part of science. The hours spent reading and commenting on manuscripts not only improve the manuscripts themselves, but also ensure the scientific rigor of future research in our field. These contributions are vital. Many of those listed below went further and reviewed three or more manuscripts for our journal, and they are indicated in italics. Overall, reviewers contributed 591 individual reviews of 282 manuscripts. Thank you once again to all our reviewers for contributing your valuable time to this essential task. We look forward to a 2016 of exciting advances in our field and communicating those advances to our community and to the broader public.

  8. Non-Diethylstilbestrol-Associated Primary Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: Two Case Reports with Immunohistochemical Studies and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shagufta T. Mufti; Hiba Hassan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Primary clear cell adenocarcinomas most commonly involve the genitourinary system, including the vagina. Previously, primary clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina have been discussed within the context of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Due to its widely proven role in the development of this carcinoma, administration of diethylstilbestrol is prohibited. We present two cases of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina from the archives of t...

  9. A review of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Review of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Education. Edited by Aldrin E. Sweeney and Sudipta Seal (University of Central Florida, 2007). Publisher: American Scientific Publishers. http://www.aspbs.com/nseehttp://www.aspbs.com/nsee

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Urea,, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. C...

  11. Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Clinicopathological Study of 6 Cases and Review of the Literature With Special Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Pinedo, Fernando; Aramburu, José Antonio; Martínez-González, Miguel Á; Arias, Dolores; Khedaoui, Radia; Suárez-Massa, Dolores; Santonja, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon dermal-based neoplasm arising on the sun-damaged skin of elderly people. Clear cell AFX is a rare variant with only 12 cases reported until the present date, all of them as case reports, except for 1 small series of 3 cases. The authors report 6 new cases and review the literature with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The clear cell variant represents 5% of AFX from their files. Histopathologically, it consists of sheets of epithelioid, pleomorphic cells, intermixed with a varying number of giant multinucleated and spindle cells, the latter arranged in a fascicular pattern. All cell types predominantly exhibit a clear, microvacuolated cytoplasm with well-demarcated cell borders. The clinical and immunohistochemical features of this variant are similar to those of the classic type. Clear cell AFX must be differentiated from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms, some of them with an aggressive clinical behavior, including clear cell melanoma, primary cutaneous and metastatic clear cell carcinomas, clear cell sarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, tumor of perivascular epithelioid cells, and distinctive dermal clear cell mesenchymal neoplasm. The clinical presentation and immunohistochemical profile play a key role in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26848640

  12. Hubble 2007: Science Year in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This book epitomizes Hubbles continuing years of glorious accomplishments, presenting a sample of the activities, operations and observations, and scientific findings from 2007. Here is our observatory. Here are a few of our talented people. Here is what we have done. NASA plans a final servicing mission to Hubble in 2008. Two powerful new instruments are to be installed, and repairs made. After the astronauts do their wonderful work, Hubble will be more capable than at any time since launch. The science community eagerly anticipates the new opportunities for research offered by a refurbished observatory. While we do not know exactly what new science stories will appear in future editions of this book, we are certain that the frontiers of science will continue to be pushed outward by the forces of human curiosity and cleverness, channeled by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  13. A Methodological Review of Computer Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus; Julnes, George; Sutinen, Erkki; Lehman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Methodological reviews have been used successfully to identify research trends and improve research practice in a variety of academic fields. Although there have been three methodological reviews of the emerging field of computer science education research, they lacked reliability or generalizability. Therefore, because of the capacity for a…

  14. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tezval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.

  15. Science and Technology Review December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pruneda, J.H.

    2000-12-01

    This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''Computational Know-How Advances Materials Science''. (2) ''Following Materials over Time and Space'' Large-scale simulations, performed over an enormous range of length and time scales, enable researchers to advance their understanding of material behavior. (3) ''The Art of Systems Science'' Systems scientists practice the multidisciplinary art of gathering information and constructing the systems models needed for informed decision making. (4) ''A Solution for Carbon Dioxide Overload''. (5) ''Preparing for Strong Earthquakes''.

  16. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotom...

  17. Peer review, program officers and science funding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Roebber

    Full Text Available Increased competition for research funding has led to growth in proposal submissions and lower funding-success rates. An agent-based model of the funding cycle, accounting for variations in program officer and reviewer behaviors, for a range of funding rates, is used to assess the efficiency of different proposal-submission strategies. Program officers who use more reviewers and require consensus can improve the chances of scientists submitting fewer proposals. Selfish or negligent reviewers reduce the effectiveness of submitting more proposals, but have less influence as available funding declines. Policies designed to decrease proposal submissions reduce reviewer workload, but can lower the quality of funded proposals. When available funding falls below 10-15% in this model, the most effective strategy for scientists to maintain funding is to submit many proposals.

  18. Science Teacher Learning Progressions: A Review of Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.; Plasman, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    Learning progressions are the successively more sophisticated ways of thinking about an idea that follow one another over a broad span of time. This review examines the research on science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in order to refine ideas about science teacher learning progressions and how to support them. Research published…

  19. Science & Technology Review March/April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2008-01-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Science and Security in Sharp Focus--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Extending the Search for Extrasolar Planets--The Gemini Planet Imager will delve deep into the universe to identify planets that cannot be detected with current instrumentation; (3) Standardizing the Art of Electron-Beam Welding--The Laboratory's EBeam Profiler makes electron-beam welds consistent and improves quality control; (4) Molecular Building Blocks Made of Diamonds--Livermore physicists are exploring the electrical properties of diamondoids, tiny molecules of diamond; and (5) Animation Brings Science to Life--Animation helps scientists and engineers effectively communicate their ideas and research in a visually compelling way.

  20. Science and technology review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-10-01

    This month`s issue contains articles entitled Livermore Science and Technology Garner Seven 1997 R&D 100 Awards; New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions; Compact More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-free Thin Film Systems, A New Precision Cutting Tool; The Femtosecond Laser; MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonoics Systems, The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil; Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage; and Compact Storage Management Software: The Next Generation.

  1. Science & Technology Review January/February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2006-12-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Another Step for High-Energy-Density Science and Teller's Legacy--Commentary by George H. Miller. (2) Titan Leads the Way in Laser-Matter Science--Livermore's Titan laser combines long- and short-pulse lasers to explore high-energy-density science. (3) Identifying the Source of Stolen Nuclear Materials--Nuclear forensic scientists are using advanced techniques to discover the exact nature of interdicted radiological and nuclear materials, their age and origin, and where legitimate control was lost. (4) Tiny Tubes Make the Flow Go--Membranes made up of billions of tiny carbon tubes 50,000 times slimmer than a human hair allow liquids and gases to flow through at astonishingly fast speeds. (5) Acidic Microbe Community Fosters the Unique--In an abandoned mine, where the pH can be even lower than zero, communities of acidophilic microbes produce hundreds of unusual proteins.

  2. Regime for Bowel Preparation in Patients Scheduled to Colonoscopy: Low-Residue Diet or Clear Liquid Diet? Evidence From Systematic Review With Power Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Ma, Li; Yi, Li-Juan; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Clear liquid diet (CLD) is used to perform bowel preparation before colonoscopy traditionally, but several clinical studies indicated that low-residue diet (LRD) generates equal effects to CLD and a conclusive conclusion has not yet been yielded. The systematic review was performed to address this conflict and facilitate informed decision-making eventually. To capture randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LRD with CLD in terms of bowel preparation, a search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Direct, recent conference abstracts, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov through May 2015. We performed all meta-analyses based on fixed- or random-effects model, which is generated from clinical characteristics and methodology. Moreover, the G*Power software was adopted to achieve statistical power for each outcome. In total, we captured 109 potential citations at initial search stage and 2 topic-related articles were included through other sources. After critical appraisal, 7 RCTs were eligible for our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses generated similar effects in bowel preparation quality, efficacy of colon cleansing, and compliance with recommended dietary regime when LRD versus CLD regime, but patients who were prescribed to receive LRD have slightly better tolerance (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) and tended to repeat the same preparation regime in future (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26) relative to patients in CLD. Importantly, both regimes resulted in similar adverse events (AEs). With the best available evidence, LRD could be recommended to be as standard regime for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. PMID:26735547

  3. 75 FR 82489 - Process for Submissions for Review of Security-Based Swaps for Mandatory Clearing and Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... a CCP for securities transactions is a clearing agency as defined in the Exchange Act and is... methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form( http://www.sec.gov/rules/proposed...-based swaps, for the purpose of including transactions and entities that have been structured to...

  4. Science and Technology Review September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-09-01

    This review consists of the following titles; The Laboratory in the News; Life Performance of Complex Systems; A Better Picture of Aging Materials; Researchers Determine Chernobyl Liquidators' Exposure; and Target Chamber's Dedication Marks a Giant Milestone.

  5. Science & Technology Review July/August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2008-05-27

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Science Translated for the Greater Good--Commentary by Steven D. Liedle; (2) The New Face of Industrial Partnerships--An entrepreneurial spirit is blossoming at Lawrence Livermore; (3) Monitoring a Nuclear Weapon from the Inside--Livermore researchers are developing tiny sensors to warn of detrimental chemical and physical changes inside nuclear warheads; (4) Simulating the Biomolecular Structure of Nanometer-Size Particles--Grand Challenge simulations reveal the size and structure of nanolipoprotein particles used to study membrane proteins; and (5) Antineutrino Detectors Improve Reactor Safeguards--Antineutrino detectors track the consumption and production of fissile materials inside nuclear reactors.

  6. Science and Technology Review March 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pruneda, J H

    2000-03-01

    The contents of this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory newsletter include the following: (1) The Laboratory in the News; (2) Commentary by George Miller--Reaping Unexpected Benefits from the Petawatt Laser Breakthrough; (3) The Amazing Power of the Petawatt--For three years, the Petawatt laser was the most powerful laser in the world, pushing electrons toward the speed of light and accomplishing some remarkable science in the process; (4) Building a Virtual Time Machine--A powerful new computer code simulates geologic changes eons into the future at Yucca Mountain, a potential underground nuclear waste repository; (5) Research Highlight: Dead Sea Explosions Trigger International Cooperation; and (6) Patents and Awards; (7) Abstracts.

  7. Science and technology review: June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The first feature article is a survey of four research projects showing how theory and modeling efforts by scientist in the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate at LLNL are advancing the understanding of the property of materials with consideration of underlying structures. The second feature article discusses Livermore and DOE`s Oakland Operations Office teaming up to decontaminate, decommission, and close out--on time and under budget--the Ann Arbor Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility in Michigan. Two research highlights on Mammoth Mountain CO{sub 2} mystery and osteoporosis are also included.

  8. Science and technology review: June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first feature article is a survey of four research projects showing how theory and modeling efforts by scientist in the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate at LLNL are advancing the understanding of the property of materials with consideration of underlying structures. The second feature article discusses Livermore and DOE's Oakland Operations Office teaming up to decontaminate, decommission, and close out--on time and under budget--the Ann Arbor Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility in Michigan. Two research highlights on Mammoth Mountain CO2 mystery and osteoporosis are also included

  9. Science and Technology Review March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory newsletter include the following: (1) The Laboratory in the News; (2) Commentary by George Miller--Reaping Unexpected Benefits from the Petawatt Laser Breakthrough; (3) The Amazing Power of the Petawatt--For three years, the Petawatt laser was the most powerful laser in the world, pushing electrons toward the speed of light and accomplishing some remarkable science in the process; (4) Building a Virtual Time Machine--A powerful new computer code simulates geologic changes eons into the future at Yucca Mountain, a potential underground nuclear waste repository; (5) Research Highlight: Dead Sea Explosions Trigger International Cooperation; and (6) Patents and Awards; (7) Abstracts

  10. 75 FR 81315 - Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ..., Instrumentation & Facilities Program, Division of Earth Sciences, Room 785, National Science Foundation, 4201... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  11. Exploring Peer Review in the Computer Science Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In computer science, students could benefit from more opportunities to learn important, high-level concepts and to improve their learning skills. Peer review is one method to encourage this by providing students with the opportunity to evaluate other people's work and to receive feedback on their own projects. This allows for rich learning experience but it is not immediately obvious how to create a programming project review that will improve the students' conceptual understanding, require higher level thinking, and be engaging. The current literature does not typically address differences between review implementations or provide reasons for design decisions. This work explored how two different types of reviews affected the students' learning of concepts, high-level thinking, and engagement. There were indications that the type of review affected how well students addressed the concept they were reviewing and the comments' length. This shows that the review's type may affect student engagement and conceptu...

  12. Science and Technology Review October 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1999-09-01

    The following titles are in the review: The Laboratory in the News; Commentary about the year's R and D 100 Honors; The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move; From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property; High-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining; Breakthrough Design for Accelerators; New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution; and PEREGRINE{trademark} Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors.

  13. Science and Technology Review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. Topics discussed in this August 1996 issue are: Keeping the nuclear stockpile safe, secure, and reliable; Molten salt takes the bang out of high explosives; Security clearances meet the electronic age; and Exploring oil fields with crosshole electromagnetic induction.

  14. Science and Technology Review October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following titles are in the review: The Laboratory in the News; Commentary about the year's R and D 100 Honors; The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move; From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property; High-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining; Breakthrough Design for Accelerators; New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution; and PEREGRINEtrademark Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors

  15. Science and Technology Review September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''Technology Transfer Takes a Team''. (2) ''Zeroing In on Genes'' With Gene Recovery Microdissection, sequencing an entire genome to find its genes will no longer be necessary. (3) ''Big Glass for a Big Laser'' Together, Livermore and two leading laser glass producers have developed a revolutionary new method for making big pieces of high-quality laser glass. (4) ''Lasershot Makes Its Mark'' The Lasershot Marking System creates permanent, high-resolution identification marks on safety-critical metal parts, without weakening the part. (5) ''Tracking the Global Spread of Advanced Technology'' The Center for Global Security Research takes on the challenge of analyzing and raising awareness of the potential national security threats posed by advances in science and technology.

  16. Science and Technology Review April 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2004-02-24

    This months issue has the following articles: (1)''Computing Science: One Arrow in the Quiver for Homeland Security''--Commentary by Wayne Shotts; (2) ''On the Front Lines of Biodefense''--The Laboratory's pathogen bioinformatics group is developing ways to rapidly identify microbes that could pose a threat to the nation's citizens, livestock, and crops. (3) ''Defending against Corrosion''--Livermore researchers are designing a rugged system to prevent nuclear wastes from seeping into the environment at the proposed underground repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. (4) ''Engine Shows Diesel Efficiency without the Emissions''--Computer models are helping Laboratory engineers better understand the homogeneous compression charge ignition engine, a fuel-efficient engine with reduced emissions.

  17. Science and Technology Review April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This months issue has the following articles: (1)''Computing Science: One Arrow in the Quiver for Homeland Security''--Commentary by Wayne Shotts; (2) ''On the Front Lines of Biodefense''--The Laboratory's pathogen bioinformatics group is developing ways to rapidly identify microbes that could pose a threat to the nation's citizens, livestock, and crops. (3) ''Defending against Corrosion''--Livermore researchers are designing a rugged system to prevent nuclear wastes from seeping into the environment at the proposed underground repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. (4) ''Engine Shows Diesel Efficiency without the Emissions''--Computer models are helping Laboratory engineers better understand the homogeneous compression charge ignition engine, a fuel-efficient engine with reduced emissions

  18. Exploring Peer Review in the Computer Science Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Scott; Perez-Quinones, Manuel A.

    2009-01-01

    In computer science, students could benefit from more opportunities to learn important, high-level concepts and to improve their learning skills. Peer review is one method to encourage this by providing students with the opportunity to evaluate other people's work and to receive feedback on their own projects. This allows for rich learning experience but it is not immediately obvious how to create a programming project review that will improve the students' conceptual understanding, require h...

  19. Science review of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal combustion engines used in transportation produce about 23% of the UK's carbon dioxide emission, up from 14% in 1980. The current science described in this paper suggests that there could be 6-15% improvements in internal combustion fuel efficiency in the coming decade, although filters to meet emission legislation reduce these gains. Using these engines as hybrids with electric motors produces a reduction in energy requirements in the order of 21-28%. Developments beyond the next decade are likely to be dominated by four topics: emission legislation and emission control, new fuels, improved combustion and a range of advanced concepts for energy saving. Emission control is important because current methods for limiting nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions imply extra energy consumption. Of the new fuels, non-conventional fossil-derived fuels are associated with larger greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum-based fuels, while a vehicle propelled by fuel cells consuming non-renewable hydrogen does not necessarily offer an improvement in emissions over the best hybrid internal combustion engines. Improved combustion may be developed for both gasoline and diesel fuels and promises better efficiency as well as lower noxious emissions without the need for filtering. Finally, four advanced concepts are considered: new thermodynamic cycles, a Rankine bottoming cycle, electric turbo-compounding and the use of thermoelectric devices. The latter three all have the common theme of trying to extract energy from waste heat, which represents about 30% of the energy input to an internal combustion engine

  20. Science and Technology Review, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Upadhye, R.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The feature articles are `Taking Lasers beyond the National Ignition Facility` and `Jumpin` Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen`. The first article describes the ultimate goal of laser fusion as the production of electricity by inertial confinement fusion. Advances in diode-laser technology promise to take another step closer to that goal. The latter article discusses a Laboratory team`s efforts to provide evidence for the metallization of hydrogen based on the team`s expertise in shock compression. A commentary on `The Next Frontiers of Advanced Lasers Research is provided, and a research highlight is given on `Modeling Human Joints and Prosthetic Implants.

  1. Peer review versus editorial review and their role in innovative science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Risch, Jesaka Ahau; Anderlini, Serena; Arguriou, Petros; Armendariz, Aaron Zolen; Bains, William; Baker, Clark; Barnes, Martin; Barnett, Jonathan; Baumgartner, Michael; Baumgartner, Thomas; Bendall, Charles A; Bender, Yvonne S; Bichler, Max; Biermann, Teresa; Bini, Ronaldo; Blanco, Eduardo; Bleau, John; Brink, Anthony; Brown, Darin; Burghuber, Christopher; Calne, Roy; Carter, Brian; Castaño, Cesar; Celec, Peter; Celis, Maria Eugenia; Clarke, Nicky; Cockrell, David; Collins, David; Coogan, Brian; Craig, Jennifer; Crilly, Cal; Crowe, David; Csoka, Antonei B; Darwich, Chaza; Del Kebos, Topiciprin; Derinaldi, Michele; Dlamini, Bongani; Drewa, Tomasz; Dwyer, Michael; Eder, Fabienne; de Palma, Raúl Ehrichs; Esmay, Dean; Rött, Catherine Evans; Exley, Christopher; Falkov, Robin; Farber, Celia Ingrid; Fearn, William; Felsmann, Sophie; Flensmark, Jarl; Fletcher, Andrew K; Foster, Michaela; Fountoulakis, Kostas N; Fouratt, Jim; Blanca, Jesus Garcia; Sotelo, Manuel Garrido; Gittler, Florian; Gittler, Georg; Gomez, Juan; Gomez, Juan F; Polar, Maria Grazia Gonzales; Gonzalez, Jossina; Gösselsberger, Christoph; Habermacher, Lynn; Hajek, Michael; Hakala, Faith; Haliburton, Mary-Sue; Hankins, John Robert; Hart, Jason; Hasslberger, Sepp; Hennessey, Donalyn; Herrmann, Andrea; Hersee, Mike; Howard, Connie; Humphries, Suzanne; Isharc, Laeeth; Ivanovski, Petar; Jenuth, Stephen; Jerndal, Jens; Johnson, Christine; Keleta, Yonas; Kenny, Anna; Kidd, Billie; Kohle, Fritz; Kolahi, Jafar; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Kostova, Lyubov; Kumar, Arunachalam; Kurosawa, Alejandro; Lance, Tony; Lechermann, Michael; Lendl, Bernhard; Leuchters, Michael; Lewis, Evan; Lieb, Edward; Lloyd, Gloria; Losek, Angelika; Lu, Yao; Maestracci, Saadia; Mangan, Dennis; Mares, Alberto W; Barnett, Juan Mazar; McClain, Valerie; McNair, John Sydney; Michael, Terry; Miller, Lloyd; Monzani, Partizia; Moran, Belen; Morris, Mike; Mößmer, Georg; Mountain, Johny; Phuthe, Onnie Mary Moyo; Muñoz, Marcos; Nakken, Sheri; Wambui, Anne Nduta; Neunteufl, Bettina; Nikolić, Dimitrije; Oberoi, Devesh V; Obmode, Gregory; Ogar, Laura; Ohara, Jo; Rybine, Naion Olej; Owen, Bryan; Owen, Kim Wilson; Parikh, Rakesh; Pearce, Nicholas J G; Pemmer, Bernhard; Piper, Chris; Prince, Ian; Reid, Terence; Rindermann, Heiner; Risch, Stefan; Robbins, Josh; Roberts, Seth; Romero, Ajeandro; Rothe, Michael Thaddäus; Ruiz, Sergio; Sacher, Juliane; Sackl, Wolfgang; Salletmaier, Markus; Sanand, Jairaj; Sauerzopf, Clemens; Schwarzgruber, Thomas; Scott, David; Seegers, Laura; Seppi, David; Shields, Kyle; Siller-Matula, Jolanta; Singh, Beldeu; Sithole, Sibusio; Six, Florian; Skoyles, John R; Slofstra, Jildou; Sole, Daphne Anne; Sommer, Werner F; Sonko, Mels; Starr-Casanova, Chrislie J; Steakley, Marjorie Elizabeth; Steinhauser, Wolfgang; Steinhoff, Konstantin; Sterba, Johannes H; Steppan, Martin; Stindl, Reinhard; Stokely, Joe; Stokely, Karri; St-Pierre, Gilles; Stratford, James; Streli, Christina; Stryg, Carl; Sullivan, Mike; Summhammer, Johann; Tadesse, Amhayes; Tavares, David; Thompson, Laura; Tomlinson, Alison; Tozer, Jack; Trevisanato, Siro I; Trimmel, Michaela; Turner, Nicole; Vahur, Paul; van der Byl, Jennie; van der Maas, Tine; Varela, Leo; Vega, Carlos A; Vermaak, Shiloh; Villasenor, Alex; Vogel, Matt; von Wintzigerode, Georg; Wagner, Christoph; Weinberger, Manuel; Weinberger, Peter; Wilson, Nick; Wolfe, Jennifer Finocchio; Woodley, Michael A; Young, Ian; Zuraw, Glenn; Zwiren, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Peer review is a widely accepted instrument for raising the quality of science. Peer review limits the enormous unstructured influx of information and the sheer amount of dubious data, which in its absence would plunge science into chaos. In particular, peer review offers the benefit of eliminating papers that suffer from poor craftsmanship or methodological shortcomings, especially in the experimental sciences. However, we believe that peer review is not always appropriate for the evaluation of controversial hypothetical science. We argue that the process of peer review can be prone to bias towards ideas that affirm the prior convictions of reviewers and against innovation and radical new ideas. Innovative hypotheses are thus highly vulnerable to being "filtered out" or made to accord with conventional wisdom by the peer review process. Consequently, having introduced peer review, the Elsevier journal Medical Hypotheses may be unable to continue its tradition as a radical journal allowing discussion of improbable or unconventional ideas. Hence we conclude by asking the publisher to consider re-introducing the system of editorial review to Medical Hypotheses. PMID:23054375

  2. Science Books, A Quarterly Review, Volume 8 Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This quarterly journal reviews trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences for students in the elementary schools, in secondary school and in the first two years of college. Included are selected advanced and professional books useful for reference by students and faculty members. Annotations are listed in order of…

  3. Science Books: A Quarterly Review, Volume 8, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This quarterly journal reviews trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences for students in kindergartens, elementary schools, secondary schools, and in the first two years of college. Also included are selected advanced and professional books useful for reference by students and faculty members. Annotations are…

  4. A Review of Microbiology: An Evolving Science, Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara May

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  6. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…

  7. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  8. Calibrated peer review assignments for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J.A., II; Wang, V.Z.; Cervato, C.; Ridky, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review ??? (CPR), a web-based instructional tool developed as part of the National Science Foundation reform initiatives in undergraduate science education, allows instructors to incorporate multiple writing assignments in large courses without overwhelming the instructor. This study reports successful implementation of CPR in a large, introductory geology course and student learning of geoscience content. For each CPR assignment in this study, students studied web-based and paper resources, wrote an essay, and reviewed seven essays (three from the instructor, three from peers, and their own) on the topic. Although many students expressed negative attitudes and concerns, particularly about the peer review process of this innovative instructional approach, they also recognized the learning potential of completing CPR assignments. Comparing instruction on earthquakes and plate boundaries using a CPR assignment vs. an instructional video lecture and homework essay with extensive instructor feedback, students mastered more content via CPR instruction.

  9. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  10. Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

  11. Scientific racism: reflections on peer review, science and ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, C

    1990-01-01

    The scholars who use Social Science & Medicine in their research and teaching, who publish their work in it, participate in its peer review of manuscripts, and attend its conferences belong to various nationalities, disciplines, and cultural traditions. Our common enterprise originated in and depends upon liberal democratic social institutions, and assumes their values. With all our differences and disagreements, we are committed to scientific research in a common effort to improve human health and welfare. Our professional careers are a large part of our personal lives, so that our science, our lives, and our values are a single fabric. The present lecture is a meditation on this situation based upon my own heritage, personal experience, and career in anthropology, and on the recent publication in Social Science & Medicine of an essay that attributed the epidemiology of AIDS to racial variation. PMID:2259963

  12. Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V.; Gonzalez-Curbelo, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, Javier, E-mail: jhborges@ull.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Rodriguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs in Separation Science in the period 2009-2011 is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as stationary phases in LC, CE and GC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as pseudostationary phases in EKC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as sorbents in SPE and SPME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other uses of CNTs in separation science, as LDI substrates or in membranes. - Abstract: Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009-2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.

  13. Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The use of CNTs in Separation Science in the period 2009–2011 is reviewed. ► CNTs as stationary phases in LC, CE and GC. ► CNTs as pseudostationary phases in EKC. ► CNTs as sorbents in SPE and SPME. ► Other uses of CNTs in separation science, as LDI substrates or in membranes. - Abstract: Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009–2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.

  14. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-04-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from the year 2000 onward. Major findings include that most of the studies focused on designing systems for mobile learning, followed by a combination of evaluating the effects of mobile learning and investigating the affective domain during mobile learning. The majority of the studies were conducted in the area of life sciences in informal, elementary (5-11 years) settings. Mobile devices were used in this strand of science easily within informal environments with real-world connections. A variety of research methods were employed, providing a rich research perspective. As the use of mobile learning continues to grow, further research regarding the use of mobile technologies in all areas and levels of science learning will help science educators to expand their ability to embrace these technologies.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  16. SSNTD applications in science and technology - A brief review

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, H A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) has matured since long as a viable method of charged particle detection. The usage of this method has been successfully extended to neutron detection and gamma dose measurements as well. The etch-track mechanism has been further exploited to generate a major application area of nuclear track filters. In spite of the remarkable diversity of SSNTD applications that have emerged over the years in different fields, its potential is by no means saturated. In this article, a brief review of SSNTD applications is presented with reference to contemporary interests in science and technology. For convenience, the coverage of topics is organized under broad categories of Nuclear Physics, Materials Research, Geology, Environmental Science and allied technologies. While identifying high interest areas, those with limited but innovative applications are also mentioned. In some cases, the important results are quoted for the purpose of illustrating the strength of...

  17. Science and Technology Review April/May 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-03-03

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the focus is on science and technology research to ensure the nation's security. That expertise is also applied to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight time a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for April/May 2011, the features are 'Dealing with the Nonlinear Battlefield' and 'From Video to Knowledge.' Research highlights are 'Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency,' Going Deep with MEGa-Rays' and 'Energy on Demand.'

  18. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations in the fields of earth and planetary science are examined in a series of annual reviews. Topics addressed include the core-mantle boundary, application of stable C isotopes to early biochemical evolution on earth, physical processes in volcanic eruptions, three-dimensional seismic imaging, and integrated diagenetic modeling. Consideration is given to the atmospheres of Venus, earth, and Mars; terrestrial impact structures; the origin of the moon; organic geochemistry of biomarkers; models of lithospheric thinning; marine magnetic anomalies; and polar wandering and paleomagnetism

  19. Book Review: Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kanellis, P., Kiountouzis, E., Kolokotronis, N., & Martakos, D. (2006. Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 357 pages, ISBN: 1-59140-873-3 (paper, US$79.95.Reviewed by Gary C. KesslerThis book, according to the preface, "is intended for those who are interested in a critical overview of what forensic science is, care about privacy issues, and wish to know what constitutes evidence for computer crime." It goes on to say that the specific audiences for which it was written are students in academia and professionals in the industry.If used carefully, this book does a good job at providing a snapshot of some of the current issues in digital forensics, although perhaps best aimed at information security professionals. It is a collection of 15 chapters written by authors from Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, South Africa, the U.K., and the U.S. The international flavor of the writing is also welcome in the field.(see PDF for full review

  20. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the...

  1. On the evolving open peer review culture for chemical information science

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, W. Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.

  2. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the

  3. Science and Technology Review July/August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.

    2002-07-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Integration is Key to Understanding Climate Change; (2) The Outlook is for Warming, with Measurable Local Effects--Livermore climate models are zeroing in on the effects of human activities on global climate, representing them in simulations with the finest resolution ever; (2) How Metals Fail--experiments are guiding the development of codes that predict how metals react to high explosives; (4) Converting Data to Decisions--a new statistical method executed on supercomputers is bridging the gap between complex data and usable information; (5) Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat--The Laboratory's charter to counter the nuclear threat has evolved over the years and now includes intelligence analysis and technology to understand and counter biological and chemical threats.

  4. Atmospheric Biosignatures in the Context of Exoplanetary Science - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, John Lee; Rauer, Heike

    We review the main principles, methods and theoretical results related to atmospheric biosignatures in exoplanetary science. The term atmospheric "biosignature" is rather diverse and there are different approaches e.g. searching for the presence of (i) a particular chemical species (e.g. ozone), (ii) a combination of species (e.g. the "triple signature") and (iii) a process such as the departure from chemical or redox equillibrium. We first review these three approaches and their applications for a range of simulated planetary atmospheres (varying e.g. central star, planet mass etc.). Debate continues as to the extent by which true biosignature signals could be destroyed or mimicked by abiotic processes. We therefore summarise understanding of "false positive" signals i.e. where abiotic processes could mimic life and "false negatives" i.e. where signals of life may be masked. Finally we provide a link with future observational facilities e.g. the E-ELT by discussing theoretical spectra and SN of some specific atmospheric case-studies.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Practice Teaching Methods in Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilay KARAMUSTAFAOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    This book has five chapters which are consist of learning theories in science education, teaching principles in science education, common teaching methods in science teaching, alternative learning and teaching approaches and acquiring scientific process skills in science education. The book contains 246 pages and published in black and white.

  6. A Review of Empirical Evidence on Scaffolding for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Changlai, Maio-Li; Yang, Kun-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis of articles in the Social Science Citation Index journals from 1995 to 2009 was conducted to provide science educators with empirical evidence regarding the effects of scaffolding on science learning. It clarifies the definition, design, and implementation of scaffolding in science classrooms and research studies. The results…

  7. REVIEW: Online Science Learning: Best Practices and Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-01-01

    This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trip...

  8. Review of the National Defense Intelligence College's Master's Degree in Science and Technology Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) was asked by the National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) to convene a committee to review the curriculum and syllabi for their proposed master of science degree in science and technology intelligence. The NRC was asked to review the material provided by the NDIC and offer advice and recommendations…

  9. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    .... Frederick Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology, and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the...

  10. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation (NSF) announces...

  11. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Bilateral Native Kidneys after 2 Years of Renal Transplantation: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanyong Bing; Tomaszewski, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplantation increases the probability of malignant tumors by about 2–4-fold overall with a much higher rate for renal epithelial malignancy. Renal tumors in renal transplant recipients are commonly conventional clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a recently described unique renal epithelial neoplasm with scant eosinophilic or moderate amount of clear cytoplasm and pyknotic small nuclei oriented commonly toward the apical surface...

  12. The state of the science of family caregiver-care receiver mutuality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Esther O; Schumacher, Karen L

    2014-06-01

    This review critically examines the current state of the science on the concept of family caregiver-care receiver mutuality, summarizes accomplishments and gaps and identifies directions for future theory development and research. Mutuality between family caregivers and care receivers is of increasing interest to researchers. However, no analysis of the current state of the science of this important concept has been published. Our literature search revealed 34 research articles that met inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed in terms of conceptualization of mutuality, instrument development, populations studied, research designs and methods and findings. Significant scientific progress during the past 30 years includes the development of clear definitions and new instruments, expansion of research beyond the clinical populations in which mutuality was first studied, the use of a variety of research designs, and increasingly sophisticated methods of data analysis. Growing evidence suggests that mutuality is associated with caregiver emotional health outcomes and may decrease over time in the context of chronic illness. Directions for future research include development of new theoretical frameworks grounded in relational theory, development of theory on the dynamics of mutuality over time, exploration of mutuality in diverse cultures and populations, and intervention studies aimed at enhancing mutuality. PMID:23617406

  13. UK review of radio science, 1984-1986. Ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains the United Kingdom (U.K.) review of Radio Science, 1984-1986, covering ionospheric and magnetospheric science. This is the current UK contribution towards an international review published by the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). The UK review is divided into topics prescribed by URSI and covers work that is actually published within the period October 1983 - Sept. 1986, also as prescribed by URSI. The topics discussed in the review include: incoherent and coherent scatter, probing the magnetosphere, plasma instabilities, ionospheric modification, composition, ionization and chemistry and ionospheric dynamics. (U.K.)

  14. A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 28, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Urea and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Of...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (Second External Review Draft, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation...

  19. Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (First External Review Draft, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and eva...

  20. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques. PMID:26783249

  1. Good science, deceptive science, and fraud, plus a brief discussion of peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2011-03-01

    What makes scientific publication different from other types of publication? Traditionally, it was that scientists published not only their conclusions, but also their data (which enabled others wanting to re-evaluate the data to do so). Publishing their data helped keep scientists honest. In the mid-20th century the policies of scientific journals changed, partly because very large data sets were being evaluated via computer. Many (but not all) scientific journals paid homage to scientific tradition by establishing archives for data serving as the basis for published scientific papers, while only a description of the study and the conclusions were published in the peer-reviewed scientific journals. This set the stage for scientific deception and scientific fraud, which became widespread in certain fields of study during the latter part of the 20th century. Indeed, some organizations were established that appeared to be legitimate scientific societies, but in fact existed for the purpose of promoting the incorrect evaluation of scientific data and publishing deceptive studies masquerading as sound scientific studies. The field of medicine has also become more science than art, with its current emphasis on ``evidence-based medicine.'' The different types of scientific deceit/fraud are identified, and a lifetime of experience with the correction of scientific error, plus encounters with scientific deception and scientific fraud, is summarized.

  2. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2015-04-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts. PMID:25829801

  3. Communicating the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the sparse and somewhat scattered research literature that has specifically addressed the public communication of the social sciences (PCSS). This literature, in common with much research on the public communication of science and technology (PCST), lacks consistency or indeed clear definitions of what is meant by ‘social science’, ‘natural science’ and indeed, ‘science’. Analyses of social science media coverage indicate that the social sciences are communicated in some ...

  4. Clearing, transparency, and collateral

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Carli; Francesca Carapella; Gaetano Antinolfi

    2014-01-01

    In an environment of Over-The-Counter trading with adverse selection we study traders' incentives to screen their counterparties under different clearing arrangements. When the clearing arrangement is also a choice, traders decide which types of transactions to clear under each arrangement, with signicant consequences for transparency and collateral requirements. The key trade-off is between insurance and the value of information: on one hand risk averse traders want to smooth consumption and...

  5. Rewarding Peer Reviewers: Maintaining the Integrity of Science Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N.; Voronov, Alexander A.; Kitas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and ass...

  6. Scientometric highlights on Science and Technology review articles affiliated to India

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, Anil; Prakasan, E. R.; Kalyane, V. L.; Kumar, Vijai

    2009-01-01

    Garfield stated that review articles often serve as surrogates for earlier literature, thus avoiding extensive bibliographies. The present study has focused on the review articles written by researchers in India and included in Science Citation Index during the period 2000-2005. The study has aimed at analysing chronological growth of these review articles; authorship pattern and author productivity; authors’ affiliations and collaborations; journals publishing review articles; subject conten...

  7. NOAA Science Advisory Board, Review of National Center for Environmental Prediction Ocean Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrafesa, L. J.; Blaskovich, D.; Blumberg, A.F.; A. J. Busalacchi; McClean, J.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Rogers, D.P.; Weisberg, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    In response to a request from the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service, an Ocean Model Review Panel (ORMP) was commissioned by the NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB), to address the following two-part Charge:

  8. 77 FR 36493 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of Educational...) SUMMARY: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a federally authorized survey...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (EGBE) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessme...

  10. Peer review and refereeing in medicine and medical sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Ajao Oluwole

    1997-01-01

    Every academic scientist will come into contact with peer review process either as a reviewer of others work, or as an author whose work is being reviewed by others, or as an applicant for research grant. Historically, peer review process came at various times to various journals for a variety of reasons in haphazard manner. Many forms of criticisms have been made against the process of peer review, and some critics do not believe that the process prevents the publication of flawed articles a...

  11. Peer review and refereeing in medicine and medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajao Oluwole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Every academic scientist will come into contact with peer review process either as a reviewer of others work, or as an author whose work is being reviewed by others, or as an applicant for research grant. Historically, peer review process came at various times to various journals for a variety of reasons in haphazard manner. Many forms of criticisms have been made against the process of peer review, and some critics do not believe that the process prevents the publication of flawed articles and fraudulent research. Despite the criticisms, there are advantages of peer review. At present in medical journalism peer review process is an indispensable entity for assessing manuscripts intended for publication.

  12. Peer review and refereeing in medicine and medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, O G

    1997-09-01

    Every academic scientist will come into contact with peer review process either as a reviewer of others work, or as an author whose work is being reviewed by others, or as an applicant for research grant. Historically, peer review process came at various times to various journals for a variety of reasons in haphazard manner. Many forms of criticisms have been made against the process of peer review, and some critics do not believe that the process prevents the publication of flawed articles and fraudulent research. Despite the criticisms, there are advantages of peer review. At present in medical journalism peer review process is an indispensable entity for assessing manuscripts intended for publication. PMID:19864786

  13. Outcomes for implementation science: an enhanced systematic review of instruments using evidence-based rating criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Cara C.; Fischer, Sarah; Weiner, Bryan J.; Stanick, Cameo; Kim, Mimi; Martinez, Ruben G.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-quality measurement is critical to advancing knowledge in any field. New fields, such as implementation science, are often beset with measurement gaps and poor quality instruments, a weakness that can be more easily addressed in light of systematic review findings. Although several reviews of quantitative instruments used in implementation science have been published, no studies have focused on instruments that measure implementation outcomes. Proctor and colleagues establishe...

  14. How do livestock and crop sciences represent evolutions of farming systems ? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoit; Beguin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Farming systems have to evolve in order to face increasing uncertainty in their environment. In this review we analyse evolutions of farming systems over the long term as a double co-evolution : co-evolution of the farming system and its environment, and co-evolution of the farmer and his biotechnical system (farmer activity). We review literature from the livestock and crop sciences, and we deepen our analyse with some literature from management sciences, ergonomics, professional didactics t...

  15. Complementary Social Sciences Courses in the Alberta High School Curriculum: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszenski, Donna; Smits, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with Alberta Education's goals and responsibilities to develop and evaluate curriculum and to set standards and assess outcomes, the Ministry is reviewing the status and purpose of social sciences courses as part of the high school curriculum. The present social sciences curriculum was revised in 1985. As part of the social sciences…

  16. 77 FR 58111 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; FAFSA Completion Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; FAFSA Completion Project Evaluation SUMMARY: The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) at the U.S. Department of Education (ED) is conducting... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed...

  17. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  18. A Review of Patti Lather's "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy," Patti Lather explores the relationship between science and policy. In this review Rosser explores how Lather argues for the use of all forms of research to make policy that is democratic, complex and messy.

  19. 75 FR 69078 - Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) AGENCY... a workshop to evaluate initial draft materials for the Pb Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) is... within each discipline to assist EPA in integrating within and across disciplines. This workshop...

  20. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and…

  1. Computation Directorate and Science& Technology Review Computational Science and Research Featured in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchorn, A L

    2003-04-04

    Thank you for your interest in the activities of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Computation Directorate. This collection of articles from the Laboratory's Science & Technology Review highlights the most significant computational projects, achievements, and contributions during 2002. In 2002, LLNL marked the 50th anniversary of its founding. Scientific advancement in support of our national security mission has always been the core of the Laboratory. So that researchers could better under and predict complex physical phenomena, the Laboratory has pushed the limits of the largest, fastest, most powerful computers in the world. In the late 1950's, Edward Teller--one of the LLNL founders--proposed that the Laboratory commission a Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC) built to Livermore's specifications. He tells the story of being in Washington, DC, when John Von Neumann asked to talk about the LARC. He thought Teller wanted too much memory in the machine. (The specifications called for 20-30,000 words.) Teller was too smart to argue with him. Later Teller invited Von Neumann to the Laboratory and showed him one of the design codes being prepared for the LARC. He asked Von Neumann for suggestions on fitting the code into 10,000 words of memory, and flattered him about ''Labbies'' not being smart enough to figure it out. Von Neumann dropped his objections, and the LARC arrived with 30,000 words of memory. Memory, and how close memory is to the processor, is still of interest to us today. Livermore's first supercomputer was the Remington-Rand Univac-1. It had 5600 vacuum tubes and was 2 meters wide by 4 meters long. This machine was commonly referred to as a 1 KFlop machine [E+3]. Skip ahead 50 years. The ASCI White machine at the Laboratory today, produced by IBM, is rated at a peak performance of 12.3 TFlops or E+13. We've improved computer processing power by 10 orders of magnitude in 50 years, and I do

  2. BOOK REVIEW: The Expertise and Deployment of Science Teachers at Key Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-03-01

    - of particular interest to readers of this journal - how do physics teachers fit into all this? Donnelly and Jenkins sent out questionnaires to 500 secondary schools in England and Wales, most of them comprehensive schools, and about 50% replied. About a third of the science taught at Key Stage 4 is physics (of course), but only 17% of the teachers had physics degrees. At Key Stage 3 most physics (60%) is taught as part of a `cross-disciplinary' science course, but in the pre-GCSE years of Key Stage 4 most physics (56%) is taught as a specialism. At KS4 this is most commonly within a dual-award `coordinated science' GCSE, but it is interesting to find that so many schools, contrary to received opinion, try to keep the subjects clearly separate at this stage. In this brief review it is not possible to summarize the wealth of useful detail the booklet contains. Here are just a few highlights. For teacher training: nearly all initial teacher training in science assumes that their students will need to be flexible science teachers, covering the three main sciences. But most schools do their best to ensure that teachers teach within their specialisms; even at KS3 a third of physics teachers do so. It is suggested that then training should better match the needs of schools. Recruitment of physicists to teaching: over four-fifths of those teaching physics at KS4 do not have an academic (degree) qualification in physics. Although this does not mean that 80% of physics is taught by non-physicists, it does mean that IoP Education initiatives (and this journal, come to think of it) might do more to help these non-physicists who teach physics. Teachers' Views. A particularly interesting section of the booklet deals with what teachers think about the match between their training and their teaching loads. About a fifth were quite happy with how their backgrounds helped them teach - and another fifth were disappointed. The rest, presumably, soldiered on as usual. Some comments: An

  3. A review on nuclear-agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developmental history of nuclear-agricultural sciences (NAS) in China was introduced. The proportion of NAS estimated by the sensitometric is about 1%∼3% to the agricultural sciences, 3% to the nuclear science and technology, and below 0.3% to the foundational life science, respectively. Citation indexes of NAS in China were compared with those of other scientific literatures domestic and abroad with bibliometrics. The main achievements and outcomes of NAS in China were described. In the past 25 years, the contribution of the NAS to the gross agricultural production in China was up to 250 hundred millions yuan RMB, corresponding to the ratio of 1:31 of integrated scientific investments to the output. Comparison was made between the development of NAS in China and that abroad. Present situation and the prospect of the NAS were also discussed. (1 fig.; 5 tabs.)

  4. Physically based mathematical models in soil science: History, current state, problems, and outlook (Analytical Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    The formation, development, and some problems of the current physically based models of water and solute transfer are considered in this review. These models appeared about a half century ago. They were based on the basic laws of soil physics and other branches of soil science (laws of balance, transfer, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, etc.) described by the corresponding equations and programs and supported by the experimental data in the form of physically based parameters. At present, one of the main problems in the development, adaptation, and application of these models is that the current and future mathematical models should rest upon the experimental support with a clear physical basis characterizing the nature of the phenomenon described. This experimental support enables creating research models, drawing conceptual conclusions, and, hence, understanding, analyzing, and managing soil processes. This is apparently possible only if the set of methods for the experimental support of models is substantiated, preferably in direct physical experiments and under field conditions close to the future model prognoses.

  5. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor and renal cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma-relationship of three types of renal tumors: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Hes, Ondrej; Compérat, Eva Maria; Rioux-Leclerc, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor has been described in 2000, followed by description of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma in 2006. Discussion about possible relationship of both tumors were published since their description. As the main differencial diagnostic feature was considered presence/absence of fibroleiomyomatous stroma favoring diagnosis of RAT in stroma-rich tumors. However it was shown, that stroma is reactive, non-neoplastic by its nature and that all other histologic, immu...

  6. Clear cell eccrine carcinoma with comedonecrosis in neck region: a  rare case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alka H Hande; Archana M Sonone; Minal S. Chaudhary

    2010-01-01

    Alka H Hande, Archana M Sonone, Minal S ChaudharyDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, IndiaAbstract: Adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare; they derive from structures such as sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Adnexal tumors represent 1%–2% of skin cancers. Carcinomas of the eccrine sweat gland represent a rare group of tumors with potential for local destruction and metastasis. Clear cell changes a...

  7. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  8. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies — A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P. Y-H.; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  9. Popular Science Journalism: Facilitating Learning through Peer Review and Communication of Science News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, Holly; Temesvari, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    In a multisemester Popular Science Journalism course that met for 2 hours once a week at Clemson University, students produced science news articles for the university newspaper by using primary literature, the internet, and interviews with researchers. Short lectures were given on topic choice, story development, literature surveys, common…

  10. Interactive Learning through Web-Mediated Peer Review of Student Science Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies analyzed impacts of writing and receiving web-mediated peer reviews on revision of research reports by undergraduate science students. After conducting toxicology experiments, 77 students posted draft reports and exchanged double-blind reviews. The first study randomly assigned students to four groups representing full, partial, or no…

  11. Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (First External Review Draft, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the availability of the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria for public comment and independent peer review. This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most polic...

  12. 76 FR 10896 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations; CASAC Mercury Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations; CASAC Mercury Review Panel AGENCY... Committee (CASAC) panel to conduct an independent review of EPA's Mercury Technical Support Document. DATES... pollution, and the strategies to attain and maintain air quality standards and to prevent...

  13. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  14. Science and technology review, July-August 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, S&TR has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  15. To what extent is clinical and laboratory information used to perform medication reviews in the nursing home setting? the CLEAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestres Gonzalvo C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carlota Mestres Gonzalvo,1 Kim PGM Hurkens,2 Hugo AJM de Wit,3 Brigit PC van Oijen,1 Rob Janknegt,1 Jos MGA Schols,4 Wubbo J Mulder,5 Frans R Verhey,6 Bjorn Winkens,7 Paul-Hugo M van der Kuy1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Orbis Medical Centre, Sittard, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, 4Department of Family Medicine and Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Alzheimer Centre Limburg/School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, 7Department of Methodology and Statistics, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent laboratory data, actual medication, medical history, and/or drug indication influence the quality of medication reviews for nursing home patients. Methods: Forty-six health care professionals from different fields were requested to perform medication reviews for three different cases. Per case, the amount of information provided varied in three subsequent stages: stage 1, medication list only; stage 2, adding laboratory data and reason for hospital admission; and stage 3, adding medical history/drug indication. Following a slightly modified Delphi method, a multidisciplinary team performed the medication review for each case and stage. The results of these medication reviews were used as reference reviews (gold standard. The remarks from the participants were scored, according to their potential clinical impact, from relevant to harmful on a scale of 3 to -1. A total score per case and stage was calculated and expressed as a percentage of the total score from the expert

  16. Students’ acceptance of peer review in Computer Science course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kubincová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer review technique used in educational context could be beneficial for students from several points of view. Besides of developing students’ writing skills, critical thinking, practising articulation of own knowledge to the others and giving them feedback, it can encourage collaborative learning and boost the students’ interest in the course. In our web design course we successfully introduced peer review activities more than 2 years ago. In this paper we discuss the students’ acceptance of peer review applied on evaluation of other students’ projects.

  17. Book review: Visualizing social science research: maps, methods and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirogianni, Stavroula

    2013-01-01

    Presenting basic principles of social science research through maps, graphs, and diagrams, this book shows how concept maps and mind maps can be used in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research, using student-focused examples and classroom based activities. Stavroula Tsirogianni would like to have seen more discussion on audiences and design, but feels the book will certainly appeal to educators and researchers.

  18. Science and Technology Review January/February 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Dawn of a New Era of Scientific Discovery - Commentary by Edward I. Moses; (2) At the Frontiers of Fundamental Science Research - Collaborators from national laboratories, universities, and international organizations are using the National Ignition Facility to probe key fundamental science questions; (3) Livermore Responds to Crisis in Post-Earthquake Japan - More than 70 Laboratory scientists provided round-the-clock expertise in radionuclide analysis and atmospheric dispersion modeling as part of the nation's support to Japan following the March 2011 earthquake and nuclear accident; (4) A Comprehensive Resource for Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments - A new Web-based resource called MIDAS is a central repository for material properties, experimental data, and computer models; and (5) Finding Data Needles in Gigabit Haystacks - Livermore computer scientists have developed a novel computer architecture based on 'persistent' memory to ease data-intensive computations.

  19. Science and Technology Review January/February 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-12-20

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Dawn of a New Era of Scientific Discovery - Commentary by Edward I. Moses; (2) At the Frontiers of Fundamental Science Research - Collaborators from national laboratories, universities, and international organizations are using the National Ignition Facility to probe key fundamental science questions; (3) Livermore Responds to Crisis in Post-Earthquake Japan - More than 70 Laboratory scientists provided round-the-clock expertise in radionuclide analysis and atmospheric dispersion modeling as part of the nation's support to Japan following the March 2011 earthquake and nuclear accident; (4) A Comprehensive Resource for Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments - A new Web-based resource called MIDAS is a central repository for material properties, experimental data, and computer models; and (5) Finding Data Needles in Gigabit Haystacks - Livermore computer scientists have developed a novel computer architecture based on 'persistent' memory to ease data-intensive computations.

  20. Science and Technology Review January/February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) World's Most Intense X-Ray Laser Focuses on Livermore Science - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Groundbreaking Science with the World's Brightest X Rays - Experiments with x rays of unparalleled brightness and extremely short duration aim to reveal new information about atoms and molecules in motion; (3) From Data to Discovery - Ongoing control system enhancements at the National Ignition Facility bolster the understanding of experimental data and keep the system performing at its peak; (4) The Sun in All Its Splendor - Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Livermore-developed multilayer mirrors are enabling unprecedented full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun; and (5) Drilling Deep into Plant Veins - A novel combination of imaging techniques is being used to understand the three-dimensional architecture of plant cell walls.

  1. Science and Technology Review January/February 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-11-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) World's Most Intense X-Ray Laser Focuses on Livermore Science - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Groundbreaking Science with the World's Brightest X Rays - Experiments with x rays of unparalleled brightness and extremely short duration aim to reveal new information about atoms and molecules in motion; (3) From Data to Discovery - Ongoing control system enhancements at the National Ignition Facility bolster the understanding of experimental data and keep the system performing at its peak; (4) The Sun in All Its Splendor - Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Livermore-developed multilayer mirrors are enabling unprecedented full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun; and (5) Drilling Deep into Plant Veins - A novel combination of imaging techniques is being used to understand the three-dimensional architecture of plant cell walls.

  2. Science and Technology Review July/August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2006-05-25

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Experiments at the Scale of Simulations--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A New Realm of Materials Science--Livermore scientists are combining experiment, theory, and simulation to study the response of solids to extreme dynamic stresses at nanometer and subnanosecond scales; (3) Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass--An international collaboration involving Laboratory scientists has discovered a planet made of rock or ice orbiting a dim star outside our solar system; and (4) Keeping an Eye on the Prize--A Livermore-IBM team uses a new code and the world's fastest computer to set a performance record for a science application.

  3. The effects of using guided notes and review of science achievement for male and female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Diann Marie

    2000-11-01

    The National Science Foundation predicts a shortage of scientists and engineers within the next 15 years. Some agree that the participation of women in science will be required to help meet the future demand for scientists (Malcom, 1990). Consequently, conscientious teachers search for learning strategies that provide opportunities for young women to achieve success with others in their science classes. This research concerns a note taking and teaching strategy that involves seventh grade science students. The investigation measured student achievement under three prescribed conditions. The treatment conditions were reviewing, guided notes, and guided notes with reviewing. For this experiment, the Solomon four-group design was utilized. This 2 x 2 factorial design tested for treatment effect and pretest sensitivity. Data was collected on seventh grade boys (n = 119) and seventh grade girls (n = 139) in science. Comparisons were made between the boys and girls groups. The results showed that achievement improved significantly when reviewing car using guided notes independently. The results also shower that significant improvements in achievement were not observed when participants used guided notes and reviewing together. Analysis was completed to measure how well the participants performed according to gender. This research showed that both boys and girls significantly improved their achievement in science equally well for all treatment conditions. This research went a step further by factoring in cognitive ability test scores and comparing them to the treatment results. This provided the researcher with information on which treatment condition worked best for high or low achieving students.

  4. Forensic Fisheries Science: Literature Review and Research Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Beth C.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in litigation against the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Litigation may affect personnel throughout the agency, including scientists, whose work is often directly or indirectly influenced by complex legal requirements, but who may not be in a position to comment or engage in public dialogue. It may be helpful for scientists and other agency personnel to join the ongoing discussion in the legal community regarding the interface of science...

  5. A Review of the Website TeamScience.net

    OpenAIRE

    Aronoff, David M.; Bartkowiak, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    As modern research methods have become more specialized and the true complexity of today’s most pressing health issues and diseases is revealed, collaborations among scientists trained in different fields have become essential for exploring and tackling these problems. This specialization of research methods has made interdependence, joint ownership, and collective responsibility between and among scientists near requirements. These features of team science may not suit everyone, but given th...

  6. The Miracle of Peer Review and Development in Science: An Agent-Based Model

    CERN Document Server

    Righi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    It is not easy to rationalize how peer review, as the current grassroots of science, can work based on voluntary contributions of reviewers. There is no rationale to write impartial and thorough evaluations. Consequently, there is no risk in submitting low-quality work by authors. As a result, scientists face a social dilemma: if everyone acts according to his or her own self-interest, low scientific quality is produced. Still, in practice, reviewers as well as authors invest high effort in reviews and submissions. We examine how the increased relevance of public good benefits (journal impact factor), the editorial policy of handling incoming reviews, and the acceptance decisions that take into account reputational information can help the evolution of high-quality contributions from authors. High effort from the side of reviewers is problematic even if authors cooperate: reviewers are still best off by producing low-quality reviews, which does not hinder scientific development, just adds random noise and unn...

  7. An Open Science Peer Review Oath [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4wf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Aleksic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously (and conscientiously uphold these principles should help to improve published papers, increase confidence in the reproducibility of the work and, ultimately, provide strategic benefits to authors and their institutions.

  8. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  9. Hudson_Clearing.m

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    This MATLAB code allows the user to generate a series of keyword files for use with LS-DYNA to predict the blast load and evaluate the effects of blast wave clearing on a finite-sized, deformable target. User doccumentation is provided.

  10. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  11. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  12. Do Cochrane reviews provide a good model for social science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Merete; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    conclude that the majority of reviews appears limited to considering randomised controlled trials only. Because recent studies have delineated conditions for observational studies in social research to produce valid evidence, we argue that an inclusive approach is essential for truly evidence-based policy...

  13. Vision science and schizophrenia research: toward a re-view of the disorder. Editors' introduction to special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Keane, Brian P

    2011-07-01

    This theme section on vision science and schizophrenia research demonstrates that our understanding of the disorder could be significantly accelerated by a greater adoption of the methods of vision science. In this introduction, we briefly describe what vision science is, how it has advanced our understanding of schizophrenia, and what challenges and opportunities lay ahead regarding schizophrenia research. We then summarize the articles that follow. These include reviews of abnormal form perception (perceptual organization and backward masking) and motion processing, and an article on reduced size contrast illusions experienced by hearing but not deaf persons with schizophrenia. These articles reveal that the methods of basic vision research can provide insights into a number of aspects of the disorder, including pathophysiology, development, cognition, social cognition, and phenomenology. Importantly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia make it clear that there are impairments in the functioning of basic neural mechanisms (e.g., center-surround modulation, contextual modulation of feedforward processing, reentrant processing) that are found throughout the cortex and that are operative in multiple forms of cognitive dysfunction in the illness. Such evidence allows for an updated view of schizophrenia as a condition involving generalized failures in neural network formation and maintenance, as opposed to a primary failure in a higher level factor (e.g., cognitive control) that accounts for all other types of perceptual and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, studies of vision in schizophrenia can identify sensitive probes of neural functioning that can be used as biomarkers of treatment response. PMID:21700588

  14. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bould, M. Dylan; Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Design Bibliometric analysis. Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s dat...

  15. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Cherpitel; Joel Swendsen; Lucie Pennel; Maurice Dematteis; Françoise Carpentier; Georges Brousse; Laurent Bègue; Oulmann Zerhouni

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER) and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Col...

  16. Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Asheley Cockrell Skinner; E. Michael Foster

    2013-01-01

    As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four ge...

  17. Crystal Clear Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jody H.; Lockhart, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Great science activities don't just happen; they are orchestrated by highly skilled teachers who are creative, caring, and innovative. Effective classroom teachers possess a deep understanding of the developmental characteristics of their students and are adept at translating this understanding into opportunities for individual students to…

  18. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  19. All-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes: Review of fundamental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayin, Yao; Bingxin, Huang; Jingyun, Yin; Gang, Peng; Zhen, Huang; Chao, Gao; Deng, Liu; Xiaoxiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The scientific basis of all-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes is reviewed briefly, touching upon solid electrolytes, electrode materials, electrolyte/electrode interface phenomena, fabrication, and evaluation. The challenges and prospects are outlined as well. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050906), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51172250 and 51202265), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010201), and Zhejiang Province Key Science and Technology Innovation Team, China (Grant No. 2013PT16).

  20. Science and Technology Review, July-August 1998: Celebrating Edward Teller at 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J.

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, Science and Technology Review (S&TR) has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  1. Review of the Fusion Theory and Computing Program. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, Thomas M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Berry, Lee A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Michael R. [Swarthmore College, PA (United States); Dahlburg, Jill P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McCurdy, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Newman, David E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pellegrini, Claudio [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Phillips, Cynthia K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Post, Douglass E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sheffield, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simonen, Thomas C. [Munising, MI (United States); Van Dam, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2001-08-01

    At the November 14-15, 2000, meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, a Panel was set up to address questions about the Theory and Computing program, posed in a charge from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (see Appendix A). This area was of theory and computing/simulations had been considered in the FESAC Knoxville meeting of 1999 and in the deliberations of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) in 2000. A National Research Council committee provided a detailed review of the scientific quality of the fusion energy sciences program, including theory and computing, in 2000.

  2. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  3. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  4. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  5. Unconceived alternatives and conservatism in science: the impact of professionalization, peer-review, and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford, PK

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Scientific realists have suggested that changes in our scientific communities over the course of their history have rendered those communities progressively less vulnerable to the problem of unconcieved alternatives over time. I argue in response not only that the most fundamental historical transformations of the scientific enterprise have generated steadily mounting obstacles to revolutionary, transformative, or unorthodox scientific theorizi...

  6. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Counce, Deborah M [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Horak, Charlie M [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron

  7. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron pnictides and

  8. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    . Understandability of the data sets: 13 major formats were found, but the major issues encountered were due to incomplete documentation or metadata and problems with decoding binary formats. Ideally, open data sets should be represented in well-known formats and they should be accompanied with sufficient documentation so the data set can be understood. The development efforts on Water ML and NETCDF and other standards could improve understandability of data sets over time but in this review, only a few data sets were provided in these formats. Instead, the majority of datasets were stored in various text-based or binary formats or even document-oriented formats such as PDF. Other disciplines such as meteorology have long-standing traditions of operational data exchange format whereas hydrology research is still quite fragmented and the data exchange is usually done on a case-by-case basis. With the increased sharing of open data there is a good chance the situation will improve for data sets used also in water sciences. License issue: Only 3% of the data is completely free to use, while 57% can be used for non-commercial purposes or research. A high number of datasets did not have a clear statement on terms of use and limitation for access. In most cases the provider could be contacted regarding licensing issues.

  9. Letting the daylight in: Reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of online publishing, opportunities to maximize transparency of scientific research have grown considerably. However, these possibilities are still only marginally used. We argue for the implementation of (1 peer-reviewed peer review, (2 transparent editorial hierarchies, and (3 online data publication. First, peer-reviewed peer-review entails a community-wide review system in which reviews are published online and rated by peers. Reviewers with higher average ratings are weighted more heavily in publication decisions, thereby ensuring academic quality of reviews. Second, reviewers who write many highly regarded reviews may move to higher editorial positions. This leads to a transparent basis for editorial hierarchies and prevents politically inspired editorial appointments. Third, online publication of data ensures the possibility of independent verification of inferential claims in published papers. This counters statistical cherry-picking and data massaging to obtain favorable results. We illustrate the benefits of these strategies by discussing an example in which the classical publication system has gone awry, namely controversial IQ research. We argue that this case would have likely been avoided using more transparent publication practices. We argue that the proposed system leads to better reviews, meritocratic editorial hierarchies, and a higher degree of replicability of statistical analyses. Therefore it leads to a publication system that more fully benefits from the advantages and possibilities offered by online, open access publication.

  10. Social Science Energy Review: a quarterly publication. Vol. 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, L C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The Yale University Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences brings together an interdisciplinary group of Yale and visiting faculty, ISPS staff, and Yale graduate students meeting weekly to discuss topics in energy and the social sciences and to study and evaluate the importance for social policy of existing and potential social science energy research projects. The primary purposes of the project are: (1) to encourage timely social science investigations into important energy-related social issues, (2) to explore the present and potential roles for academic social science research in energy decision-making, and (3) to advise DOE and other government personnel in the planning of social science energy research. In addition to an overview of the Mapping Project, this report contains the following: (1) Social Science Research on ''The Energy Boomtown,'' by Leroy C. Gould--contains literature survey (66 references) and conveys Mapping Project's suggestions as to priorities on future social science research on ''energy boomtowns.'' (2) Men and Coal in Appalachia: a Survey of the Academic Literature, by Peter B. Allison (bibliography cites 7 journals, 3 government documents, and 70 books and articles). (3) Energy Research in Psychology, by John Sweeney (reprint of review of current status of energy research in psychology that appeared in December, 1977 issue of APA Monitor under the title, ''Boosting Energy Research'').

  11. Attitudes towards science: a review of the literature and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Simon, Shirley; Collins, Sue

    2003-09-01

    This article offers a review of the major literature about attitudes to science and its implications over the past 20 years. It argues that the continuing decline in numbers choosing to study science at the point of choice requires a research focus on students' attitudes to science if the nature of the problem is to be understood and remediated. Starting from a consideration of what is meant by attitudes to science, it considers the problems inherent to their measurement, what is known about students' attitudes towards science and the many factors of influence such as gender, teachers, curricula, cultural and other variables. The literature itself points to the crucial importance of gender and the quality of teaching. Given the importance of the latter we argue that there is a greater need for research to identify those aspects of science teaching that make school science engaging for pupils. In particular, a growing body of research on motivation offers important pointers to the kind of classroom environment and activities that might raise pupils' interest in studying school science and a focus for future research.

  12. HANDMADE PAPER: A REVIEW OF ITS HISTORY, CRAFT, AND SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For over 2000 years the manual craft of papermaking has been practiced all over the world utilizing a variety of techniques. This review describes the evolution of hand papermaking and its cultural significance. Paper’s evolution has been shaped by the structure and chemical composition of the fibers. Almost every aspect of modern papermaking technology has been foreshadowed by traditional practices. Such practices were passed down for many generations within families of papermakers. The main sources of cellulosic fiber evolved as the ancient craft migrated from its birthplace in China to Korea and Japan, the Islamic world, and then to Europe and America. Though most paper made today comes from automated, continuous production systems, handmade paper has enjoyed a resurgence, both as a traditional craft and as an art-form. In addition, traditional papermaking methods can provide insights to help in modern applications involving cellulosic fibers.

  13. THE SPORTS SCIENCE OF CURLING: A PRACTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Bradley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Curling is a sport played on ice in which two teams each deliver 8 granite stones towards a target, or 'house'. It is the only sport in which the trajectory of the projectile can be influenced after it has been released by the athlete. This is achieved by sweeping the ice in front of the stone to change the stone-ice friction and thereby enable to stone to travel further, curl more or stay straight. Hard sweeping is physically demanding. Different techniques of sweeping can also have different effects on the stone. This paper will review the current research behind sweeping a curling stone, outline the physiological demands of sweeping, the associated performance effects and suggest potential strategies of sweeping that can be used by both coaches and curling teams

  14. A bibliographic review of medicine and science research in dancesport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Teri R; Wyon, Matthew; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Redding, Emma

    2013-06-01

    DanceSport is the competitive form of ballroom dancing, and even though it has more participants worldwide than ballet and modern dance, there is less peer-reviewed research. A review was conducted to identify all relevant literature to help researchers and clinicians gain an enhanced understanding of dancesport. Eight databases were searched, with 34 articles found in topics including participation motives, psychology, exercise physiology, fitness training, injuries and injury prevention, biomechanics, menstrual dysfunction, and substance use. Our results indicate that researchers have been inconsistently recording and reporting anthropometric and dancesport data; for example, 31 studies separated participants by gender, 21 included the competition classification of dancers, 19 reported which style of dancesport participants competed in, and 13 described the participants as a dance couple. Common injuries affected the neck, shoulder, spine, knee, lower leg, and foot. Dancesport is in the very heavy to extremely heavy category in energy expenditure (mean heart rate: male 175.2 ± 10.7, female 178.6 ± 8.6 bpm) and utilizes both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Alpha-beta and heart rate variability intervention techniques are reported to successfully enhance performance in dancers. Dancesport participants also appear less likely to smoke cigarettes, but have little knowledge about anti-doping rules. During events, professionals danced farther (30 m) and faster (0.3 m/sec) than junior dancers. Female competitors were more likely to be eumenorrheic. Dancesport is a physically and mentally demanding competitive sport, but there is a need to standardize measurements in future studies to allow comparison. PMID:23752280

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Christianson, J. R.; Hadravová, A.; Hadrava, P.; Solc, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 16th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on the History of Science in the Rudolphine Period. The meeting was held in Prague from 22 to 25 October 2001, on the 400th anniversary of Tycho's sudden death, and was attended by approximately 65 scientists and historians. The volume contains 36 contributions dealing with the life and work of Tycho Brahe, the astronomy of the era, and many cultural aspects of Rudolphine Prague. One of the first papers is an eye-opener on the fact that Tycho Brahe was a cosmologically-driven observer. This is followed by a very illuminating paper on gender roles in science in the late 16th century, with emphasis on the role of Sophie Brahe, Tycho's youngest sister. Several subsequent papers reveal the existence of barely known links between Tycho and his contemporaneous colleagues. These extremely-well documented papers also deal with the broader philosophical investigation he was involved in, viz. meteorology, medicine, astrology, alchemy and even theology. Important names of Tycho's days are Petrus Severinus, Johannes Pratensis, Theophrastus Paracelsus, John Craig, Ursus (Nicolai Reymers Baer) etc. Very illuminating is the information on the relations between Tycho and the Jesuits in Prague, explaining the reason why this order was very supportive of the Tychonic cosmological model. The relationsship with Kepler, and also Kepler's observational activities (after Tycho's death) are highlighted as well as the hideous mode of communication between Galileo and Kepler. More than one paper deals with the accuracy and precision of Tycho's observations, and the causal impact of this accuracy on the scientific revolution. Another study discusses the study of Tycho's handwriting, this paper brings the aditional bonus of a list of accessible works which contain notes by him. One very interesting project was Brahe's proposal to the Republic of Venice to determine the exact latitudes of

  16. 77 FR 52704 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...-Grade Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment SUMMARY: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten...-parental care providers, as well as direct child assessments. Like its sister study, the Early...

  17. 77 FR 52702 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...-Grade Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment SUMMARY: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten... assessments. Like the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K),\\ \\ the...

  18. 77 FR 57079 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Teaching and Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Teaching and Learning International..., teaching as a profession, and the learning environments of schools. Data are collected through... records. Title of Collection: Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 Main Study....

  19. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  20. Historical review, present status and perspectives of nuclear sciences education at the Sofia University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the history of the education in nuclear sciences at the Faculty of Physics and Faculty of Chemistry of the Sofia University is made in the report. The present status of Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes in both Faculties is presented. (authors)

  1. Long-Term Retention of Basic Science Knowledge: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Eugene J. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently,…

  2. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  3. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  4. Supporting Teachers' Use of Technology in Science Instruction through Professional Development: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Tara E.; Spitulnik, Michele W.

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is critical in supporting teachers' use of technological tools in classrooms. This review of empirical research synthesizes the effective elements of professional development programs that support science teachers in learning about technology integration. Studies are examined that explore how professional development…

  5. Students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A review of the research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.

    The development of adequate student conceptions of the nature of science has been a perennial objective of science instruction regardless of the currently advocated pedagogical or curricular emphases. Consequently, it has been an area of prolific research characterized by several parallel, but distinct, lines of investigation. Although research related to students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science has been conducted for approximately 40 years, a comprehensive review of the empirical literature (both quantitative and qualitative) has yet to be presented. The overall purpose of this review is to help clarify what has been learned and to elucidate the basic assumptions and logic which have guided earlier research efforts. Ultimately, recommendations related to both methodology and the focus of future research are offered.

  6. Clear cell sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ozuguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM of soft tissue, also called clear cell sarcoma (CCS of tendons and aponeuroses, derives from the neural crest. CCS is similar morphologically to MM but has no precursor skin lesion, and instead, has a characteristic chromosomal translocation. Prognosis is related to the tumor size. Early recognition and initial radical surgery is the key to a favorable outcome. The tumor has to be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions of the soft tissues, such as fibrosarcoma. The demonstration of melanin and a positive immunohistochemical reaction for S-100 protein and HMB-45 can assist in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with CCS arising from the soft tissue of her little finger.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition. PMID:16242154

  8. REVIEW: Oxytocin: Crossing the bridge between basic science and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viero, Cedric; Shibuya, Izumi; Kitamura, Naoki; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Katoh, Akiko; Ueta, Yoichi; Zingg, Hans H; Chvatal, Alexandr; Sykova, Eva; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2010-10-01

    Is oxytocin the hormone of happiness? Probably not. However, this small nine amino acid peptide is involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterus contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer, social bonding, and stress, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. In this review, we address the issues of drug design and specificity and focus our discussion on recent findings on oxytocin and its heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor OTR. In this regard, we will highlight the following topics: (i) the role of oxytocin in behavior and affectivity, (ii) the relationship between oxytocin and stress with emphasis on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (iii) the involvement of oxytocin in pain regulation and nociception, (iv) the specific action mechanisms of oxytocin on intracellular Ca²(+) in the hypothalamo neurohypophysial system (HNS) cell bodies, (v) newly generated transgenic rats tagged by a visible fluorescent protein to study the physiology of vasopressin and oxytocin, and (vi) the action of the neurohypophysial hormone outside the central nervous system, including the myometrium, heart and peripheral nervous system. As a short nine amino acid peptide, closely related to its partner peptide vasopressin, oxytocin appears to be ideal for the design of agonists and antagonists of its receptor. In addition, not only the hormone itself and its binding to OTR, but also its synthesis, storage and release can be endogenously and exogenously regulated to counteract pathophysiological states. Understanding the fundamental physiopharmacology of the effects of oxytocin is an important and necessary approach for developing a potential pharmacotherapy. PMID:20626426

  9. Letting the daylight in : Reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Kievit, R.A.; Bakker, M.; Borsboom, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of online publishing, opportunities to maximize transparency of scientific research have grown considerably. However, these possibilities are still only marginally used. We argue for the implementation of (1) peer-reviewed peer review, (2) transparent editorial hierarchies, and (3

  10. Letting the daylight in: reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wicherts; R.A. Kievit; M. Bakker; D. Borsboom

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of online publishing, opportunities to maximize transparency of scientific research have grown considerably. However, these possibilities are still only marginally used. We argue for the implementation of (1) peer-reviewed peer review, (2) transparent editorial hierarchies, and (3

  11. Statistical Techniques Utilized in Analyzing PISA and TIMSS Data in Science Education from 1996 to 2013: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Hung, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a methodological review of articles using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) or Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data published by the SSCI-indexed science education journals, such as the "International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education," the "International…

  12. 77 FR 15753 - Request for Nominations of Experts for a Science Advisory Board Panel To Review EPA's Web-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Experts for a Science Advisory Board Panel To Review EPA's Web-Based... Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board (EPA-SAB-EC-02-010), which is posted on the SAB Web site... Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office requests public nominations of technical experts to form an...

  13. Implementing Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Large-lecture Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Russell, J. E.; Van Horne, S.; Sipola, M.; Rocheford, M. K.; Colombo, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing writing assignments and providing students the opportunity to meaningfully revise the assignments are challenging for instructors of large enrollment science classes. We included two individual writing assignments and peer assessments as part of course assessment for a large Introduction to Environmental Science course. In order to facilitate the assessment, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR), a web-based application developed by UCLA that enables frequent writing assignments in any discipline and with any class size, was adopted. The CPR assignment process involved four steps: submitting a writing assignment, calibrating each student's review skills, reviewing peers' writing, and assessing one's own writing assignment (self-assessment). A rubric was provided to guide students through each writing assignment and the same rubric was used in calibration, review, and self-assessment scoring. Once the instructors uploaded the writing prompts, rubrics, sample writings and answer keys into the CPR system, the CPR software fully directed all student activity (writing assignment submission, calibrations, reviews, and self-assessment). Students were able to view their results within the CPR program, including their self-calibration scores, reviewing scores, peers' ratings and feedback, total earned scores, and self-assessment scores. Surveys independently administered at the conclusion of the CPR assignments indicated that sixty to seventy-five percent of the students perceived that CPR was helpful in their learning, improved their writing and evaluation skills, and that the process of reviewing other students' essays and their own essays was more helpful than the comments received from peers. These survey results are in agreement with the well-established educational research literature that shows the benefits of peer review and peer assessment to student learning. Our experience with CPR in a large enrollment science course indicates that thoughtful planning of the

  14. Context effects in forensic science: a review and application of the science of science to crime laboratory practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, M J; Risinger, D M; Rosenthal, R; Thompson, W C

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the phenomenon of "context effects" by reviewing the findings and practices of a range of scientific fields, including astronomy, physics, biology, medicine, and especially the relevant research and theory from psychology. Context information, such as expectations about what one is supposed to see or conclude, has been found to have a small but relentless impact on human perception, judgment, and decision-making. The article then considers the vulnerability of forensic science practice to context effects, and concludes by suggesting that forensic science adopt practices familiar in other fields of scientific work, in particular blind or double-blind testing and also the use of evidence line-ups. PMID:12879569

  15. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-06-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  16. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan A; Boden, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs. PMID:25918485

  17. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan A.; Boden, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs. PMID:25918485

  18. A Review on Relation Between Operation Research and Different Field of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawan Kumar Dubey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operations research (OR is the discipline of applying advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. By using techniques such as mathematical modeling to analyze complex situations. OR has enhanced organizations and experiences all around us. From better scheduling of airline crews to the design of waiting lines at Disney theme parks. OR is the interdisciplinary mathematical science, now a days OR are very useful in different ways like in project designing, mathematical modeling, statistical analysis and industrial engineering. In this article we review various paper and then define relation between OR and other branch of sciences.

  19. The Open Science Peer Review Oath [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4ou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Aleksic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously (and conscientiously uphold these principles should help to improve published papers, increase confidence in the reproducibility of the work and, ultimately, provide strategic benefits to authors and their institutions. Future incarnations of the various national Research Excellence Frameworks (REFs will evolve away from simple citations towards measurable societal value and impact. The proposed manifesto aspires to facilitate this goal by making transparency, reproducibility and citizen-scientist engagement (with the knowledge-creation and dissemination processes the default parameters for performing sound research.

  20. Expanding the Horizons of Educational Pair Programming: A Methodological Review of Pair Programming in Computer Science Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rimington, Keith B.

    2010-01-01

    Educators and researchers continue to explore the benefits, real or imagined, of implementing pair programming as part of the computer science pedagogy. Current reviews of computer science educational research practices do not focus on educational pair programming. This thesis presents a review of the research methods used in recent educational pair programming research. The primary purpose of this review is to inform the ongoing dialogue about and to provide evidence-based recommendations fo...

  1. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    “Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  2. Systems science and childhood obesity: a systematic review and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Foster, E Michael

    2013-01-01

    As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child. PMID:23710344

  3. Argument-Driven Inquiry: Using the Laboratory to Improve Undergraduates' Science Writing Skills through Meaningful Science Writing, Peer-Review, and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary evidence supporting the use of peer review in undergraduate science as a means to improve student writing and to alleviate barriers, such as lost class time, by incorporation of the peer-review process into the laboratory component of the course. The study was conducted in a single section of an undergraduate…

  4. Science and Technology review: The search for mutagens from cooked foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This past year and a half has been one of the most unsettled periods in the history of the Livermore Laboratory. Our laboratory, like all federal laboratories, has felt the winds of change from Washington. Various committees are questioning the way in which the federal government supports scientific research and the appropriateness of certain to programs. Science and Technology Review is one of the principal mechanisms by which we inform and educate a broad readership about our research programs and accomplishments. Much of the Laboratory`s research is at the cutting edge of science and technology, making it particularly challenging to describe state-of-the-art accomplishments and their significance in widely understood terms. Our goal is that the articles presented here represent the full range of projects at Livermore and convey the challenge and excitement of working at the frontiers of science and technology.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Environmental Criteria (First External Review Draft, Dec 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise ...

  6. 76 FR 29746 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... serve on an ad hoc review panel on February 28, 2011 (76 FR 10896-10897) and March 30, 2011 (76 FR 17649... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review... SAB Mercury Review Panel. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 15, 2011 and June 16, 2011 from 9...

  7. Opening Scholarly Communication in Social Sciences: Supporting Open Peer Review with Fidus Writer

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp; Momeni, Fakhri; Lange, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly communication in the social sciences is centered around publications, in which data also play a key role. The increasingly collaborative scientific process, from a project plan, to collecting data, to interpreting them in a paper and submitting it for peer review, to publishing an article, to, finally, its consumption by readers, is insufficiently supported by contemporary information systems. They support every individual step, but media discontinuities between steps cause ineff...

  8. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  9. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Susan A.; Boden, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor)....

  10. Social media and television: a bibliographic review based on the Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Segado, Francisco; Grandío, María del Mar; Fernández Gomez, Erika

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important trends in current television research has to do with the increasing impact of social media on viewing and consumption. This article reviews the literature on social media and television included in the Web of Science database from 2005 to 2013 in order to find the main research questions guiding academic research within media studies. The topics investigated included the theoretical approach and definition of social television, the central role of Twitter as...

  11. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    OpenAIRE

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der, A.C.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the ions will be temporarily immobilized. These electrodes are made of porous carbons optimized for salt storage capacity and ion and electron transport. We review the science and technology of CDI and...

  12. Causes of academic failure of medical and medical sciences students in Iran: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Azari, Sheida; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Fata, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Academic failure of medical and medical sciences students is one of the major problems of higher education centers in many countries. This study aims to collect and compare relevant researches in this field in Iran. Methods: The appropriate keywords were searched in the national and international databases, and the findings were categorized into related and non-related articles accordingly. Results: Only 22 articles were included in this systematic review. In terms of content anal...

  13. 2011 Year in review--Earth Resources Observation and Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca, (compiler)

    2012-01-01

    The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's 2011 Year in Review is an annual report recounting the broad scope of the Center's 2011 accomplishments. The report covers preparations for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) launch, the ever-increasing use of free Landsat data, monitoring the effects of natural hazards, and more to emphasize the importance of innovation in using satellite data to study change over time.

  14. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.

  15. A Review of Technology Development for NASA's Planetary Science Division Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Patricia; Clarke, J. T.; Lorenz, R.; Kremic, T.; Hughes, P.; Perry, B.; Singleton, J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA has made tremendous progress in addressing critical questions about our solar system but often the knowledge gained raises new and more challenging questions. Future robotic space missions need to be endowed with more capable instruments, spacecraft subsystems and ground support on order to be able to answer the new and more difficult questions that lay before us. Developing future instrument, spacecraft subsystem, or ground support technologies for robotic planetary missions is a complicated and challenging endeavor. Recognizing this, the Planetary Science Division (PSD) in NASA's Science Mission Directorate has chartered a panel to review its current technology development programs and provide recommendations on process and policy improvements that will enable better utilization of technology. This paper discusses the work and findings of that panel, known as the Planetary Science Technology Review (PSTR) panel. The paper discusses the technology development challenges faced by the PSD as well as panel findings and observations about the current programs and processes employed. The paper also discusses the potential recommendations that may be considered by the Planetary Science Division in future technology development efforts.

  16. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation strategy review recommendations. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1994 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO)'s Board initiated a comprehensive five month review which purpose was to develop a mission for ANSTO and thus define its role both domestically and internationally. The review took into account the needs of ANSTO stakeholders, analysed ANSTO capabilities as well as available international opportunities. Outcomes of the review included an assessment of the priorities and needs of stakeholders, an understanding of how these needs can be meet, and the resulting resource implications. ANSTO's major mission objectives, as defined in the consultants's report should be: to support the Government's nuclear policies (this objective is paramount), support industrial competitiveness and innovation through technology transfer, as well as to maintain a high quality nuclear science base and to enable academic institutions and other science organizations to perform research by providing access to unique facilities and expertise. The consultants also made recommendations on appropriate management arrangements for ANSTO, an implementation plan, progress milestones and operational targets. Details of the relevance-excellence analysis, commercial customer analysis and justification for recommended activity action imperatives are presented in the appendices. 48 figs

  17. Report of the Review Committee on valuation of the research subjects in the fields of advanced science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the JAERI's Basic Guidelines for the Research Evaluation Methods, etc. the Ad Hoc Review Committee composed of eight experts was set up under the Research Evaluation Committee of the JAERI in order to review the research theme completed in FY1998 and those planned for five years starting in FY2000 in the Advanced Science Research Center. The Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting was held on September 17, 1999. According to the review methods including review items, points of review and review criteria, determined by the Research Evaluation Committee, the review was conducted based on the research results/plan documents submitted in advance and presentations by the Research Group Leaders. The review report was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee for further review and discussions in its meeting held on March 14, 2000. As a result, the Research Evaluation Committee acknowledged appropriateness of the review results. This report describes the review results. (author)

  18. To Clear or Not To Clear - That Is the Question

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Adam; Childs, Corey; Porr, C. A. Shea

    2009-01-01

    Many options exist if you do decide to clear land. Regardless of the option you choose, the primary goal should be the same: to minimize soil loss and movement during and immediately after the land clearing process.

  19. Proposal Auto-Categorizer and Manager for Time Allocation Review at Space Telescope Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sophia; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Lagerstrom, Jill; Weissman, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute annually receives more than one thousand formal proposals for Hubble Space Telescope time, exceeding the available time with the observatory by a factor of over four. With JWST, the proposal pressure will only increase, straining our ability to provide rigorous peer review of each proposal's scientific merit. Significant hurdles in this process include the proper categorization of proposals, to ensure Time Allocation Committees (TACs) have the required and desired expertise to fairly and appropriately judge each proposal, and the selection of reviewers themselves, to establish diverse and well-qualified TACs. The Panel Auto-Categorizer and Manager (PACMan; a naive Bayesian classifier) was developed to automatically sort new proposals into their appropriate science categories and, similarly, to appoint panel reviewers with the best qualifications to serve on the corresponding TACs. We will provide an overview of PACMan and present the results of its testing on five previous cycles of proposals. PACMan will be implemented in upcoming cycles to support and eventually replace the process for constructing the time allocation reviews.

  20. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Geyser Tube A simple plastic tube makes a great difference to an old trick Field Trip to the Moon This DVD postulates what the next Moon mission will be like Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element A fascinating account of the people and the science behind atomic bombs Solar Energy Modules A series of units ideal for use with 7-14-year-olds Photocopiable Practical Science New teaching resource is clear, straightforward and flexible Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace Biography that is thorough, well-told and worth the telling WORTH A LOOK Applied Biophysics: A Molecular Approach for Physical Scientists This book explains why physics is essential to biology William's Words in Science Classroom dictionary of scientific terms can be hit and miss HANDLE WITH CARE Zero Time Space This story of quantum mechanics loses its thread in translation WEB WATCH A whizz around the pole-related science tools that are available

  1. A Thematic Review of Interactive Whiteboard Use in Science Education: Rationales, Purposes, Methods and General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormanci, Ummuhan; Cepni, Salih; Deveci, Isa; Aydin, Ozhan

    2015-10-01

    In Turkey and many other countries, the importance of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is increasing, and as a result, projects and studies are being conducted regarding the use of the IWB in classrooms. Accordingly, in these countries, many issues are being researched, such as the IWB's contribution to the education process, its use in classroom settings and problems that occur when using the IWB. In this context, the research and analysis of studies regarding the use of the IWB have important implications for educators, researchers and teachers. This study aims to review and analyze studies conducted regarding the use of the IWB in the field of science. Accordingly, as a thematic review of the research was deemed appropriate, extant articles available in the literature were analyzed using a matrix that consisted of general features (type of journal, year and demographic properties) and content features (rationales, aims, research methods, samples, data collections, results and suggestions). According to the findings, it was concluded that the studies regarding the use of IWBs were conducted due to deficiencies in the current literature. However, there are rare studies in which the reasons for the research were associated with the nature of science education. There were also studies that focused on the effects of the IWB on student academic success and learning outcomes. Within this context, it is evident that there is a need for further research concerning the use of IWBs in science education and for studies regarding the effect of IWBs on students' skills.

  2. The Huygens surface science package (SSP): Flight performance review and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, M. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Hathi, B.; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2012-09-01

    The Surface Science Package (SSP) was one of six instruments flown onboard the Huygens probe to Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, in the framework of the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission (Matson et al., 2002). The SSP operated throughout the probe's descent and after landing on Titan on 14th January 2005. This paper reviews scientific results from the Surface Science Package, and also reports previously unpublished flight data which illustrate the performance of the measurement systems in the Titan environment. This review provides some lessons learned that may be useful for further detailed analysis of the Huygens mission data, and for payloads for future missions to Titan, in which there has been recent interest (e.g., the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) (Joint TSSM Science Definition Team, 2009), TANDEM (Coustenis et al., 2009) or the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery-class proposal (Stofan et al., 2010)), as well as for planetary probe missions more generally.

  3. Vision Science and Schizophrenia Research: Toward a Re-view of the Disorder Editors’ Introduction to Special Section

    OpenAIRE

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Keane, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    This theme section on vision science and schizophrenia research demonstrates that our understanding of the disorder could be significantly accelerated by a greater adoption of the methods of vision science. In this introduction, we briefly describe what vision science is, how it has advanced our understanding of schizophrenia, and what challenges and opportunities lay ahead regarding schizophrenia research. We then summarize the articles that follow. These include reviews of abnormal form per...

  4. 75 FR 58383 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of Great...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... information independently gathered by the SAB Staff Office. Selection criteria to be used for Panel membership... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of Great.... SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations for...

  5. Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

  6. Clear corneal incision in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M Al Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature.

  7. Progress in Significant Soil Science Fields of China over the Last Three Decades: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; HE Ji-Zheng; YAN Xiao-Yuan; ZHANG Bin; ZHANG Gan-Lin; CAI Zu-Cong

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous decreases in arable land area and continuous population increases, Chinese soil scientists face great challenges in meeting food demands, mitigating adverse environmental impacts, and sustaining or enhancing soil productivity under intensive agriculture.With the aim of promoting the application of soil science knowledge, this paper reviews the achievements of Chinese scientists in soil resource use and management, soil fertility, global change mitigation and soil biology over the last 30 years.During this period, soil resource science has provided essential support for the use and exploitation of Chinese soil resources, and has itself developed through introduction of new theories such as Soil Taxonomy and new technologies such us remote sensing.Soil fertility science has contributed to the alleviation and elimination of impeding physical and chemical factors that constrain availability of essential nutrients and water in soils, the understanding of nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and the increase in nutrient use efficiency for sustainable crop production.Chinese soil scientists have contributed to the understanding of the cropland's role in global change, particularly to the understanding of methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice fields and the effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on rice-wheat system.Soil biology research has progressed in biological N fixation, distribution of fauna in Chinese soils, and bioremediation of polluted soils.A new generation of soil scientists has arisen in the last three decades.The gaps between research and application in these soil science fields are also discussed.

  8. e-Research in the Social Sciences: The Possibilities and the Reality (A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Russell Searight

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the current status as well as benefits and barriers to online research in the social sciences. With the rapid development of internet technology in the past decade, there has been growing interest in the application of on-line technologies to social science research. While there are a number of on-line sites for survey completion and centralized data sets for studying psychological, health, political and sociological issues, collaborative on-line research communities have not developed at the same pace as these other innovations. The few exploratory studies of e-research collaboration conducted to date suggest that while there are potential benefits, there are a number of social, ethical and professional barriers to its development in the social sciences. A recent curricular innovation, in which undergraduate students from different institutions work collaboratively on an on-line research project, suggests that with specific training, a number of these obstacles can be overcome. However, at this point, there appears to be more potential for collaborative online research than is being realized. Issues such as trust, ownership, and quality assurance will need to be addressed before collaborative on-line research in social science becomes a common practice.

  9. Learning in Earth and space science: a review of conceptual change instructional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-03-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the general characteristics of the research, the conceptual change instructional approaches that were used, and the methods employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches. The findings of this review support four assertions about the existing research: (1) astronomical phenomena have received greater attention than geological phenomena; (2) most studies have viewed conceptual change from a cognitive perspective only; (3) data about conceptual change were generated pre- and post-intervention only; and (4) the interventions reviewed presented limited opportunities to involve students in the construction and manipulation of multiple representations of the phenomenon being investigated. Based upon these assertions, the authors recommend that new research in the Earth and space science disciplines challenges traditional notions of conceptual change by exploring the role of affective variables on learning, focuses on the learning of geological phenomena through the construction of multiple representations, and employs qualitative data collection throughout the implementation of an instructional approach.

  10. Isothermal Microcalorimetry: A Review of Applications in Soil and Environmental Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Xing-Min; HUANG Qiao-Yun; JIANG Dai-Hua; CAI Peng; LIANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal microcMorimetry provides thermodynamic and kinetic information on various reactions and processes and is thereby a powerful tool to elucidate their mechanisms.Certain improvement in isothermal microcalorimetry with regard to the studies on soil and environmental sciences is briefly described.This review mainly focuses on the use of microcalorimetry in the determination of soil microbial activity,monitoring the toxicity and biodegradation of soil organic pollutants,the risk evaluation of metals and metalloids,the heat effect of ion exchange and adsorption in soil,and environmental researches.Promising prospects for the applications of the technique in the field are also discussed.

  11. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration

  12. Text mining for science and technology - a review part I - characterization/scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N Kostoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first part of a two-part review of the author′s work in developing text mining procedures. The focus of Part I is Scientometrics. Novel approaches that were used to text mine the field of nanoscience/nanotechnology and the science and technology portfolio of China are described. A unique approach to identify documents related to an application theme (e.g., military-related, intelligence-related, space-related rather than a discipline theme is also described in some detail.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  14. Identifying Potential Types of Guidance for Supporting Student Inquiry When Using Virtual and Remote Labs in Science: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; de Jong, Ton; Pedaste, Margus; van Riesen, Siswa A.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science education and classified all identified guidance…

  15. Identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; Jong, de Ton; Pedaste, Margus; Riesen, van Siswa A.N.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science e

  16. The Nexus of Reading, Writing and Researching in the Doctoral Undertaking of Humanities and Social Sciences: Implications for Literature Reviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S.C.

    2008-01-01

    One indispensable task in the doctoral undertaking in the humanities and social sciences is that of reviewing the literature. To many graduate students, finding the "right" direction of reviewing is a particularly grueling experience, a practical concern seldom addressed in thesis manuals and studies of the doctoral thesis. This paper is an…

  17. Defining Science from Multicultural and Universal Perspectives: A Review of Research and Its Implications for Science Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    The current move toward "science for all" in all parts of the globe necessitates that consideration be given to how pupils move between their everyday life and the world of school science, how pupils deal with cognitive conflicts between those two worlds, and what this means for effective teaching of science. In recent times, multiculturalism's…

  18. Social science research on HIV in Vietnam: a critical review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Amy; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Social science research can enhance the response to Vietnam's growing HIV epidemic by capturing the country's rapidly changing social and political context. The present paper reviews the published, peer-reviewed and English-language social science literature on HIV in Vietnam in order to identify critical theoretical and substantive gaps, while laying the groundwork for future research. We found four broad foci for work on the social context of HIV and AIDS in Vietnam: the cultural meanings and social relationships that shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic; stigma and discrimination; social inequality and structural violence as contributors to HIV risk; and, finally, how broader global and social systems shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic. We signal the particular need for additional research on the effects of the media on attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, on social movements, and on health systems, as well as on a number of other key areas. Work along these lines, in addition to more effective communication of policy-relevant findings to those responsible for the development and implementation of policies and programmes, will strengthen Vietnam's response to HIV and AIDS. PMID:23906241

  19. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...

  20. The AIRInforma experiment: peer-reviewed public dissemination of science in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Federico; Cassetta, Luca; Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    Public dissemination of science to the public is often negatively affected by biased, incorrect information distributed over the world wide web through social networks and weblogs. In Italy, the lack of correct scientific information has generated several important issues, raising concerns by the international scientific community in several occasions over the past five years. Our association AIRIcerca (International Association of Italian Researchers, http://www.airicerca.org) has recently started a novel scientific dissemination initiative to the general public in Italy. The project is based on 1) direct involvement of researchers (with accademic or industrial affiliation) in article preparation and publication and 2) introduction of a peer-reviewing system similar to that applied in conventional scientific publishing. Our initiative, named AIRInforma (http://informa.airicerca.org) has already published more than 10 original articles and 3 meeting reports, in Italian language, about various fields of scientific research, ranging from social sciences to evolutionary biology , mathematics and medicine . The editorial board is composed of approximately 20 Italian scientists working all over the world and voluntarily contributing to the AIRInforma initiative. Submitted manuscripts are initially evaluated by the editorial board and, if suitable, they are assigned to four non-anonymous reviewers selected by the editorial board for accurate evaluation. Two reviewers are selected based on their specific expertise on the topic presented in the manuscript (expert reviewers), and two are specifically selected as working on distant fields (naive reviewers). The purpose of naive reviewers is to provide feedback on the efficacy and clarity of the information for the general public. So far, AIRInforma has established a novel channel of scientific communication in Italy, receiving excellent feedback and reaching more than 8000 new unique visitors every month on our website and

  1. Computer science teacher professional development in the United States: a review of studies published between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-10-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher professional development. In this study, the main goal was to systematically review the studies regarding computer science professional development to understand the scope, context, and effectiveness of these programs in the past decade (2004-2014). Based on 21 journal articles and conference proceedings, this study explored: (1) Type of professional development organization and source of funding, (2) professional development structure and participants, (3) goal of professional development and type of evaluation used, (4) specific computer science concepts and training tools used, (5) and their effectiveness to improve teacher practice and student learning.

  2. INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC REVIEW TO A PLURALITY OF MODERN SCIENCE: NEED OR FICTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of plurality epistemological provokes distinct lack of clear criteria for scientific criticism humanities texts. This research raises the question of verification procedure for knowledge obtained humanities, its status and importance. Changes relate to the modern paradigm of scientific methodology in general, which involves switching from a focus on results orientation to the process of getting the truth (W.V.O. Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend, Imre Lakatos, etc.. To determine the relationships with the text as a carrier of the alleged truth reception is off ered three formats of relations: Text – Author, Text – Reader and Text – Reviewer. The article stresses questions of general and specific objectives for the scientifi c peer review, as well as the problem of plagiarism and its ethical and legal consequences. It is proposed to consider plan algorithm scientific review of the 26 criteria for it, which will help to streamline Institute of scientific criticism. Recent cover content requirements (which include: the incorporation of a scientific context, the definition of methodological systems, structured research, avoiding plagiarism, there is a real «increase of knowledge» and applied significance, etc. and technical design, the variable respectively specifi c edition. Compliance with a number of requirements set out will help improve the effi ciency and profitability of the humanities.

  3. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron-Shatz, T.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Paton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. Methods A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Results Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to “small data” would also be useful. PMID:25123717

  4. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  5. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts where it...... is important for mutual understanding that we be clear and concise. This is true of instructions for electronic equipment and for household appliances. Here, linguistic brevity and clarity may be preferable, but not in other cases. Culture, globalization, and the recognition of ever faster growth in...

  6. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions, 76 FR 13101 (Mar. 10, 2011). \\6... (Aug. 1, 2011). \\11\\ See 76 FR 33066 (Jun. 6, 2011). II. Customer Clearing Documentation A... customer when trading with that SD or MSP. \\12\\ See 76 FR 45730 at 45731, Aug. 1, 2011. \\13\\ See...

  7. Report from the Committee of Visitors on its Review of the Processes and Procedures used to Manage the Theory and Computations Program, Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Committee of Visitors (COV) was formed to review the procedures used by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to manage its Theory and Computations program. The COV was pleased to conclude that the research portfolio supported by the OFES Theory and Computations Program was of very high quality. The Program supports research programs at universities, research industries, and national laboratories that are well regarded internationally and address questions of high relevance to the DOE. A major change in the management of the Theory and Computations program over the past few years has been the introduction of a system of comparative peer review to guide the OFES Theory Team in selecting proposals for funding. The COV was impressed with the success of OFES in its implementation of comparative peer review and with the quality of the reviewers chosen by the OFES Theory Team. The COV concluded that the competitive peer review process has improved steadily over the three years that it has been in effect and that it has improved both the fairness and accountability of the proposal review process. While the COV commends OFES in its implementation of comparative review, the COV offers the following recommendations in the hope that they will further improve the comparative peer review process: The OFES should improve the consistency of peer reviews. We recommend adoption of a results-oriented scoring system in their guidelines to referees (see Appendix II), a greater use of review panels, and a standard format for proposals; The OFES should further improve the procedures and documentation for proposal handling. We recommend that the folders documenting funding decisions contain all the input from all of the reviewers, that OFES document their rationale for funding decisions which are at variance with the recommendation of the peer reviewers, and that OFES provide a Summary Sheet within each folder; The OFES should better communicate the procedures used to determine funding

  8. Report from the Committee of Visitors on its Review of the Processes and Procedures used to Manage the Theory and Computations Program, Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    A Committee of Visitors (COV) was formed to review the procedures used by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to manage its Theory and Computations program. The COV was pleased to conclude that the research portfolio supported by the OFES Theory and Computations Program was of very high quality. The Program supports research programs at universities, research industries, and national laboratories that are well regarded internationally and address questions of high relevance to the DOE. A major change in the management of the Theory and Computations program over the past few years has been the introduction of a system of comparative peer review to guide the OFES Theory Team in selecting proposals for funding. The COV was impressed with the success of OFES in its implementation of comparative peer review and with the quality of the reviewers chosen by the OFES Theory Team. The COV concluded that the competitive peer review process has improved steadily over the three years that it has been in effect and that it has improved both the fairness and accountability of the proposal review process. While the COV commends OFES in its implementation of comparative review, the COV offers the following recommendations in the hope that they will further improve the comparative peer review process: The OFES should improve the consistency of peer reviews. We recommend adoption of a “results-oriented” scoring system in their guidelines to referees (see Appendix II), a greater use of review panels, and a standard format for proposals; The OFES should further improve the procedures and documentation for proposal handling. We recommend that the “folders” documenting funding decisions contain all the input from all of the reviewers, that OFES document their rationale for funding decisions which are at variance with the recommendation of the peer reviewers, and that OFES provide a Summary Sheet within each folder; The OFES should better communicate the procedures used to

  9. A student-run peer-reviewed journal: an educational tool for students in the health sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Winterbottom R; Patel P; Deonandan R

    2012-01-01

    Raywat Deonandan1, Premal Patel2, Robyn Winterbottom31Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, 3School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Students at the University of Ottawa, many of whom were targeting a career in medicine, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and expectations regarding a new student-run peer-reviewed journal for the health scienc...

  10. Review. Teaching Legal and Administrative Science Nadia-Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Mihaela POPA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work Didactica predarii stiintelor juridice si administrative (Teaching Legal and Administrative Science authors Nadia- Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru is structured around the following 10 lessons: 1. General notions about teaching legal science, 2. Teaching legal science, 3. Learning with application in legal science, 4. Legal science teaching aims, 5. Education curriculum for teaching legal science, 6. Learning Methods 7. Educational assessment with applications for legal science, 8. Didactic principles in teaching legal science, 9. Educational activities organization in legal science, 10. Legal education in Romania.

  11. The Life and Times of Aboutness: A Review of the Library and Information Science Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rondeau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper explores the concept of “aboutness”, its related terms, and the process of aboutness determination as found in the Library and Information Science Literature. Methods – A review of the literature pertaining to aboutness determination and related terms specific to Library and Information Science was undertaken, borrowing extensively from the literature review of Daniel Joudrey’s (2005 dissertation, Building puzzles and growing pearls: A qualitative exploration of determining aboutness, as well as examining a small selection of research and articles not discussed by Joudrey. In addition, a concept map was developed to outline many of the concepts and theories found. Results – The LIS literature demonstrates conflicting positions surrounding the term aboutness and its correlates. Despite the lack of firm agreement on terminologies, the notion of subject is explored because it featured prominently in the literature. As well, intensional and extensional aboutness are explored in contrast to a more subjectivist perspective which asserts that a document's aboutness cannot be separated from its reader. Aboutness determination is also examined through the lens of theme and rheme, that is what is presupposed in a document versus what is new. Aboutness from the user perspective featured considerably in the literature, with many authors asserting both the importance and the challenge of mediating knowledge on behalf of the user. The stage of aboutness determination in the complete process of subject indexing is also presented here, and the findings demonstrate that the stages are anything but linear and sequential. Conclusion – While the findings are more expositional than conclusive, they demonstrate the complexities and challenges surrounding the concept of “aboutness” and the process of its determination. The value of this review is in its ability to present the ways in which scholars and practitioners have

  12. Research collaboration and team science a state-of-the-art review and agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Bozeman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Today in most scientific and technical fields more than 90% of research studies and publications are collaborative, often resulting in high-impact research and development of commercial applications, as reflected in patents. Nowadays in many areas of science, collaboration is not a preference but, literally, a work prerequisite. The purpose of this book is to review and critique the burgeoning scholarship on research collaboration. The authors seek to identify gaps in theory and research and identify the ways in which existing research can be used to improve public policy for collaboration and to improve project-level management of collaborations using Scientific and Technical Human Capital (STHC) theory as a framework. Broadly speaking, STHC is the sum of scientific and technical and social knowledge, skills and resources embodied in a particular individual. It is both human capital endowments, such as formal education and training and social relations and network ties that bind scientists and the users of ...

  13. Review and evaluation of the Office of Science and Technology`s Community Leaders Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    This report constitutes a review and evaluation of the Community Leaders Network (CLN), an informally structured national stakeholder group sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program`s Office of Science and Technology (OST) to obtain citizen input into the technology research and development programs of the OST. Since the CLN`s inception in 1993, its participants, currently numbering about 35 members mostly from jurisdictions hosting DOE waste management and environmental remediation sites, and its clients (i.e., OST) have invested substantial resources to develop the capability to enhance technology development and deployment activities through proactive stakeholder involvement. The specific objectives of the CLN are to: provide feedback and input to OST on technology development activities; provide information on OST ideas and approaches to key stakeholder groups, and provide input to OST on stakeholder concerns and involvement.

  14. FROM MARKET MAGIC TO CALYPSO SCIENCE POLICY A Review of Terence Kealey's The Economic Laws of Scientific Research

    OpenAIRE

    David, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The current reconsideration of public research funding policies in the U.S., and U.K. and other industrialized economies makes it important that policy makers and the public understand the valid economic grounds for government support of science. This review article of a book that which argues for the ending of all government support of non-military R&D, provides an occasion to take stock of what is known about the subject. The review concludes that the extreme laissez-faire science policy ar...

  15. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  16. Threats to internal validity in exercise science: a review of overlooked confounding variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel; Pyne, David B; Martin, David T

    2015-10-01

    Internal validity refers to the degree of control exerted over potential confounding variables to reduce alternative explanations for the effects of various treatments. In exercise and sports-science research and routine testing, internal validity is commonly achieved by controlling variables such as exercise and warm-up protocols, prior training, nutritional intake before testing, ambient temperature, time of testing, hours of sleep, age, and gender. However, a number of other potential confounding variables often do not receive adequate attention in sports physiology and performance research. These confounding variables include instructions on how to perform the test, volume and frequency of verbal encouragement, knowledge of exercise endpoint, number and gender of observers in the room, influence of music played before and during testing, and the effects of mental fatigue on performance. In this review the authors discuss these variables in relation to common testing environments in exercise and sports science and present some recommendations with the goal of reducing possible threats to internal validity. PMID:25756869

  17. Determinants and finalities in the choice of journal reviewing procedures: the case of RDST, a french science education research journal

    OpenAIRE

    Morge, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    International audience The merging of two French journals both publishing articles on research in science and technology education has made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This comparison highlights two points: first, there are extrinsic and intrinsic determinants which affect the choice of reviewing modalities; and secondly, there are two finalities which could lead to the two journals converging, namely, the equity (fairness) or the equal...

  18. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-03-31

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs.

  19. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs

  20. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process. PMID:26332763

  1. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. PMID:26109278

  2. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin

    2009-01-01

    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  3. Report of the evaluation by the ad hoc review committee on advance science research. Evaluation in fiscal year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2000 and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2002 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 26, 2001, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on July 12, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  4. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios.

  5. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  6. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  7. A Review on Learning Styles and Critically Thinking Disposition of Pre-Service Science Teachers in Terms of Miscellaneous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to review learning styles and critical thinking disposition of pre-service science teachers in terms of sex, grade and age, and to address the relationship between their learning styles and critical thinking disposition. It used Kolb's Inventory of Learning Styles and California Scale of Critical Thinking…

  8. 75 FR 69069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Lead Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... standards and the development of lead-based paint dust hazard standards for public and commercial buildings... provisions of FACA and all appropriate SAB Staff Office procedural policies. Background: Human exposure to... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Lead Review...

  9. Workshop on Assessment of Health Science for the Review of the Naaqs for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced that a workshop on Assessment of Health Science for the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Nitrogen (NOX) and Sulfur Oxides (SOX) is being organized by EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), in conjunction with ...

  10. 75 FR 71702 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for Review of EPA's Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... gathered by the SAB Staff Office. Selection criteria to be used for Panel membership include: (a... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for Review of EPA's Draft... Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations for technical experts to augment the...

  11. [Book reviews] The Science of Allelopathy, edited by A. R. Putnam and C. Tang; Allelopathy, by E .L. Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Review of: Putnam, Alan R., and Chung-Shih Tang (eds.). 1986. The science of allelopathy. Wiley-Interscience Publications, John Wiley and Sons, New York. xi + 317 p. $52.50. Rice, Elroy L. 1984. Allelopathy. Second Edition. Academic Press, New York. xi + 422 p. $71.00.

  12. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  13. Scientometric analysis: A technical need for medical science researchers either as authors or as peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    The nature of performing a scientific research is a process that has several different components which consist of identifying the key research question(s), choices of scientific approach for the study and data collection, data analysis, and finally reporting on results. Generally, peer review is a series of procedures in the evaluation of a creative work or performance by other people, who work in the same or related field, with the aim of maintaining and improving the quality of work or performance in that field. The assessment of the achievement of every scientist, and thus indirectly determining his reputation in the scientific community of these publications, especially journals, is done through the so-called impact factor index. The impact factor predicts or estimates that how many annual citations article may receive after its publication. Evaluation of scientific productivity and assessment of the published articles of researchers and scientists can be made through the so-called H-index. The quality of published results of scientific work largely depends on knowledge sources that are used in the preparation, which means that it should be considered to serve the purpose and the very relevance of the information used. Scientometrics as a field of science covers all aforementioned issues, and scientometric analysis is obligatory for quality assessment of the scientific validity of published articles and other type of publications. PMID:26985429

  14. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity.

  15. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  16. State of Science, “Intuition in Nursing Practice”: A Systematic Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Parkhide; Jalali, Rostam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There were many attempts for introducing “intuition” to nursing practice, But despite the efficacy, it has been ignored as a valid way of knowing. Therefore the current study was conducted for evaluating the state of sciences to intuition in nursing practice. Materials and Methods In a systematic review study, all researches, published from 1995 to 2014, were searched in the databases of “PubMed”, using “intuition” and “nursing” keywords. The abstract of articles were read in scrutiny, then the related researches selected, thereafter the full text of them was assessed carefully. Results From searching the databases, 144 articles with “intuition and nursing” were found, 53 as original research, and 15 with inclusion criteria were selected. Most of the studies had qualitative approaches design as phenomenology (N=4), content analyses (N=2) and grounded theory (N=1), six was done for developing the instrument, and two studies have been conducted as descriptive method. Conclusion The results revealed the researches about intuition in nursing mostly were conducted with qualitative and instrument developing methodology and there is a lack of quantitative and trial studies. PMID:27042483

  17. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity. PMID:27547377

  18. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...

  19. A Review of the School Science Curricula in Eleven High Achieving Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Martin; Reiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen unprecedented interest in science curricula, with many governments seeing improvements in the performance of their school students in science as key to future economic prosperity. We present the results of an analysis of the curriculum documents for primary and secondary science in Australia (New South Wales and…

  20. 77 FR 11135 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: STAR METRICS (Science and Technology for America's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... allow for measurement of science impact on economic outcomes (such as job creatfon), on knowledge... (Science and Technology for America's Reinvestment: Measuring the EffecTs of Research on Innovation, Competitiveness and Science) Summary: Under the provisions of section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction...

  1. 77 FR 11558 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; STAR METRICS (Science and Technology for America's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... hoped that STAR METRICS will allow for measurement of science impact on economic outcomes (such as job... (Science and Technology for America's Reinvestment: Measuring the Effects of Research on Innovation, Competitiveness and Science) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction...

  2. 78 FR 35984 - Proposal Review Panel for Ocean Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... the Coastal Margin Observatory and Prediction Science and Technology Center (CMOP). Agenda Tuesday... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  3. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hut, R.W.; Land-Zandstra, A.M.; Smeets, I.; Stoof, C.

    2016-01-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television,...

  4. A Hybrid Evaluation System Framework (Shell & Web) with Standardized Access to Climate Model Data and Verification Tools for a Clear Climate Science Infrastructure on Big Data High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Ulbrich, Uwe; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    by other users-saving CPU time, I/O and disk space. This study presents the different techniques and advantages of such a hybrid evaluation system making use of a Big Data HPC in climate science. website: www-miklip.dkrz.de visitor-login: click on "Guest"

  5. Cean air and clear responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text

  6. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245858

  7. Designing Peer Review for Pedagogical Success: What Can We Learn from Professional Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares peer review in professional versus education settings, summarizing key aspects of scientific peer review and reflecting on how these relate to the process as experienced by students. Consideration of professional peer review benefits educators in two ways. First, systems used for student peer review can employ some of the…

  8. BIOMIMICRY BASED ON MATERIAL SCIENCE: THE INSPIRING ART FROM NATURE (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyucu, Can

    2015-01-01

    Biomimicry is an art which adopts the nature to science. Basically, it is the name of an art which converts the birds to the planes. It finds the qualities which the humanity does not have, the evolution gave to the nature. Moreover, it discovers these qualities and makes available for humanity with scientific methods. Therefore, as far as its relation to material science as concerned, it is the most important inter-disciplinary science field for humanity. Hence, when this scientific value an...

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: Level Set Methods and Their Applications in Image Science

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Richard; Osher, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the question "What Level Set Methods can do for image science". We examine the scope of these techniques in image science, in particular in image segmentation, and introduce some relevant level set techinquies that are potnetially useful for this class of applications. We will show that image science demands multi-disciplinary knowledge and flexible but still robust methods. That is why the Level Set Method has become a thriving technique in th...

  10. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452

  11. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  12. The ClearPET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration has designed and is building a high-resolution small animal PET scanner. The design is based on the use of the Hamamatsu R7600-M64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube and a LSO/LuYAP phoswich matrix with one to one coupling between the crystals and the photo-detector. The complete system will have 80 PM tubes in four rings with an inner diameter of 137 mm and an axial field of view of 110 mm. The PM pulses are digitized by free-running ADCs and digital data processing determines the gamma energy, the phoswich layer and even the pulse arrival time. Single gamma interactions are recorded and coincidences are found by software. The gantry allows rotation of the detector modules around the field of view. Simulations, and measurements a 2x4 module test set-up predict a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm in the centre of the field of view and a sensitivity of 5.9% for a point source in the centre of the field of view

  13. Medical Hypotheses 2006 impact factor rises to 1.3--a vindication of the 'editorial review' system for revolutionary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Thomson Scientific Impact Factor (IF) for Medical Hypotheses has risen to 1.299 for 2006. This means that the IF has more than doubled since 2004, when it stood at 0.607. Using Elsevier's Scopus database; in 2004 there were 437 citations to Medical Hypotheses papers published in the previous two years--by 2006 this had trebled to 1216 citations. Monthly internet usage of Medical Hypotheses run at an average of about 26000 papers downloaded per month. An IF of 1.3 means that Medical Hypotheses has now entered the mainstream level of 'respectable' medical journals, in terms of its usage by other scientists. This is particularly pleasing given the aim of the journal is to publish radical and speculative ideas. A healthy IF is important to Medical Hypotheses because the journal deploys a system of editorial review, rather than peer review, for evaluation and selection of papers. Editorial review involves selection of a journal's content primarily by an editor who has broad experience and competence in the field, assisted by a relatively small editorial advisory board. The great advantage of editorial review is that it is able, by policy, to favour the publication of revolutionary science. But since editorial review relies on hard-to-quantify and non-transparent individual judgments, it is important for its outcomes to be open to objective evaluations. Scientometric measures of usage such as citations, impact factors and downloads constitute objective evidence concerning a journal's usefulness. Since Medical Hypotheses is performing adequately by such criteria, this provides a powerful answer to those who fetishize peer review and regard any other system of evaluation as suspect. Journal review procedures are merely a means to the end, and the end is a journal that serves a useful function in the dynamic process of science. Medical Hypotheses can now claim to perform such a role. PMID:17706892

  14. A review of Computer Science resources for learning and teaching with K-12 computing curricula: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Katrina; Vivian, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    To support teachers to implement Computer Science curricula into classrooms from the very first year of school, teachers, schools and organisations seek quality curriculum resources to support implementation and teacher professional development. Until now, many Computer Science resources and outreach initiatives have targeted K-12 school-age children, with the intention to engage children and increase interest, rather than to formally teach concepts and skills. What is the educational quality of existing Computer Science resources and to what extent are they suitable for classroom learning and teaching? In this paper, an assessment framework is presented to evaluate the quality of online Computer Science resources. Further, a semi-systematic review of available online Computer Science resources was conducted to evaluate resources available for classroom learning and teaching and to identify gaps in resource availability, using the Australian curriculum as a case study analysis. The findings reveal a predominance of quality resources, however, a number of critical gaps were identified. This paper provides recommendations and guidance for the development of new and supplementary resources and future research.

  15. Divine intervention? A Cochrane review on intercessory prayer gone beyond science and reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically...... unsound mixture of theological and scientific arguments, and two of the included trials that had a large impact on the findings had problems that were not described in the review. The review fails to live up to the high standards required for Cochrane reviews....

  16. Sense about Science--"Making Sense of Radiation" and Understanding Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    Sense About Science is a UK-based charitable trust that equips people to make sense of science and of evidence on issues that matter to society. It was set up in 2003 in response to newspaper front pages being full of headlines about mobile phones "frying your brain", genetically modified "Frankenstein foods", the MMR vaccine, "cocktails of toxic…

  17. 77 FR 17463 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., such as mathematics, reading, writing, science, U.S. history, civics, geography, economics, and the..., reading, writing, science, U.S. history, civics, geography, economics, and the arts. In the current... questions, and (2) the grades 4 and 8 reading and mathematics subject-specific student...

  18. Argument to Foster Scientific Literacy: A Review of Argument Interventions in K-12 Science Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of scientific literacy has led to a steady increase in argument-based interventions in science education contexts. It has been suggested that student participation in argument develops communication skills, metacognitive awareness, critical thinking, an understanding of the culture and practice of science, and scientific literacy.…

  19. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 μmol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 μmol/L. The use

  20. Between Knowledge and Grotesque: how Wojciech Sady Understands the History of Religion, Philosophy, and Science, review of: Wojciech Sady, Dzieje religii...

    OpenAIRE

    Spychała, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Between Knowledge and Grotesque: how Wojciech Sady Understands the History of Religion, Philosophy, and Science, review of: Wojciech Sady, Dzieje religii, fi lozofi i i nauki. Od Talesa z Miletu do Mahometa [ The History of Religion, Philosophy, and Science: ales of Miletus to Mohammed], Wydawnictwo ANTYK Marek Derewiecki, Kęty 2010, 672 p

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences: Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, S.

    2004-10-01

    Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare---and often catastrophic---events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent

  2. Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology, supplement to seven year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The activities of the Program of Policy Studies are described and evaluated. Awards, seminars, publications are included along with student researcher profiles, graduate program in science, technology, and public policy, and a statement of program capability.

  3. R. M. Harrison and S. J. De Mora: Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences [book review

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael R

    2000-01-01

    Harrison and De Mora have revised the first edition of their book, Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences, which has an intended reading audience of college or university undergraduates who are studying or majoring in the environmental sciences, environmental chemistry, or ecology. Their intent is to present the basic concepts of chemistry within the context of the thermodynamic universe known at ‘the environment'.

  4. A scoping review of time-use research in occupational therapy and occupational science

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, EA; Hunt, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time use is a defining interest within occupational therapy and occupational science. This is evident through the range of contributions to the disciplinary knowledge base. Indeed it has been suggested that time-use methods are amongst the most established research techniques used to explore aspects of human occupation. However, the extent and nature of such activity in occupational therapy and occupational science has not been examined to date. Aim: This study sought to map the e...

  5. Systematic reviews on reports of hip fractures in Web of Science:a bibliometric analysis of publication activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Zhi; Wang Guoqi; Mei Xifan; Chen Shuo; Liu Xiaoxie; Zeng Xiantao; Long Anhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze the trend in the publication of systematic reviews on hip fractures through a bibliometric approach.Methods Literature including systematic reviews or meta-analyses on hip fractures was searched from the ISI Web of Science citation database.The search results were analyzed in terms of geographical authorship and frequency of citation by country,institution,author,and periodical distribution.Results A total of 654 published systematic reviews from 1995 to 2013 in 48 countries or regions were retrieved.The United States (171) was the predominant country in terms of the number of total publications,followed by the United Kingdom (149),Canada (120),Australia (76),and China (54).The number of systematic reviews significantly increased during the last 6 years,especially in China.The production ranking changed in 2012,at which time the United States and China were the leaders in the yearly production of systematic reviews on hip fractures.The amount of literature (27 publications) from China contributed almost one-quarter of the total literature (109 publications) in 2012.However,the average number of citations of each article from China was still low (6.70),while the highest number of citations of each article was from Sweden (193.36).The references were published in 239 different journals,with 15 journals contributing to 41.3% of the systematic reviews on hip fractures.The two journals that contributed the most were Osteoporosis International (10.6%) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7.6%).The predominant institution in terms of the number of publications was McMaster University (36) in Canada.Conclusions The best evidence in the field of hip fractures has attracted increasing attention.Systematic reviews on hip fractures from China have been increasingly more frequent during the past 6 years,particularly in 2012.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Science and Eastern Orthodoxy. From the Greek Fathers to the Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, E.; Sterken, C.

    2014-01-01

    The long debate on the ambivalent relation between science and religion in Western civilization is well documented in the literature on the history and philosophy of science and religion, but few studies paid attention to that relation within Eastern civilization. Nicolaidis' book provides an overview of the relationship between science and Christian Orthodoxy, the official church of the Oriental Roman Empire. The study covers a time span from the fourth to the twentieth century. The author documents the vision that conflicts between science and the Greek Orthodox church were not science versus Christianity, but rather ecclesiastical debates that traversed the whole of society. This book provides a wealth of information concerning the attitude of the Orthodox (i.e., non-Slavic) Church to science today as well as in the past. But the book covers much more than science and religion: also political debates are documented, as well as the role played by Byzantine emperors in relation with science and Orthodoxy. The book presents a very useful time line of events and works covering circa AD 300-1980. There are short descriptions of the Ptolemaic cosmos, the spherical universe with its seven planets (i.e., excluding the Earth, but including Sun and Moon), the Hellenic Aristotelian world view, the duration of the world (eternal or created), the place of the Earth, the matter of creation, the nature of darkness and light, day and night, the Sun and stars, the laws of nature. The last two chapters about Greece, from the independence to the European Union (but also covering science and religion in the Greek State), are quite interesting. Particularly fascinating for astronomers is the fact that the very first establishment (in 1842) of the Greek nation-state that could be termed a research institute was the Observatory of Athens, made possible by a donation from a very wealthy diaspora Greek who resided in Vienna. This is a very useful book to serve as supportive document for

  7. Clearing and Labeling Techniques for Large-Scale Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jinyoung; Choe, Minjin; Kim, Sung-Yon

    2016-06-30

    Clearing and labeling techniques for large-scale biological tissues enable simultaneous extraction of molecular and structural information with minimal disassembly of the sample, facilitating the integration of molecular, cellular and systems biology across different scales. Recent years have witnessed an explosive increase in the number of such methods and their applications, reflecting heightened interest in organ-wide clearing and labeling across many fields of biology and medicine. In this review, we provide an overview and comparison of existing clearing and labeling techniques and discuss challenges and opportunities in the investigations of large-scale biological systems. PMID:27239813

  8. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE's two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document

  9. A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry. PMID:17434276

  10. 77 FR 47067 - Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of the Chartered Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Ecological Risk Assessment in Environmental Decision- Making'' (EPA-SAB-08-002). Background information about... review report on EPA's accounting framework for biogenic carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources... report entitled ``SAB Review (7-26-12 Draft) of EPA's Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2...

  11. Personalizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielowich, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers are aware of many social issues that intersect with science. These socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are "open-ended problems without clear-cut solutions [that] can be informed by scientific principles, theories, and data, but…cannot be fully determined by [them]" (Sadler 2011, p. 4). This article describes the SSI lessons…

  12. 14th annual Results and Review Workshop on High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Wolfgang E; Resch, Michael M; Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2011; High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '11

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in simulation on supercomputers. Leading researchers present results achieved on systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2011. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering, ranging from CFD to computational physics and chemistry, to computer science, with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting results for both vector systems and microprocessor-based systems, the book allows readers to compare the performance levels and usability of various architectures. As HLRS

  13. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  14. Pierce Butler's "An Introduction to Library Science: A Tract for Our Times? A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Blaise

    2004-01-01

    Considers the historic and contemporary import of Pierce Butler's "An Introduction to Library Science". Characterizes the content of each chapter and critically analyses the central theses. Relates Butler's positivistic premises, assumptions and conclusions to the congeries of competing epistemological and ideological standpoints that defines…

  15. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Pre-review report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for prior assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') for the period of five years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research program of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  16. Review article "A. B. Dobrowolski - the first cryospheric scientist - and the subsequent development of cryospheric science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. G.; Jania, J.; Birkenmajer, K.

    2011-04-01

    The origin of the term "cryosphere" has been traced to the Polish scientist A. B. Dobrowolski in his 1923 book on "The Natural History of Ice" written in Polish. This note commemorates his little recognized contribution to the science, outside of his native country, and summarizes the recent organization of cryospheric research.

  17. Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (Second External Review Draft, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of oxides of nitrogen. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current ...

  18. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference : State of the science and future research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Parisi, Melissa A.; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Berry, Gerard. T.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A.; Brosco, Jeffrey P.; Brown, Christine S.; Burlina, Alberto B.; Burton, Barbara K.; Chang, Christine S.; Coates, Paul M.; Cunningham, Amy C.; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Ferguson, John H.; Franklin, Thomas D.; Frazier, Dianne M.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Greene, Carol L.; Groft, Stephen C.; Harding, Cary O.; Howell, R. Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L.; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D.; Jevaji, Indira P.; Levy, Harvey L.; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Mitchell, John J.; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D.; Mueller, Christine M.; Mulberg, Andrew E.; Nerurkar, Lata S.; Ogata, Beth N.; Pariser, Anne R.; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Reddy, Uma M.; Rohr, Frances J.; Singh, Rani H.; Sirrs, Sandra M.; Stremer, Stephanie E.; Tagle, Danilo A.; Thompson, Susan M.; Urv, Tiina K.; Utz, Jeanine R.; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E.; Weglicki, Linda S.; White, Desiree A.; Whitley, Chester B.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, part

  19. Book Review: Khine Swe, M. (Ed., Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Slapničar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Science educators agree that textbooks play a crucial role in teaching and learning processes (Clement, 2008; Koppal & Caldwell, 2004; consequently, numerous research studies have been conducted in the analysis of science textbooks. In 1941, Graham noted that ‘The textbook is an old instrument in learning and teaching processes’ and traced the origin of the textbook back to the classical Greek era. With the invention of the printing press, textbooks became omnipresent in every school. Since textbooks are being used as a major source of information in teaching a particular subject, the quality and accuracy of the content is crucial for their educational effectiveness. Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness includes contributions by authors from various backgrounds, theorists and practitioners. In analysing science textbooks, researchers look into the balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, the portrayal of minorities, women and gender fairness, the treatment of socio-scientific and controversial issues, and the depiction of graphical information, vocabulary load, comprehensibility and readability at the intended level, the representation of indigenous knowledge, the role of textbook questions, and cultural and religious sensibility

  20. Book Review: "The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...

  1. Observing, recording, and reviewing: Using mobile phones in support of science inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Elaine; Williams, John; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin;

    2012-01-01

    Teaching science can be challenging, particularly if it involves the incorporation of inquiry approaches. Collaboration and co-construction of ideas and understandings requires changing teaching and learning practices to allow students to learn how to collaborate ‘inquiry style’. There is increas...

  2. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Roger W Ruess; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CO(2) emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2) efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2) efflux. CO(2) efflux from soils de...

  3. Prospect Theory and Choice Behaviour Strategies: Review and Synthesis of Concepts from Social and Transport sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility Theory is commonly considered as the most useful descriptive theory of human choice behaviour. Alternative concepts are only incidentally considered. This paper reviews alternative assumptions and empirical findings about human choice behaviour. To facilitate comparison and synthesis the rev

  4. "Earth System Science Data" (ESSD) — A Peer Reviewed Journal for Publication of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, ESSD was established to provide a venue for publishing highly important research data, with two main aims: To provide reward for data "authors" through fully qualified citation of research data, classically aligned with the certification of quality of a peer reviewed journal. A major step towards this goal was the definition and rationale of article structure and review criteria for articles about datasets.

  5. The art and science of study identification: a comparative analysis of two systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Laura; Suhami, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) form the foundation for guidelines and evidence-based policy in medicine and public health. Although similar systematic reviews may include non-identical sets of studies, and it is recognized that different sets of studies may lead to different conclusions, little work has been published on why SR study cohorts differ. Methods We took advantage of concurrent publication of two SRs on the same topic – prevention of child exposure to tobacco smoke - to unders...

  6. Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 1 – receptor physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Cheryl L; Landry, Donald W.; Granton, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Vasopressin is emerging as a rational therapy for vasodilatory shock states. Unlike other vasoconstrictor agents, vasopressin also has vasodilatory properties. The goal of the present review is to explore the vascular actions of vasopressin. In part 1 of the review we discuss structure, signaling pathways, and tissue distributions of the classic vasopressin receptors, namely V1 vascular, V2 renal, V3 pituitary and oxytocin receptors, and the P2 class of purinoreceptors. Knowledge of the funct...

  7. 27 CFR 9.99 - Clear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clear Lake. 9.99 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.99 Clear Lake. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Clear Lake.” (b) Approved...

  8. Synopsis of the Review on Space Weather in Latin America: Space Science, Research Networks and Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo

    2016-07-01

    The present work is a synopsis of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. The first paper (part 1) comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960's, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this part 1 is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues. The second paper (part 2) comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue warnings and alerts. The third paper (part 3) presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reason/opportunities that leads to

  9. Astrophysics and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Jeremy; Brinks, Elias; Khanna, Ramon

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysics and Space Science publishes original contributions and invited reviews covering the entire range of astronomy, astrophysics, astrophysical cosmology, planetary and space science, and the astrophysical aspects of astrobiology. This includes both observational and theoretical research, the techniques of astronomical instrumentation and data analysis, and astronomical space instrumentation. We particularly welcome papers in the general fields of high-energy astrophysics, astrophysical and astrochemical studies of the interstellar medium including star formation, planetary astrophysics, the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. Papers in mathematical physics or in general relativity which do not establish clear astrophysical applications will not longer be considered.The journal also publishes topical collections consisting of invited reviews and original research papers selected special issues in research fields of particular scientific interest. These consist of both invited reviews and original research papers.Conference proceedings will not be considered. All papers published in the journal are subject to thorough and strict peer-reviewing.Astrophysics and Space Science has an Impact Factor of 2.4 and features short editorial turnaround times as well as short publication times after acceptance, and colour printing free of charge. Published by Springer the journal has a very wide online dissemination and can be accessed by researchers at a very large number of institutes worldwide.

  10. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  11. Application of expert system in library and information science: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to provide an overview of the current state of development in the application of expert system in technology in the field of library and information science. The study starts briefly looking into the capabilities of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in general and then its relevance to LIS (Library Information System) work. A basic introduction to expert system technology and outgrowth of AI research is given. The major components of a generalized expert system are discussed in some detail, and the ways in which system development can be approached are looked at. The main area of expert system applications in library and information science are discussed, looking at cataloguing, classification, reference work and library management etc. (author)

  12. Book review: Research design: creating robust approaches for the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    "Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences." Stephen Gorard. SAGE Publications. February 2013. --- Research design is of critical importance in social research, despite its relative neglect in many methods resources. This book discusses the nature of design, offers a flexible approach to new designs, and looks at a range of standard design models. Stephen Gorard‘s book is illustrated with case studies of real work and concludes with suggested readings and topics for ...

  13. The review of the modeling methods and numerical analysis software for nanotechnology in material science

    OpenAIRE

    SMIRNOV Vladimir Alexeevich; KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich; EVSTIGNEEV Alexandr Viktorovich

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high demand for building materials with universal set of roperties which extend their application area the research efforts are focusing on nanotechnology in material science. The rational combination of theoretical studies, mathematical modeling and simulation can favour reduced resource and time consumption when nanomodified materials are being developed. The development of composite material is based on the principles of system analysis which provides for the necessity of criter...

  14. Review of Science Translational Medicine - Cell-Based Therapeutics: The Next Pillar of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, KH

    2013-01-01

    Science Translational Medicine - Scientists now have access to remarkable tools that allow rigorous translational investigations to be conducted. One of the challenges is the creation of a redefined discipline of translational medicine requiring the emergence of a new and vibrant community of dedicated scientists, who collaborate to fill knowledge gaps and dissolve or circumvent barriers to improve clinical medicine. The pharmaceutical industry is also being challenged with change. Two deca...

  15. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Clear Cell Lesions of Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshi; Shetty, Devi Charan; Juneja, Saurabh; Narwal, Nidhi

    2016-05-01

    The salivary glands, oral mucosa and jaws constitute a group of lesions which are heterogeneous in nature and are odontogenic, salivary or metastatic in origin. This group of tumours is termed as Clear Cell Tumours. Fixation artifacts are one of the most important reasons for the cell to appear clear but clearing of cells may also result from cytoplasmic accumulation of water, presence of glycogen within the cell, intermediate filaments, immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Clear cell Odontogenic neoplasms predominantly include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Clear cell tumours of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions. Very frequently, surgical pathologist encounters clear cells in many malignant neoplasms, the nature and sources of which are undetermined on the basis of conventional histopathology. This review will selectively discuss the clinicopathological features of neoplasms which at times may pose a diagnostic challenge and dilemma due to clear cell changes. PMID:27437379

  17. Open evaluation (OE: A vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eKriegeskorte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE, the other side of coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs. PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g. scientific societies and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g. by H-factor and rating scales (e.g. by relevance to a decision process in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  18. Art of science? The challenges of publishing peer reviewed papers based on linked models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The methodology used in a linked model system is generally too voluminous and of insufficient interest to form the basis of a peer-reviewed journal article. To be readily acceptable to an economics journal, the simulation results should provide economic insight and contribute to the economics litera

  19. Art or science? The challenges of publishing peer reviewed papers based on linked models

    OpenAIRE

    Burrell, Alison M.

    2008-01-01

    The methodology used in a linked model system is generally too voluminous and of insufficient interest to form the basis of a peer-reviewed journal article. To be readily acceptable to an economics journal, the simulation results should provide economic insight and contribute to the economics literature.

  20. An Analysis of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Science Lecture Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Mark E.; Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Gaffin, Douglas D.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Long, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used to integrate a writing component in classrooms. In an introductory zoology lecture class, the authors found that CPR-assigned scores were significantly higher than instructor-assigned scores on two of three essay assignments. They also found that neither students' technical-writing skills…

  1. Speech and Hearing Science in Ancient India--A Review of Sanskrit Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithri, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The study reviewed Sanskrit books written between 1500 BC and 1904 AD concerning diseases, speech pathology, and audiology. Details are provided of the ancient Indian system of disease classification, the classification of speech sounds, causes of speech disorders, and treatment of speech and language disorders. (DB)

  2. The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and ISTC projects related to nuclear safety. Information review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization created ten years ago by Russia, USA, EU and Japan in Moscow. The Center supports numerous science and technology projects in different areas, from biotechnologies and environmental problems to all aspects of nuclear studies, including those focused on the development of effective innovative concepts and technologies in the nuclear field, in general, and for improvement of nuclear safety, in particular. The presentation addresses some technical results of the ISTC projects as well as methods and approaches employed by the ISTC to foster close international collaboration and manage projects towards fruitful results. (author)

  3. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  4. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    P Venkat Baghirath; J Vijay Kumar; B Hari Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon malignant salivary gland tumor accounting for about 1% of all intra-oral salivary gland tumors. Microscopic diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma may be challenging because of the spectrum of features which frequently overlaps with the other salivary gland tumors that contain clear cells, and thus it may be a diagnosis of exclusion. Here we, report a case of HCCC in a 36 years old female with detailed histological, histochemical and immunohis...

  5. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is...

  6. Clearing over-the-counter derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ed Nosal

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the over-the-counter derivatives market was not required to “clear” transactions. This changed with the signing of the new financial reform legislation, the Dodd–Frank Act on July 21, 2010. Going forward, most OTC derivatives will be cleared through a particular set of institutional arrangements: a regulated clearinghouse. This article provides an overview of how clearing works, the potential benefits of central clearing for OTC derivatives, and the opti...

  7. Comparing Turkey and Iran in Political Science and Historical Sociology: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    HAZIR, Agah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing comparative literature on Iran and Turkey in terms of their approaches, themes and findings. It extracts and critically analyses two dominant trends in this literature; Comparative Analyses of Cultures and Comparative Analyses of Modernizations. This paper argues that, these two common lines of approaching have serious limitations since they carry the traces of orientalist and ethnocentric assumptions. New literature on this topic however, offers new avenues of r...

  8. State-of-Science review: learning difficulties: SR-D4: Dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, B

    2008-01-01

    Low numeracy skills in general and developmental dyscalculia (DD) in particular constitute a severe handicap. This review examines the causes and behavioural manifestations of numeracy deficits, their neuropsychological correlates and the limits to our understanding of these conditions. It then goes on to describe a validated test for diagnosing DD – a specific impairment in the capacity to learn arithmetic. The challenges in educating DD children and analysing their particular...

  9. Book review: Large carnivore conservation: Integrating science and policy in the North American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A. J.; Cox, M. M.; Ernst, E. E.; Haley, H. J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Loney, D. A.; Mackert, M. M.; McCombs, A. L.; Piatscheck, F.; Pocius, V. M.; Stein, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Klaver reviewed Large Carnivore Conservation as part of a graduate seminar and seminar participants represented the full range of readers who might be interested in the book: natural resource managers, citizen advocates, researchers, and students. Although we encountered a variety of opinions based on our different backgrounds and orientations, we discovered a surprising amount of consensus both about what the book does well and where it falls short of our expectations.

  10. Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 2 – clinical physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Cheryl L; Landry, Donald W.; Granton, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Vasopressin is emerging as a rational therapy for vasodilatory shock states. In part 1 of the review we discussed the structure and function of the various vasopressin receptors. In part 2 we discuss vascular smooth muscle contraction pathways with an emphasis on the effects of vasopressin on ATP-sensitive K+ channels, nitric oxide pathways, and interaction with adrenergic agents. We explore the complex and contradictory studies of vasopressin on cardiac inotropy and coronary vascular tone. F...

  11. Analytical methods for the determination of halogens in bioanalytical sciences: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Paola A; Barin, Juliano S; Duarte, Fabio A; Bizzi, Cezar A; Diehl, Liange O; Muller, Edson I; Flores, Erico M M

    2013-09-01

    Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine have been studied in biological samples and other related matrices owing to the need to understand the biochemical effects in living organisms. In this review, the works published in last 20 years are covered, and the main topics related to sample preparation methods and analytical techniques commonly used for fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine determination in biological samples, food, drugs, and plants used as food or with medical applications are discussed. The commonest sample preparation methods, as extraction and decomposition using combustion and pyrohydrolysis, are reviewed, as well as spectrometric and electroanalytical techniques, spectrophotometry, total reflection X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and separation systems using chromatography and electrophoresis. On this aspect, the main analytical challenges and drawbacks are highlighted. A discussion related to the availability of certified reference materials for evaluation of accuracy is also included, as well as a discussion of the official methods used as references for the determination of halogens in the samples covered in this review. PMID:23780223

  12. New advance of the P isotopic tracing in the ecology and resource-environmental sciences: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P tracers are widely applied to plant-soil-manure production-environment systems to study activity of phosphorus, forms changes, which promotes and changes. It induces the development of ecology and resource environment sciences. the review shows the approach of P tracer in plant-soil-manure production-environment systems, which includes direct labeling technique, indirect labeling technique or exposed directly. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen in phosphate made it possible to quantify the phosphorus cycling under field conditions and air system. However, the use is limited in plant and soil systems. NMR techniques were widely used to study the changes of phosphorus forms. It supplies a new tool to qualify and quantify of different forms of phosphorus. (authors)

  13. Instructional methods used by health sciences librarians to teach evidence-based practice (EBP): a systematic review*†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M.; Dennison, Carolyn Ching; Farrell, Alison; Machel, Viola; Marton, Christine; O'Brien, Kelly K.; Pannabecker, Virginia; Thuna, Mindy; Holyoke, Assako Nitta

    2016-01-01

    Background Librarians often teach evidence-based practice (EBP) within health sciences curricula. It is not known what teaching methods are most effective. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, LISTA, PubMed, Scopus, and others. Searches were completed through December 2014. No limits were applied. Hand searching of Medical Library Association annual meeting abstracts from 2009–2014 was also completed. Studies must be about EBP instruction by a librarian within undergraduate or graduate health sciences curricula and include skills assessment. Studies with no assessment, letters and comments, and veterinary education studies were excluded. Data extraction and critical appraisal were performed to determine the risk of bias of each study. Results Twenty-seven studies were included for analysis. Studies occurred in the United States (20), Canada (3), the United Kingdom (1), and Italy (1), with 22 in medicine and 5 in allied health. Teaching methods included lecture (20), small group or one-on-one instruction (16), computer lab practice (15), and online learning (6). Assessments were quizzes or tests, pretests and posttests, peer-review, search strategy evaluations, clinical scenario assignments, or a hybrid. Due to large variability across studies, meta-analysis was not conducted. Discussion Findings were weakly significant for positive change in search performance for most studies. Only one study compared teaching methods, and no one teaching method proved more effective. Future studies could conduct multisite interventions using randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trial study design and standardized assessment tools to measure outcomes. PMID:27366120

  14. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  15. Knowledge dissemination and use in science and mathematics education: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Janet R.; Huberman, Michael

    1994-03-01

    A synthesis of the literature on knowledge dissemination and use in education, notably in science and mathematics, is presented. Perspectives have changed in the ways in which knowledge and products are seen to reach potential users. From the top-down, linear models, we have come closer to bottom-up approaches and to the crucial role of linking agents. At present, the most influential approach is a "constructivist" one, whereby research and other kinds of specialized knowledge is exchanged between researchers and professionals in a mutually constructed social context. While there is still debate over the best predictors of successful knowledge use, the scope of the field has been considerably enlarged by including users' perspectives. To some extent then, specialists in this field are now working in a new paradigm.

  16. Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on 'Materials Science and Modeling'. This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.

  17. Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@imf.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.L. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Becquart, C.S. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ciupinski, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Correia, J.B. [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Domain, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Fikar, J. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Fortuna, E. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Fu, C.-C. [CEA, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Saclay (France); Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Galan, T.L. [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Materials Science and Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain); Gludovatz, B. [OAW, Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Leoben (Austria); Greuner, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Heinola, K. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-01

    All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on 'Materials Science and Modeling'. This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.

  18. A Collection of Articles Reprinted from Science & Technology Review on University Relations Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H; Rennie, G; Henke, A

    2006-08-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Power of Partnership--Livermore researchers forge strategic collaborations with colleagues from other University of California campuses to further science and better protect the nation; (2) Collaborative Research Prepares Our Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers--Commentary by Laura R. Gilliom; (3) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with Livermore scientists and engineers to conduct fundamental research as part of their theses; (4) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory; and (5) Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore--Faculty members from around the world come to the Laboratory as sabbatical scholars.

  19. Systematic Review: The Association and Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Basic Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Boyle, Simone N.; Kuykendal, Adam; Fisher, Matthew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Barnato, Sara E.; Wagner, Robin L.; Goldstein, Carolyn E.; Tallman, Jacob; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Henke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background No prior study has evaluated financial relationships of investigators with pharmaceutical manufacturers for basic science. An example of the importance and impact of such relationships is in the evaluation of erythropoietin receptors’(EpoRs) effects on cancer cell lines, since studies have reported increased mortality when cancer patients receive erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Purpose To assess the disclosed association that exist between pharmaceutical industry support and EpoRs effects on solid cancer cell lines. Data Sources MEDLINE and EMBASE (1988- July 2008) and two EpoR conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. Study Selection All publications investigating EpoRs that met inclusion criteria were identified and included. Data Extraction Data were extracted on detection of EpoRs, presence of erythropoietin-induced signaling events, presence of erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function, nature of qualitative conclusions, and sources of funding for all 74 studies. Data Synthesis In comparison to studies of academic investigators with no disclosed funding support from ESA manufacturers (n=64), the studies from academic investigators with funding support from ESA manufacturers (n= 7) and the laboratories directed by investigators employed by ESA manufacturers (n=3) were both less likely to identify: EpoR presence on solid tumor cells; erythropoietin-induced signaling events; erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function; and less likely to conclude that their research had identified potentially harmful effects of erythropoietin on cancer cells. Additionally, presentations from industry-based investigator teams at NIH conferences were less likely to report EpoRs on cancer cell lines, downstream effects of erythropoietin, and cell proliferation and migration effects following EpoR administration. Conclusion Financial conflicts of interest impact the outcomes and presentation of basic science research data as

  20. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product until its registration as a derivatives clearing organization is reinstated under the procedures... clearing a new product that is not traded on a designated contract market or a registered derivatives... of the product that make it acceptable for clearing with a certification that the clearing of...

  1. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments may be submitted directly to the Office of... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1 and 23 RIN 3038-AD51 Clearing Member Risk Management AGENCY: Commodity Futures... extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives clearing...

  2. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy

  3. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  4. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  5. The development of assessment and remediation guidelines for contaminated soils, a review of the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is no longer restricted to isolated incidents and locations; it is a general and contentious problem. However, the problem is complex, starting with the very definition of what level and type of contamination is unacceptable. A myriad of regulatory and de facto guidelines have emerged, and they are extremely fragmented, inconsistent and incomplete. This review attempts to summarize the historical development of assessment and remediation guidelines, to highlight the unique difficulties of the problem, and then to discuss the scientific information that exists and that is needed to improve guidelines. This is an unlimited scope for research on this subject. (author)

  6. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  7. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  8. Clear Cell Carcinoma and Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: a Comparative Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A.; Hoschar, Aaron P.; Barnes, E. Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Seethala, Raja R.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma or hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) are rare, low-grade and typically indolent malignancies that can be diagnostically challenging. In this study the clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 17 CCCs and 12 CCOCs are examined. The differential diagnosis of clear cell malignancies in the head and neck is discussed. The relationship of CCCs and CCOCs to other clear cell tumors on the basis of their i...

  9. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26460810

  10. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research. In-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the adequacy of the R and D programs to be implemented for five years starting in Fiscal Year 2003 at Department of Materials Science in Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from April 2002 to August 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 5th, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5th, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research. (author)

  11. Health science education: reviewing a framework for problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarlie, V Wallace; Orr, Daniel L

    2010-05-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has become one pedagogical approach to gain currency in recent decades, its foundational underpinnings have remained obscure. This investigation seeks to elucidate the theoretical framework or assumptions upon which PBL operates. We have situated core PBL principles in the larger context of health science education, which underwent dramatic changes at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fundamental problem at that time in dental education was moving beyond a lecture-based and apprentice curriculum (students memorizing facts) to a critical thinking-based curriculum. We trace these developments and especially the principles that one thinker, who does not easily fit into any one school of thought, used to frame the problem. We found that the principles underlying the idea of PBL have existed for over a century in varying academic alleys outside of dentistry (including constructivist thought). Despite our technological advances, many of the core challenges of a century ago remain challenges today. Although PBL is certainly not the only way to provide dental students an opportunity to best develop critical thinking, it nevertheless provides an environment in which the learning process may be enhanced. PMID:20442425

  12. Computer Science Teacher Professional Development in the United States: A Review of Studies Published between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher…

  13. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  14. Autophagy and bacterial clearance: a not so clear picture

    OpenAIRE

    Mostowy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans, is viewed as an important defence mechanism to clear intracellular bacteria. However, recent work has shown that autophagy may have different roles during different bacterial infections that restrict bacterial replication (antibacterial autophagy), act in cell autonomous signalling (non-bacterial autophagy) or support bacterial replication (pro-bacterial autophagy). This review will focus on newfound intera...

  15. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  16. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    OpenAIRE

    G.Pesavento; Ferlito, A; Recher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in three patients with clear cell carcinoma of the larynx are described. This type of neoplasm in the larynx is extremely rare. The aggressiveness of the tumour and its high biological malignancy are stressed.

  17. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, E.S.; Halama, H.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. komunikace značky Clean & Clear

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to describe a communication campaign of Clean & Clear brand. A brand owned by Johnson & Johnson company specializing in cosmetics for teenage girls. Campaign is described into details, evaluated in terms of effectiveness of its communication tools by achieving marketing goals over a specified period of time. This thesis should confirm the suitability and effectivity of the communication mix applied for Clean & Clear brand in a specific enviroment of anti-acne c...

  20. Governance of securities clearing and settlement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Terry L. Hart; Chryssa Papathanassiou

    2004-01-01

    In the context of securities clearing and settlement systems, the nature of governance arrangements acquires a dimension that goes beyond their traditional function in corporate law. They constitute a tool for regulators and central banks to achieve their respective policy goals relating to market operation, market integrity, and systemic stability. In the light of the analysis of this paper, and pending a further evolution in the regulation of securities clearing and settlement in the Commun...

  1. Clinical science review: current aspects of thrombolytic therapy in women with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, K M; Gould, L; Sosler, B; Bharathan, T; Reddy, C V

    1996-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains the greatest threat to health in our society and is the most common cause of death in the United States and in many other Western industrialized countries. Recent data demonstrate that mortality from MI is continuing to decline. In these days of more aggressive management of acute MI (AMI) there has been a resurgence of interest in advances in thrombolytic therapy. However, observational studies of patients with AMI have shown that women sustaining an AMI have a worse prognosis than men. AMI is the number-one killer of women in the United States; approximately 247,000 of more than 520,000 deaths due to AMI that occur each year are among women, and almost one-third of the women are younger than forty-five years old. While there have been great advances in thrombolytic therapy, these advances have benefited men to a more significant degree than they have benefited women. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in women with AMI with consideration of some of the key components of its effectiveness: mortality, bleeding risk, infarct-artery patency, ventricular function, and cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:8546342

  2. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K; Tuchin, Valery V; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose. PMID:27108771

  3. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Overview of the lattice Boltzmann method for nano- and microscale fluid dynamics in materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, D.

    2004-11-01

    The article gives an overview of the lattice Boltzmann method as a powerful technique for the simulation of single and multi-phase flows in complex geometries. Owing to its excellent numerical stability and constitutive versatility it can play an essential role as a simulation tool for understanding advanced materials and processes. Unlike conventional Navier-Stokes solvers, lattice Boltzmann methods consider flows to be composed of a collection of pseudo-particles that are represented by a velocity distribution function. These fluid portions reside and interact on the nodes of a grid. System dynamics and complexity emerge by the repeated application of local rules for the motion, collision and redistribution of these coarse-grained droplets. The lattice Boltzmann method, therefore, is an ideal approach for mesoscale and scale-bridging simulations. It is capable to tackling particularly those problems which are ubiquitous characteristics of flows in the world of materials science and engineering, namely, flows under complicated geometrical boundary conditions, multi-scale flow phenomena, phase transformation in flows, complex solid-liquid interfaces, surface reactions in fluids, liquid-solid flows of colloidal suspensions and turbulence. Since the basic structure of the method is that of a synchronous automaton it is also an ideal platform for realizing combinations with related simulation techniques such as cellular automata or Potts models for crystal growth in a fluid or gas environment. This overview consists of two parts. The first one reviews the philosophy and the formal concepts behind the lattice Boltzmann approach and presents also related pseudo-particle approaches. The second one gives concrete examples in the area of computational materials science and process engineering, such as the prediction of lubrication dynamics in metal forming, dendritic crystal growth under the influence of fluid convection, simulation of metal foam processing, flow

  5. Turnaround Insights from the Organizational Sciences: A Review of the Empirical Evidence and the Development of a Staged Model of Recovery with Potential Implications for the PK-12 Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we review research from the organizational sciences to develop lessons for educators and policy makers. The approach is an integrative review of the literature. We employ a comprehensive process to unpack and make sense of the turnaround literature from the organizational sciences. We rely on strategies appropriate for document…

  6. The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and ISTC projects related to research reactors: information review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization established by agreement between the Russian Federation, the European Union, Japan, and the United States. Since 1994, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic have acceded to the Agreement and Statute. At present, the Republic of Korea is finishing the process of accession to the ISTC. All work of the ISTC is aimed at the goals defined in the ISTC Agreement: To give CIS weapons scientists, particularly those who possess knowledge and skills related to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, the opportunities to redirect their talents to peaceful activities; To contribute to solving national and international technical problems; To support the transition to market-based economics; To support basic and applied research; To help integrate CIS weapons scientists into the international scientific community. The projects may be funded both through governmental funds of the Funding partners of the ISTC. According to the ISTC Statute, approved by the appropriate national organizations, funds used within ISTC projects are exempt from CIS taxes. As of March 1998, more than 1500 proposals had been submitted to the Center, of which 551 were approved for funding, for a total value of approximately US$166 million. The number of scientists and engineers participating in the projects is more than 18000. There are about 20 funded and as yet nonfunded projects related to various problems of research reactors. Many of them address safety issues. Information review of the results and plans of both ongoing projects and as yet nonfunded proposals related to research reactors will be presented with the aim assisting international researchers to establish partnerships or collaboration with ISTC projects. The following groups of ISTC projects will be represented: 1. complex computer simulator s for research reactors; 2. reactor facility decommissioning; 3. neutron sources for medicine; 4

  7. Status of crystal clear collaboration activities on scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette

    2000-01-01

    Since about 10 years, the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN works on systematic investigations of new scintillating crystals and their application in science and industry. A large amount of new type scintillators had been characterised and optimised in terms of emission spectra, light yield, production yield and radiation hardness. As a result, one of those crystals, PbWO4, was chosen to be the baseline solution for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at CERN and is actually produced in industrial scale with a quantity of about 1000 crystals per month. Another baseline of actual research interests in Crystal Clear is the construction of a PET-scanning prototype made of small, high light yield crystals for future medical applications. As a result of the different research activities on scintillating crystals, a website is currently under construction, which provides access to a large crystal database. Beside general and methodological informations on scintillating crystals, the database will contain a large ...

  8. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20581. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-19365 appearing on page... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance... August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing....

  9. The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and ISTC projects related to research reactors. Information review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. ISTC - history, activities, outlook: The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization established by agreement between the Russian Federation, the European Union, Japan, and the United States. Since 1994, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Georgia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic have acceded to the Agreement and Statute. At present, the Republic of Korea is finishing the process of accession to the ISTC. All work of the ISTC is aimed at the goals defined in the ISTC Agreement: - To give CIS weapons scientists, particularly those who possess knowledge and skills related to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, the opportunities to redirect their talents to peaceful activities; - To contribute to solving national and international technical problems; - To support the transition to market-based economies; - To support basic and applied research; - To help integrate CIS weapons scientists into the international scientific community. The projects may be funded both through governmental funds of the Funding Parties specified for the ISTC, and by organizations, nominated as Funding Partners of the ISTC. According to the ISTC Statute, approved by the appropriate national organizations, funds used within ISTC projects are exempt from CIS taxes. As of March 1998, more than 1500 proposals had been submitted to the Center, of which 541 were approved for funding, for a total value of approximately US dollars 165 million. The number of scientists and engineers participating in the projects is more than 17,000. 2. Projects Related to Research Reactors: There are about 20 funded and as yet non-funded projects related to various problems of research reactors. Many of them address safety issues. Information review of the results and plans of both ongoing projects and as yet non-funded proposals related to research reactors will be presented with the aim assisting international researchers to establish partnerships or collaboration with ISTC projects

  10. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity.

  11. Writing in the natural sciences: Understanding the effects of different types of reviewers on the writing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchan, M. M., ., &

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In undergraduate natural science courses, two types of evaluators are commonly used to assess student writing: graduate-student teaching assistants (TAs or peers. The current study examines how well these approaches to evaluation support student writing. These differences between the two possible evaluators are likely to affect multiple aspects of the writing process: first draft quality, amount and types of feedback provided, amount and types of revisions, and final draft quality. Therefore, we examined how these aspects of the writing process were affected when undergraduate students wrote papers to be evaluated by a group of peers versus their TA. Several interesting results were found. First, the quality of the students' first draft was greater when they were writing for their peers than when writing for their TA. In terms of feedback, students provided longer comments, and they also focused more on the prose than the TAs. Finally, more revisions were made if the students received feedback from their peers-especially prose revisions. Despite all of the benefits seen with peers as evaluators, there was only a moderate difference in final draft quality. This result indicates that while peer-review is helpful, there continues to be a need for research regarding how to enhance the benefits.

  12. Review of Research Progresses on the Science of Earthquake Underground Fluid in China During the Last 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaowei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the development of scientific research and practice of earthquake underground fluid in China during the last 40 years,summaries early constructive research and primary achievements in this field.The science of earthquake underground fluid is closely correlated with earthquake monitoring and prediction,such as innovations in observation techniques and theoretical methods,and analysis of diversified parameters and research into predictive methods.The historical evolution of observation networks for underground fluid indicates that the demand for strong earthquake monitoring and prediction has become the driving force of the construction and development of the observation network.The development of observation techniques represents the trend based on multiform measurement,syntheses,and digitization.The study results of underground fluid theory and precursory mechanisms suggest that the precursory model,numerical simulation and in-door or field experimental research are the main technological approaches promoting innovation.Research results of earthquake forecast methods use physics based forecast techniques and the ideas of cornbination of usabifity and scientific advance.It has been proved by forecast practice that studying underground fluid is a very important subject in earthquake prediction on the Chinese mainland.Finally,the primary work and technical criterion on underground fluid are introduced,and some major scientific issues and development trends in different historical stages are summarized.

  13. A review of 40 years of hydrological science and practice in southern Africa using the Pitman rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The 40th anniversary of the initial development of the Pitman rainfall-runoff (developed in South Africa and widely applied throughout southern Africa) approximately coincides with the end of the IAHS PUB programme and the start of a new decade focussing on hydrological change (Panta Rhei) and society. The paper reviews the developments and applications of the Pitman model in the context of the appropriate outcomes of PUB and the proposed future directions of Panta Rhei. The focus of development of the Pitman model has been dominated by practical applications, while PUB was largely dominated by science issues. While some of the PUB principles have been applied with the Pitman model, there are others that are deemed inappropriate for practical modelling and others that would almost certainly benefit the Pitman model applications in the future. The paper includes discussions of the model structure, input data, parameters and output evaluations - all in the context of uncertainty. The capabilities of the model to address societal development impacts are also discussed and a brief example of an uncertainty approach to applying the model is provided. The conclusions are that some developments of the Pitman model anticipated more recent international developments, while others have not been ignored even if further efforts are required to effectively implement them. Perhaps the largest gap in applying uncertainty principles in practice is how to use them in water resources decision making.

  14. New trends on mobile learning area: The review of published articles on mobile learning in science direct database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Soykan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Articles published in Science Direct between 2009 and 2014 (May were screened in this research. This is because of its respectable position in the field of technology and peer-reviewed secured structure of this database. From a total of 161 articles within the scope of the screening 156 articles were included in the study. Through this research, new trends in mobile learning activities in recent years will be determined and a new way will be shown for researchers . "Mobile learning" keywords used during researching process and all the articles with "mobile learning" keywords were included in this study. As a result of this research, it is determined that the most studies in the field of mobile learning were published in 2013 in Malaysia, UK and Taiwan. Particularly undergraduate students was selected as the sample group of the researches. It is emerged that, experimental research was used maximum as a research model. Quantitative data collection tools were used most as a means of data collection. It was emerged that foreign language education is the most widely used field in mobile learning. It is seen that smart phones as mobile learning devices and IOS operating system as an operating system were used in the most researches. Mobile-based method is seen to be used as the teaching method in the present study.

  15. Microplastics as vectors for bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the marine environment: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Linda M; Edgington, Aaron; Hentz, Karyn; Kulacki, Konrad J; Kane Driscoll, Susan

    2016-07-01

    A state-of-the-science review was conducted to examine the potential for microplastics to sorb hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from the marine environment, for aquatic organisms to take up these HOCs from the microplastics, and for this exposure to result in adverse effects to ecological and human health. Despite concentrations of HOCs associated with microplastics that can be orders of magnitude greater than surrounding seawater, the relative importance of microplastics as a route of exposure is difficult to quantify because aquatic organisms are typically exposed to HOCs from various compartments, including water, sediment, and food. Results of laboratory experiments and modeling studies indicate that HOCs can partition from microplastics to organisms or from organisms to microplastics, depending on experimental conditions. Very little information is available to evaluate ecological or human health effects from this exposure. Most of the available studies measured biomarkers that are more indicative of exposure than effects, and no studies showed effects to ecologically relevant endpoints. Therefore, evidence is weak to support the occurrence of ecologically significant adverse effects on aquatic life as a result of exposure to HOCs sorbed to microplastics or to wildlife populations and humans from secondary exposure via the food chain. More data are needed to fully understand the relative importance of exposure to HOCs from microplastics compared with other exposure pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1667-1676. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27093569

  16. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  17. STEM Professions: Opportunities and Challenges for Latinos in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Mathew, Ann Bessie; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    Although the United States has the best innovation ecosystem in the world, according to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), American students have weak math and science skills compared with those in the rest of the world. Even students at the top tier pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and…

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  19. AIDS and journalism. Trying to tell too clear a story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J

    1994-12-01

    Much in science is complex. Scientists, by definition, work within the realm of complex hypothesis, empirical evidence, and proof. Questions, answers, details, complexities; that is the domain of the scientist. Journalists, on the other hand, are paid to develop and present stories which are clearly read and interpreted by the general public. The mechanics and dynamics of HIV and AIDS are among the most complex scientific challenges in the history of humankind. Journalists calling upon scientists to obtain and report clear, concise, information about the agent and its resulting pandemic are therefore surely not always going to receive simple, readily reportable responses. HIV is a moving target upon which research continues. While there are some definitively affirmative and some definitively negative factors about HIV, the gray areas and speculation remain vast. The author gives a few examples of AIDS stories which the media mishandled because they were trying to tell too clear a story. He then discusses stories flawed because scientists managed to present clear information about which journalists were overly skeptical. In one case, the public was informed that AIDS vaccines were not working, with headlines which insinuated that the vaccines themselves were causing infections. None of the vaccines, however, contained infectious materials. As a result, people became overly fearful of participating in HIV vaccine trials. Coverage of the potential identification of HIV-3 was premature and only scared people, while Rolling Stone magazine's article hypothesizing the origin of HIV via trials of a contaminated polio vaccine in the Belgium Congo in the late 1950s should not have been published. Clear answers about HIV/AIDS are few and far between, but interesting and significant stories can still be found; they are just hard to tell. PMID:12319130

  20. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  1. 77 FR 66219 - Clearing Agency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Payment System Risk, 72 FR 2518 (Jan. 12, 2007). \\34\\ See FMI Report, supra note 32. II. Overview of... to clear credit default swaps. See Exchange Act Release Nos. 60372 (July 23, 2009), 74 FR 37748 (July 29, 2009), 61973 (Apr. 23, 2010), 75 FR 22656 (Apr. 29, 2010) and 63389 (Nov. 29, 2010), 75 FR...

  2. Plant Histology: Clearing and the Optical Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Clearing is a simple and rapid technique in which 75 percent lactic acid is used to remove pigments and cytoplasmic contents of fresh leaves, enabling microscopic view of various internal leaf layers. Procedures for using the technique (which helps students gain a more thorough understanding of plant anatomy) are given. (DH)

  3. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  4. Practical Reflexivity and Political Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen; Bueger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The simplistic but still influential, idea of a clear-cut boundary between science and politics does not capture the complexities of the ongoing “dialogue between science and politics”. Perhaps it never did. Critical Social Science from Mannheim to Kratochwil has made this painstakingly clear...

  5. ASC Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II Review of the Carbon Capture Multidisciplinary Science Center (CCMSC) at the University of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, C. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferencz, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoekstra, R. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hungerford, A. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kuhl, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montoya, D. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wagner, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The review was conducted on March 31 – April 1, 2015 at the University of Utah. Overall the review team was impressed with the work presented and found that the CCMSC had met or exceeded all of their Year 1 milestones. Specific details, comments and recommendations are included in this document.

  6. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the seventh volume in the series of Proceedings of International Legume Conferences, published after the Third International Legume Conference held at Kew in 1992. Every paper in this volume has a phylogenetic basis using cladistic or molecular approaches, giving clear evidence that these ap

  7. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Sleumer, H.

    1966-01-01

    This is a difficult book on account of the very wide range and complexity of its subject-matter, made more difficult by the fact that the author has not taken the trouble to arrange his writing so as to present a clear sequence of ideas; also he often uses needlessly complex sentences, some made mor

  8. Super Science Fair Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritz, Maxine Haren

    This guide to science fair projects is designed for students and provides clear directions on how to complete a successful science project. Real projects are used as examples and information and advice is provided by teachers, judges, and participants and their families about the process. Topics covered in this book include choosing a science fair…

  9. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Snowman's Coat and Other Science Questions A book of problem-solving for the very young An Inconvenient Truth Al Gore's climate change slide show, brought to DVD OCR Physics for GCSE A thorough but interesting high-level textbook 21st Century Science GCSE Resources A full range of resources to suit teacher and pupil WORTH A LOOK Thinking Without Objects - The Transformation of Mechanics in the Seventeenth Century This book covers a fruitful period in the history of science Paper Rollercoasters An intriguing teaching resource that uses paper and sticky tape HANDLE WITH CARE STEAM - Museum of the Great Western Railway The Swindon museum proves lacking in education resources WEB WATCH Games and simulations demonstrating moments and levers

  10. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Connecting Research in Science Literacy and Classroom Practice: A Review of Science Teaching Journals in Australia, the UK and the United States, 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian; Yore, Larry D.; Jagger, Susan; Prain, Vaughan

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years (1994-2009), there has been considerable increased research interest in: (1) characterising the distinctive nature and constitutive elements of science literacy and (2) investigating classroom practices or necessary conditions that enable students to acquire this disciplinary capacity. This raises the question of the extent to…

  12. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake - Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Wals, A.E.J.; Oosterheert, I.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils’ application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry

  13. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize inve...

  14. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female patient with the malignancy at a less common location. Diagnosis was given based on the histopathologic findings. The demographic data and understanding for this tumor needs to be strengthened by reporting all new cases, which are diagnosed, in literature.

  15. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  16. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Marcotullio; Giannicola Iannella; Gian Franco Macri; Caterina Marinelli; Melissa Zelli; Giuseppe Magliulo

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy....

  17. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  18. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  19. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ~50AU implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called "thermal sweeping" mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scale lengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. Thi...

  20. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  1. WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Presentació de la conferència "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentación de la conferencia "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentation of the conference "Science Wiki: Wikipedia for science and technology".

  2. Social Capital for Regional Science and Technology Innovation - Regional Cluster Program Reviewed from "trust"-(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Hirotaka; KAWASHIMA Kei

    2011-01-01

    Recently in Japan, regional promotion policies that focus the science and technology innovation are nationally implemented. One of the aims of this paper is to revaluate these Science and Technology Innovation Policy, especially Regional Cluster Program from a perspective of Social Capital. And the other aim is to define the close connection between Science and Technology Innovation and Social Capital by factual analyses. Qualitative analysis of difference by Regional Cluster Program and qual...

  3. Novel biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, HITOMI; ONISHI, SHUNSUKE; NAKANO, KAZUTOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma can arise from endometriosis; however, it is distinct from other types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in terms of its clinicopathological and molecular features. Cancer antigen 125 lacks the sensitivity and specificity required for accurate clinical diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to identify novel biomarker candidates for the immunohistochemical and serological diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. A search of the rel...

  4. Change in Astigmatism After Temporal Clear Corneal Cataract Extraction in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Helene Y; Yen, Kimberly G

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early postoperative change in astigmatism in pediatric patients having cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation using sutured temporal clear corneal incision. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent clear corneal cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation between 12/01/2005 and 11/30/2006. Results: A total of 31 eyes of 22 patients who underwent temporal clear corneal cataract surgery and intra...

  5. The effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous review pairs on student achievement and attitude when utilizing computer-assisted instruction in middle-level Earth science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen Beth

    1998-09-01

    This research project investigated the influence of homogeneous (like-ability) review pairs coupled with heterogeneous (mixed-ability) cooperative learning groups using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on academic achievement and attitude toward science in eighth grade Earth science students. Subjects were placed into academic quartiles (Hi, Med-Hi, Med-Lo, and Lo) based on achievement. Cooperative learning groups of four (one student from each academic quartile) were formed in all classes, within which students completed CAI through a software package entitled Geoscience Education Through Interactive Technology, or GETITspTM. Each day, when computer activities were completed, students in the experimental classes were divided into homogeneous review pairs to review their work. The students in the control classes were divided into heterogeneous review pairs to review their work. The effects of the experimental treatment were measured by pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest measures, by pre- and post-student attitude scales, and by evaluation of amendments students made to their work during the time spent in review pairs. Results showed that student achievement was not significantly influenced by placement in homogeneous or heterogeneous review pairs, regardless of academic quartile assignment. Student attitude toward science as a school subject did not change significantly due to experimental treatment. Achievement retention of students in experimental and control groups within each quartile showed no significant difference. Notebook amendment patterns showed some significant differences in a few categories. For the Hi quartile, there were significant differences in numbers of deletion amendments and substitution amendments between the experimental and the control group. In both cases, subjects in the experimental group (homogeneous review pairs) made greater number of amendments then those in the control group (heterogeneous review pairs). For the Lo quartile

  6. A case of clear cell carcinoma arising from the endometriosis of the paraovarian cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Im, Eun Seon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Haeryoung; Kim, Yong-Beom; Jeon, Yong-Tark

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is an infrequent complication. Clear cell carcinoma from endometriosis is very rare in the paraovarian cyst. To date no cases have been reported. We report a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from endometriosis of the paraovarian cyst with a brief review of literature.

  7. 76 FR 59145 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; NINR End-of-Life and Palliative Care Science Needs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ...-Life and Palliative Care Science Needs Assessment: Funding Source (Survey of Authors) Summary: Under... of Nursing (NINR), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office of Management... Care Science Needs Assessment: Funding Source (Survey of Authors). Type of Information...

  8. A Review of Computer Science Resources for Learning and Teaching with K-12 Computing Curricula: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Katrina; Vivian, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    To support teachers to implement Computer Science curricula into classrooms from the very first year of school, teachers, schools and organisations seek quality curriculum resources to support implementation and teacher professional development. Until now, many Computer Science resources and outreach initiatives have targeted K-12 school-age…

  9. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637

  10. Perceptions of D.M.D. student readiness for basic science courses in the United States: can online review modules help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C J; Aiken, S A; Metz, M J

    2015-02-01

    There can be a disconnect between the level of content covered in undergraduate coursework and the expectations of professional-level faculty of their incoming students. Some basic science faculty members may assume that students have a good knowledge base in the material and neglect to appropriately review, whilst others may spend too much class time reviewing basic material. It was hypothesised that the replacement of introductory didactic physiology lectures with interactive online modules could improve student preparedness prior to lectures. These modules would also allow faculty members to analyse incoming student abilities and save valuable face-to-face class time for alternative teaching strategies. Results indicated that the performance levels of incoming U.S. students were poor (57% average on a pre-test), and students often under-predicted their abilities (by 13% on average). Faculty expectations varied greatly between the different content areas and did not appear to correlate with the actual student performance. Three review modules were created which produced a statistically significant increase in post-test scores (46% increase, P < 0.0001, n = 114-115). The positive results of this study suggest a need to incorporate online review units in the basic science dental school courses and revise introductory material tailored to students' strengths and needs. PMID:25756103

  11. Nitrous oxide flux following tropical land clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizao, Flavio; Luizao, Regina; Matson, Pamela; Livingston, Gerald; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The importance of seasonal cycles of N2O flux from tropical ecosystems and the possibility that tropical deforestation could contribute to the ongoing global increase in N2O concentrations were assessed by measuring N2O flux from forest, cleared land, and pasture over an annual cycle in the central Amazon. A pasture that had been converted from tropical forest had threefold greater annual N2O flux than a paired forest site; similar results were obtained in spot measurements in other pastures. If these results are general, such tropical pastures represent a globally significant source of increased N2O.

  12. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  13. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  14. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  15. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio μ in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ≥ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for μ ≲ 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on μ. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –1/3}, prevails at small μ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger μ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ≈ 0.024 μ{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Δa {sub cl,} {sub int} ≅ 1.2 μ{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Δa {sub cl,} {sub ext} ≅ 1.7 μ{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  16. The Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the vision of a fully-functional Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory comes closer to reality, the opportunities for significant watershed science advances in the near future become more apparent. As a starting point to approaching this vision, we focused on creating a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. The system will integrate a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. Hardware: An accomplishment to date is "in-house" developed sensor networking electronics to compliment commercially available communications. The first of these networkable sensors are dielectric soil moisture probes that are arrayed and equipped with wireless connectivity for communications. Commercially available data logging and telemetry-enabled systems deployed at the Clear Creek testbed include a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger, a Redwing 100 cellular modem, a YA Series yagi antenna, a NP12 rechargeable battery, and a BP SX20U solar panel. This networking equipment has been coupled with Hach DS5X water quality sondes, DTS-12 turbidity probes and MicroLAB nutrient analyzers. Software: Our existing data model is an Arc Hydro-based geodatabase customized with applications for extraction and population of the database with third party data. The following third party data are acquired automatically and in real time into the Arc Hydro customized database: 1) geophysical data: 10m DEM and soil grids, soils; 2) land use/land cover data; and 3) eco-hydrological: radar-based rainfall estimates, stream gage, streamlines, and water quality data. A new processing software for data analysis of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP

  17. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Why the Sky is Blue This book gives an excellent answer to the age-old question Science Magic Book of experiments finds the fun in physics Function Generator Kit Build your own simple wave generator Dent pullers Instead of using them to pull out dents, get your pupils to pull them apart Rocket Tracker Launch and track rockets with this kit Stephen Hawking, A biograpy This book looks at both the science and the personal life of the famous physicist WORTH A LOOK The Universe and the Atom All-encompassing but uninspiring physics book Sizzling Magnets Another cheap toy proves its usefulness in the physics lab Efergy Energy-saving meter is easy to use but may not save you energy Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics This book is full of interesting experiments but skewed to a particular hardware system WEB WATCH Gary Williams recounts the valuable lessons he learned at the Software 4 Skint Schools workshop

  18. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Philip; Brown, Anne; Holmes, Alison

    2002-01-01

    The user guide consists of a 28-page A5 format brochure. It gives an overview (4 pages) of the contents of the CD-Rom and how it can assist in the writing process in three main sections: core skills, writing for science and writing for advocacy. Within each of these subsections more detail is provided, with the authors giving a short introductory aim for each task and the expected outcomesDOI:10.1080/0968776020100210

  19. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Barker; Anne Brown; Alison Holmes

    2002-01-01

    The user guide consists of a 28-page A5 format brochure. It gives an overview (4 pages) of the contents of the CD-Rom and how it can assist in the writing process in three main sections: core skills, writing for science and writing for advocacy. Within each of these subsections more detail is provided, with the authors giving a short introductory aim for each task and the expected outcomes

  20. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The user guide consists of a 28-page A5 format brochure. It gives an overview (4 pages of the contents of the CD-Rom and how it can assist in the writing process in three main sections: core skills, writing for science and writing for advocacy. Within each of these subsections more detail is provided, with the authors giving a short introductory aim for each task and the expected outcomes

  1. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  2. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  3. Planetary chaotic zone clearing: destinations and timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio $\\mu$ in the range $10^{-9}$ to $10^{-1.5}$, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius $R_p\\ge0.001R_H$ where $R_H$ is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for $\\mu\\lesssim10^{-5}$; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio $R_p/R_H$, the particle clearing timescale, $T_{cl}$, has a broken power-law dependence on $\\mu$. A shallower power...

  4. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Flora of Australia started in 1981 and since then 8 volumes came out, including some 70 families. Before all we have to congratulate the editors with this achievement and we express our hope that it will be possible to go on like this. Eight volumes provide the possibility for a more general evaluation. First of all, just turning over the leaves of these volumes, one is struck by the balanced design, the clear typography, the amount of illustrations. However, on further consideration one ...

  5. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

  6. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-01-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  7. Revolutionary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  8. The Protease Ste24 Clears Clogged Translocons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Tslil; Michaelis, Susan; Schuldiner, Maya

    2016-01-14

    Translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of thousands of eukaryotic endomembrane proteins. Although functional ER translocation has been avidly studied, little is known about the quality control mechanisms that resolve faulty translocational states. One such faulty state is translocon clogging, in which the substrate fails to properly translocate and obstructs the translocon pore. To shed light on the machinery required to resolve clogging, we carried out a systematic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that highlighted a role for the ER metalloprotease Ste24. We could demonstrate that Ste24 approaches the translocon upon clogging, and it interacts with and generates cleavage fragments of the clogged protein. Importantly, these functions are conserved in the human homolog, ZMPSTE24, although disease-associated mutant forms of ZMPSTE24 fail to clear the translocon. These results shed light on a new and critical task of Ste24, which safeguards the essential process of translocation. PMID:26771486

  9. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  10. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  11. Clearing the Waters of the Fracking Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Ellis, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the debate on “fracking” in the United States is fueled by poor communication among stakeholders. Information in the public sphere may be provided by biased sources, and complicated academic research is often misinterpreted by media sources. The goal of this review is to provide an open-access source for a non-technical audience that facilitates a balanced discussion on the complex topics related to hydraulic fracturing and its impact on water resources. The limited information availa...

  12. Deconstructing normalisation: clearing the way for inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with an intellectual disability: normalisation and inclusion. The authors look back at the normalisation movement, reviewing its aims, processes and outcomes, and explore its relationship and compatibility with inclusion. In looking forward to the realisation of the inclusion agenda they ask whether normalisation is a suitable platform on which to build inclusion, or whether a process of deconstruction is needed. They disc...

  13. GL Transparency: Through a Glass Clearly

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Keith G (STFC); Asserson, Anne; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2010-01-01

    GL (Grey literature, interpreted here as grey objects) is very heterogeneous in content, form and quality. Most GL objects evolve through a workflow. Some of these phases involve some form of evaluation or peer review, commonly internal within the management structure of an organisation and possibly involving external advice, including from "friendly peers" via an e-preprint mechanism. Unlike white literature the evaluation process commonly is unrecorded and undocumented. This leads to accusa...

  14. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  15. Berliner Ensemble 1957 – Piccolo Teatro 1963. Science in the reception of Brecht’s "Galileo" as from the press reviews on both stagings (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cuomo

    Full Text Available The article reports the outcome of an analysis of the reception of Bertolt Brecht’s play, "The Life of Galileo", as presented by Giorgio Strehler (Milan, 1963 and Brecht himself in collaboration with Erich Engel (East Berlin, 1957, carried out on respective press reviews. The reviews were examined by the application of quantitative analysis based on the recurrence of determinate themes associated with images of science. In comparing the results of the analysis of each of the two press reviews, it appears that different images were conveyed by the same play performed in two different contexts for different audiences. Italy, in particular, showed a more frequent recurrence of the conflict between science and religion as a result of the ongoing cultural and spiritual authority of the Church, whereas in the German Democratic Republic’s communist regime, where Brecht is a troublesome but tolerated intellectual, the topics of the scientist’s freedom within the Establishment and intellectual courage were more frequent.

  16. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Advancing Physics CD Quick Tour This software makes the Advancing Physics CD easier to use. From Silicon to Computer This CD on computer technology operates like an electronic textbook. Powers of Ten This documentary film gives pupils a feel for the scale of our universe. Multimedia Waves The material on this CD demonstrates various wave phenomena. Infrared thermometer This instant response, remote sensor has numerous lab applications. Magic Universe, The Oxford Guide to Modern Science Acollection of short essays, this book is aimed at A-level students. Fermi Remembered Ajoy to read, this piece of non-fiction leaves you eager for more. Big Bang (lecture and book) Both the book and the lecture are engaging and hugely entertaining. WORTH A LOOK The Way Things Go Lasting just 30 minutes, this film will liven up any mechanics lesson. The Video Encyclopaedia of Physics Demonstrations It may blow your budget, but this DVD is a superb physics resource. Go!Link and Go!Temp Go!Link is a useful, cheap datalogger. Go!Temp seems superfluous. Cracker snaps Cheap and cheerful, cracker snaps can be used to demonstrate force. VPython This 3D animation freeware can be adapted to fit your needs. HANDLE WITH CARE Physics A-Level Presentations It might be better to generate slides yourself rather than modify these. London Planetarium and Madame Tussaud's A day out here is definitely not a worthwhile science excursion.

  17. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  18. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments of the...... vacuolar proteolysis are described. Substrates of the vacuolar proteases are mostly imported via endocytosis or autophagocytosis, and vacuolar proteolysis appears to be mainly important under nutritional stress conditions and sporulation....

  19. A review of theoretical perspectives in cognitive science on the presence of scaling in coordinated physiological and cognitive processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Time series of human performances present fluctuations around a mean value. These fluctuations are typically considered as insignificant, and attributable to random noise. Over recent decades, it became clear that temporal fluctuations possess interesting properties, however, one of which the proper

  20. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...