WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleared science reviews

  1. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  2. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  3. Science & technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is the August, 1995 issue of the Science and Technology review, a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory publication. It contains two major articles, one on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - as applied to materials engineering studies, and one on risk assessment, in this case looking primarily at a health care problem. Separate articles will be indexed from this journal to the energy database.

  4. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chengsheng Zhang,1,2 Wei Zhang,1,2 Dianbin Mu,1 Xuetao Shi,1 Lei Zhao1,2 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL, whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL. Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients. Keywords: gallbladder, clear cell adenocarcinoma, hepatoid differentiation 

  5. Annual review of computer science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, J.F. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Grosz, B.J. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Lampson, B.W. (Digital Equipment Corp. (US)); Nilsson, N.J. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the annual review of computer science. Topics covered include: Database security, parallel algorithmic techniques for combinatorial computation, algebraic complexity theory, computer applications in manufacturing, and computational geometry.

  6. Science& Technology Review October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2003-10-01

    The October 2003 issue of Science & Technology Review consists of the following articles: (1) Award-Winning Technologies from Collaborative Efforts--Commentary by Hal Graboske; (2) BASIS Counters Airborne Bioterrorism--The Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System is the first integrated biodefense system; (3) In the Chips for the Coming Decade--A new system is the first full-field lithography tool for use at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths; (4) Smoothing the Way to Print the Next Generation of Computer Chips--With ion-beam thin-film planarization, the reticles and projection optics made for extreme ultraviolet lithography are nearly defect-free; (5) Eyes Can See Clearly Now--The MEMS-based adaptive optics phoropter improves the process of measuring and correcting eyesight aberrations; (6) This Switch Takes the Heat--A thermally compensated Q-switch reduces the light leakage on high-average-power lasers; (7) Laser Process Forms Thick, Curved Metal Parts--A new process shapes parts to exact specifications, improving their resistance to fatigue and corrosion cracking; and (8) Characterizing Tiny Objects without Damaging Them--Livermore researchers are developing nondestructive techniques to probe the Lilliputian world of mesoscale objects.

  7. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi Soga; Ken-Ichi Mukaisho; Takanori Hattori; Hideyuki Konishi; Natsuko Tatsumi; Chika Konishi; Keimei Nakano; Naold Wakabayashi; Shoji Mitsufuji; Keisho Kataoka; Takeshi Okanoue

    2008-01-01

    A primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon is arare oncologic entity.We herein report a case of such atumor of the sigmoid colon in a 71-year-old woman whowas successfully treated by an endoscopic polypecLomy in our hospital.We also reviewed the published reports regarding cases of primary clear cell tumors in the colon.

  8. Water Science Reviews 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Felix

    1991-02-01

    This volume is devoted to the solution behavior of the molecules of life: lipids, nucleotide bases, amino acids, and sugars. Theory is confronted by experiment and comparisons are made between the properties of molecules in crystals and in solution. Four excellent reviews are included. John and Lois Crowe consider the profound lyotropic effects of water on membrane phospholipids. E. Westhof and D.L. Beveridge discuss hydration of nucleic acids, concluding that the development of an adequate description of the solvation and electrostatic properties of the nucleic acids is essential for modeling and simulation of nucleic acid structures. T.H. Lilley examines the solvation of amino acids and small peptides, with the emphasis on those amino acids present in the proteins of higher organisms. The final contribution, from Felix Franks and J. Raul Grigera, summarizes and analyzes the influence of solvation interactions on the structural, equilibrium and dynamic properties of monomeric and oligomeric polyhydroxy compounds.

  9. Science & Technology Review March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, V E

    2005-01-25

    This issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) Enhanced National Security through International Research Collaborations--Commentary by Stephen G. Cochran; (2) Building Networks of Trust through Collaborative Science--Livermore scientists are leading collaborative science and technology projects with colleagues from Central and South Asia and the Middle East; (3) Tracing the Steps in Nuclear Material Trafficking--The Laboratory.s nuclear science expertise is helping to thwart the illicit trafficking of nuclear material; (4) Looking at Earth in Action--Geophysicists at Livermore are using laboratory experiments to examine such issues as how best to store nuclear wastes and how to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases; and (5) Gamma-Ray Bursts Shower the Universe with Metals--Computer models indicate that gamma-ray bursts from dying stars may be important sources of elements such as iron, zinc, titanium, and copper.

  10. Science & Technology Review June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  11. Science & Technology Review June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-04-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on ensuring our nation's security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  12. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  13. Science & Technology Review: September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This is the September issue of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science & Technology Review, which communicates, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. This month, there are features on "Laboratory Investments Drive Computational Advances" and "Laying the Groundwork for Extreme-Scale Computing." Research highlights include "Nuclear Data Moves into the 21st Century", "Peering into the Future of Lick Observatory", and "Facility Drives Hydrogen Vehicle Innovations."

  14. Science& Technology Review November 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Science & Technology Review covers the following topics: (1) We Will Always Need Basic Science--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) When Semiconductors Go Nano--experiments and computer simulations reveal some surprising behavior of semiconductors at the nanoscale; (3) Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight--A microelectrode array is being developed for a retinal prosthesis; (4) Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation--Inductrack, a Livermore concept to levitate train cars using permanent magnets, will be demonstrated on a 120-meter-long test track; and (5) Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality--Laboratory-designed fuel processor gives power boost to dime-size fuel cell.

  15. Science & Technology Review October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-08-21

    Livermore researchers won five R&D 100 awards in R&D Magazine's annual competition for the top 100 industrial innovations worldwide. This issue of Science & Technology Review highlights the award-winning technologies: noninvasive pneumothorax detector, microelectromechanical system-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, large-area imager, hyper library of linear solvers, and continuous-phase-plate optics system manufactured using magnetorheological finishing. Since 1978, Laboratory researchers have received 118 R&D 100 awards. The R&D 100 logo (on the cover and p 1) is reprinted courtesy of R&D Magazine.

  16. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  17. CMB anisotropy science: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Challinor, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides us with our most direct observational window to the early universe. Observations of the temperature and polarization anisotropies in the CMB have played a critical role in defining the now-standard cosmological model. In this contribution we review some of the basics of CMB science, highlighting the role of observations made with ground-based and balloon-borne Antarctic telescopes. Most of the ingredients of the standard cosmological model are poorly understood in terms of fundamental physics. We discuss how current and future CMB observations can address some of these issues, focusing on two directly relevant for Antarctic programmes: searching for gravitational waves from inflation via B-mode polarization, and mapping dark matter through CMB lensing.

  18. Science & Technology Review November 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K

    2002-09-25

    This months issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) High-Tech Help for Fighting Wildfires--Commentary by Leland W. Younker; (2) This Model Can Take the Heat--A physics-based simulation program to combat wildfires combines the capabilities and resources of Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos national laboratories. (3) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory. (4) A view to Kill--Livermore sensors are aimed at the ''kill'' vehicle when it intercepts an incoming ballistic missile. (5) 50th Anniversary Highlight--Biological Research Evolves at Livermore--Livermore's biological research program keeps pace with emerging national issues, from studying the effects of ionizing radiation to detecting agents of biological warfare.

  19. Science& Technology Review May 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2003-05-01

    This May 2003 issue of ''Science and Technology Review'' covers the following articles: (1) ''Another Weapon in the Battle against Proliferation''; (2) ''Chemical Weapons Can't Evade This Lab'', Livermore's Forensic Science Center is certified to analyze samples collected during inspections conducted to monitor the Chemical Weapons Convention. (3) ''Bird's-Eye View Clarifies Research on the Ground'' Geobotanical remote sensing has applications in homeland security and energy resource development and provides new insights into complex ecologic systems. (4) ''Age Does Make a Difference'' Age-dating techniques and ultrasensitive technologies provide a comprehensive map of California's groundwater and indicate where it is most vulnerable to contaminants. (5) ''Reducing Aerodynamic Drag'' Simulations and experiments reveal ways to make heavy trucks more aerodynamic and fuel efficient.

  20. Science& Technology Review October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K S

    2002-10-01

    The October 2002 issue of Science and Technology Review has the following articles: (1) Applied Science Is a Hallmark of This Laboratory--Commentary by Hal Graboske. (2) Sending Up Signals for Genetic Variation--In situ rolling circle amplification promises to advance the detection and treatment of cancer and other diseases. (3) SiMM Is Anything But Simple--Modules of silicon microchannels and microlenses result in the smallest, most powerful, and least expensive laser diode pumps ever. (4) World's Most Powerful Solid-State Laser--A new design allows tremendous scaling up of solid-state laser power. (5) Stepping Up to Extreme Lithography--The next generation of computer chips can now be produced on a commercial scale. (6) Relief for Acute and Chronic Pain--New technology turns an ancient pain management method into a modern medical tool. (7)50th Anniversary Highlight--14 Energy and Environment: Understanding Our World--The Laboratory's energy and environmental research is an important adjunct to its core national security mission.

  1. Errors in science: the role of reviewers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szekely, T.; Kruger, O.; Krause, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers play a key role in science, although studies suggest the current peer-reviewing system has faults. We propose to introduce a quality control system to evaluate each journal’s review process, and produce a Review Quality Index. We propose four schemes that have the potential to reduce error

  2. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  3. Science& Technology Review September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D

    2003-09-01

    This September 2003 issue of ''Science and Technology Review'' covers the following articles: (1) ''The National Ignition Facility Is Born''; (2) ''The National Ignition Facility Comes to Life'' Over the last 15 years, thousands of Livermore engineers, scientists, and technicians as well as hundreds of industrial partners have worked to bring the National Ignition Facility into being. (3) ''Tracking the Activity of Bacteria Underground'' Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, researchers at Livermore are gaining knowledge on how bacteria work underground to break down compounds of environmental concern. (4) ''When Every Second Counts--Pathogen Identification in Less Than a Minute'' Livermore has developed a system that can quickly identify airborne pathogens such as anthrax. (5) ''Portable Radiation Detector Provides Laboratory-Scale Precision in the Field'' A team of Livermore physicists and engineers has developed a handheld, mechanically cooled germanium detector designed to identify radioisotopes.

  4. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  5. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  6. Curriculum Reviews: Middle/Junior High Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Pathways in Science" (Globe Book Company), designed as a complete middle/junior high school science program. Strengths (including sixth-grade readability) and weaknesses (indicating that limited process skill development may not challenge more capable students). Limited process skill development and the possibility for the program…

  7. Sscience & technology review; Science Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. This review for the month of July 1996 discusses: Frontiers of research in advanced computations, The multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimeter: Efficient measurement of high velocities, High-tech tools for the American textile industry, and Rock mechanics: can the Tuff take the stress.

  8. MADE CLEAR: Riding the waves of new science standards and environmental literacy requirements to enhance climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, D. F.; Griswold, M.; Targett, N. M.; Stylinski, C.; Merrill, J. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing development of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to engage K-12 educators in climate change education. In particular, scientists and educators can collaborate on NGSS performance expectations, materials and interpretation for instruction and assessment. This could include working together to incorporate real world science and engineering practices, such as data analysis, model development and interpretation, arguments from evidence and critical evaluation of solutions. NGSS learning progressions allow the ramping up of science relevant to climate change starting from a broad foundation in elementary school to a focus on the interdisciplinary concepts in high school. The Maryland-Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR) partnership is fostering such an integrated approach through collaborations among environmental scientists, learning scientists, K-12 educators, and informal educators in our states. First, we are engaging and assisting the state departments of education in Maryland and Delaware to inform the development and implementation of climate change science in curricula not only for inclusion in the NGSS, but also new environmental literacy requirements. Second, we are convening informal and formal educators to refine approaches and address gaps in teaching about climate change science, with a particular focus on regional consequences. Lastly, K-12 and informal educators are provided access to experts in the fields of climate science, adaptation, and energy production and conservation. This will be achieved through professional development and creation of regionally focused resources in an iterative approach, assessed and guided by learning scientists. When fully implemented, we believe that our frameworks, curricula, processes and lessons learned can serve as models for other states in developing strategies for implementing science standards that also improve literacy in

  9. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of a female urethra: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Trabelsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is an extremely rare tumour. Its histogenetic derivation remains controversial. Case report : We report a new case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra in a 56-year-old woman who presented with grossly hematuria. Urethral cystoscopy revealed a tumour protruding from the posterior urethral wall at the bladder neck. Treatment consisted of urethrocystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra. Conclusion : It appears that female urethral adenocarcinoma has more than one tissue of origin.

  10. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tervo T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods: Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results: Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. Keywords: floorball, unihockey, review

  11. Science & Technology Review March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-01-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Seismic Science and Nonproliferation--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Sleuthing Seismic Signals--Supercomputer simulations improve the accuracy of models used to distinguish nuclear explosions from earthquakes and pinpoint their location; (3) Wind and the Grid--The Laboratory lends technical expertise to government and industry to more effectively integrate wind energy into the nation's electrical infrastructure; (4) Searching for Tiny Signals from Dark Matter--Powerful amplifiers may for the first time allow researchers to detect axions, hypothesized particles that may constitute 'dark matter', and (5) A Better Method for Self-Decontamination--A prototype decontamination system could one day allow military personnel and civilians to better treat themselves for exposure to toxic chemicals.

  12. Science & Technology Review November 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H

    2006-09-29

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Expanded Supercomputing Maximizes Scientific Discovery--Commentary by Dona Crawford; (2) Thunder's Power Delivers Breakthrough Science--Livermore's Thunder supercomputer allows researchers to model systems at scales never before possible. (3) Extracting Key Content from Images--A new system called the Image Content Engine is helping analysts find significant but hard-to-recognize details in overhead images. (4) Got Oxygen?--Oxygen, especially oxygen metabolism, was key to evolution, and a Livermore project helps find out why. (5) A Shocking New Form of Laserlike Light--According to research at Livermore, smashing a crystal with a shock wave can result in coherent light.

  13. Science & Technology Review June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Safer and Even More Effective TATB - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (2) Dissolving Molecules to Improve Their Performance - Computer scientists and chemists have teamed to develop a green method for recycling a valuable high explosive that is no longer manufactured; (3) Exceptional People Producing Great Science - Postdoctoral researchers lend their expertise to projects that support the Laboratory's missions; (4) Revealing the Identities and Functions of Microbes - A new imaging technique illuminates bacterial metabolic pathways and complex relationships; and (5) A Laser Look inside Planets - Laser-driven ramp compression may one day reveal the interior structure of Earth-like planets in other solar systems.

  14. Science & Technology Review June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-04-28

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Leader in High-Pressure Science--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Diamonds Put the Pressure on Materials--New experimental capabilities are helping Livermore scientists better understand how extreme pressure affects a material's structure; (3) Exploring the Unusual Behavior of Granular Materials--Livermore scientists are developing new techniques for predicting the response of granular materials under pressure; (4) A 1-Ton Device in a Briefcase--A new briefcase-sized tool for nuclear magnetic resonance is designed for onsite analysis of suspected chemical weapons; and (5) Targets Designed for Ignition--A series of experiments at the National Ignition Facility is helping scientists finalize the ignition target design.

  15. Science & Technology Review September 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K

    2002-09-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Livermore--Poised for the Future, Commentary by Michael R. Anastasio; (2) A Hitchhiker's Guide to Early Earth--Experiments examine the possibility that the building blocks of life arrived on Earth as hitchhikers on comets; (3) A New World of Maps--More than pretty pictures, maps prepared with the tools of geographic information sciences allow researchers to find new relationships among spatial information; (4) Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Stack Up to Efficient, Clean Power--The goal of Livermore's research in solid-oxide fuel cells is electric power generated cleanly and efficiently at an affordable cost; and (5) Empowering Light, Historic Accomplishments in Laser Research--During the past 40 plus years, the laser program at Livermore has played a seminal role in taking high-energy lasers from concept to reality.

  16. Science & Technology Review April 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-27

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Shaking the Foundations of Solar-System Science--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Stardust Results Challenge Astronomical Convention--The first samples retrieved from a comet are a treasure trove of surprises to Laboratory researchers; (3) Fire in the Hole--Underground coal gasification may help to meet future energy supply challenges with a production process from the past; (4) Big Physics in Small Spaces--A newly developed computer model successfully simulates particle-laden fluids flowing through complex microfluidic systems; (5) A New Block on the Periodic Table--Livermore and Russian scientists add a new block to the periodic table with the creation of element 118; and (6) A Search for Patterns and Connections--Throughout his career, Edward Teller searched for mathematical solutions to explain the physical world.

  17. Science & Technology Review May 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide III, M B

    2006-04-03

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Science and Technology Help the Nation Counter Terrorism--Commentary by Raymond J. Juzaitis; (2) Imagers Provide Eyes to See Gamma Rays--Gamma-ray imagers provide increased radiation detection capabilities and enhance the nation's arsenal for homeland security; (3) Protecting the Nation's Livestock--Foot-and-mouth disease could devastate America's livestock; a new assay provides a rapid means to detect it; (4) Measures for Measures--Laboratory physicists combine emissivity and reflectivity to achieve highly accurate temperature measurements of metal foils; and (5) Looping through the Lamb Shift--Livermore scientists measured a small perturbation in the spectra of highly ionized uranium--the first measurement of the two-loop Lamb shift in a bound state.

  18. Science & Technology Review September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-07-24

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Remembering the Laboratory's First Director - Commentary by Harold Brown; (2) Herbert F. York (1921-2009): A Life of Firsts, an Ambassador for Peace - The Laboratory's first director, who died on May 19, 2009, used his expertise in science and technology to advance arms control and prevent nuclear war; (3) Searching for Life in Extreme Environments - DNA will help researchers discover new marine species and prepare to search for life on other planets; (4) Energy Goes with the Flow - Lawrence Livermore is one of the few organizations that distills the big picture about energy resources and use into a concise diagram; and (5) The Radiant Side of Sound - An experimental method that converts sound waves into light may lead to new technologies for scientific and industrial applications.

  19. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  20. Science & Technology Review October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide III, M B

    2005-08-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Important Missions, Great Science, and Innovative Technology--Commentary by Cherry A. Murray; (2) NanoFoil{reg_sign} Solders with Less Heat--Soldering and brazing to join an array of materials are now Soldering and brazing to join an array of materials are now possible without furnaces, torches, or lead; (3) Detecting Radiation on the Move--An award-winning technology can detect even small amounts An award-winning technology can detect even small amounts of radioactive material in transit; (4) Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond--A mass spectrometer identifies airborne spores in less than A mass spectrometer identifies airborne spores in less than a minute with no false positives; (5) Picture Perfect with VisIt--The Livermore-developed software tool VisIt helps scientists The Livermore-developed software tool VisIt helps scientists visualize and analyze large data sets; (6) Revealing the Mysteries of Water--Scientists are using Livermore's Thunder supercomputer and new algorithms to understand the phases of water; and (7) Lightweight Target Generates Bright, Energetic X Rays--Livermore scientists are producing aerogel targets for use in inertial Livermore scientists are producing aerogel targets for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments and radiation-effects testing.

  1. Science & Technology Review March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Partnering to Enhance Americans Health--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research--Researchers at the University of California Davis Cancer Center and Lawrence Livermore are teaming up to fight cancer; (3) On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions--Continual research and development at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center help mitigate the consequences of toxic airborne hazards; (4) Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change--A Livermore researcher is using computer models to explore how a warmer climate may affect crop yields in California; (5) New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures--With functionally graded density impactors composed of thin metal and polyethylene films, researchers can explore new areas of experimental physics; and (6) From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller's Contributions to Shock Physics--Edward Teller's interest in shock physics led to significant developments in both basic and applied science.

  2. 76 FR 44464 - Process for Review of Swaps for Mandatory Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    .... IntercontinentalExchange, Inc. (ICE) observed that the requirement that a DCO provide to the Commission a summary... a DCO to submit swaps for mandatory clearing. ICE proposed that the Commission adopt a 30-day... (Section 4s(e)(1) of the CEA) requires rules imposing capital and margin for bank swap dealers and...

  3. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype - Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Ratti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes.

  4. Dielectrophoresis for Biomedical Sciences Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaslina Abd Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields.

  5. Science & Technology Review July/August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for the months of July and August 2016, there are two features: one on Science and Technology in Support of Nuclear Nonproliferation, and another on Seeking Out Hidden Radioactive Materials. Then there are highlights are three research projects--on optics, plasma science, and the nature of neutrinos--along with a news section and patents and awards.

  6. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  7. Science & Technology Review January/February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  8. Science and Technology Review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1998-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on assuring our nationÕs security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the LaboratoryÕs scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publicationÕs goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  9. Science & Technology Review January/February 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  10. Science & Technology Review October/November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  11. Science and Technology Review, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1998-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. At Livermore, we focus science and technology on assuring our nationÕs security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published 10 times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the LaboratoryÕs scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publicationÕs goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  12. Skull Base Clear Cell Carcinoma, Metastasis of Renal Primary Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilson Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient who presented with cranial nerve VI bilateral paresis, absence of pharyngeal reflex, dysarthria, right tongue deviation, and right facial paralysis. Imaging studies showed an expansive process in the cranial base with clivus and petrous apex osteolysis. A biopsy confirmed the presence of clear cell adenocarcinoma and suspicion of renal tumor metastases. Abdominal imaging studies revealed a mass in the right kidney. Consequently, radiotherapy was performed, and the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  14. Clear cell chondrosarcoma calcaneum - a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagmani, Singh; Rakesh, John; Aditya, Aggarwal; Sandeep, Patel; Arjun, R H H; Debasis, Gochhait

    2015-03-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone malignancy accounting for 20-25% of all bone sarcomas. However chondrosarcoma of the foot is rare with just a handful of cases being described. Among the subtypes clear cell variant is the rarest and has never been documented in the foot. We present a rare case of clear cell chondrosarcoma of the calcaneum with multiple metastases that was treated at our institute. The patient was a 62-year old male who presented to us with pain and mass in the left hindfoot with difficulty in walking for 2 years and a discharging ulcer over the lateral aspect for 4 months. Radiography showed aggressive, destructive, lytic lesion in the calcaneum with cortical breach and soft tissue invasion. Bone scan and PET-CT revealed multiple bony metastases and lung metastasis. After initial biopsy, patient underwent below knee amputation and has been in remission since the last 18 months. Given the rarity of this tumor in the calcaneum, this report highlights the importance to consider the possibility of this tumor in the calcaneum as an early diagnosis; complete metastatic workup and expeditious management can thus significantly improve prognosis.

  15. Nanoparticles applied to plant science: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Sandra Cristina Capaldi; Silva, Alisson Luiz Diniz; Galazzi, Rodrigo Moretto; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses certain important aspects regarding nanoparticles and the environment, with an emphasis on plant science. The production and characterization of nanoparticles is the focus of this review, providing an idea of the range and the consolidation of these aspects in the literature, with modifications on the routes of synthesis and the application of the analytical techniques for characterization of the nanoparticles (NPs). Additionally, aspects related to the interaction between the NPs and plants, their toxicities, and the phytoremediation process, among others, are also discussed. Future trends are also presented, supplying evidence for certain possibilities regarding new research involving nanoparticles and plants.

  16. Clear & Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Research Underway Plain Language Clear & Simple What is Clear & Simple? Clear & Simple ... schedule? A: Pretesting need not be an elaborate, time-consuming research project and depends on: How quickly you work, ...

  17. Review: Applications of chromatography in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Charde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of different Chromatography techniques in the forensic science, Chromatographic technique is very sensitive and selective. Different types of chromatography techniques used were Liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Thin layer chromatography, HPTLC in investigating criminal cases of which chemical warfare’s, terrorist attacks, smugglers, drug abuse, alcoholics. This techniques are promising to detect even pictogram or very less, with selectivity and sensitivity.

  18. Network science: a review focused on tourism

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, R; Cooper, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the methods of the science of networks with an application to the field of tourism studies. The basic definitions and computational techniques are described and a case study (Elba, Italy) used to illustrate the effect of network typology on information diffusion. A static structural characterization of the network formed by destination stakeholders is derived from stakeholder interviews and website link analysis. This is followed by a dynamic analysis of the information diffusion process within the destination demonstrating that stakeholder cohesion and adaptive capacity have a positive effect on information diffusion. The outcomes and the implications of this analysis for improving destination management are discussed.

  19. Filling in the gaps: Illuminating (a) Clearing mechanisms in transitional protoplanetary disks, and (b) Quantitative illiteracy among undergraduate science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, Katherine Brutlag

    What processes are responsible for the dispersal of protoplanetary disks? In this dissertation, beginning with a brief Introduction to planet detection, disk dispersal and high-contrast imaging in Chapter 1, I will describe how ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging can help to inform these processes. Chapter 2 presents Polarized Differential Imaging (PDI) of the transitional disk SR21 at H-band taken as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS). These observations were the first to show that transition disk cavities can appear markedly different at different wavelengths. The observation that the sub-mm cavity is absent in NIR scattered light is consistent with grain filtration at a planet-induced gap edge. Chapter 3 presents SEEDS data of the transition disk Oph IRS 48. This highly asymmetrical disk is also most consistent with a planet-induced clearing mechanism. In particular, the images reveal both the disk cavity and a spiral arm/divot that had not been imaged previously. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength PDI imaging to verify disk structure and to probe azimuthal variation in grain properties. Chapter 4 presents Magellan visible light adaptive optics imaging of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354. In addition to its technical merits, these observations reveal the surprising fact that this very young disk is optically thin at H-alpha. The simplest explanation for this observation is that significant grain growth has occurred in this disk, which may be responsible for the pre-transitional nature of its SED. Chapter 5 presents brief descriptions of several other works-in-progress that build on my previous work. These include the MagAO Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (GAPlanetS), which will probe the inner regions of transition disks at unprecedented resolution in search of young planets in the process of formation. Chapters 6-8 represent my educational research in quantitative literacy, beginning with an

  20. When Natural met Social: A Review of Collaboration between the Natural and Social Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.; Ronteltap, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities for further collaboration between the natural and social sciences. From 81 systematically identified and reviewed papers published in scientific journals, it became clear that complex situations that depend on human behaviour as well as natural processes req

  1. Molecular imprinted polymers for separation science: a review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Won Jo; Yang, Song Hee; Ali, Faiz

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer is an artificial receptor made by imprinting molecules of a template in a polymer matrix followed by removing the template molecules via thorough washing to give the permanent template grooves. They show favored affinity to the template molecule compared to other molecules, and this property is the basic driving force for such diverse application of this techniques. Such techniques have been increasingly employed in a wide scope of applications such as chromatography, sample pretreatment, purification, catalysts, sensors, and drug delivery, etc., mostly in bioanalytical areas. A major part of them is related to development of new stationary phases and their application in chromatography and sample pretreatment. Embodiments of molecular imprinted polymer materials have been carried out in a variety of forms such as irregularly ground particles, regular spherical particles, nanoparticles, monoliths in a stainless steel or capillary column, open tubular layers in capillaries, surface attached thin layers, membranes, and composites, etc. There have been numerous review articles on molecular imprinted polymer issues. In this special review, the reviews in recent ca. 10 years will be categorized into several subgroups according to specified topics in separation science, and each review in each subgroup will be introduced in the order of date with brief summaries and comments on new developments and different scopes of prospects. Brief summaries of each categories and conclusive future perspectives are also given.

  2. Science and Technology Review June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.

    2002-06-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Fighting Bioterrorism, Fighting Cancer; (2) A Two-Pronged Attack on Bioterrorism--synthetic two-legged molecules will be excellent detectors of biowarfare agents and cancer cells; (3) Adaptive Optics Sharpen the View from Earth--astronomers are obtaining images with unprecedented resolution, thanks to telescopes equipped with adaptive optics developed at Livermore; (4) Experiments Re-create X Rays from Comets--Experiments using the Laboratory's electron beam ion trap and an x-ray spectrometer designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are shedding light on how comets emit x rays as they pass the Sun; (5) Chemistry--50 Years of exploring the Material World--from isotopic analysis to atomic-level simulations of material behavior, Livermore's chemists and materials scientists apply their expertise to fulfill the Laboratory's mission.

  3. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  4. Science & Technology Review October/November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-11

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. The Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNS is a partnership involving Bechtel National, University of California, Babcock & Wilcox, Washington Division of URS Corporation, and Battelle in affiliation with Texas A&M University. More information about LLNS is available online at www.llnsllc.com. Please address any correspondence (including name and address changes) to S&TR, Mail Stop L-664, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551, or telephone (925) 423-3893. Our e-mail address is str-mail@llnl.gov. S&TR is available on the Web at str.llnl.gov.

  5. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  6. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at…

  7. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  8. SNOW CLEARING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de Transport/Transport Group

    1999-01-01

    In order to facilitate snow-clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 every morning, drivers of CERN vehicles are kindly requested to group their cars together in the car parks. This will greatly help us in our work. Thank you for your co-operation.Transport Group / ST-HMTel. 72202

  9. EMERGING SCIENCE: EPA'S ORD SUPPORTS REGIONAL HAZE PROGRAM; POSTERS FROM BOSC REVIEW AND SCIENCE FORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of presentations from EPA's Board of Science Councilors review in April 2005 and the Science Forum in May 2005 are being made available to the Regional Planning Organization conference on June 9-10, 2005. Attendees will be able to review the materials during the confere...

  10. Science and Technology Review May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-05-01

    The following two abstracts are for the 2 feature stories in this issue of ''Science and Technology Review''. (1) ''Leveraging Science and Technology in the National Interest''--A sampling of current projects at Lawrence Livermore demonstrates the many ways in which the Laboratory's science and technology support Department of Defense missions. These projects range from engineering and fabricating munitions and explosives to developing the advanced computer codes that optimize warhead design or assess their hazards. The Penetration Augmented Munition is a portable, multistage weapon that not only provides offensive capability for diminishing adversaries' mobility and capability but also gives US soldiers an additional margin of security in a hostile encounter. Livermore's fiber-composite sabot makes weapons more lethal and is particularly effective in tank warfare. The GLO (global local optimizer) code optimizes the design of shaped-charge warheads, while the CHEETAH thermochemical code improves explosives formulation. CALE, a multiuse mechanical code, is used to help the Air Force assess missile launch site safety and in particular to predict hazards from propellant that falls to the ground when rockets misfire. ALE3D, now being upgraded, will increase the capability of codes to assess safety hazards. (2) ''Extracting Valuable Information from Acoustic Waves''--Lawrence Livermore researchers are developing advanced techniques for interpreting acoustic signals, focusing on complex algorithms that at times mimic the reasoning processes of the human brain. Three current acoustic signal-processing projects, involving heart valve classification, oil exploration, and large-structure analysis, demonstrate the wide range of acoustic signal usefulness. To determine whether an artificial heart valve is intact or needs replacing, a suite of Livermore algorithms sift through heart and body sounds to

  11. Online Peer Review: Learning Science as It's Practiced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; Carlsen, William S.; Eick, Charles J.; Gardner, Francis E., Jr.; Kenyon, Lisa; Moscovici, Hedy; Moore, John C.; Thompson, Mark; West, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project that integrates the internet into the peer-review process to enhance student understanding of the nature of science through engagement in socially authentic scientific research and the double-blinded peer review process. Reports the ratings of faculty and students of the online peer review. (Author/YDS)

  12. Science and Technology Review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-04-01

    The following two abstracts are for the 2 feature stories in this issue of ''Science and Technology Review''. (1) ''Structural Biology Looks at the Ties That Bind''--Over the last five years, Lawrence Livermore has established a program in structural biology to further its work on DNA damage and repair processes. This new program supports a number of other newer projects as well, including the development of antidotes, detection systems, and countermeasures for minimizing the threat of exposure to biological warfare agents. Laboratories have been established for x-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the only methods for obtaining high-resolution, three-dimensional data about individual molecules. This experimental structural biology work is supplemented by computational efforts in molecular modeling and protein prediction. (2) ''Duplicating the Plasmas of Distant Stars''--Livermore researchers are creating in the laboratory the same kinds of extremely hot plasmas found in distant stars. The experimental program, conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' pulsed-power facilities, focuses on cepheids (big pulsating stars), supernovae (the brightest objects in the universe), and stars that generate x rays through a process called accretion. A key aspect of the experiments is testing advanced Livermore atomic models--OPAL for the cepheid and supernova experiments and LXSS for the x-ray tests. The data from these experiments will help scientists better understand the birth and evolution of stars, galaxies, and the universe itself. The new experimental techniques, strengthened codes, and diagnostics developed for the tests are also helping the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship Program keep the nation's aging nuclear weapons safe, secure, and reliable in the absence of nuclear testing.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  16. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  17. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  18. Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Clinicopathological Study of 6 Cases and Review of the Literature With Special Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Pinedo, Fernando; Aramburu, José Antonio; Martínez-González, Miguel Á; Arias, Dolores; Khedaoui, Radia; Suárez-Massa, Dolores; Santonja, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon dermal-based neoplasm arising on the sun-damaged skin of elderly people. Clear cell AFX is a rare variant with only 12 cases reported until the present date, all of them as case reports, except for 1 small series of 3 cases. The authors report 6 new cases and review the literature with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The clear cell variant represents 5% of AFX from their files. Histopathologically, it consists of sheets of epithelioid, pleomorphic cells, intermixed with a varying number of giant multinucleated and spindle cells, the latter arranged in a fascicular pattern. All cell types predominantly exhibit a clear, microvacuolated cytoplasm with well-demarcated cell borders. The clinical and immunohistochemical features of this variant are similar to those of the classic type. Clear cell AFX must be differentiated from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms, some of them with an aggressive clinical behavior, including clear cell melanoma, primary cutaneous and metastatic clear cell carcinomas, clear cell sarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, tumor of perivascular epithelioid cells, and distinctive dermal clear cell mesenchymal neoplasm. The clinical presentation and immunohistochemical profile play a key role in the differential diagnosis.

  19. [Regulatory Science in the Review of Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The review of drugs and medical devices is an integral part of regulatory science. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) evaluates the efficacy, safety, and quality of drugs and medical devices after applications are submitted for regulatory approval. The products are approved when their benefits exceed their risks, i.e., an application is approved if the efficacy of the product in patients was demonstrated and the safety of the product is acceptable in view of its observed benefits. However, drugs and medical devices for which efficacy was not clearly demonstrated in clinical trials makes the decision to approve a difficult process. Under those circumstances, the approval process is based on the totality of information, such as the reason why clinical trials did not succeed and medical needs in Japan. The Wingspan stent system, which was approved for the treatment of intracranial arterial stenosis, is an example of a product with a use different from that intended by the US Food and Drug Administration and PMDA.

  20. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tezval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.

  1. A Methodological Review of Computer Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus; Julnes, George; Sutinen, Erkki; Lehman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Methodological reviews have been used successfully to identify research trends and improve research practice in a variety of academic fields. Although there have been three methodological reviews of the emerging field of computer science education research, they lacked reliability or generalizability. Therefore, because of the capacity for a…

  2. Science and Technology Review December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pruneda, J.H.

    2000-12-01

    This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''Computational Know-How Advances Materials Science''. (2) ''Following Materials over Time and Space'' Large-scale simulations, performed over an enormous range of length and time scales, enable researchers to advance their understanding of material behavior. (3) ''The Art of Systems Science'' Systems scientists practice the multidisciplinary art of gathering information and constructing the systems models needed for informed decision making. (4) ''A Solution for Carbon Dioxide Overload''. (5) ''Preparing for Strong Earthquakes''.

  3. Peer review, program officers and science funding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Roebber

    Full Text Available Increased competition for research funding has led to growth in proposal submissions and lower funding-success rates. An agent-based model of the funding cycle, accounting for variations in program officer and reviewer behaviors, for a range of funding rates, is used to assess the efficiency of different proposal-submission strategies. Program officers who use more reviewers and require consensus can improve the chances of scientists submitting fewer proposals. Selfish or negligent reviewers reduce the effectiveness of submitting more proposals, but have less influence as available funding declines. Policies designed to decrease proposal submissions reduce reviewer workload, but can lower the quality of funded proposals. When available funding falls below 10-15% in this model, the most effective strategy for scientists to maintain funding is to submit many proposals.

  4. Science & Technology Review March/April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2008-01-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Science and Security in Sharp Focus--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Extending the Search for Extrasolar Planets--The Gemini Planet Imager will delve deep into the universe to identify planets that cannot be detected with current instrumentation; (3) Standardizing the Art of Electron-Beam Welding--The Laboratory's EBeam Profiler makes electron-beam welds consistent and improves quality control; (4) Molecular Building Blocks Made of Diamonds--Livermore physicists are exploring the electrical properties of diamondoids, tiny molecules of diamond; and (5) Animation Brings Science to Life--Animation helps scientists and engineers effectively communicate their ideas and research in a visually compelling way.

  5. Computer Science Research Review 1974-75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    mwmmmimmm^m^mmmrm. : i i 1 Faculty and Visitors Mario Barbaccl Research Associate B.S., Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1966...Engineer, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1968) Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University (1974) Carnegie. 1969: Design Automation...Compitational Complexity Jack R Buchanan Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Industrial Administration B.S., University of Utah (1965) M.A

  6. Science and technology review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-10-01

    This month`s issue contains articles entitled Livermore Science and Technology Garner Seven 1997 R&D 100 Awards; New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions; Compact More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-free Thin Film Systems, A New Precision Cutting Tool; The Femtosecond Laser; MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonoics Systems, The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil; Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage; and Compact Storage Management Software: The Next Generation.

  7. Science & Technology Review January/February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2006-12-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Another Step for High-Energy-Density Science and Teller's Legacy--Commentary by George H. Miller. (2) Titan Leads the Way in Laser-Matter Science--Livermore's Titan laser combines long- and short-pulse lasers to explore high-energy-density science. (3) Identifying the Source of Stolen Nuclear Materials--Nuclear forensic scientists are using advanced techniques to discover the exact nature of interdicted radiological and nuclear materials, their age and origin, and where legitimate control was lost. (4) Tiny Tubes Make the Flow Go--Membranes made up of billions of tiny carbon tubes 50,000 times slimmer than a human hair allow liquids and gases to flow through at astonishingly fast speeds. (5) Acidic Microbe Community Fosters the Unique--In an abandoned mine, where the pH can be even lower than zero, communities of acidophilic microbes produce hundreds of unusual proteins.

  8. Science and technology review: June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The first feature article is a survey of four research projects showing how theory and modeling efforts by scientist in the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate at LLNL are advancing the understanding of the property of materials with consideration of underlying structures. The second feature article discusses Livermore and DOE`s Oakland Operations Office teaming up to decontaminate, decommission, and close out--on time and under budget--the Ann Arbor Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility in Michigan. Two research highlights on Mammoth Mountain CO{sub 2} mystery and osteoporosis are also included.

  9. Science & Technology Review July/August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2008-05-27

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Science Translated for the Greater Good--Commentary by Steven D. Liedle; (2) The New Face of Industrial Partnerships--An entrepreneurial spirit is blossoming at Lawrence Livermore; (3) Monitoring a Nuclear Weapon from the Inside--Livermore researchers are developing tiny sensors to warn of detrimental chemical and physical changes inside nuclear warheads; (4) Simulating the Biomolecular Structure of Nanometer-Size Particles--Grand Challenge simulations reveal the size and structure of nanolipoprotein particles used to study membrane proteins; and (5) Antineutrino Detectors Improve Reactor Safeguards--Antineutrino detectors track the consumption and production of fissile materials inside nuclear reactors.

  10. Science and Technology Review March 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pruneda, J H

    2000-03-01

    The contents of this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory newsletter include the following: (1) The Laboratory in the News; (2) Commentary by George Miller--Reaping Unexpected Benefits from the Petawatt Laser Breakthrough; (3) The Amazing Power of the Petawatt--For three years, the Petawatt laser was the most powerful laser in the world, pushing electrons toward the speed of light and accomplishing some remarkable science in the process; (4) Building a Virtual Time Machine--A powerful new computer code simulates geologic changes eons into the future at Yucca Mountain, a potential underground nuclear waste repository; (5) Research Highlight: Dead Sea Explosions Trigger International Cooperation; and (6) Patents and Awards; (7) Abstracts.

  11. Science and Technology Review September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-09-01

    This review consists of the following titles; The Laboratory in the News; Life Performance of Complex Systems; A Better Picture of Aging Materials; Researchers Determine Chernobyl Liquidators' Exposure; and Target Chamber's Dedication Marks a Giant Milestone.

  12. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  13. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Kürşat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this integration. Although these distinct models, methods and techniques are employed in the integration efforts, the results are the same. The integration...

  14. Exploring Peer Review in the Computer Science Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In computer science, students could benefit from more opportunities to learn important, high-level concepts and to improve their learning skills. Peer review is one method to encourage this by providing students with the opportunity to evaluate other people's work and to receive feedback on their own projects. This allows for rich learning experience but it is not immediately obvious how to create a programming project review that will improve the students' conceptual understanding, require higher level thinking, and be engaging. The current literature does not typically address differences between review implementations or provide reasons for design decisions. This work explored how two different types of reviews affected the students' learning of concepts, high-level thinking, and engagement. There were indications that the type of review affected how well students addressed the concept they were reviewing and the comments' length. This shows that the review's type may affect student engagement and conceptu...

  15. Science and Technology Review October 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D.

    1999-09-01

    The following titles are in the review: The Laboratory in the News; Commentary about the year's R and D 100 Honors; The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move; From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property; High-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining; Breakthrough Design for Accelerators; New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution; and PEREGRINE{trademark} Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors.

  16. Science and Technology Review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. Topics discussed in this August 1996 issue are: Keeping the nuclear stockpile safe, secure, and reliable; Molten salt takes the bang out of high explosives; Security clearances meet the electronic age; and Exploring oil fields with crosshole electromagnetic induction.

  17. Science and Technology Review April 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2004-02-24

    This months issue has the following articles: (1)''Computing Science: One Arrow in the Quiver for Homeland Security''--Commentary by Wayne Shotts; (2) ''On the Front Lines of Biodefense''--The Laboratory's pathogen bioinformatics group is developing ways to rapidly identify microbes that could pose a threat to the nation's citizens, livestock, and crops. (3) ''Defending against Corrosion''--Livermore researchers are designing a rugged system to prevent nuclear wastes from seeping into the environment at the proposed underground repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. (4) ''Engine Shows Diesel Efficiency without the Emissions''--Computer models are helping Laboratory engineers better understand the homogeneous compression charge ignition engine, a fuel-efficient engine with reduced emissions.

  18. Science and Technology Review September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''Technology Transfer Takes a Team''. (2) ''Zeroing In on Genes'' With Gene Recovery Microdissection, sequencing an entire genome to find its genes will no longer be necessary. (3) ''Big Glass for a Big Laser'' Together, Livermore and two leading laser glass producers have developed a revolutionary new method for making big pieces of high-quality laser glass. (4) ''Lasershot Makes Its Mark'' The Lasershot Marking System creates permanent, high-resolution identification marks on safety-critical metal parts, without weakening the part. (5) ''Tracking the Global Spread of Advanced Technology'' The Center for Global Security Research takes on the challenge of analyzing and raising awareness of the potential national security threats posed by advances in science and technology.

  19. A review of writing to learn in science: Implications for practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    The published literature on writing to learn in science was reviewed in order to develop a conceptual framework for readers of this special issue and an agenda for future research. Professional journals, books, ERIC documents, and doctoral dissertations were consulted in this review process. Research on writing to learn has been hindered because studies have not always been well designed or clearly reported, and few have been conducted in authentic classroom environments. Furthermore, the links between writing to learn and conceptual change, and writing to learn and critical thinking have not received sufficient attention. Carefully designed studies, both qualitative and quantitative, are still required to provide data from a variety of perspectives. Because the reported studies at the college level outnumber those at other levels, research is still required to generalize the findings across a variety of science classrooms and to elucidate principles for guiding effective teacher use of writing-to-learn strategies.

  20. Science and Technology Review, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Upadhye, R.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The feature articles are `Taking Lasers beyond the National Ignition Facility` and `Jumpin` Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen`. The first article describes the ultimate goal of laser fusion as the production of electricity by inertial confinement fusion. Advances in diode-laser technology promise to take another step closer to that goal. The latter article discusses a Laboratory team`s efforts to provide evidence for the metallization of hydrogen based on the team`s expertise in shock compression. A commentary on `The Next Frontiers of Advanced Lasers Research is provided, and a research highlight is given on `Modeling Human Joints and Prosthetic Implants.

  1. Science Books, A Quarterly Review, Volume 8 Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This quarterly journal reviews trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences for students in the elementary schools, in secondary school and in the first two years of college. Included are selected advanced and professional books useful for reference by students and faculty members. Annotations are listed in order of…

  2. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…

  3. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action.

  4. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  5. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  6. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  7. Calibrated peer review assignments for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J.A.; Wang, V.Z.; Cervato, C.; Ridky, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review ??? (CPR), a web-based instructional tool developed as part of the National Science Foundation reform initiatives in undergraduate science education, allows instructors to incorporate multiple writing assignments in large courses without overwhelming the instructor. This study reports successful implementation of CPR in a large, introductory geology course and student learning of geoscience content. For each CPR assignment in this study, students studied web-based and paper resources, wrote an essay, and reviewed seven essays (three from the instructor, three from peers, and their own) on the topic. Although many students expressed negative attitudes and concerns, particularly about the peer review process of this innovative instructional approach, they also recognized the learning potential of completing CPR assignments. Comparing instruction on earthquakes and plate boundaries using a CPR assignment vs. an instructional video lecture and homework essay with extensive instructor feedback, students mastered more content via CPR instruction.

  8. Science and Technology Review October/November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-25

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. This is the October/November 2011 issue, with the cover story being "Proton Therapy Advances Cancer Treatment."

  9. 75 FR 16491 - Science and Technology Directorate; Submission for Review; Information Collection Request for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY Science and Technology Directorate; Submission for Review; Information Collection Request for the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate First Responders Community of Practice AGENCY: Science and Technology Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice and request for comment....

  10. Cognitive apprenticeship in health sciences education: a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kayley; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Khanova, Julia; Roth, Mary T

    2016-08-20

    Cognitive apprenticeship theory emphasizes the process of making expert thinking "visible" to students and fostering the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes required for expertise. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the use of cognitive apprenticeship theory with the primary aim of understanding how and to what extent the theory has been applied to the design, implementation, and analysis of education in the health sciences. The initial search yielded 149 articles, with 45 excluded because they contained the term "cognitive apprenticeship" only in reference list. The remaining 104 articles were categorized using a theory talk coding scheme. An in depth qualitative synthesis and review was conducted for the 26 articles falling into the major theory talk category. Application of cognitive apprenticeship theory tended to focus on the methods dimension (e.g., coaching, mentoring, scaffolding), with some consideration for the content and sociology dimensions. Cognitive apprenticeship was applied in various disciplines (e.g., nursing, medicine, veterinary) and educational settings (e.g., clinical, simulations, online). Health sciences education researchers often used cognitive apprenticeship to inform instructional design and instrument development. Major recommendations from the literature included consideration for contextual influences, providing faculty development, and expanding application of the theory to improve instructional design and student outcomes. This body of research provides critical insight into cognitive apprenticeship theory and extends our understanding of how to develop expert thinking in health sciences students. New research directions should apply the theory into additional aspects of health sciences educational research, such as classroom learning and interprofessional education.

  11. Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V.; Gonzalez-Curbelo, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, Javier, E-mail: jhborges@ull.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Rodriguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs in Separation Science in the period 2009-2011 is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as stationary phases in LC, CE and GC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as pseudostationary phases in EKC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as sorbents in SPE and SPME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other uses of CNTs in separation science, as LDI substrates or in membranes. - Abstract: Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009-2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.

  12. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-04-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from the year 2000 onward. Major findings include that most of the studies focused on designing systems for mobile learning, followed by a combination of evaluating the effects of mobile learning and investigating the affective domain during mobile learning. The majority of the studies were conducted in the area of life sciences in informal, elementary (5-11 years) settings. Mobile devices were used in this strand of science easily within informal environments with real-world connections. A variety of research methods were employed, providing a rich research perspective. As the use of mobile learning continues to grow, further research regarding the use of mobile technologies in all areas and levels of science learning will help science educators to expand their ability to embrace these technologies.

  13. A Review of Relationship between Prospective Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Science Education and Their Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türer, Betül; Kunt, Halil

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we aim to review relationship between prospective science teachers' attitudes against science education (physics, chemistry, biology, laboratory) and their self-efficacy. Population of the research constitutes 497 students studying Science Education in Department of Elementary Education in Celal Bayar University Faculty of…

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  15. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  16. Science and Technology Review April/May 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-03-03

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the focus is on science and technology research to ensure the nation's security. That expertise is also applied to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight time a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for April/May 2011, the features are 'Dealing with the Nonlinear Battlefield' and 'From Video to Knowledge.' Research highlights are 'Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency,' Going Deep with MEGa-Rays' and 'Energy on Demand.'

  17. Science Mapping: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaomei Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present a systematic review of the literature concerning major aspects of science mapping to serve two primary purposes: First, to demonstrate the use of a science mapping approach to perform the review so that researchers may apply the procedure to the review of a scientific domain of their own interest, and second, to identify major areas of research activities concerning science mapping, intellectual milestones in the development of key specialties, evolutionary stages of major specialties involved, and the dynamics of transitions from one specialty to another. Design/methodology/approach: We first introduce a theoretical framework of the evolution of a scientific specialty. Then we demonstrate a generic search strategy that can be used to construct a representative dataset of bibliographic records of a domain of research. Next, progressively synthesized co-citation networks are constructed and visualized to aid visual analytic studies of the domain’s structural and dynamic patterns and trends. Finally, trajectories of citations made by particular types of authors and articles are presented to illustrate the predictive potential of the analytic approach. Findings: The evolution of the science mapping research involves the development of a number of interrelated specialties. Four major specialties are discussed in detail in terms of four evolutionary stages: conceptualization, tool construction, application, and codification. Underlying connections between major specialties are also explored. The predictive analysis demonstrates citations trajectories of potentially transformative contributions. Research limitations: The systematic review is primarily guided by citation patterns in the dataset retrieved from the literature. The scope of the data is limited by the source of the retrieval, i.e. the Web of Science, and the composite query used. An iterative query refinement is possible if one would like to improve the data quality

  18. Book Review: Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kanellis, P., Kiountouzis, E., Kolokotronis, N., & Martakos, D. (2006. Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 357 pages, ISBN: 1-59140-873-3 (paper, US$79.95.Reviewed by Gary C. KesslerThis book, according to the preface, "is intended for those who are interested in a critical overview of what forensic science is, care about privacy issues, and wish to know what constitutes evidence for computer crime." It goes on to say that the specific audiences for which it was written are students in academia and professionals in the industry.If used carefully, this book does a good job at providing a snapshot of some of the current issues in digital forensics, although perhaps best aimed at information security professionals. It is a collection of 15 chapters written by authors from Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, South Africa, the U.K., and the U.S. The international flavor of the writing is also welcome in the field.(see PDF for full review

  19. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing.

  20. On the evolving open peer review culture for chemical information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.

  1. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the

  2. A review of astronomical science with visible light adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Laird M.

    2016-07-01

    We review astronomical results in the visible (λRobo-AO system (Baranec, et al. 2016) on the robotic Palomar D=1.5 m telescope (currently relocated to the Kitt Peak 1.8m; Salama et al. 2016). Robo-AO uniquely offers the ability to target >15 objects/hr, which has enabled large (>3000 discrete targets) companion star surveys and has resulted in 23 refereed science publications. The most productive large telescope visible AO system is the D=6.5m Magellan telescope AO system (MagAO). MagAO is an advanced Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) AO system at the Magellan 6.5m in Chile (Morzinski et al. 2016). This ASM secondary has 585 actuators with 10m) diameter telescopes in the infrared.

  3. Science and Technology Review July/August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.

    2002-07-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Integration is Key to Understanding Climate Change; (2) The Outlook is for Warming, with Measurable Local Effects--Livermore climate models are zeroing in on the effects of human activities on global climate, representing them in simulations with the finest resolution ever; (2) How Metals Fail--experiments are guiding the development of codes that predict how metals react to high explosives; (4) Converting Data to Decisions--a new statistical method executed on supercomputers is bridging the gap between complex data and usable information; (5) Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat--The Laboratory's charter to counter the nuclear threat has evolved over the years and now includes intelligence analysis and technology to understand and counter biological and chemical threats.

  4. A Review of Empirical Evidence on Scaffolding for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Changlai, Maio-Li; Yang, Kun-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis of articles in the Social Science Citation Index journals from 1995 to 2009 was conducted to provide science educators with empirical evidence regarding the effects of scaffolding on science learning. It clarifies the definition, design, and implementation of scaffolding in science classrooms and research studies. The results…

  5. Science and culture in mid-Victorian Britain: the reviews, and William Crookes' Quarterly Journal of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D

    1996-01-01

    Charles Darwin's Origin of Species was published in 1859, and we are often disposed to see it as marking an epoch in the struggle between religion and science. Recent analyses especially of the part played by T. H. Huxley, 'Darwin's bulldog', emphasise instead (or as well) Huxley's aim to exclude affable 'gentlemen of science' from what was becoming a profession for experts. Evidence from the Reviews of the period show that science accounted for some 10% of the articles; but also that demand for this very general literature was falling, as science and humanities indeed grew apart into what C.P. Snow later called 'two cultures'.

  6. Starting Young? Links between Childhood and Adult Participation in Culture and Science: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Elsley, Susan; McMellon, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This literature review considers the links between childhood and adult participation in cultural activities, including participation in science events. This includes attendance as members of an audience and participation in arts and cultural activities and as visitors at science attractions such as museums and science centres.

  7. Review of the National Defense Intelligence College's Master's Degree in Science and Technology Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) was asked by the National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) to convene a committee to review the curriculum and syllabi for their proposed master of science degree in science and technology intelligence. The NRC was asked to review the material provided by the NDIC and offer advice and recommendations…

  8. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  9. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  10. Consciousness CLEARS the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A full understanding of consciousness requires that we identify the brain processes from which conscious experiences emerge. What are these processes, and what is their utility in supporting successful adaptive behaviors? Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) predicted a functional link between processes of Consciousness, Learning, Expectation, Attention, Resonance and Synchrony (CLEARS), including the prediction that "all conscious states are resonant states". This connection clarifies how brain dynamics enable a behaving individual to autonomously adapt in real time to a rapidly changing world. The present article reviews theoretical considerations that predicted these functional links, how they work, and some of the rapidly growing body of behavioral and brain data that have provided support for these predictions. The article also summarizes ART models that predict functional roles for identified cells in laminar thalamocortical circuits, including the six layered neocortical circuits and their interactions with specific primary and higher-order specific thalamic nuclei and nonspecific nuclei. These predictions include explanations of how slow perceptual learning can occur without conscious awareness, and why oscillation frequencies in the lower layers of neocortex are sometimes slower beta oscillations, rather than the higher-frequency gamma oscillations that occur more frequently in superficial cortical layers. ART traces these properties to the existence of intracortical feedback loops, and to reset mechanisms whereby thalamocortical mismatches use circuits such as the one from specific thalamic nuclei to nonspecific thalamic nuclei and then to layer 4 of neocortical areas via layers 1-to-5-to-6-to-4.

  11. The 26th AFOSR chemical and atmospheric sciences program review FY81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, W. G.; Myers, L. E.; Stallings, S. A.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of research efforts sponsored by the Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences which have completed their period of support. Illustrated accounts resulting from the basic research programs in the Atmospheric and Chemical Sciences are highlighted. The Atmospheric Sciences is concerned with meteorology and upper atmospheric structure and dynamics. The meteorology focuses on mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and atmospheric dynamics. The Chemical Sciences deal with Chemical Techniques, Chemical Structures, Surface Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics, and Synthesis and properties of Materials.

  12. A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.

  13. Physical and Virtual Laboratories in Science and Engineering Education: review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Linn, Marcia C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

    2013-01-01

    The world needs young people who are skillful in and enthusiastic about science and who view science as their future career field. Ensuring that we will have such young people requires initiatives that engage students in interesting and motivating science experiences. Today, students can investigate

  14. Science Books, A Quarterly Review, Volume 8 Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This quarterly publication is intended to acquaint students and teachers with new trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences. A listing of detailed subject fields is provided including psychology, sociology, economics, education, physical sciences, natural sciences, engineering, agriculture, geography and…

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 1, 2012, the draft Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House ...

  17. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  18. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000-2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An…

  19. Good science, deceptive science, and fraud, plus a brief discussion of peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2011-03-01

    What makes scientific publication different from other types of publication? Traditionally, it was that scientists published not only their conclusions, but also their data (which enabled others wanting to re-evaluate the data to do so). Publishing their data helped keep scientists honest. In the mid-20th century the policies of scientific journals changed, partly because very large data sets were being evaluated via computer. Many (but not all) scientific journals paid homage to scientific tradition by establishing archives for data serving as the basis for published scientific papers, while only a description of the study and the conclusions were published in the peer-reviewed scientific journals. This set the stage for scientific deception and scientific fraud, which became widespread in certain fields of study during the latter part of the 20th century. Indeed, some organizations were established that appeared to be legitimate scientific societies, but in fact existed for the purpose of promoting the incorrect evaluation of scientific data and publishing deceptive studies masquerading as sound scientific studies. The field of medicine has also become more science than art, with its current emphasis on ``evidence-based medicine.'' The different types of scientific deceit/fraud are identified, and a lifetime of experience with the correction of scientific error, plus encounters with scientific deception and scientific fraud, is summarized.

  20. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez-Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a histo

  1. [Book review] The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher, by Lewis Thomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Review of: The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Series. Lewis Thomas. Penguin Books, 1995. Pennsylvania State University. 270 pp. ISBN: 0140243275, 9780140243277.

  2. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  3. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and…

  4. Complementary Social Sciences Courses in the Alberta High School Curriculum: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszenski, Donna; Smits, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with Alberta Education's goals and responsibilities to develop and evaluate curriculum and to set standards and assess outcomes, the Ministry is reviewing the status and purpose of social sciences courses as part of the high school curriculum. The present social sciences curriculum was revised in 1985. As part of the social sciences…

  5. 77 FR 17463 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2011-13 System Clearance SUMMARY: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is..., such as mathematics, reading, writing, science, U.S. history, civics, geography, economics, and...

  6. 77 FR 58111 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; FAFSA Completion Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; FAFSA Completion Project Evaluation SUMMARY: The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) at the U.S. Department of Education (ED) is conducting... project will provide 80 Local Educational Agencies or school districts with access to data on...

  7. A Review of Walden University's Online MSED Science (K-8) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadevaia, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This review is based on the experience of an adjunct professor teaching in the Walden University online MSED Science (K-8) program. The program described by Walden University and the actual implementation of the science component of the program as experienced by the Professor will be presented. The program, while a noble attempt at a completely…

  8. 75 FR 69078 - Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) AGENCY... a workshop to evaluate initial draft materials for the Pb Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) is... the scientific content of initial draft materials or sections for the draft ISA. Workshop...

  9. Reviewing on the Development of Forestry Sciences and Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This essay reviews and sums up about the major achievement of forestry sciences-and technology in the past 50 years in China, from 8 fields including hereditary breeding of forest, silviculture, forest ecology, forest management, forest protection, combating desertification, wood sciences and technology, and forestry chemistry and technology.

  10. Computation Directorate and Science& Technology Review Computational Science and Research Featured in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchorn, A L

    2003-04-04

    Thank you for your interest in the activities of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Computation Directorate. This collection of articles from the Laboratory's Science & Technology Review highlights the most significant computational projects, achievements, and contributions during 2002. In 2002, LLNL marked the 50th anniversary of its founding. Scientific advancement in support of our national security mission has always been the core of the Laboratory. So that researchers could better under and predict complex physical phenomena, the Laboratory has pushed the limits of the largest, fastest, most powerful computers in the world. In the late 1950's, Edward Teller--one of the LLNL founders--proposed that the Laboratory commission a Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC) built to Livermore's specifications. He tells the story of being in Washington, DC, when John Von Neumann asked to talk about the LARC. He thought Teller wanted too much memory in the machine. (The specifications called for 20-30,000 words.) Teller was too smart to argue with him. Later Teller invited Von Neumann to the Laboratory and showed him one of the design codes being prepared for the LARC. He asked Von Neumann for suggestions on fitting the code into 10,000 words of memory, and flattered him about ''Labbies'' not being smart enough to figure it out. Von Neumann dropped his objections, and the LARC arrived with 30,000 words of memory. Memory, and how close memory is to the processor, is still of interest to us today. Livermore's first supercomputer was the Remington-Rand Univac-1. It had 5600 vacuum tubes and was 2 meters wide by 4 meters long. This machine was commonly referred to as a 1 KFlop machine [E+3]. Skip ahead 50 years. The ASCI White machine at the Laboratory today, produced by IBM, is rated at a peak performance of 12.3 TFlops or E+13. We've improved computer processing power by 10 orders of magnitude in 50 years, and I do

  11. BOOK REVIEW: The Expertise and Deployment of Science Teachers at Key Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-03-01

    - of particular interest to readers of this journal - how do physics teachers fit into all this? Donnelly and Jenkins sent out questionnaires to 500 secondary schools in England and Wales, most of them comprehensive schools, and about 50% replied. About a third of the science taught at Key Stage 4 is physics (of course), but only 17% of the teachers had physics degrees. At Key Stage 3 most physics (60%) is taught as part of a `cross-disciplinary' science course, but in the pre-GCSE years of Key Stage 4 most physics (56%) is taught as a specialism. At KS4 this is most commonly within a dual-award `coordinated science' GCSE, but it is interesting to find that so many schools, contrary to received opinion, try to keep the subjects clearly separate at this stage. In this brief review it is not possible to summarize the wealth of useful detail the booklet contains. Here are just a few highlights. For teacher training: nearly all initial teacher training in science assumes that their students will need to be flexible science teachers, covering the three main sciences. But most schools do their best to ensure that teachers teach within their specialisms; even at KS3 a third of physics teachers do so. It is suggested that then training should better match the needs of schools. Recruitment of physicists to teaching: over four-fifths of those teaching physics at KS4 do not have an academic (degree) qualification in physics. Although this does not mean that 80% of physics is taught by non-physicists, it does mean that IoP Education initiatives (and this journal, come to think of it) might do more to help these non-physicists who teach physics. Teachers' Views. A particularly interesting section of the booklet deals with what teachers think about the match between their training and their teaching loads. About a fifth were quite happy with how their backgrounds helped them teach - and another fifth were disappointed. The rest, presumably, soldiered on as usual. Some comments: An

  12. The systematic review team: contributions of the health sciences librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L

    2011-01-01

    While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.

  13. Safeguarding the integrity of science communication by restraining 'rational cheating' in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroga, Edward F

    2014-11-01

    Peer review is the pillar of the integrity of science communication. It is often beset with flaws as well as accusations of unreliability and lack of predictive validity. 'Rational cheating' by reviewers is a threat to the validity of peer review. It may diminish the value of good papers by unfavourable appraisals of the reviewers whose own works have lower scientific merits. This article analyzes the mechanics and defects of peer review and focuses on rational cheating in peer review, its implications, and options to restrain it.

  14. Progress in Earthquake Science and Technology in China: Review and Prospects (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhangli

    2001-01-01

    In the article the author looks back the hard development course and great progress in earth quake science and technology in China during the last near a half of century and expounds the following 3 aspects: (1) The strong desire of the whole society to mitigate seismic disasters and reduce the effect of earthquakes on social-economic live is a great driving force to push forward the development of earthquake science and technology in China; (2) To better ensure people' s life and property, sustainable economic development, and social stability is an essential purpose to drive the development of earthquake science and technology in China; and (3) To insist on the dialectical connection of setup of technical system for seismic monitoring with the scientific research of earthquakes and to better handle the relation between crucial task, current scientif ic level, and the feasibility are the important principles to advance the earthquake science and technology in China. Some success and many setbacks in earthquake disaster mitigation consistently enrich our knowledge regarding the complexity of the conditions for earthquake occurrence and the process of earthquake preparation, promote the reconstruction and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring, and deepen the scientific research of earthquakes. During the last 5 years, the improvement and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring have clearly provided the technical support to study and practice of earthquake prediction and pre caution, give prominence to key problems and broaden the field of scientific research of earth quakes. These have enabled us to get some new recognition of the conditions for earthquake oc currence and process of earthquake preparation, characteristics of seismic disaster, and mecha nism for earthquake generation in China's continent. The progress we have made not only en courages us to enhance the effectiveness of earthquake disaster mitigation, but also

  15. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  16. Popular Science Journalism: Facilitating Learning through Peer Review and Communication of Science News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, Holly; Temesvari, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    In a multisemester Popular Science Journalism course that met for 2 hours once a week at Clemson University, students produced science news articles for the university newspaper by using primary literature, the internet, and interviews with researchers. Short lectures were given on topic choice, story development, literature surveys, common…

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  18. Interactive Learning through Web-Mediated Peer Review of Student Science Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies analyzed impacts of writing and receiving web-mediated peer reviews on revision of research reports by undergraduate science students. After conducting toxicology experiments, 77 students posted draft reports and exchanged double-blind reviews. The first study randomly assigned students to four groups representing full, partial, or no…

  19. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  20. Science and technology review, July-August 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, S&TR has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  1. Clear cell carcinoma derived from an endometriosis focus in a scar after a caesarean section--a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosz, Zuzanna; Paleń, Piotr; Stojko, Rafał; Właszczuk, Paweł; Niesłuchowska-Hoxha, Anna; Piechuta-Kośmider, Ilona

    2014-10-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the occurrence of endometrial glands and endometrial stromal cells outside their typical localization within the uterus. Malignant transformation of endometriosis foci in a scar after a caesarean section (cc) is very rare--until 2013 (in a span of 40 years), about 40 such cases have been described. In our article, we describe a case of a 42-year-old woman with a tumour localized in a scar after a caesarean section. The tumour was diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma derived from an endometriosis focus. The long time interval--17 years in average (from 3 to 39 years) between the surgery (cesarean section in most cases) and the tumor diagnosis is characteristic. In the case we describe, the patient was diagnosed 16 years after the endometriosis focus in the scar had arised. Even though endometriosis is a benign lesion, it has many features distinctive for invasive carcinoma; it may itself undergo a malignant transformation as well as increase the risk of endometrial carcinoma or clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Maybe in future, more exhaustive studies will allow establishing a therapeutic protocol in patients with extra-ovarian malignant transformation of endometriosis foci.

  2. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Document Server

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  3. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  4. Book Review "Cambridge handbook of experimental political science"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Experimentation has formed the basis for modern scientific discovery. Francis Bacon (1561– 1626), “the father of empiricism,” was one of the first to propose a method of science based on experimentation that results in new theories that can again be tested by experimentation. At first, experiments s

  5. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  6. Students’ acceptance of peer review in Computer Science course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kubincová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer review technique used in educational context could be beneficial for students from several points of view. Besides of developing students’ writing skills, critical thinking, practising articulation of own knowledge to the others and giving them feedback, it can encourage collaborative learning and boost the students’ interest in the course. In our web design course we successfully introduced peer review activities more than 2 years ago. In this paper we discuss the students’ acceptance of peer review applied on evaluation of other students’ projects.

  7. Crystal Clear Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jody H.; Lockhart, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Great science activities don't just happen; they are orchestrated by highly skilled teachers who are creative, caring, and innovative. Effective classroom teachers possess a deep understanding of the developmental characteristics of their students and are adept at translating this understanding into opportunities for individual students to…

  8. Do Cochrane reviews provide a good model for social science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Merete; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Formalised research synthesis to underpin evidence-based policy and practice has become increasingly important in areas of public policy. In this paper we discuss whether the Cochrane standard for systematic reviews of healthcare interventions is appropriate for social research. We examine...... the formal criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration for including particular study designs and search the Cochrane Library to provide quantitative evidence on the de facto standard of actual Cochrane reviews. By identifying the sample of Cochrane reviews that consider observational designs, we are able...... to conclude that the majority of reviews appears limited to considering randomised controlled trials only. Because recent studies have delineated conditions for observational studies in social research to produce valid evidence, we argue that an inclusive approach is essential for truly evidence-based policy...

  9. Problems with traditional science publishing and finding a wider niche for post-publication peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific

  10. Science and Technology Review July/August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H B

    2006-05-25

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Experiments at the Scale of Simulations--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A New Realm of Materials Science--Livermore scientists are combining experiment, theory, and simulation to study the response of solids to extreme dynamic stresses at nanometer and subnanosecond scales; (3) Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass--An international collaboration involving Laboratory scientists has discovered a planet made of rock or ice orbiting a dim star outside our solar system; and (4) Keeping an Eye on the Prize--A Livermore-IBM team uses a new code and the world's fastest computer to set a performance record for a science application.

  11. Science and Technology Review January/February 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blobaum, K J

    2010-11-22

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) World's Most Intense X-Ray Laser Focuses on Livermore Science - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Groundbreaking Science with the World's Brightest X Rays - Experiments with x rays of unparalleled brightness and extremely short duration aim to reveal new information about atoms and molecules in motion; (3) From Data to Discovery - Ongoing control system enhancements at the National Ignition Facility bolster the understanding of experimental data and keep the system performing at its peak; (4) The Sun in All Its Splendor - Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Livermore-developed multilayer mirrors are enabling unprecedented full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun; and (5) Drilling Deep into Plant Veins - A novel combination of imaging techniques is being used to understand the three-dimensional architecture of plant cell walls.

  12. Science and Technology Review January/February 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-12-20

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Dawn of a New Era of Scientific Discovery - Commentary by Edward I. Moses; (2) At the Frontiers of Fundamental Science Research - Collaborators from national laboratories, universities, and international organizations are using the National Ignition Facility to probe key fundamental science questions; (3) Livermore Responds to Crisis in Post-Earthquake Japan - More than 70 Laboratory scientists provided round-the-clock expertise in radionuclide analysis and atmospheric dispersion modeling as part of the nation's support to Japan following the March 2011 earthquake and nuclear accident; (4) A Comprehensive Resource for Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments - A new Web-based resource called MIDAS is a central repository for material properties, experimental data, and computer models; and (5) Finding Data Needles in Gigabit Haystacks - Livermore computer scientists have developed a novel computer architecture based on 'persistent' memory to ease data-intensive computations.

  13. The Miracle of Peer Review and Development in Science: An Agent-Based Model

    CERN Document Server

    Righi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    It is not easy to rationalize how peer review, as the current grassroots of science, can work based on voluntary contributions of reviewers. There is no rationale to write impartial and thorough evaluations. Consequently, there is no risk in submitting low-quality work by authors. As a result, scientists face a social dilemma: if everyone acts according to his or her own self-interest, low scientific quality is produced. Still, in practice, reviewers as well as authors invest high effort in reviews and submissions. We examine how the increased relevance of public good benefits (journal impact factor), the editorial policy of handling incoming reviews, and the acceptance decisions that take into account reputational information can help the evolution of high-quality contributions from authors. High effort from the side of reviewers is problematic even if authors cooperate: reviewers are still best off by producing low-quality reviews, which does not hinder scientific development, just adds random noise and unn...

  14. Bridging views in cinema: a review of the art and science of view integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel T; Baker, Lewis J

    2017-03-06

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience. We review research exploring naturalistic forms of visual perception and cognition that have opened the door to a productive convergence between the dynamic visual art of cinema and science of visual cognition that can enrich both. In particular, we discuss how parallel understandings of view integration in cinema and in cognitive science have been converging to support a new understanding of meaningful visual experience. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. Clearing the Big Smog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing is trying to clean up its sky with a new standard for vehicle emissions From March 1,Beijing has imple- mented a new stricter vehicle emission standard that could lead to cleaner air,but also force thousands of cars off the road. StandardⅣ,the latest in a series of measures aimed at clearing the per- sistent smog,will match the current standard of the European Union. All the new light petro vehicles that are on sale in the Beijing market shall

  16. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference.

  17. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Cherpitel; Joel Swendsen; Lucie Pennel; Maurice Dematteis; Françoise Carpentier; Georges Brousse; Laurent Bègue; Oulmann Zerhouni

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER) and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Col...

  18. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  19. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  20. Review of the Fusion Theory and Computing Program. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, Thomas M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Berry, Lee A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Michael R. [Swarthmore College, PA (United States); Dahlburg, Jill P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McCurdy, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Newman, David E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pellegrini, Claudio [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Phillips, Cynthia K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Post, Douglass E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sheffield, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simonen, Thomas C. [Munising, MI (United States); Van Dam, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2001-08-01

    At the November 14-15, 2000, meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, a Panel was set up to address questions about the Theory and Computing program, posed in a charge from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (see Appendix A). This area was of theory and computing/simulations had been considered in the FESAC Knoxville meeting of 1999 and in the deliberations of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) in 2000. A National Research Council committee provided a detailed review of the scientific quality of the fusion energy sciences program, including theory and computing, in 2000.

  1. Review and expectation of integrated curriculum of basic medical sciences of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yin NIU; Song YU; Xiao-kui GUO

    2015-01-01

    Since early 1950 s,many domestic and foreign medical schools have carried out the integrated teaching reform of medical education. In our school of basic medical sciences,there have been three types of integrated curriculum reform carried out in history,i. e. horizontally integrated courses,problem-oriented basic medical sciences curriculum, and organ system-based integrated curriculum. This article reviews the experience of these three teaching reforms and the problems encountered and hopes to provide some references for the integration of basic medical sciences curriculum of other medical schools.

  2. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  3. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients on prior intraocular pressure-lowering therapy: the Canadian Lumigan® RC Early Analysis Review (CLEAR trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew C Crichton,1 Donald R Nixon,2 Susan Simonyi,3 Meetu Bhogal,3 Christopher S Sigouin,4 Marino J Discepola,5 Cindy ML Hutnik,6 Darryl C Baptiste,3 David B Yan7 On behalf of the CLEAR Study Group 1Division of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Private practice, Barrie, ON, Canada; 3Medical Affairs, Allergan Inc., Markham, ON, Canada; 4CLINWest Research, Burlington, ON, Canada; 5Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology, Ivey Eye Institute, London, ON, Canada; 7Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: To evaluate the ocular hyperemia and intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost 0.01% in subjects with elevated IOP due to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT in a real-world clinical setting. Subjects and methods: This open-label, 12-week, observational study was conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline, week 6, and week 12 using a standardized photographic 5-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes the subgroup of 268 subjects who had been previously treated with latanoprost 0.005%, bimatoprost 0.03%, travoprost 0.004%, and travoprost 0.004% with SofZia™ or nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blockers prior to the study. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment with 0.01% bimatoprost, ocular hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild hyperemia (grades 0, +0.5, or +1 for 94.1% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe hyperemia (grades +2 or +3 for 5.9%. No statistically significant shifts in ocular hyperemia ratings were observed at week 12 for any of the prior IOP-lowering therapies except bimatoprost 0.03%, in which 20.8% of subjects experienced an

  4. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  5. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Counce, Deborah M [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Horak, Charlie M [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron

  6. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  7. Review: Catherine Kohler Riessman (2008. Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lyle Duque

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Narrative inquiry is increasingly being used across disciplines in the human sciences to investigate a multitude of questions. In this review, RIESSMAN's book on narrative methods is discussed. The review focuses on how she situates narrative tradition within the broader landscape of qualitative research and her presentation of a typology of analytic methods in narrative inquiry. It will discuss her perspectives on data construction and the issue of validity in narrative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001193

  8. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    . Understandability of the data sets: 13 major formats were found, but the major issues encountered were due to incomplete documentation or metadata and problems with decoding binary formats. Ideally, open data sets should be represented in well-known formats and they should be accompanied with sufficient documentation so the data set can be understood. The development efforts on Water ML and NETCDF and other standards could improve understandability of data sets over time but in this review, only a few data sets were provided in these formats. Instead, the majority of datasets were stored in various text-based or binary formats or even document-oriented formats such as PDF. Other disciplines such as meteorology have long-standing traditions of operational data exchange format whereas hydrology research is still quite fragmented and the data exchange is usually done on a case-by-case basis. With the increased sharing of open data there is a good chance the situation will improve for data sets used also in water sciences. License issue: Only 3% of the data is completely free to use, while 57% can be used for non-commercial purposes or research. A high number of datasets did not have a clear statement on terms of use and limitation for access. In most cases the provider could be contacted regarding licensing issues.

  9. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Counce, Deborah M [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Horak, Charlie M [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron

  10. Social Science Energy Review: a quarterly publication. Vol. 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, L C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The Yale University Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences brings together an interdisciplinary group of Yale and visiting faculty, ISPS staff, and Yale graduate students meeting weekly to discuss topics in energy and the social sciences and to study and evaluate the importance for social policy of existing and potential social science energy research projects. The primary purposes of the project are: (1) to encourage timely social science investigations into important energy-related social issues, (2) to explore the present and potential roles for academic social science research in energy decision-making, and (3) to advise DOE and other government personnel in the planning of social science energy research. In addition to an overview of the Mapping Project, this report contains the following: (1) Social Science Research on ''The Energy Boomtown,'' by Leroy C. Gould--contains literature survey (66 references) and conveys Mapping Project's suggestions as to priorities on future social science research on ''energy boomtowns.'' (2) Men and Coal in Appalachia: a Survey of the Academic Literature, by Peter B. Allison (bibliography cites 7 journals, 3 government documents, and 70 books and articles). (3) Energy Research in Psychology, by John Sweeney (reprint of review of current status of energy research in psychology that appeared in December, 1977 issue of APA Monitor under the title, ''Boosting Energy Research'').

  11. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  12. A systematic review of factors linked to poor academic performance of disadvantaged students in science and maths in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Amitava Banerjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic hardships put children in an underprivileged position. This systematic review was conducted to identify factors linked to underachievement of disadvantaged pupils in school science and maths. What could be done as evidence-based practice to make the lives of these young people better? The protocol from preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA was followed. Major electronic educational databases were searched. Papers meeting pre-defined selection criteria were identified. Studies included were mainly large-scale evaluations with a clearly defined comparator group and robust research design. All studies used a measure of disadvantage such as lower SES, language barrier, ethnic minority or temporary immigrant status and an outcome measure like attainment in standardised national tests. A majority of papers capable of answering the research question were correlational studies. The review reports findings from 771 studies published from 2005 to 2014 in English language. Thirty-four studies were synthesised. Results suggest major factors linking deprivation to underachievement can be thematically categorised into a lack of positive environment and support. Recommendations from the research reports are discussed.

  13. Optical metrology at the Optical Sciences Center: an historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine; Parks, Robert E.

    2014-10-01

    The Optical Sciences Center (OSC) begun as a graduate-level applied optics teaching institution to support the US space effort. The making of optics representative of those used in other space programs was deemed essential. This led to the need for optical metrology: at first Hartmann tests, but almost immediately to interferometric tests using the newly invented HeNe laser. Not only were new types of interferometers needed, but the whole infrastructure that went with testing, fringe location methods, aberration removal software and contour map generation to aid the opticians during polishing needed to be developed. Over the last half century more rapid and precise methods of interferogram data reduction, surface roughness measurement, and methods of instrument calibration to separate errors from those in the optic have been pioneered at OSC. Other areas of research included null lens design and the writing of lens design software that led into the design of computer generated holograms for asphere testing. More recently work has been done on the reduction of speckle noise in interferograms, methods to test large convex aspheres, and a return to slope measuring tests to increase the dynamic range of the types of aspheric surfaces amenable to optical testing including free-form surfaces. This paper documents the history of the development of optical testing projects at OSC and highlights the contributions some of the individuals associated with new methods of testing and the infrastructure needed to support the testing. We conclude with comments about the future trends optical metrology.

  14. STAPHYLOKINASE: A BOON IN MEDICAL SCIENCESREVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRS SAMBASIVA RAO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year most of the deaths were leaded by cardio and cerebrovascular disorders around the globe. The use of first or second generation thrombolytics may rise several side effects like bleeding in biological system at the time of treatment. New generation thrombolytics plays an important role in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders which leads to the death. An ideal fibrin specific plasminogen activator, staphylokinase converts a precursor, plasminogen to active enzyme, plasmin to dissolve the blood clot during thrombolytic therapy and it also capable to destroy the normal components of haemostatic system which leads to life threatening consequence and also death. Out of four different thrombolytics which are available in market like alteplase, reteplase, streptokinase and tenecteplase, streptokinase was widely used drug because of its low cost. But, to overcome the hurdles like bleeding and reocculsion efforts have been made to construct the more potent staphylokinase devoid of risk. In this review, progressive development on staphylokinase has been discussed.

  15. Science education as a pathway to teaching language literacy: a critical book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, Science Education as a Pathway to Teaching Language Literacy, edited by Alberto J. Rodriguez. This volume is a timely collection of essays in which the authors bring to attention both the successes and challenges of integrating science instruction with literacy instruction (and vice versa). Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central unifying issue throughout all of the chapters is the task of designing instruction which (1) gives students access to the dominant Discourses in science and literacy, (2) builds on students' lived experiences, and (3) connects new material to socially and culturally relevant contexts in both science and literacy instruction— all within the high stakes testing realities of teachers and students in public schools. In this review, I illustrate how the authors of these essays effectively address this formidable challenge through research that `ascends to the concrete'. I also discuss where we could build on the work of the authors to integrate literacy and science instruction with the purpose of `humanizing and democratizing' science education in K-12 classrooms.

  16. A bibliographic review of medicine and science research in dancesport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Teri R; Wyon, Matthew; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Redding, Emma

    2013-06-01

    DanceSport is the competitive form of ballroom dancing, and even though it has more participants worldwide than ballet and modern dance, there is less peer-reviewed research. A review was conducted to identify all relevant literature to help researchers and clinicians gain an enhanced understanding of dancesport. Eight databases were searched, with 34 articles found in topics including participation motives, psychology, exercise physiology, fitness training, injuries and injury prevention, biomechanics, menstrual dysfunction, and substance use. Our results indicate that researchers have been inconsistently recording and reporting anthropometric and dancesport data; for example, 31 studies separated participants by gender, 21 included the competition classification of dancers, 19 reported which style of dancesport participants competed in, and 13 described the participants as a dance couple. Common injuries affected the neck, shoulder, spine, knee, lower leg, and foot. Dancesport is in the very heavy to extremely heavy category in energy expenditure (mean heart rate: male 175.2 ± 10.7, female 178.6 ± 8.6 bpm) and utilizes both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Alpha-beta and heart rate variability intervention techniques are reported to successfully enhance performance in dancers. Dancesport participants also appear less likely to smoke cigarettes, but have little knowledge about anti-doping rules. During events, professionals danced farther (30 m) and faster (0.3 m/sec) than junior dancers. Female competitors were more likely to be eumenorrheic. Dancesport is a physically and mentally demanding competitive sport, but there is a need to standardize measurements in future studies to allow comparison.

  17. 77 FR 17462 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Quick Response Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Quick Response Information System... Response Information System (QRIS) consists of the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) and the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS). The QRIS currently conducts surveys under OMB generic...

  18. 77 FR 51788 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Education Longitudinal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Education Longitudinal Study 2002... Study (ELS:2002 FAFS) SUMMARY: The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) is a...

  19. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of\\ud feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  20. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  1. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  2. Population physical activity behaviour change : A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  3. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  4. Information Processing: A Review of Implications of Johnstone's Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Botton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current review is concerned with an information processing model used in science education. The purpose is to summarise the current theoretical understanding, in published research, of a number of factors that are known to influence learning and achievement. These include field independence, working memory, long-term memory, and the use of…

  5. Statistical Techniques Utilized in Analyzing PISA and TIMSS Data in Science Education from 1996 to 2013: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Hung, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a methodological review of articles using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) or Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data published by the SSCI-indexed science education journals, such as the "International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education," the "International…

  6. Implementing Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Large-lecture Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Russell, J. E.; Van Horne, S.; Sipola, M.; Rocheford, M. K.; Colombo, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing writing assignments and providing students the opportunity to meaningfully revise the assignments are challenging for instructors of large enrollment science classes. We included two individual writing assignments and peer assessments as part of course assessment for a large Introduction to Environmental Science course. In order to facilitate the assessment, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR), a web-based application developed by UCLA that enables frequent writing assignments in any discipline and with any class size, was adopted. The CPR assignment process involved four steps: submitting a writing assignment, calibrating each student's review skills, reviewing peers' writing, and assessing one's own writing assignment (self-assessment). A rubric was provided to guide students through each writing assignment and the same rubric was used in calibration, review, and self-assessment scoring. Once the instructors uploaded the writing prompts, rubrics, sample writings and answer keys into the CPR system, the CPR software fully directed all student activity (writing assignment submission, calibrations, reviews, and self-assessment). Students were able to view their results within the CPR program, including their self-calibration scores, reviewing scores, peers' ratings and feedback, total earned scores, and self-assessment scores. Surveys independently administered at the conclusion of the CPR assignments indicated that sixty to seventy-five percent of the students perceived that CPR was helpful in their learning, improved their writing and evaluation skills, and that the process of reviewing other students' essays and their own essays was more helpful than the comments received from peers. These survey results are in agreement with the well-established educational research literature that shows the benefits of peer review and peer assessment to student learning. Our experience with CPR in a large enrollment science course indicates that thoughtful planning of the

  7. Systematic reviews of health care interventions: an essential component of health sciences graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Shelley; Forbes, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an objective, rigorous assessment of both published and unpublished research that enable the reviewer to make recommendations to clinicians, policy-makers, consumers, and researchers. The steps in a systematic review include: (a) developing a research question, (b) developing relevance and validity tools, (c) conducting a thorough literature search of published and unpublished studies, (d) using relevance and validity tools to assess the studies, (e) completing data extraction for each study, (f) synthesizing the findings and, (g) writing the report. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value of providing health science graduate students with the opportunity to learn about the conduct of a systematic review. An example of a thesis utilizing the method of a systematic review is presented.

  8. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-06-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  9. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  10. Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheley Cockrell Skinner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1 translating interventions to a large scale, (2 the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3 the effect of geography on obesity, and (4 the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child.

  11. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  12. Argument-Driven Inquiry: Using the Laboratory to Improve Undergraduates' Science Writing Skills through Meaningful Science Writing, Peer-Review, and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary evidence supporting the use of peer review in undergraduate science as a means to improve student writing and to alleviate barriers, such as lost class time, by incorporation of the peer-review process into the laboratory component of the course. The study was conducted in a single section of an undergraduate…

  13. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  14. Science and Technology review: The search for mutagens from cooked foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This past year and a half has been one of the most unsettled periods in the history of the Livermore Laboratory. Our laboratory, like all federal laboratories, has felt the winds of change from Washington. Various committees are questioning the way in which the federal government supports scientific research and the appropriateness of certain to programs. Science and Technology Review is one of the principal mechanisms by which we inform and educate a broad readership about our research programs and accomplishments. Much of the Laboratory`s research is at the cutting edge of science and technology, making it particularly challenging to describe state-of-the-art accomplishments and their significance in widely understood terms. Our goal is that the articles presented here represent the full range of projects at Livermore and convey the challenge and excitement of working at the frontiers of science and technology.

  15. Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Eugène J F M

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of retention studies in general education are presented, followed by those of studies of basic science knowledge in medical education. The results of the review, in the general educational domain as well as in medical education, suggest that approximately two-third to three-fourth of knowledge will be retained after one year, with a further decrease to slightly below fifty percent in the next year. Finally, some recommendations are made for instructional strategies in curricula to improve long term retention of the subject matter dealt with.

  16. On the ubiquitous presence of fractals and fractal concepts in pharmaceutical sciences: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides; Demetzos, Costas; Macheras, Panos

    2013-11-18

    Fractals have been very successful in quantifying nature's geometrical complexity, and have captured the imagination of scientific community. The development of fractal dimension and its applications have produced significant results across a wide variety of biomedical applications. This review deals with the application of fractals in pharmaceutical sciences and attempts to account the most important developments in the fields of pharmaceutical technology, especially of advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems and of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics. Additionally, fractal kinetics, which has been applied to enzyme kinetics, drug metabolism and absorption, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are presented. This review also considers the potential benefits of using fractal analysis along with considerations of nonlinearity, scaling, and chaos as calibration tools to obtain information and more realistic description on different parts of pharmaceutical sciences. As a conclusion, the purpose of the present work is to highlight the presence of fractal geometry in almost all fields of pharmaceutical research.

  17. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offman, Saul L; Longacre, Teri A

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.

  18. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.

  19. Genetic characteristics of the non-clear cell renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mikhaylenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cancer (RC is one of the most frequent diseases in oncological urology; the most common form of RC is the clear cell carcinoma. However, percentage of less-studied non-clear cell RC (nccRC reaches up to 25 % of cases suggesting further studying, improvement of diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. The key events of carcinogenesis are genetic alterations including chromosomal aberrations and point mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. This review describes cytogenetic aberrations in the context of nccRC diversity according to the current ISUP classification. Translocation variants of nccRC (MiT-RC were characterized separately as particular cases of the chromosome rearrangements involving MiT gene family (TFE3, TFEB, MITF. In addition, the main nccRC hereditary forms caused by germinal mutations in the genes FLCN, FH, and MET, as well as recent studies of sporadic tumors with using the next generation sequencing techniques were reviewed. These experiments were designed to search for somatic mutations throughout the tumor genome or exom and revealed the different mutational profiles of I/II papillary RC subtypes, chromophobe carcinoma versus oncocytoma. The review may be informative for oncologists, urologists, geneticists and specialists in related sciences

  20. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  1. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  2. The Alvey Conference in Edinburgh: A Review of the United Kingdom’s Research Program in Computer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    A conference to review the UK’s Alvey Program of research in computer science was held in Edinburgh from 24 through 27 June 1985. This report summarizes the speakers’ comments about the progress of the Alvey Program.

  3. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  4. Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

  5. Announcing a new international peer-reviewed journal: Food Science and Human Wellness now accepting manuscript submission in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new international peer-reviewed journal-Food Science and Human Wellness, ISSN 2213-4530, which is an open access journal, produced and hosted by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Beijing Academy of Food Sciences.

  6. Progress in Significant Soil Science Fields of China over the Last Three Decades: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; HE Ji-Zheng; YAN Xiao-Yuan; ZHANG Bin; ZHANG Gan-Lin; CAI Zu-Cong

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous decreases in arable land area and continuous population increases, Chinese soil scientists face great challenges in meeting food demands, mitigating adverse environmental impacts, and sustaining or enhancing soil productivity under intensive agriculture.With the aim of promoting the application of soil science knowledge, this paper reviews the achievements of Chinese scientists in soil resource use and management, soil fertility, global change mitigation and soil biology over the last 30 years.During this period, soil resource science has provided essential support for the use and exploitation of Chinese soil resources, and has itself developed through introduction of new theories such as Soil Taxonomy and new technologies such us remote sensing.Soil fertility science has contributed to the alleviation and elimination of impeding physical and chemical factors that constrain availability of essential nutrients and water in soils, the understanding of nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and the increase in nutrient use efficiency for sustainable crop production.Chinese soil scientists have contributed to the understanding of the cropland's role in global change, particularly to the understanding of methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice fields and the effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on rice-wheat system.Soil biology research has progressed in biological N fixation, distribution of fauna in Chinese soils, and bioremediation of polluted soils.A new generation of soil scientists has arisen in the last three decades.The gaps between research and application in these soil science fields are also discussed.

  7. e-Research in the Social Sciences: The Possibilities and the Reality (A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Russell Searight

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the current status as well as benefits and barriers to online research in the social sciences. With the rapid development of internet technology in the past decade, there has been growing interest in the application of on-line technologies to social science research. While there are a number of on-line sites for survey completion and centralized data sets for studying psychological, health, political and sociological issues, collaborative on-line research communities have not developed at the same pace as these other innovations. The few exploratory studies of e-research collaboration conducted to date suggest that while there are potential benefits, there are a number of social, ethical and professional barriers to its development in the social sciences. A recent curricular innovation, in which undergraduate students from different institutions work collaboratively on an on-line research project, suggests that with specific training, a number of these obstacles can be overcome. However, at this point, there appears to be more potential for collaborative online research than is being realized. Issues such as trust, ownership, and quality assurance will need to be addressed before collaborative on-line research in social science becomes a common practice.

  8. Learning in Earth and space science: a review of conceptual change instructional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-03-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the general characteristics of the research, the conceptual change instructional approaches that were used, and the methods employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches. The findings of this review support four assertions about the existing research: (1) astronomical phenomena have received greater attention than geological phenomena; (2) most studies have viewed conceptual change from a cognitive perspective only; (3) data about conceptual change were generated pre- and post-intervention only; and (4) the interventions reviewed presented limited opportunities to involve students in the construction and manipulation of multiple representations of the phenomenon being investigated. Based upon these assertions, the authors recommend that new research in the Earth and space science disciplines challenges traditional notions of conceptual change by exploring the role of affective variables on learning, focuses on the learning of geological phenomena through the construction of multiple representations, and employs qualitative data collection throughout the implementation of an instructional approach.

  9. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Geyser Tube A simple plastic tube makes a great difference to an old trick Field Trip to the Moon This DVD postulates what the next Moon mission will be like Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element A fascinating account of the people and the science behind atomic bombs Solar Energy Modules A series of units ideal for use with 7-14-year-olds Photocopiable Practical Science New teaching resource is clear, straightforward and flexible Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace Biography that is thorough, well-told and worth the telling WORTH A LOOK Applied Biophysics: A Molecular Approach for Physical Scientists This book explains why physics is essential to biology William's Words in Science Classroom dictionary of scientific terms can be hit and miss HANDLE WITH CARE Zero Time Space This story of quantum mechanics loses its thread in translation WEB WATCH A whizz around the pole-related science tools that are available

  10. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  11. Isothermal Microcalorimetry: A Review of Applications in Soil and Environmental Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Xing-Min; HUANG Qiao-Yun; JIANG Dai-Hua; CAI Peng; LIANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal microcMorimetry provides thermodynamic and kinetic information on various reactions and processes and is thereby a powerful tool to elucidate their mechanisms.Certain improvement in isothermal microcalorimetry with regard to the studies on soil and environmental sciences is briefly described.This review mainly focuses on the use of microcalorimetry in the determination of soil microbial activity,monitoring the toxicity and biodegradation of soil organic pollutants,the risk evaluation of metals and metalloids,the heat effect of ion exchange and adsorption in soil,and environmental researches.Promising prospects for the applications of the technique in the field are also discussed.

  12. Use of non-human DNA analysis in forensic science: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Arati; Hadi, Sibte

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of non-human DNA in forensic science, first reported about two decades ago, is now commonplace. Results have been used as evidence in court in a variety of cases ranging from abduction and murder to patent infringement and dog attack. DNA from diverse species, including commonly encountered pets such as dogs and cats, to plants, viruses and bacteria has been used and the sheer potential offered by such analyses has been proven. In this review, using case examples throughout, we detail the considerable literature in this field.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  14. The Nexus of Reading, Writing and Researching in the Doctoral Undertaking of Humanities and Social Sciences: Implications for Literature Reviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S.C.

    2008-01-01

    One indispensable task in the doctoral undertaking in the humanities and social sciences is that of reviewing the literature. To many graduate students, finding the "right" direction of reviewing is a particularly grueling experience, a practical concern seldom addressed in thesis manuals and studies of the doctoral thesis. This paper is an…

  15. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection... draft Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). DATES: The meeting will be held on... Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). The SAB panel will comply with the provisions of FACA and all...

  16. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...... for the survival of free speech....... growth in diversity, means that media need to be very cognizant of the stringency with which they handle the advice to be linguistically clear and concise. The need to pay great attention to situational awareness is highly visible and intrusive. Attention to situational awareness seems to be crucial...

  17. Social science research on HIV in Vietnam: a critical review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Amy; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Social science research can enhance the response to Vietnam's growing HIV epidemic by capturing the country's rapidly changing social and political context. The present paper reviews the published, peer-reviewed and English-language social science literature on HIV in Vietnam in order to identify critical theoretical and substantive gaps, while laying the groundwork for future research. We found four broad foci for work on the social context of HIV and AIDS in Vietnam: the cultural meanings and social relationships that shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic; stigma and discrimination; social inequality and structural violence as contributors to HIV risk; and, finally, how broader global and social systems shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic. We signal the particular need for additional research on the effects of the media on attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, on social movements, and on health systems, as well as on a number of other key areas. Work along these lines, in addition to more effective communication of policy-relevant findings to those responsible for the development and implementation of policies and programmes, will strengthen Vietnam's response to HIV and AIDS.

  18. The Life and Times of Aboutness: A Review of the Library and Information Science Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rondeau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper explores the concept of “aboutness”, its related terms, and the process of aboutness determination as found in the Library and Information Science Literature. Methods – A review of the literature pertaining to aboutness determination and related terms specific to Library and Information Science was undertaken, borrowing extensively from the literature review of Daniel Joudrey’s (2005 dissertation, Building puzzles and growing pearls: A qualitative exploration of determining aboutness, as well as examining a small selection of research and articles not discussed by Joudrey. In addition, a concept map was developed to outline many of the concepts and theories found. Results – The LIS literature demonstrates conflicting positions surrounding the term aboutness and its correlates. Despite the lack of firm agreement on terminologies, the notion of subject is explored because it featured prominently in the literature. As well, intensional and extensional aboutness are explored in contrast to a more subjectivist perspective which asserts that a document's aboutness cannot be separated from its reader. Aboutness determination is also examined through the lens of theme and rheme, that is what is presupposed in a document versus what is new. Aboutness from the user perspective featured considerably in the literature, with many authors asserting both the importance and the challenge of mediating knowledge on behalf of the user. The stage of aboutness determination in the complete process of subject indexing is also presented here, and the findings demonstrate that the stages are anything but linear and sequential.

  19. The AIRInforma experiment: peer-reviewed public dissemination of science in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Federico; Cassetta, Luca; Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    Public dissemination of science to the public is often negatively affected by biased, incorrect information distributed over the world wide web through social networks and weblogs. In Italy, the lack of correct scientific information has generated several important issues, raising concerns by the international scientific community in several occasions over the past five years. Our association AIRIcerca (International Association of Italian Researchers, http://www.airicerca.org) has recently started a novel scientific dissemination initiative to the general public in Italy. The project is based on 1) direct involvement of researchers (with accademic or industrial affiliation) in article preparation and publication and 2) introduction of a peer-reviewing system similar to that applied in conventional scientific publishing. Our initiative, named AIRInforma (http://informa.airicerca.org) has already published more than 10 original articles and 3 meeting reports, in Italian language, about various fields of scientific research, ranging from social sciences to evolutionary biology , mathematics and medicine . The editorial board is composed of approximately 20 Italian scientists working all over the world and voluntarily contributing to the AIRInforma initiative. Submitted manuscripts are initially evaluated by the editorial board and, if suitable, they are assigned to four non-anonymous reviewers selected by the editorial board for accurate evaluation. Two reviewers are selected based on their specific expertise on the topic presented in the manuscript (expert reviewers), and two are specifically selected as working on distant fields (naive reviewers). The purpose of naive reviewers is to provide feedback on the efficacy and clarity of the information for the general public. So far, AIRInforma has established a novel channel of scientific communication in Italy, receiving excellent feedback and reaching more than 8000 new unique visitors every month on our website and

  20. A descriptive and historical review of bibliometrics with applications to medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Walker, Cheri K

    2015-06-01

    The discipline of bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical methods to scholarly publications. The first attempts at systematic data collection were provided by Alfred Lotka and Samuel Bradford, who subsequently established the foundational laws of bibliometrics. Eugene Garfield ushered in the modern era of bibliometrics with the routine use of citation analysis and systematized processing. Key elements of bibliometric analysis include database coverage, consistency and accuracy of the data, data fields, search options, and analysis and use of metrics. A number of bibliometric applications are currently being used in medical science and health care. Bibliometric parameters and indexes may be increasingly used by grant funding sources as measures of research success. Universities may build benchmarking standards from bibliometric data to determine academic achievement through promotion and tenure guidelines in the future. This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966-2014) and Web of Science (1945-2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross-referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chosen that illustrate bibliometric concepts and enhance the reader's knowledge. It is important that faculty and researchers understand the limitations and appropriate uses of bibliometric data. Bibliometrics has considerable potential as a research area for health care scientists and practitioners that can be used to discover new information about academic trends, pharmacotherapy, disease, and broader health sciences

  1. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron-Shatz, T.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Paton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. Methods A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Results Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to “small data” would also be useful. PMID:25123717

  2. INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC REVIEW TO A PLURALITY OF MODERN SCIENCE: NEED OR FICTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of plurality epistemological provokes distinct lack of clear criteria for scientific criticism humanities texts. This research raises the question of verification procedure for knowledge obtained humanities, its status and importance. Changes relate to the modern paradigm of scientific methodology in general, which involves switching from a focus on results orientation to the process of getting the truth (W.V.O. Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend, Imre Lakatos, etc.. To determine the relationships with the text as a carrier of the alleged truth reception is off ered three formats of relations: Text – Author, Text – Reader and Text – Reviewer. The article stresses questions of general and specific objectives for the scientifi c peer review, as well as the problem of plagiarism and its ethical and legal consequences. It is proposed to consider plan algorithm scientific review of the 26 criteria for it, which will help to streamline Institute of scientific criticism. Recent cover content requirements (which include: the incorporation of a scientific context, the definition of methodological systems, structured research, avoiding plagiarism, there is a real «increase of knowledge» and applied significance, etc. and technical design, the variable respectively specifi c edition. Compliance with a number of requirements set out will help improve the effi ciency and profitability of the humanities.

  3. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  4. Big Data and Clinicians: A Review on the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, medically related data collection saw a huge increase, referred to as big data. These huge datasets bring challenges in storage, processing, and analysis. In clinical medicine, big data is expected to play an important role in identifying causality of patient symptoms, in predicting hazards of disease incidence or reoccurrence, and in improving primary-care quality. Objective The objective of this review was to provide an overview of the features of clinical big data, describe a few commonly employed computational algorithms, statistical methods, and software toolkits for data manipulation and analysis, and discuss the challenges and limitations in this realm. Methods We conducted a literature review to identify studies on big data in medicine, especially clinical medicine. We used different combinations of keywords to search PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar for literature of interest from the past 10 years. Results This paper reviewed studies that analyzed clinical big data and discussed issues related to storage and analysis of this type of data. Conclusions Big data is becoming a common feature of biological and clinical studies. Researchers who use clinical big data face multiple challenges, and the data itself has limitations. It is imperative that methodologies for data analysis keep pace with our ability to collect and store data. PMID:25600256

  5. The formality of learning science in everyday life: A conceptual literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Bonderup Dohn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis of relevant literature revealed two fundamentally different interpretations of informal learning. The one describes formality of education at the organizational level, while the second describes formality of learning at the psychological level. This article presents a conceptual reconciling of these two perspectives. Based on a literature review, the educational modes of education are defined as discrete entities (formal, non-formal, and informal education, whereas formality at the psychological level is defined in terms of attributes of formality and informality along a continuum (formal ↔ informal learning. Relations to other  well-established frameworks within the field of informal learning are discussed.

  6. Review. Teaching Legal and Administrative Science Nadia-Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Mihaela POPA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work Didactica predarii stiintelor juridice si administrative (Teaching Legal and Administrative Science authors Nadia- Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru is structured around the following 10 lessons: 1. General notions about teaching legal science, 2. Teaching legal science, 3. Learning with application in legal science, 4. Legal science teaching aims, 5. Education curriculum for teaching legal science, 6. Learning Methods 7. Educational assessment with applications for legal science, 8. Didactic principles in teaching legal science, 9. Educational activities organization in legal science, 10. Legal education in Romania.

  7. Report from the Committee of Visitors on its Review of the Processes and Procedures used to Manage the Theory and Computations Program, Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    A Committee of Visitors (COV) was formed to review the procedures used by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to manage its Theory and Computations program. The COV was pleased to conclude that the research portfolio supported by the OFES Theory and Computations Program was of very high quality. The Program supports research programs at universities, research industries, and national laboratories that are well regarded internationally and address questions of high relevance to the DOE. A major change in the management of the Theory and Computations program over the past few years has been the introduction of a system of comparative peer review to guide the OFES Theory Team in selecting proposals for funding. The COV was impressed with the success of OFES in its implementation of comparative peer review and with the quality of the reviewers chosen by the OFES Theory Team. The COV concluded that the competitive peer review process has improved steadily over the three years that it has been in effect and that it has improved both the fairness and accountability of the proposal review process. While the COV commends OFES in its implementation of comparative review, the COV offers the following recommendations in the hope that they will further improve the comparative peer review process: The OFES should improve the consistency of peer reviews. We recommend adoption of a “results-oriented” scoring system in their guidelines to referees (see Appendix II), a greater use of review panels, and a standard format for proposals; The OFES should further improve the procedures and documentation for proposal handling. We recommend that the “folders” documenting funding decisions contain all the input from all of the reviewers, that OFES document their rationale for funding decisions which are at variance with the recommendation of the peer reviewers, and that OFES provide a Summary Sheet within each folder; The OFES should better communicate the procedures used to

  8. Aging and degeneration of the intervertebral disc: review of basic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josemberg da Silva Baptista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a growing interest in the study of intervertebral discs due to loss of manpower brought to society by low back and neck pains. These papers seek to delineate the difference between normal aging and disc degeneration, trying to understand what factor would be determining for the second condition. Thus, the morphology field was expanded and knowledge on the structure of intervertebral discs currently uses the research field of cell and molecular biology, and genetics. The results indicate that regardless of age or condition, the intervertebral disc undergoes long and extensive remodeling of its constituents, which are influenced by several factors: environmental, soluble, cell growth and extracellular matrix. In this literature review we describe the biological characteristics of the cervical and lumbar intervertebral disc with a focus on basic science of aging and degeneration, selecting the latest findings and discussions of the area, which influence future research and clinical thoughts.

  9. Research collaboration and team science a state-of-the-art review and agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Bozeman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Today in most scientific and technical fields more than 90% of research studies and publications are collaborative, often resulting in high-impact research and development of commercial applications, as reflected in patents. Nowadays in many areas of science, collaboration is not a preference but, literally, a work prerequisite. The purpose of this book is to review and critique the burgeoning scholarship on research collaboration. The authors seek to identify gaps in theory and research and identify the ways in which existing research can be used to improve public policy for collaboration and to improve project-level management of collaborations using Scientific and Technical Human Capital (STHC) theory as a framework. Broadly speaking, STHC is the sum of scientific and technical and social knowledge, skills and resources embodied in a particular individual. It is both human capital endowments, such as formal education and training and social relations and network ties that bind scientists and the users of ...

  10. Review and evaluation of the Office of Science and Technology`s Community Leaders Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    This report constitutes a review and evaluation of the Community Leaders Network (CLN), an informally structured national stakeholder group sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program`s Office of Science and Technology (OST) to obtain citizen input into the technology research and development programs of the OST. Since the CLN`s inception in 1993, its participants, currently numbering about 35 members mostly from jurisdictions hosting DOE waste management and environmental remediation sites, and its clients (i.e., OST) have invested substantial resources to develop the capability to enhance technology development and deployment activities through proactive stakeholder involvement. The specific objectives of the CLN are to: provide feedback and input to OST on technology development activities; provide information on OST ideas and approaches to key stakeholder groups, and provide input to OST on stakeholder concerns and involvement.

  11. Peer review role-playing as a method of teaching senior undergraduate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    We present a case study of the use of role-playing as a method of enhancing course delivery in senior undergraduate science courses. Specifically we examine the use of simulating peer review of scientific proposals for time on major international telescopes in a third year astrophysics course at the University of Tasmania. We find that 90% of participating students found the experience to be both enjoyable and a good method for learning and that 100% of students felt that the exercise had aided their understanding of the course material. Furthermore 80% of students felt that the role-playing had enhanced their understanding of scientific decision making while 70% believed that they had learnt to apply principles from the course in new situations.

  12. A Mini-review on the Effect of Mini-implants on Contemporary Orthodontic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Rismanchian, Mansour; Sabzian, Roya; Shadmehr, Elham; Badrian, Hamid; Davoudi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to screen the valuable published articles regarding to the impacts of mini-implants on orthodontic science, briefly. The searching category was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as "dental (mini) implants, orthodontic anchorage procedures, and orthodontic appliances." After preliminary sketch, they were grouped as follow: Those evaluating (a) common appliances for providing orthodontic anchorage, (b) biomechanical details of mini-implants and their insertion, (c) clinical application of mini-implants for orthognathic treatments, (d) limitations and possible complications. In conclusion, mini-implant evolved the orthodontic treatment plans and compromised the required orthognathic surgery. Malocclusion treatment and pure orthodontic or orthopedic movements in the three-dimensions have become recently possible by using mini-implant to provide skeletal anchorage.

  13. Psychical research in the history and philosophy of science. An introduction and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    As a prelude to articles published in this special issue, I sketch changing historiographical conventions regarding the 'occult' in recent history of science and medicine scholarship. Next, a review of standard claims regarding psychical research and parapsychology in philosophical discussions of the demarcation problem reveals that these have tended to disregard basic primary sources and instead rely heavily on problematic popular accounts, simplistic notions of scientific practice, and outdated teleological historiographies of progress. I conclude by suggesting that rigorous and sensitively contextualized case studies of past elite heterodox scientists may be potentially useful to enrich historical and philosophical scholarship by highlighting epistemologies that have fallen through the crude meshes of triumphalist and postmodernist historiographical generalizations alike.

  14. The Life and Times of Aboutness: A Review of the Library and Information Science Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rondeau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper explores the concept of “aboutness”, its related terms, and the process of aboutness determination as found in the Library and Information Science Literature. Methods – A review of the literature pertaining to aboutness determination and related terms specific to Library and Information Science was undertaken, borrowing extensively from the literature review of Daniel Joudrey’s (2005 dissertation, Building puzzles and growing pearls: A qualitative exploration of determining aboutness, as well as examining a small selection of research and articles not discussed by Joudrey. In addition, a concept map was developed to outline many of the concepts and theories found. Results – The LIS literature demonstrates conflicting positions surrounding the term aboutness and its correlates. Despite the lack of firm agreement on terminologies, the notion of subject is explored because it featured prominently in the literature. As well, intensional and extensional aboutness are explored in contrast to a more subjectivist perspective which asserts that a document's aboutness cannot be separated from its reader. Aboutness determination is also examined through the lens of theme and rheme, that is what is presupposed in a document versus what is new. Aboutness from the user perspective featured considerably in the literature, with many authors asserting both the importance and the challenge of mediating knowledge on behalf of the user. The stage of aboutness determination in the complete process of subject indexing is also presented here, and the findings demonstrate that the stages are anything but linear and sequential. Conclusion – While the findings are more expositional than conclusive, they demonstrate the complexities and challenges surrounding the concept of “aboutness” and the process of its determination. The value of this review is in its ability to present the ways in which scholars and practitioners have

  15. 76 FR 62077 - Submission for OBM Review; Comment Request; New Proposed Collection, Environmental Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Collection, Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection: Title: Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... environmental science professional organizations and practitioners, and schools and child care...

  16. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  17. Threats to internal validity in exercise science: a review of overlooked confounding variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel; Pyne, David B; Martin, David T

    2015-10-01

    Internal validity refers to the degree of control exerted over potential confounding variables to reduce alternative explanations for the effects of various treatments. In exercise and sports-science research and routine testing, internal validity is commonly achieved by controlling variables such as exercise and warm-up protocols, prior training, nutritional intake before testing, ambient temperature, time of testing, hours of sleep, age, and gender. However, a number of other potential confounding variables often do not receive adequate attention in sports physiology and performance research. These confounding variables include instructions on how to perform the test, volume and frequency of verbal encouragement, knowledge of exercise endpoint, number and gender of observers in the room, influence of music played before and during testing, and the effects of mental fatigue on performance. In this review the authors discuss these variables in relation to common testing environments in exercise and sports science and present some recommendations with the goal of reducing possible threats to internal validity.

  18. Alcohol and violence in the emergency room: a review and perspectives from psychological and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerhouni, Oulmann; Bègue, Laurent; Brousse, Georges; Carpentier, Françoise; Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Swendsen, Joel; Cherpitel, Cheryl

    2013-09-27

    Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER) and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i) having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii) reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii) suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  19. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  20. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Millis, Andy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wolverton, Chris [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); va DAm, Kerstin Kleese [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Proffen, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, IL (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, TN (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Computers have revolutionized every aspect of our lives. Yet in science, the most tantalizing applications of computing lie just beyond our reach. The current quest to build an exascale computer with one thousand times the capability of today’s fastest machines (and more than a million times that of a laptop) will take researchers over the next horizon. The field of materials, chemical reactions, and compounds is inherently complex. Imagine millions of new materials with new functionalities waiting to be discovered — while researchers also seek to extend those materials that are known to a dizzying number of new forms. We could translate massive amounts of data from high precision experiments into new understanding through data mining and analysis. We could have at our disposal the ability to predict the properties of these materials, to follow their transformations during reactions on an atom-by-atom basis, and to discover completely new chemical pathways or physical states of matter. Extending these predictions from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, from the ultrafast world of reactions to long-time simulations to predict the lifetime performance of materials, and to the discovery of new materials and processes will have a profound impact on energy technology. In addition, discovery of new materials is vital to move computing beyond Moore’s law. To realize this vision, more than hardware is needed. New algorithms to take advantage of the increase in computing power, new programming paradigms, and new ways of mining massive data sets are needed as well. This report summarizes the opportunities and the requisite computing ecosystem needed to realize the potential before us. In addition to pursuing new and more complete physical models and theoretical frameworks, this review found that the following broadly grouped areas relevant to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) would directly affect the Basic Energy

  1. Review. Teaching Legal and Administrative Science Nadia-Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Mihaela POPA

    2011-01-01

    The work Didactica predarii stiintelor juridice si administrative (Teaching Legal and Administrative Science) authors Nadia- Cerasela Anitei and Roxana Alina Petraru is structured around the following 10 lessons: 1. General notions about teaching legal science, 2. Teaching legal science, 3. Learning with application in legal science, 4. Legal science teaching aims, 5. Education curriculum for teaching legal science, 6. Learning Methods 7. Educational assessment with applications for legal sci...

  2. Environmental pollution and risk of psychotic disorders: A review of the science to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Luigi; Bernardini, Francesco; Garinella, Raffaele; Compton, Michael T

    2017-03-01

    Environmental pollution is a global problem with diverse and substantial public health implications. Although many environmental (i.e., non-genetic) risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been identified, there has been comparatively little research on pollution as a possible risk factor. This is despite the fact that gene-by-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized as likely facets of the etiology of schizophrenia, and the fact that pollution could potentially mediate the association between urban birth/upbringing and elevated risk. We conducted a review of the literature to date in order to summarize and synthesize work in this area. We identified 13 research reports and 16 review articles. Based on the extant knowledge in this area and what is known about the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it is feasible that exposure to xenobiotic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium, constituents of air pollution such as particulate matter and nitrogen and sulfur oxides, organic solvents, and other constituents of environmental pollution could be component causes. Further research-from the cellular to epidemiological levels-is clearly needed. If causation is proven, enhancements of policy intended to reduce human exposure to environmental pollution could reduce the burden of schizophrenia and possibly other mental illnesses.

  3. Engineering Education: A Clear Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg J.; Grubbs, Michael E.; Wells, John G.

    2017-01-01

    The core subjects in P-12 education have a common key characteristic that makes them stable over time. That characteristic is a steady content. For example, in the sciences, the basics of biology remain the same--the cell is the basic building block around which organisms are defined, characterized, structured, etc. Similarly, the basics of…

  4. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin

    2009-01-01

    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  5. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  6. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process.

  7. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations.

  8. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-03-31

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs.

  9. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios.

  10. State-of-the-science review: Does manganese exposure during welding pose a neurological risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annette B; Cushing, Colleen A; Antonini, James M; Finley, Brent L; Mowat, Fionna S

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies report that exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential component of welding electrodes and some steels, results in neurotoxicity and/or Parkinson's disease (PD) in welders. This "state-of-the-science" review presents a critical analysis of the published studies that were conducted on a variety of Mn-exposed occupational cohorts during the last 100 yr, as well as the regulatory history of Mn and welding fumes. Welders often perform a variety of different tasks with varying degrees of duration and ventilation, and hence, to accurately assess Mn exposures that occurred in occupational settings, some specific information on the historical work patterns of welders is desirable. This review includes a discussion of the types of exposures that occur during the welding process--for which limited information relating airborne Mn levels with specific welding activities exists--and the human health studies evaluating neurological effects in welders and other Mn-exposed cohorts, including miners, millers, and battery workers. Findings and implications of studies specifically conducted to evaluate neurobehavioral effects and the prevalence of PD in welders are also discussed. Existing exposure data indicate that, in general, Mn exposures in welders are less than those associated with the reports of clinical neurotoxicity (e.g., "manganism") in miners and smelter workers. It was also found that although manganism was observed in highly exposed workers, the scant exposure-response data available for welders do not support a conclusion that welding is associated with clinical neurotoxicity. The available data might support the development of reasonable "worst-case" exposure estimates for most welding activities, and suggest that exposure simulation studies would significantly refine such estimates. Our review ends with a discussion of the data gaps and areas for future research.

  11. 77 FR 40590 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Pell Grant Experiments Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Pell Grant Experiments Study SUMMARY: The Pell Grant Experiments evaluation is a two-part, five-year demonstration study sponsored by... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Pell Grant Experiments Study. OMB...

  12. A Review on Learning Styles and Critically Thinking Disposition of Pre-Service Science Teachers in Terms of Miscellaneous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to review learning styles and critical thinking disposition of pre-service science teachers in terms of sex, grade and age, and to address the relationship between their learning styles and critical thinking disposition. It used Kolb's Inventory of Learning Styles and California Scale of Critical Thinking…

  13. Calibrated Peer Review Assignments in Science Courses: Are They Designed to Promote Critical Thinking and Writing Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie; Moskovitz, Cary

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review (CPR), an online program that purportedly helps students develop as writers and critical thinkers, is being increasingly used by science educators. CPR is an enticing tool since it does not require instructors to grade student writing, and instructors can adopt assignments directly from a library. To determine the extent to…

  14. [Book reviews] The Science of Allelopathy, edited by A. R. Putnam and C. Tang; Allelopathy, by E .L. Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Review of: Putnam, Alan R., and Chung-Shih Tang (eds.). 1986. The science of allelopathy. Wiley-Interscience Publications, John Wiley and Sons, New York. xi + 317 p. $52.50. Rice, Elroy L. 1984. Allelopathy. Second Edition. Academic Press, New York. xi + 422 p. $71.00.

  15. Linking Science and Language Arts: A Review of the Literature Which Compares Integrated versus Non-Integrated Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie U.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student…

  16. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  17. Linking Science and Language Arts: A Review of the Literature Which Compares Integrated Versus Non-integrated Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie U.

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student achievement in science and language arts across elementary grade levels. Additionally, integrated approaches facilitate improved attitudes toward both science and reading. The second section of the findings provides an overview of the types of pedagogical approaches used in the classrooms described in the studies. At all grade levels, teachers linked a variety of strategies including read-alouds, independent reading, at home reading, and writing in various genres that connected hands-on science activities to language arts skills.

  18. Animal board invited review: advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R

    2015-01-01

    Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps

  19. Ion clearing in an ERL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Liepe, Matthias

    2006-02-01

    The rest-gas in the beam-pipe of a particle accelerator is readily ionized by effects like collisions, synchrotron radiation and field emission. Positive ions are attracted to electron beams and create a nonlinear potential in the vicinity of the beam which can lead to beam halo, particle loss, optical errors or transverse and longitudinal instabilities. In an energy recovery linac (ERL) where beam-loss has to be minimal, and where beam positions and emittances have to be very stable in time, these ion effects have to be avoided. Here we investigate three measures of avoiding ion accumulation: (a) A long gap between linac bunch trains that allows ions to drift out of the beam region, a measure regularly applied in linacs; (b) a short ion clearing gap in the beam that leads to a time varying beam potential and produces large excited oscillations of ions around the electron beam, a measure regularly applied in storage rings; (c) Clearing electrodes that create a sufficient voltage to draw ions out of the beam potential, a measure used for DC electron beams and for antiproton beams. For the parameters of the X-ray ERL planned at Cornell University we show that method (a) cannot be applied, method (b) is technically cumbersome, and (c) should be most easily applicable.

  20. A Hybrid Evaluation System Framework (Shell & Web) with Standardized Access to Climate Model Data and Verification Tools for a Clear Climate Science Infrastructure on Big Data High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Ulbrich, Uwe; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    by other users-saving CPU time, I/O and disk space. This study presents the different techniques and advantages of such a hybrid evaluation system making use of a Big Data HPC in climate science. website: www-miklip.dkrz.de visitor-login: click on "Guest"

  1. Brief of the Canadian Society for Clinical Investigation to the science and technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In the context of new realities, perceptions, and concerns, it is fitting that the government has undertaken this Science and Technology Review, questioning not only how much to spend but also the justification and the best ways to carry out federally-funded research. We share the government's concern about the lack of economic competitiveness of our industries and agree that government-sponsored research should make a bigger contribution to the nation's global economic position. The CSCI, which represents the clinical investigators/scientists in this country, is grateful for having been given the opportunity to make this "tour d'horizon" of Canadian clinical research. In this brief, we have attempted to articulate the needs for, and the benefits of, basic biomedical research because it is the only type of research which will provide us with final answers. However, it should be more closely articulated with applied research, as well as with epidemiological, evaluative, and operational approaches which have been neglected. This brief has emphasized that CSCI is committed to PUTTING MORE SCIENCE INTO MEDICINE by encouraging a greater flow of discoveries from the laboratory research bench to the bedside and the community. We made the point that there is a crisis in patient-oriented research and a decrease of young physicians opting for research careers. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the MRC are responsive to this situation, which may compromise our capacity to discharge our broader mission. The MRC has given itself valid instruments to foster the creation of wealth through special programs such as the NCE, the University/Industry program, and the MRC-PMAC partnership. Some refining is in order, and close scrutiny of outcome is essential. Both the academic community and industry have their share of responsibility for the less-than-optimal transfer of knowledge to the market place. Lack of venture capital is also a serious issue. A unified

  2. Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation.

  3. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  4. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity.

  5. Review: Improving the Impact of Plant Science on Urban Planning and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Wootton-Beard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning is a vital process in determining the functionality of future cities. It is predicted that at least two thirds of the world’s citizens will reside in towns and cities by the middle of this century, up from one third in the middle of the previous century. Not only is it essential to provide space for work and dwelling, but also for their well-being. Well-being is inextricably linked with the surrounding environment, and natural landscapes have a potent positive effect. For this reason, the inclusion and management of urban green infrastructure has become a topic of increasing scientific interest. Elements of this infrastructure, including green roofs and façades are of growing importance to operators in each stage of the planning, design and construction process in urban areas. Currently, there is a strong recognition that “green is good”. Despite the positive recognition of urban greenery, and the concerted efforts to include more of it in cities, greater scientific attention is needed to better understand its role in the urban environment. For example, many solutions are cleverly engineered without giving sufficient consideration to the biology of the vegetation that is used. This review contends that whilst “green is good” is a positive mantra to promote the inclusion of urban greenery, there is a significant opportunity to increase the contribution of plant science to the process of urban planning through both green infrastructure, and biomimicry.

  6. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity. PMID:27547377

  7. Genetic research and testing in sport and exercise science: a review of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerhage, Henning; Miah, Andy; Harris, Roger C; Montgomery, Hugh E; Williams, Alun G

    2009-09-01

    This review is based on the BASES position stand on "Genetic Research and Testing in Sport and Exercise Science". Our aims are first to introduce the reader to research in sport and exercise genetics and then to highlight ethical problems arising from such research and its applications. Sport and exercise genetics research in the form of transgenic animal and human association studies has contributed significantly to our understanding of exercise physiology and there is potential for major new discoveries. Researchers starting out in this field will have to ensure an appropriate study design to avoid, for example, statistically underpowered studies. Ethical concerns arise more from the applications of genetic research than from the research itself, which is assessed by ethical committees. Possible applications of genetic research are genetic performance tests or genetic tests to screen, for example, for increased risk of sudden death during sport. The concerns are that genetic performance testing could be performed on embryos and could be used to select embryos for transplantation or abortion. Screening for risk of sudden death may reduce deaths during sporting events but those that receive a positive diagnosis may suffer severe psychological consequences. Equally, it will be almost impossible to keep a positive diagnosis confidential if the individual tested is an elite athlete.

  8. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-12-18

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems.

  9. The science and practice of micronutrient supplementations in nutritional anemia: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Mike, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia, affecting millions of people in all age groups worldwide. While inadequate access to food and nutrients can lead to anemia, patients with certain health status or medical conditions are also at increased risk of developing nutritional anemia. Iron, cobalamin, and folate are the most recognized micronutrients that are vital for the generation of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency is associated with insufficient production of hemoglobin. Deficiency of cobalamin or folate leads to impaired synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins, and cell division. Recent research has demonstrated that the status of copper and zinc in the body can significantly affect iron absorption and utilization. With an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures, more cases of anemia associated with copper and zinc deficiencies have also emerged. The intestinal absorption of these 5 critical micronutrients are highly regulated and mediated by specific apical transport mechanisms in the enterocytes. Health conditions that persistently alter the histology of the upper intestinal architecture, expression, or function of these substrate-specific transporters, or the normal digestion and flow of these key micronutrients, can lead to nutritional anemia. The focus of this article is to review the science of intestinal micronutrient absorption, discuss the clinical assessment of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to anemia, and suggest an effective treatment plan and monitoring strategies using an evidence-based approach.

  10. Scientometric analysis: A technical need for medical science researchers either as authors or as peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    The nature of performing a scientific research is a process that has several different components which consist of identifying the key research question(s), choices of scientific approach for the study and data collection, data analysis, and finally reporting on results. Generally, peer review is a series of procedures in the evaluation of a creative work or performance by other people, who work in the same or related field, with the aim of maintaining and improving the quality of work or performance in that field. The assessment of the achievement of every scientist, and thus indirectly determining his reputation in the scientific community of these publications, especially journals, is done through the so-called impact factor index. The impact factor predicts or estimates that how many annual citations article may receive after its publication. Evaluation of scientific productivity and assessment of the published articles of researchers and scientists can be made through the so-called H-index. The quality of published results of scientific work largely depends on knowledge sources that are used in the preparation, which means that it should be considered to serve the purpose and the very relevance of the information used. Scientometrics as a field of science covers all aforementioned issues, and scientometric analysis is obligatory for quality assessment of the scientific validity of published articles and other type of publications.

  11. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  12. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A Review of the Past Century in the Context of the Past Millennium:Science & Society in China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Guangbi

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the significance and future of science, we must make clear the interaction between science and society. Although a consensus on this has reached among scholars and even the public, an explicit analytical framework for related studies on science and society is so far unavailable.In light of the outlook of cultural evolutionism, this article puts forward an analytic framework, on which an analysis on the Chinese science in the 20th century is made based on the discussion of science in China and the West. The principal conclusion obtained from the discussion is: Without a system of modern democracy, it is impossible to make science prosper and without a modern market system, technological progress is out of the question. Similarly, without contributions to the world's science and technology, the Chinese nation will not be able to get an equal foothold among the other nations in today's world.

  14. The case for driver science in motorsport: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkanowicz, Edward S; Mendel, Ronald W

    2013-07-01

    When discussing sports and the athletes who participate in them, it has long been recognized that fitness is a prerequisite for optimal performance. The goal of training to improve fitness levels in athletes is ultimately to minimize the stress that the body experiences during competition. When it comes to the topic of racecar drivers, however, drivers and their trainers have largely been left to their own devices to figure out the stressors and the areas of specific training focus. Unfortunately, racecar drivers have battled the stereotype that they are not athletes, and with little regard for them as athletes, drivers are seldom the focus of scientific research related to their performance. Like the cars they drive, driver-athletes are complex, but from a physiological perspective. However, unlike the cars they drive, driver-athletes have not been examined, evaluated, and tweaked to the same degree. The purpose of this review is two-fold: first, by examining the available literature, to make the case for new research into the driver's role in the driver-car system (i.e. driver science) and the stresses experienced; second, to make the case for more extensive use of microtechnology in the real-time monitoring of driver-athletes. With the miniaturization of sensors and the advent of portable data storage devices, the prospect of quantifying the stresses unique to the driver are no longer as daunting, and the relative impossibility and difficulties associated with measuring the driver-athlete in real-time no longer need to be as challenging. Using microtechnology in the assessment of the driver-athlete and with a more public discussion and dissemination of information on the topic of driver science, the scientific community has the opportunity to quantify that which has been largely assumed and speculated. The current article will offer the following recommendations: first, rather than examining a singular physiological stressor, to examine the interaction of

  15. Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence.

  16. Designing Peer Review for Pedagogical Success: What Can We Learn from Professional Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares peer review in professional versus education settings, summarizing key aspects of scientific peer review and reflecting on how these relate to the process as experienced by students. Consideration of professional peer review benefits educators in two ways. First, systems used for student peer review can employ some of the…

  17. Geoscience on television : a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, W R.; Land, A.M.; Smeets, I.; Stoof, C.

    2016-01-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challeng

  18. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  19. Sense about Science--"Making Sense of Radiation" and Understanding Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    Sense About Science is a UK-based charitable trust that equips people to make sense of science and of evidence on issues that matter to society. It was set up in 2003 in response to newspaper front pages being full of headlines about mobile phones "frying your brain", genetically modified "Frankenstein foods", the MMR vaccine, "cocktails of toxic…

  20. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  1. Cost of the NSERC Science Grant Peer Review System exceeds the cost of giving every qualified researcher a baseline grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard; Poulin, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    Using Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada (NSERC) statistics, we show that the $40,000 (Canadian) cost of preparation for a grant application and rejection by peer review in 2007 exceeded that of giving every qualified investigator a direct baseline discovery grant of $30,000 (average grant). This means the Canadian Federal Government could institute direct grants for 100% of qualified applicants for the same money. We anticipate that the net result would be more and better research since more research would be conducted at the critical idea or discovery stage. Control of quality is assured through university hiring, promotion and tenure proceedings, journal reviews of submitted work, and the patent process, whose collective scrutiny far exceeds that of grant peer review. The greater efficiency in use of grant funds and increased innovation with baseline funding would provide a means of achieving the goals of the recent Canadian Value for Money and Accountability Review. We suggest that developing countries could leapfrog ahead by adopting from the start science grant systems that encourage innovation.

  2. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 μmol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 μmol/L. The use

  3. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  4. Divine intervention? A Cochrane review on intercessory prayer gone beyond science and reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically...

  5. A review of science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea - The cockle fishery and gas exploitation controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Judith R.; van Koppen, C. S. A. (Kris); Lindeboom, Han J.

    2013-09-01

    The potential ecological effects of cockle fisheries and gas exploitation in the Dutch Wadden Sea and their implications for policy and management have been the topic of vigorous societal debates. Ecological science has played crucial but controversial roles in these debates. Several social science studies have been dedicated to analysing these roles and making recommendations for the improvement of science-policy interactions. In reviewing these studies, this article aims to draw lessons for (ecological) scientists and policy makers on how to understand and guide the interactions of science and policy in Wadden Sea management. Studies addressing science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea can be grouped into three main perspectives, emphasizing the social and economic dynamics of resource management, the role of nature views and discourses in controversies, and the influence of science dynamics in policy and management debates. The review demonstrates that ecological knowledge and ecological scientists have played important roles in the controversies on cockle fisheries and gas exploitation. However, scientific knowledge was not always the most important factor in the decision-making process, and scientific insights were not always used as expected by the scientists. How scientific knowledge is used and interpreted by stakeholders was dependent on their interests, their nature views and on the dominant policy discourses. Ecological knowledge and scientists themselves became part of the policy debates, e.g. in discussions on uncertainty and reliability. The position of scientists in policy debates was strongly influenced by the policy setting and by changes in this setting, e.g. by the operation of mediators or by new interpretations of legal rules. A lesson to be drawn for scientists is that they should reflect on the sort of position - e.g. independent outsider, or engaged stakeholder - they take in a debate. They should also be aware that this position

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences: Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, S.

    2004-10-01

    Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare---and often catastrophic---events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent

  7. Review of the typology of research methods within the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Luff, Rebekah; Byatt, Dorothy; Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    The National Centre for Research Methods (NCRM) typology was originally developed by Beissel-Durrant (2004). That typology provides a hierarchical classification of research methods used in the Social Sciences and has been used by the NCRM to categorise training events, research activities and other outputs and has become one of the most frequently downloaded items from the NCRM website. The typology underpins the reporting of training and research needs within Social Science research methods...

  8. R. M. Harrison and S. J. De Mora: Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences [book review

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Harrison and De Mora have revised the first edition of their book, Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences, which has an intended reading audience of college or university undergraduates who are studying or majoring in the environmental sciences, environmental chemistry, or ecology. Their intent is to present the basic concepts of chemistry within the context of the thermodynamic universe known at ‘the environment'.

  9. Cognitive and learning sciences in biomedical and health instructional design: A review with lessons for biomedical informatics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Arocha, Jose F; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2009-02-01

    Theoretical and methodological advances in the cognitive and learning sciences can greatly inform curriculum and instruction in biomedicine and also educational programs in biomedical informatics. It does so by addressing issues such as the processes related to comprehension of medical information, clinical problem-solving and decision-making, and the role of technology. This paper reviews these theories and methods from the cognitive and learning sciences and their role in addressing current and future needs in designing curricula, largely using illustrative examples drawn from medical education. The lessons of this past work are also applicable, however, to biomedical and health professional curricula in general, and to biomedical informatics training, in particular. We summarize empirical studies conducted over two decades on the role of memory, knowledge organization and reasoning as well as studies of problem-solving and decision-making in medical areas that inform curricular design. The results of this research contribute to the design of more informed curricula based on empirical findings about how people learn and think, and more specifically, how expertise is developed. Similarly, the study of practice can also help to shape theories of human performance, technology-based learning, and scientific and professional collaboration that extend beyond the domain of medicine. Just as biomedical science has revolutionized health care practice, research in the cognitive and learning sciences provides a scientific foundation for education in biomedicine, the health professions, and biomedical informatics.

  10. Systematic reviews on reports of hip fractures in Web of Science:a bibliometric analysis of publication activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Zhi; Wang Guoqi; Mei Xifan; Chen Shuo; Liu Xiaoxie; Zeng Xiantao; Long Anhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze the trend in the publication of systematic reviews on hip fractures through a bibliometric approach.Methods Literature including systematic reviews or meta-analyses on hip fractures was searched from the ISI Web of Science citation database.The search results were analyzed in terms of geographical authorship and frequency of citation by country,institution,author,and periodical distribution.Results A total of 654 published systematic reviews from 1995 to 2013 in 48 countries or regions were retrieved.The United States (171) was the predominant country in terms of the number of total publications,followed by the United Kingdom (149),Canada (120),Australia (76),and China (54).The number of systematic reviews significantly increased during the last 6 years,especially in China.The production ranking changed in 2012,at which time the United States and China were the leaders in the yearly production of systematic reviews on hip fractures.The amount of literature (27 publications) from China contributed almost one-quarter of the total literature (109 publications) in 2012.However,the average number of citations of each article from China was still low (6.70),while the highest number of citations of each article was from Sweden (193.36).The references were published in 239 different journals,with 15 journals contributing to 41.3% of the systematic reviews on hip fractures.The two journals that contributed the most were Osteoporosis International (10.6%) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7.6%).The predominant institution in terms of the number of publications was McMaster University (36) in Canada.Conclusions The best evidence in the field of hip fractures has attracted increasing attention.Systematic reviews on hip fractures from China have been increasingly more frequent during the past 6 years,particularly in 2012.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Science and Eastern Orthodoxy. From the Greek Fathers to the Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, E.; Sterken, C.

    2014-01-01

    The long debate on the ambivalent relation between science and religion in Western civilization is well documented in the literature on the history and philosophy of science and religion, but few studies paid attention to that relation within Eastern civilization. Nicolaidis' book provides an overview of the relationship between science and Christian Orthodoxy, the official church of the Oriental Roman Empire. The study covers a time span from the fourth to the twentieth century. The author documents the vision that conflicts between science and the Greek Orthodox church were not science versus Christianity, but rather ecclesiastical debates that traversed the whole of society. This book provides a wealth of information concerning the attitude of the Orthodox (i.e., non-Slavic) Church to science today as well as in the past. But the book covers much more than science and religion: also political debates are documented, as well as the role played by Byzantine emperors in relation with science and Orthodoxy. The book presents a very useful time line of events and works covering circa AD 300-1980. There are short descriptions of the Ptolemaic cosmos, the spherical universe with its seven planets (i.e., excluding the Earth, but including Sun and Moon), the Hellenic Aristotelian world view, the duration of the world (eternal or created), the place of the Earth, the matter of creation, the nature of darkness and light, day and night, the Sun and stars, the laws of nature. The last two chapters about Greece, from the independence to the European Union (but also covering science and religion in the Greek State), are quite interesting. Particularly fascinating for astronomers is the fact that the very first establishment (in 1842) of the Greek nation-state that could be termed a research institute was the Observatory of Athens, made possible by a donation from a very wealthy diaspora Greek who resided in Vienna. This is a very useful book to serve as supportive document for

  12. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

  13. State of the Science Review: Advances in Pain Management in Wounded Service Members over a Decade at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) ion channel, a peripheral pain genera- tor.60 TRPV1 is highly localized on nociceptive sensory neu- rons and their peripheral...models of nociceptive and neuropathic pain . Eur J Pain . 2010;14(8): 814 21. 36. McKeon GP, Pacharinsak C, Long CT, Howard AM, Jampachaisri K, Yeomans DC...State of the science review: Advances in pain management in wounded service members over a decade at war John L. Clifford, PhD, Marcie Fowler, PhD

  14. Progress of basic research in Parkinson's disease in China: data mini-review from the National Natural Science Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heqi; Chen, Gang; Dong, Erdan

    2013-08-30

    This review is to analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of basic research of Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2012. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Parkinson's disease, as well as hotspots in western countries, papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. Over the past 23 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of basic research of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  16. 14th annual Results and Review Workshop on High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Wolfgang E; Resch, Michael M; Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2011; High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '11

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in simulation on supercomputers. Leading researchers present results achieved on systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2011. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering, ranging from CFD to computational physics and chemistry, to computer science, with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting results for both vector systems and microprocessor-based systems, the book allows readers to compare the performance levels and usability of various architectures. As HLRS

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia Noncancer Inhalation (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release in June 2016. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment d...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent ...

  19. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  20. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (28th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Potential of Corona John A. Bicknell Discharges From Aircraft Flying Institute of Science & Technology In Precipitation P.O. Box 88 AFOSR-83-0083...transformation-toughened zirconia , as well as whisker-, particle- and fiber-reinforced glass and polycrystalline ceramic matrices, * and chemically

  1. Book Review: Khine Swe, M. (Ed., Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Slapničar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Science educators agree that textbooks play a crucial role in teaching and learning processes (Clement, 2008; Koppal & Caldwell, 2004; consequently, numerous research studies have been conducted in the analysis of science textbooks. In 1941, Graham noted that ‘The textbook is an old instrument in learning and teaching processes’ and traced the origin of the textbook back to the classical Greek era. With the invention of the printing press, textbooks became omnipresent in every school. Since textbooks are being used as a major source of information in teaching a particular subject, the quality and accuracy of the content is crucial for their educational effectiveness. Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness includes contributions by authors from various backgrounds, theorists and practitioners. In analysing science textbooks, researchers look into the balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, the portrayal of minorities, women and gender fairness, the treatment of socio-scientific and controversial issues, and the depiction of graphical information, vocabulary load, comprehensibility and readability at the intended level, the representation of indigenous knowledge, the role of textbook questions, and cultural and religious sensibility

  2. Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Eric R.; Showalter, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Professors Richard J. Murnane and John B. Willett set out to capitalize on recent developments in education data and methodology by attempting to answer the following questions: How can new methods and data be applied most effectively in educational and social science research? What kinds of research designs are most appropriate? What kinds of…

  3. Review of The Politics of Inquiry: Education Research and the “Culture of Science"

    OpenAIRE

    Hursh, David

    2011-01-01

    Baez and Boyles critique the view that science can and should be objective and neutral and the impact such a view has had on the nature of educational research, teacher professionalism, teacher education, and the university. In particular, they link the rise of neoliberalism and entrepreneurialism with the decline of thoughtful, reflective, and ethical research and teaching.

  4. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference : State of the science and future research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Parisi, Melissa A.; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Berry, Gerard. T.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A.; Brosco, Jeffrey P.; Brown, Christine S.; Burlina, Alberto B.; Burton, Barbara K.; Chang, Christine S.; Coates, Paul M.; Cunningham, Amy C.; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Ferguson, John H.; Franklin, Thomas D.; Frazier, Dianne M.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Greene, Carol L.; Groft, Stephen C.; Harding, Cary O.; Howell, R. Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L.; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D.; Jevaji, Indira P.; Levy, Harvey L.; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Mitchell, John J.; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D.; Mueller, Christine M.; Mulberg, Andrew E.; Nerurkar, Lata S.; Ogata, Beth N.; Pariser, Anne R.; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Reddy, Uma M.; Rohr, Frances J.; Singh, Rani H.; Sirrs, Sandra M.; Stremer, Stephanie E.; Tagle, Danilo A.; Thompson, Susan M.; Urv, Tiina K.; Utz, Jeanine R.; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E.; Weglicki, Linda S.; White, Desiree A.; Whitley, Chester B.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, part

  5. Pierce Butler's "An Introduction to Library Science: A Tract for Our Times? A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Blaise

    2004-01-01

    Considers the historic and contemporary import of Pierce Butler's "An Introduction to Library Science". Characterizes the content of each chapter and critically analyses the central theses. Relates Butler's positivistic premises, assumptions and conclusions to the congeries of competing epistemological and ideological standpoints that defines…

  6. 75 FR 65528 - Membership of the National Science Board's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Director, Division of Human Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer, National Science..., Division of Human Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer. Plus two members to be selected from... Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-M...

  7. 77 FR 12331 - Membership of National Science Foundation's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... 4314(c)(4). ADDRESSES: Comments should be addressed to Director, Division of Human Resource Management... F. Hubbard, Director, Office of Information and Resource Management and Chief Human Capital Officer... Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences. ] Judith S. Sunley, Director, Division of Human Resource Management...

  8. Book Review: "The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...

  9. Book Review: The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2012-01-01

    truth about nature. In The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science, Julie Des Jardins does not seek to discredit the work of Archimedes; rather, she demonstrates that the image of the superman-scientist saturated the public mindset from the late nineteenth century through the 1960s...

  10. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (NAS) REVIEW OF THE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF PERCHLORATE INGESTION (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the interest of resolving scientific questions, the EPA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - members of a broader Interagency Working Group on Perchlorate led by the Office of Science and Technology Polic...

  11. Organizational Teaching and Learning--A (Re)View from Educational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahn, Leif Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the dominance of the participation metaphor for learning in the literature on learning organizations and to propose a working model of the teaching organization with conceptual input from educational science and the sociology of professions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines…

  12. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities... implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. (a) Request for approval of... of § 40.6 of this chapter. (c) Acceptance of new products for clearing. (1) A dormant...

  13. How to compare movement? A review of physical movement similarity measures in geographic information science and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranacher, Peter; Tzavella, Katerina

    2014-05-27

    In geographic information science, a plethora of different approaches and methods is used to assess the similarity of movement. Some of these approaches term two moving objects similar if they share akin paths. Others require objects to move at similar speed and yet others consider movement similar if it occurs at the same time. We believe that a structured and comprehensive classification of movement comparison measures is missing. We argue that such a classification not only depicts the status quo of qualitative and quantitative movement analysis, but also allows for identifying those aspects of movement for which similarity measures are scarce or entirely missing. In this review paper we, first, decompose movement into its spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal movement parameters. A movement parameter is a physical quantity of movement, such as speed, spatial path, or temporal duration. For each of these parameters we then review qualitative and quantitative methods of how to compare movement. Thus, we provide a systematic and comprehensive classification of different movement similarity measures used in geographic information science. This classification is a valuable first step toward a GIS toolbox comprising all relevant movement comparison methods.

  14. Synopsis of the Review on Space Weather in Latin America: Space Science, Research Networks and Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo

    2016-07-01

    The present work is a synopsis of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. The first paper (part 1) comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960's, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this part 1 is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues. The second paper (part 2) comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue warnings and alerts. The third paper (part 3) presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reason/opportunities that leads to

  15. Observing, recording, and reviewing: Using mobile phones in support of science inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Elaine; Williams, John; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Teaching science can be challenging, particularly if it involves the incorporation of inquiry approaches. Collaboration and co-construction of ideas and understandings requires changing teaching and learning practices to allow students to learn how to collaborate ‘inquiry style......’. There is increasing evidence that the use of mobile learning devices can support inquiry learning by increasing the opportunities for student participation and collaboration in the learning process. This paper reports on the preliminary findings from a New Zealand Teaching and Learning Initiative funded project...... questions and investigations, and increased student ownership of their learning. Sharing the mobile phone recordings of their learning with their peers and community further enriched students’ developing science understandings beyond the classroom....

  16. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (29th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    August 1952 as a Research Administrator. He brought with him a varied teaching and industrial experience, interrupted by 3 years as an Officer in the...34 and was selected Outstanding Senior by Sigma Delta Phi. After graduation he spent the next five years teaching science and coaching in Ohio high schools...63,900, FY 83 SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Dr. K. I. Lazaar PUBLICATIONS: "Intramolecular Unsymmetrical OHO Bonds. Thermochemistry ," K. I. Lazaar and S

  17. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  18. Thank you to our 2016 peer reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Steven A.; Baratoux, David; Stanley, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Peer review is one of most fundamental aspects of the modern practice of science. As scientists we hold our own work up to scrutiny by experts among our peers in order to encourage the best practices in scientific conduct and communication. Thorough consideration and review by professional colleagues of scientific papers are critical aspects of ensuring that the manuscripts published by JGR-Planets are accurate, valuable, and clearly communicated. Peer review is an essential element of the process of refining understanding and sharing science, and the effort and expertise shared by each reviewer are crucial to the advancement of planetary science. In 2016, JGR Planets benefited from more than 451 reviews provided by 337 of our peers for papers submitted to the journal. Thank you all for your dedication to advancing planetary science.

  19. Open evaluation (OE: A vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eKriegeskorte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE, the other side of coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs. PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g. scientific societies and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g. by H-factor and rating scales (e.g. by relevance to a decision process in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  20. K-16 Computationally Rich Science Education: A Ten-Year Review of the "Journal of Science Education and Technology" (1998-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Computing is anticipated to have an increasingly expansive impact on the sciences overall, becoming the third, crucial component of a "golden triangle" that includes mathematics and experimental and theoretical science. However, even more true with computing than with math and science, we are not preparing our students for this new reality. It is…

  1. Past, Present and Future Challenges To Science and Sustainability At EPA: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews critical actions taken by EPA since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to overcome its single media approach to environmental protection and advance the concept and practice of sustainability. Sustainability is defined as both a goal and a process that link economic gro...

  2. Economies Inclusion in the Web of Science and Changes in Its Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Fendel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Economies is entering its third year of existence and an impressive amount of high-quality research has already been published. It is fair to say that Economies has already established itself as an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal. [...

  3. The routinization of innovation research : A constructively critical review of the state-of-the-science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N; De Dreu, CKW; Nijstad, BA

    2004-01-01

    In this review we argue that facilitators of innovation at the individual, group, and organizational levels have been reliably identified, and that validated process models of innovation have been developed. However, a content analysis of selected research published between 1997 and 2002 suggests a

  4. Intelligibility of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Method: Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis…

  5. Unusual clear cell variant of epithelioid mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, E; Falleni, M; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Panigalli, T; Pietra, G G

    2001-12-01

    Clear cell mesothelioma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the pleura, which can easily be mistaken for a metastasis of clear cell carcinoma to the pleura. We report here the histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of a new case of clear cell pleural mesothelioma in a 52-year-old man with no known asbestos exposure. He was admitted to the hospital for recurrent pleural effusion, which was negative for neoplastic cells at the cytologic examination. A partial decortication of the right pleura was performed. The morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features reported for this case are consistent with the diagnosis of clear cell mesothelioma. The differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical features in comparison with other clear cell neoplasms are discussed.

  6. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  7. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  8. Science docent is better than science chair to science popularization development:A review on the popular science docent competitions%科普主持人与科普发展更相宜--对科普讲解员大赛的点评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱效民

    2016-01-01

    通过对科普讲解员大赛的现状分析,指出用“主持人”代替“讲解员”更符合当今科普发展的趋势,并对大赛的评分标准提出了改进意见。%By reviewing on the popular science docent competitions, two suggestions were provided. First, using “chairs” is better than “docents” for the development of popular science work today. Second, some improvements for the evaluation standard of popular science docent competitions were suggested to meet the paradigm shift of science popularization.

  9. Science and Scientificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Liang Xu; Xin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ A question about science We are now living in a scientific era, in which the theory and practice of science have penetrated into all aspects of society and science is often a hot topic.However, what on earth is science? This question is largely neglected by many people, even researchers focusing on scientific studies may not have a very clear understanding of it.

  10. Book review: Large carnivore conservation: Integrating science and policy in the North American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A. J.; Cox, M. M.; Ernst, E. E.; Haley, H. J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Loney, D. A.; Mackert, M. M.; McCombs, A. L.; Piatscheck, F.; Pocius, V. M.; Stein, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Klaver reviewed Large Carnivore Conservation as part of a graduate seminar and seminar participants represented the full range of readers who might be interested in the book: natural resource managers, citizen advocates, researchers, and students. Although we encountered a variety of opinions based on our different backgrounds and orientations, we discovered a surprising amount of consensus both about what the book does well and where it falls short of our expectations.

  11. Reminiscences on science at IHES A problem on homoclinic theory and a brief review

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, G

    1998-01-01

    On the occasion of the 40-th anniversary of IHES I present a few scientific reminiscences: most of my scientific life has been marked by my visits and I run through them concluding with the analysis of a problem that originated during my last visit. The problem is to develop a convergent perturbative algorithm for the construction of the ``Eliasson's potential'' for the stable and unstable manifolds of an invariant torus: and to study its properties. A brief review follows.

  12. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  13. Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis.

  14. Analytical methods for the determination of halogens in bioanalytical sciences: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Paola A; Barin, Juliano S; Duarte, Fabio A; Bizzi, Cezar A; Diehl, Liange O; Muller, Edson I; Flores, Erico M M

    2013-09-01

    Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine have been studied in biological samples and other related matrices owing to the need to understand the biochemical effects in living organisms. In this review, the works published in last 20 years are covered, and the main topics related to sample preparation methods and analytical techniques commonly used for fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine determination in biological samples, food, drugs, and plants used as food or with medical applications are discussed. The commonest sample preparation methods, as extraction and decomposition using combustion and pyrohydrolysis, are reviewed, as well as spectrometric and electroanalytical techniques, spectrophotometry, total reflection X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and separation systems using chromatography and electrophoresis. On this aspect, the main analytical challenges and drawbacks are highlighted. A discussion related to the availability of certified reference materials for evaluation of accuracy is also included, as well as a discussion of the official methods used as references for the determination of halogens in the samples covered in this review.

  15. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  16. The international spread of Academic Health Science Centres: a scoping review and the case of policy transfer to England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Catherine E; Ferlie, Ewan; Fulop, Naomi J

    2014-09-01

    Academic Health Science Centres (AHSCs) have been a key feature of the North American healthcare landscape for many years, and the term is becoming more widely used internationally. The defining feature of these complex organisations is a tripartite mission of delivering high quality research, medical education and clinical care. The biomedical innovations developed in AHSCs are often well documented, but less is known about the policy and organisational processes which enable the translation of research into patient care. This paper has two linked purposes. Firstly, we present a scoping review of the literature which explores the managerial, political and cultural perspectives of AHSCs. The literature is largely normative with little social science theory underpinning commentary and descriptive case studies. Secondly, we contribute to addressing this gap by applying a policy transfer framework to the English case to examine how AHSC policy has spread internationally. We conclude by suggesting a research agenda on AHSCs using the relevant literatures of policy transfer, professional/managerial relations and boundary theory, and highlighting three key messages for policy makers: (1) competing policy incentives for AHSCs should be minimised; (2) no single AHSC model will fit all settings; (3) AHSC networks operate internationally and this should be encouraged.

  17. Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@imf.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.L. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Becquart, C.S. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ciupinski, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Correia, J.B. [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Domain, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Fikar, J. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Fortuna, E. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Fu, C.-C. [CEA, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Saclay (France); Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Galan, T.L. [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Materials Science and Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain); Gludovatz, B. [OAW, Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Leoben (Austria); Greuner, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Heinola, K. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-01

    All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on 'Materials Science and Modeling'. This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.

  18. A Review of Filovirus Work and Facilities at The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory Porton Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Lever

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Porton Down houses two separate sites capable of conducting high containment research on ACDP (Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens Hazard Group 4 agents: the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl and the Health Protection Agency (HPA, and filovirus research has been performed at Porton Down since the first Marburg virus disease outbreak in 1967. All work is conducted within primary containment either within cabinet lines (for in vitro work or large rigid half-suit isolators (for in vivo work. There are extensive aerobiological facilities at high containment and the use of these facilities will be reported. Research at Dstl is primarily focused on assessing and quantifying the hazard, and testing the efficacy of medical countermeasures against filoviruses. Fundamental research directed to the study and understanding of the infectious and pathogenic nature of the filoviruses, particularly in aerosols, will be reported.

  19. A Collection of Articles Reprinted from Science & Technology Review on University Relations Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H; Rennie, G; Henke, A

    2006-08-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Power of Partnership--Livermore researchers forge strategic collaborations with colleagues from other University of California campuses to further science and better protect the nation; (2) Collaborative Research Prepares Our Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers--Commentary by Laura R. Gilliom; (3) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with Livermore scientists and engineers to conduct fundamental research as part of their theses; (4) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory; and (5) Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore--Faculty members from around the world come to the Laboratory as sabbatical scholars.

  20. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted.Synthesis and applications. Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions and

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Illustrated Wavelet Transform Handbook: Introductory Theory and Applications in Science, Engineering, Medicine and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J.; Kingsbury, N. G.

    2004-02-01

    This book provides an overview of the theory and practice of continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Divided into seven chapters, the first three chapters of the book are introductory, describing the various forms of the wavelet transform and their computation, while the remaining chapters are devoted to applications in fluids, engineering, medicine and miscellaneous areas. Each chapter is well introduced, with suitable examples to demonstrate key concepts. Illustrations are included where appropriate, thus adding a visual dimension to the text. A noteworthy feature is the inclusion, at the end of each chapter, of a list of further resources from the academic literature which the interested reader can consult. The first chapter is purely an introduction to the text. The treatment of wavelet transforms begins in the second chapter, with the definition of what a wavelet is. The chapter continues by defining the continuous wavelet transform and its inverse and a description of how it may be used to interrogate signals. The continuous wavelet transform is then compared to the short-time Fourier transform. Energy and power spectra with respect to scale are also discussed and linked to their frequency counterparts. Towards the end of the chapter, the two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is introduced. Examples of how the continuous wavelet transform is computed using the Mexican hat and Morlet wavelets are provided throughout. The third chapter introduces the discrete wavelet transform, with its distinction from the discretized continuous wavelet transform having been made clear at the end of the second chapter. In the first half of the chapter, the logarithmic discretization of the wavelet function is described, leading to a discussion of dyadic grid scaling, frames, orthogonal and orthonormal bases, scaling functions and multiresolution representation. The fast wavelet transform is introduced and its computation is illustrated with an example using the Haar

  2. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  3. Good fences make for good neighbors but bad science: a review of what improves Bayesian reasoning and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Hill, W Trey

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian reasoning, defined here as the updating of a posterior probability following new information, has historically been problematic for humans. Classic psychology experiments have tested human Bayesian reasoning through the use of word problems and have evaluated each participant's performance against the normatively correct answer provided by Bayes' theorem. The standard finding is of generally poor performance. Over the past two decades, though, progress has been made on how to improve Bayesian reasoning. Most notably, research has demonstrated that the use of frequencies in a natural sampling framework-as opposed to single-event probabilities-can improve participants' Bayesian estimates. Furthermore, pictorial aids and certain individual difference factors also can play significant roles in Bayesian reasoning success. The mechanics of how to build tasks which show these improvements is not under much debate. The explanations for why naturally sampled frequencies and pictures help Bayesian reasoning remain hotly contested, however, with many researchers falling into ingrained "camps" organized around two dominant theoretical perspectives. The present paper evaluates the merits of these theoretical perspectives, including the weight of empirical evidence, theoretical coherence, and predictive power. By these criteria, the ecological rationality approach is clearly better than the heuristics and biases view. Progress in the study of Bayesian reasoning will depend on continued research that honestly, vigorously, and consistently engages across these different theoretical accounts rather than staying "siloed" within one particular perspective. The process of science requires an understanding of competing points of view, with the ultimate goal being integration.

  4. A review of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in food science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful nanoscale analysis technique used in food area. This versatile technique can be used to acquire high-resolution sample images and investigate local interactions in air or liquid surroundings. In this chapter, we explain the principles of AFM and review representative applications of AFM in gelatin, casein micelle, carrageenan, gellan gum, starch, and interface. We elucidate new knowledge revealed with AFM as well as ways to use AFM to obtain morphology and rheology information in different food fields.

  5. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.

  6. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Rabade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  7. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  8. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  9. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  10. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries ‘to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends’. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as ‘Conservation by Design’ that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted.Synthesis and applications. Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's

  11. Ethics and fraud in science: a review of scientific misconduct and applications to craniofacial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Theodore; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Papadopulos, Jannis S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the occurrence of fraud in biomedical research and analyze the definition, origin, and various forms of scientific misconduct. Fraud in research most often involves reporting data for which no records of experiment or population are present; manipulating research materials, equipment, or procedures to arrive at the desirable result; adding, changing, or omitting results, which positively or negatively relate to the hypothesis that the research intends to test; and incorporating ideas, statements, procedures of others' work without permission and appropriate credit to the source. The etiologic factors contributing to this deviant behavior, and measures taken by relevant bodies to eliminate this phenomenon are discussed. Ethical and integrity aspects of craniofacial research are explored and a set of criteria to facilitate rigorous assessment of the integrity of clinical and basic research protocols is proposed. These include (1) an integrity-focused training of researchers to adhere to specific laboratory procedure and tactics which discourage fraud; (2) appointment of external reviewers to detect unusual and suspicious experimental process or data patterns; and (3) encouragement of multicenter trials. Although it is widely recognized that the sole determinant of scientific misconduct is the individual investigator's integrity, a number of precautions may effectively reduce the prevalence of this event, which may affect the status and trends of biomedical research in general.

  12. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advance Science Research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2001, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2000, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2003 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 4, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  13. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research. In-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the adequacy of the R and D programs to be implemented for five years starting in Fiscal Year 2003 at Department of Materials Science in Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from April 2002 to August 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 5th, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5th, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Materials Science Research. (author)

  14. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  15. Tailoring the interplay between electromagnetic fields and nanomaterials toward applications in life sciences: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Continuous advances in the field of bionanotechnology, particularly in the areas of synthesis and functionalization of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles with novel physicochemical properties, allow the development of innovative and/or enhanced approaches for medical solutions. Many of the present and future applications of bionanotechnology rely on the ability of nanoparticles to efficiently interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields and subsequently to produce a response via scattering or absorption of the interacting field. The cross-sections of nanoparticles are typically orders of magnitude larger than organic molecules, which provide the means for manipulating EM fields and, thereby, enable applications in therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, hyperthermia, drug release, etc.), sensing (e.g., surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman, energy transfer, etc.), and imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal, etc.). Herein, an overview of the most relevant parameters and promising applications of EM-active nanoparticles for applications in life science are discussed with a view toward tailoring the interaction of nanoparticles with EM fields.

  16. Health science education: reviewing a framework for problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarlie, V Wallace; Orr, Daniel L

    2010-05-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has become one pedagogical approach to gain currency in recent decades, its foundational underpinnings have remained obscure. This investigation seeks to elucidate the theoretical framework or assumptions upon which PBL operates. We have situated core PBL principles in the larger context of health science education, which underwent dramatic changes at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fundamental problem at that time in dental education was moving beyond a lecture-based and apprentice curriculum (students memorizing facts) to a critical thinking-based curriculum. We trace these developments and especially the principles that one thinker, who does not easily fit into any one school of thought, used to frame the problem. We found that the principles underlying the idea of PBL have existed for over a century in varying academic alleys outside of dentistry (including constructivist thought). Despite our technological advances, many of the core challenges of a century ago remain challenges today. Although PBL is certainly not the only way to provide dental students an opportunity to best develop critical thinking, it nevertheless provides an environment in which the learning process may be enhanced.

  17. Does print size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Bigelow, Charles A

    2011-08-09

    The size and shape of printed symbols determine the legibility of text. In this paper, we focus on print size because of its crucial role in understanding reading performance and its significance in the history and contemporary practice of typography. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the distribution of print sizes in historical and contemporary publications falls within the psychophysically defined range of fluent print size--the range over which text can be read at maximum speed. The fluent range extends over a factor of 10 in angular print size (x-height) from approximately 0.2° to 2°. Assuming a standard reading distance of 40 cm (16 inches), the corresponding physical x-heights are 1.4 mm (4 points) and 14 mm (40 points). We provide new data on the distributions of print sizes in published books and newspapers and in typefounders' specimens, and consider factors influencing these distributions. We discuss theoretical concepts from vision science concerning visual size coding that help inform our understanding of historical and modern typographical practices. While economic, social, technological, and artistic factors influence type design and selection, we conclude that properties of human visual processing play a dominant role in constraining the distribution of print sizes in common use.

  18. Computer Science Teacher Professional Development in the United States: A Review of Studies Published between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher…

  19. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Mace, Georgina; Jackson, Robert B.; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Boyd, Philip W.; Norby, Richard J.; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M. Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change. Climate change in some regions is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of geoengineering activities have been proposed: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), whereby a small percentage of sunlight is reflected back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases. In this review, we evaluate some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, including the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to Earth. Specifically, we find evidence that, if implemented successfully, some CDR methods and continue use of some SRM methods) could alleviate some of the deleterious ecosystem impacts associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.

  20. State of the science: a contemporary review of feeding readiness in the preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Carrie-Ellen; McGrath, Jacqueline; Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness has been described by researchers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and research has continued on this topic for many years. The purpose of this narrative review is to identify research and practice guidelines related to oral feeding readiness in preterm infants that have occurred during the last decade. The introduction and mastery of oral feeding is a major developmental task for the preterm infant that is often a prerequisite for discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Having a better understanding of the evidence supporting the development of this skill will help the practicing nurse choose appropriate interventions and the researcher to develop trajectories of research that continue to increase our knowledge in this important practice area.

  1. Hypoxic hypoxia at moderate altitudes: review of the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrassi, Frank A; Hodkinson, Peter D; Walters, P Lynne; Gaydos, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Unpressurized aircraft routinely operate at altitudes where hypoxia may be of concern. A systematic literature review was conducted regarding hypoxic impairment, including mental functions, sensory deficits, and other pertinent research findings that may affect aviation-related duties at moderate altitude (8000 to 15,000 ft/2438 to 4572 m). The results of this review suggest that cognitive and psychomotor deficits may include learning, reaction time, decision-making, and certain types of memory. However, results are difficult to quantify and reliably reproduce. Inconsistency of results may be related to the subtlety of deficits compared to high altitude, differences among individual compensatory mechanisms, variation in methodology or sensitivity of metrics, presence or absence of exercise, heterogeneous neuronal central nervous system (CNS) response, and interindividual variation. Literature regarding hypoxic visual decrements is more consistent. Rod photoreceptors are more susceptible to hypoxia; visual degradation has been demonstrated at 4000 to 5000 ft (1219 to 1524 m) under scotopic and 10,000 ft (3048 m) under photopic conditions. Augmented night vision goggle resolution demonstrates more resilience to mild hypoxic effects than the unaided eye under starlight conditions. Hypocapnia enhances visual sensitivity and contrast discrimination. Hyperventilation with resulting respiratory alkalosis and cerebral vasoconstriction may confound both cognitive/ psychomotor and visual experimental results. Future research should include augmentation of validated neuropsychological metrics (surrogate investigational end points) with actual flight metrics, investigation of mixed gas formulations, contribution of hypocapnic vasoconstrictive effects on hypoxic performance, and further investigation into cellular- and systems-level approaches for heterogeneous CNS response. Research is also required into the contribution of mild-moderate hypoxia in human factors- and spatial

  2. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M [University of California, San Diego; Jackson, Robert B [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate

  3. The Value and Potential of Multisited Ethnography for Science Education Research: A Review of Jrene Rahm's "Science in the Making at the Margin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Rahm sought to illuminate how children and youth make meaning of science in three out-of-school time programs, and the identity work that is done through the trajectory of their youth toward their young adulthood. Through using multisited ethnography, she asserts that we can learn more about what the youth say about their science learning and…

  4. Shanghai Clearing House to Roll out Renminbi-denominated Copper Clearing Operations in Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Clearing House Financial Markets Co.,Ltd.(Shanghai Clearing House)General Manager Xie Zhong told the media recently at the briefing of the international symposium of"Reform Deepening and Mechanism Innovation of the Post-crisis Kerb Market",Shanghai Clearing House will explore the feasibility of carrying out bond business in

  5. Collaboration in science: Strategy and the writing of a review chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Linn K.

    Collaborative writing is a frequent and rhetorically complex activity common to most environments. Unfortunately, educators know little about how knowledge is positioned through group interaction to ensure knowledge claims become fact. To broaden understanding of how knowledge is transformed through collaborative interactions, this study examines the rhetorical situation and the process in which collaborative writers interact as a document evolves. Specifically, the study investigates (1) how scientific writers define the purposes for collaboration, (2) how such collaborative writers relate to or influence one another during the production, articulation, and negotiation of knowledge claims, and (3) how they use collaboration to achieve a public space for their ideas. A 12-month qualitative study, the project followed three principal investigators and a graduate student collaborating in the construction of a review chapter articulating the group's scientific research. Data consist of interviews, observations of situated collaborative writers, and the collection of textual artifacts related to the production of a review chapter. Methodological triangulation was used for both data collection and analysis. Written data were analyzed for participant purposes for collaboration and the positioning of knowledge claims through collaborative interaction. Interview data were examined for expectations and perceptions of collaboration and collaborative writing. Through collaboration, this group functioned as a synergistic force, enabling them to compete as a viable research group in a fast-paced environment. Study findings suggest, first, that collaboration is a purposeful relationship dependent upon the participants agreeing on a problem and solution. The strategic interaction illustrated by this group shows how these scientists collaborated to address the problem of achieving a public space for their knowledge claims. This study also suggests that the knowledge that

  6. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M

    1996-11-01

    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  7. The review of the modeling methods and numerical analysis software for nanotechnology in material science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMIRNOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high demand for building materials with universal set of roperties which extend their application area the research efforts are focusing on nanotechnology in material science. The rational combination of theoretical studies, mathematical modeling and simulation can favour reduced resource and time consumption when nanomodified materials are being developed. The development of composite material is based on the principles of system analysis which provides for the necessity of criteria determination and further classification of modeling methods. In this work the criteria of spatial scale, dominant type of interaction and heterogeneity are used for such classification. The presented classification became a framework for analysis of methods and software which can be applied to the development of building materials. For each of selected spatial levels - from atomistic one to macrostructural level of constructional coarsegrained composite – existing theories, modeling algorithms and tools have been considered. At the level of macrostructure which is formed under influence of gravity and exterior forces one can apply probabilistic and geometrical methods to study obtained structure. The existing models are suitable for packing density analysis and solution of percolation problems at the macroscopic level, but there are still no software tools which could be applied in nanotechnology to carry out systematic investigations. At the microstructure level it’s possible to use particle method along with probabilistic and statistical methods to explore structure formation but available software tools are partially suitable for numerical analysis of microstructure models. Therefore, modeling of the microstructure is rather complicated; the model has to include potential of pairwise interaction. After the model has been constructed and parameters of pairwise potential have been determined, many software packages for solution of ordinary

  8. Sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kamelia; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Espie, Colin A; MacMahon, Kenneth M A; Woods, Heather Cleland; Kyle, Simon D

    2015-12-01

    Prominent models of insomnia posit that sleep-related attentional bias plays an important role in the development and maintenance of insomnia. Here we conduct the first systematic review of the sleep-related attentional bias construct, indexed through reaction time-based experimental tasks. Literature search identified 13 studies that met pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies involved between-group comparisons (poor sleepers versus controls), as well as sleep manipulations and correlational investigations with healthy sleepers. For studies involving comparisons between poor sleepers and healthy controls, effect size estimates were computed for task-relevant dependent variables. Six of the nine studies comparing poor sleepers and controls revealed statistically significant group differences in support of a differential sleep-related attentional bias (medium-to-large effect sizes), with flicker, dot-probe and Posner tasks being most sensitive to group effects. Due to the paucity of studies and variability in design and measurement, no conclusions could be reached regarding manipulation or induction of attentional bias in good sleepers. Results from the relatively small number of studies support the presence of sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia; however, its role in the development and/or maintenance of insomnia remains to be elucidated. We set out a research agenda aimed at advancing the understanding of sleep-related attention bias.

  9. Review. Establishing an experimental science of culture: animal social diffusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Mesoudi, Alex

    2008-11-12

    A growing set of observational studies documenting putative cultural variations in wild animal populations has been complemented by experimental studies that can more rigorously distinguish between social and individual learning. However, these experiments typically examine only what one animal learns from another. Since the spread of culture is inherently a group-level phenomenon, greater validity can be achieved through 'diffusion experiments', in which founder behaviours are experimentally manipulated and their spread across multiple individuals tested. Here we review the existing corpus of 33 such studies in fishes, birds, rodents and primates and offer the first systematic analysis of the diversity of experimental designs that have arisen. We distinguish three main transmission designs and seven different experimental/control approaches, generating an array with 21 possible cells, 15 of which are currently represented by published studies. Most but not all of the adequately controlled diffusion experiments have provided robust evidence for cultural transmission in at least some taxa, with transmission spreading across populations of up to 24 individuals and along chains of up to 14 transmission events. We survey the achievements of this work, its prospects for the future and its relationship to diffusion studies with humans discussed in this theme issue and elsewhere.

  10. The science of spinal motion palpation: a review and update with implications for assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Richard Edward; Russell Smith, A

    2013-08-01

    Spinal motion palpation (SMP) is a standard component of a manual therapy examination despite questionable reliability. The present research is inconclusive as to the relevance of the findings from SMP, with respect to the patient's pain complaints. Differences in the testing methods and interpretation of spinal mobility testing are problematic. If SMP is to be a meaningful component of a spinal examination, the methods for testing and interpretation must be carefully scrutinized. The intent of this narrative review is to facilitate a better understanding of how SMP should provide the examiner with relevant information for assessment and treatment of patients with spinal pain disorders. The concept of just noticeable difference is presented and applied to SMP as a suggestion for determining the neutral zone behavior of a spinal segment. In addition, the use of a lighter, or more passive receptive palpation technique, is considered as a means for increasing tactile discrimination of spinal movement behavior. Further understanding of the scientific basis of testing SMP may improve intra- and inter-examiner reliability. The significance of the findings from SMP should be considered in context of the patient's functional problem. Methodological changes may be indicated for the performance of SMP techniques, such as central posterior-anterior (PA) pressure and passive intervertebral motion tests, in order to improve reliability. Instructors of manual therapy involved in teaching SMP should be knowledgeable of the neurophysiological processes of touch sensation so as to best advise students in the application of the various testing techniques.

  11. Science and engineering of nanodiamond particle surfaces for biological applications (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderova, Olga A; McGuire, Gary E

    2015-09-05

    Diamond has outstanding bulk properties such as super hardness, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, luminescence, to name just a few. In the nanoworld, in order to exploit these outstanding bulk properties, the surfaces of nanodiamond (ND) particles must be accordingly engineered for specific applications. Modification of functional groups on the ND's surface and the corresponding electrostatic properties determine their colloidal stability in solvents, formation of photonic crystals, controlled adsorption and release of cargo molecules, conjugation with biomolecules and polymers, and cellular uptake. The optical activity of the luminescent color centers in NDs depends on their proximity to the ND's surface and surface termination. In order to engineer the ND surface, a fundamental understanding of the specific structural features and sp(3)-sp(2) phase transformations on the surface of ND particles is required. In the case of ND particles produced by detonation of carbon containing explosives (detonation ND), it should also be taken into account that its structure depends on the synthesis parameters and subsequent processing. Thus, for development of a strategy of surface modification of detonation ND, it is imperative to know details of its production. In this review, the authors discuss ND particles structure, strategies for surface modification, electrokinetic properties of NDs in suspensions, and conclude with a brief overview of the relevant bioapplications.

  12. The epidemiology of glioma in adults: a "state of the science" review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T; Bauchet, Luc; Davis, Faith G; Deltour, Isabelle; Fisher, James L; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Pekmezci, Melike; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Turner, Michelle C; Walsh, Kyle M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2014-07-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, representing 81% of malignant brain tumors. Although relatively rare, they cause significant mortality and morbidity. Glioblastoma, the most common glioma histology (∼45% of all gliomas), has a 5-year relative survival of ∼5%. A small portion of these tumors are caused by Mendelian disorders, including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genomic analyses of glioma have also produced new evidence about risk and prognosis. Recently discovered biomarkers that indicate improved survival include O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and a glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified heritable risk alleles within 7 genes that are associated with increased risk of glioma. Many risk factors have been examined as potential contributors to glioma risk. Most significantly, these include an increase in risk by exposure to ionizing radiation and a decrease in risk by history of allergies or atopic disease(s). The potential influence of occupational exposures and cellular phones has also been examined, with inconclusive results. We provide a “state of the science” review of current research into causes and risk factors for gliomas in adults.

  13. Quantum Information Science: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, L. C.; Zen, Freddy P.

    2016-08-01

    It is now roughly thirty years since the incipient ideas on quantum information science was concretely formalized. Over the last three decades, there has been much development in this field, and at least one technology, namely devices for quantum cryptography, is now commercialized. Yet, the holy grail of a workable quantum computing machine still lies faraway at the horizon. In any case, it took nearly several centuries before the vacuum tubes were invented after the first mechanical calculating were constructed, and several decades later, for the transistor to bring the current computer technology to fruition. In this review, we provide a short survey of the current development and progress in quantum information science. It clearly does not do justice to the amount of work in the past thirty years. Nevertheless, despite the modest attempt, this review hopes to induce younger researchers into this exciting field.

  14. Good Fences Make for Good Neighbors but Bad Science: A Review of What Improves Bayesian Reasoning and Why

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian reasoning, defined here as the updating of a posterior probability following new information, has historically been problematic for humans. Classic psychology experiments have tested human Bayesian reasoning through the use of word problems and have evaluated each participant’s performance against the normatively correct answer provided by Bayes’ theorem. The standard finding is of generally poor performance. Over the past two decades, though, progress has been made on how to improve Bayesian reasoning. Most notably, research has demonstrated that the use of frequencies in a natural sampling framework —as opposed to single-event probabilities—can improve participants’ Bayesian estimates. Furthermore, pictorial aids and certain individual difference factors also can play significant roles in Bayesian reasoning success. The mechanics of how to build tasks which show these improvements is not under much debate. The explanations for why naturally-sampled frequencies and pictures help Bayesian reasoning remain hotly contested, however, with many researchers falling into ingrained camps organized around two dominant theoretical perspectives. The present paper evaluates the merits of these theoretical perspectives, including the weight of empirical evidence, theoretical coherence, and predictive power. By these criteria, the ecological rationality approach is clearly better than the heuristics and biases view. Progress in the study of Bayesian reasoning will depend on continued research that honestly, vigorously, and consistently engages across these different theoretical accounts rather than staying siloed within one particular perspective. The process of science requires an understanding of competing points of view, with the ultimate goal being integration.

  15. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  16. The management of clear cell sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, DR; Hoekstra, HJ; Veth, RPH; Wobbes, T

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumour, constituting approximately 1% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Prognosis is reported to be poor due to the great propensity to metastasise regionally and distantly. In this paper, we report the surgical experience of two university hospitals. Both disease

  17. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  18. The value and potential of multisited ethnography for science education research: a review of Jrène Rahm's Science in the Making at the Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    2012-03-01

    Rahm sought to illuminate how children and youth make meaning of science in three out-of-school time programs, and the identity work that is done through the trajectory of their youth toward their young adulthood. Through using multisited ethnography, she asserts that we can learn more about what the youth say about their science learning and science literacy development in these programs. She has revealed through her rich data the potential value of multisited ethnography for science education research. A similar theme of insider/outsider status to science emerged in each of the three sites. The nature of the data collected in Rahm's multisited ethnography allowed for the unveiling of the similarities in this theme, but also made evident the nuanced ways that this theme presented itself differently across the three sites. The additional potential came through in the varied data Rahm could have delved into and did not. A unique characteristic of ethnographic research, that is not necessarily present in other research methods, is that a wide array of varied data is collected. An analysis of documents, images, and observational field notes, which go beyond interview data, may provide deeper understandings previously untouched in science education.

  19. The Search for Durable Exterior Clear Coatings for Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Evans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a durable exterior clear coating has eluded generations of coatings technologists, despite long-standing desire amongst the public for such a coating. The journey towards this goal initially focused on modifications to coating formulation, but took a completely different direction when it was found that a UV-transparent silicone clear coating on wood modified with chromic acid met consumer expectations of coating durability. This finding sparked world-wide interest in wood pre-treatments as a way of enhancing the durability of clear coatings. This interest initially focused on transition metal compounds, but has now shifted in the direction of organic and inorganic photostabilizers or even more drastic pre-treatments. Pre-treatments that dimensionally stabilize wood, protect it from microbial degradation and photostabilize lignin, when combined with flexible, photostable, coatings provide the next way-stop on the journey towards achieving the goal of durable exterior clear coatings for wood. This paper reviews this journey, drawing upon our research and that of other groups who have focused on this elusive goal.

  20. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  1. Microplastics as vectors for bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the marine environment: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Linda M; Edgington, Aaron; Hentz, Karyn; Kulacki, Konrad J; Kane Driscoll, Susan

    2016-07-01

    A state-of-the-science review was conducted to examine the potential for microplastics to sorb hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from the marine environment, for aquatic organisms to take up these HOCs from the microplastics, and for this exposure to result in adverse effects to ecological and human health. Despite concentrations of HOCs associated with microplastics that can be orders of magnitude greater than surrounding seawater, the relative importance of microplastics as a route of exposure is difficult to quantify because aquatic organisms are typically exposed to HOCs from various compartments, including water, sediment, and food. Results of laboratory experiments and modeling studies indicate that HOCs can partition from microplastics to organisms or from organisms to microplastics, depending on experimental conditions. Very little information is available to evaluate ecological or human health effects from this exposure. Most of the available studies measured biomarkers that are more indicative of exposure than effects, and no studies showed effects to ecologically relevant endpoints. Therefore, evidence is weak to support the occurrence of ecologically significant adverse effects on aquatic life as a result of exposure to HOCs sorbed to microplastics or to wildlife populations and humans from secondary exposure via the food chain. More data are needed to fully understand the relative importance of exposure to HOCs from microplastics compared with other exposure pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1667-1676. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Review of Research Progresses on the Science of Earthquake Underground Fluid in China During the Last 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaowei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the development of scientific research and practice of earthquake underground fluid in China during the last 40 years,summaries early constructive research and primary achievements in this field.The science of earthquake underground fluid is closely correlated with earthquake monitoring and prediction,such as innovations in observation techniques and theoretical methods,and analysis of diversified parameters and research into predictive methods.The historical evolution of observation networks for underground fluid indicates that the demand for strong earthquake monitoring and prediction has become the driving force of the construction and development of the observation network.The development of observation techniques represents the trend based on multiform measurement,syntheses,and digitization.The study results of underground fluid theory and precursory mechanisms suggest that the precursory model,numerical simulation and in-door or field experimental research are the main technological approaches promoting innovation.Research results of earthquake forecast methods use physics based forecast techniques and the ideas of cornbination of usabifity and scientific advance.It has been proved by forecast practice that studying underground fluid is a very important subject in earthquake prediction on the Chinese mainland.Finally,the primary work and technical criterion on underground fluid are introduced,and some major scientific issues and development trends in different historical stages are summarized.

  3. A review of 40 years of hydrological science and practice in southern Africa using the Pitman rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The 40th anniversary of the initial development of the Pitman rainfall-runoff (developed in South Africa and widely applied throughout southern Africa) approximately coincides with the end of the IAHS PUB programme and the start of a new decade focussing on hydrological change (Panta Rhei) and society. The paper reviews the developments and applications of the Pitman model in the context of the appropriate outcomes of PUB and the proposed future directions of Panta Rhei. The focus of development of the Pitman model has been dominated by practical applications, while PUB was largely dominated by science issues. While some of the PUB principles have been applied with the Pitman model, there are others that are deemed inappropriate for practical modelling and others that would almost certainly benefit the Pitman model applications in the future. The paper includes discussions of the model structure, input data, parameters and output evaluations - all in the context of uncertainty. The capabilities of the model to address societal development impacts are also discussed and a brief example of an uncertainty approach to applying the model is provided. The conclusions are that some developments of the Pitman model anticipated more recent international developments, while others have not been ignored even if further efforts are required to effectively implement them. Perhaps the largest gap in applying uncertainty principles in practice is how to use them in water resources decision making.

  4. Writing in the natural sciences: Understanding the effects of different types of reviewers on the writing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchan, M. M., ., &

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In undergraduate natural science courses, two types of evaluators are commonly used to assess student writing: graduate-student teaching assistants (TAs or peers. The current study examines how well these approaches to evaluation support student writing. These differences between the two possible evaluators are likely to affect multiple aspects of the writing process: first draft quality, amount and types of feedback provided, amount and types of revisions, and final draft quality. Therefore, we examined how these aspects of the writing process were affected when undergraduate students wrote papers to be evaluated by a group of peers versus their TA. Several interesting results were found. First, the quality of the students' first draft was greater when they were writing for their peers than when writing for their TA. In terms of feedback, students provided longer comments, and they also focused more on the prose than the TAs. Finally, more revisions were made if the students received feedback from their peers-especially prose revisions. Despite all of the benefits seen with peers as evaluators, there was only a moderate difference in final draft quality. This result indicates that while peer-review is helpful, there continues to be a need for research regarding how to enhance the benefits.

  5. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity.

  6. New trends on mobile learning area: The review of published articles on mobile learning in science direct database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Soykan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Articles published in Science Direct between 2009 and 2014 (May were screened in this research. This is because of its respectable position in the field of technology and peer-reviewed secured structure of this database. From a total of 161 articles within the scope of the screening 156 articles were included in the study. Through this research, new trends in mobile learning activities in recent years will be determined and a new way will be shown for researchers . "Mobile learning" keywords used during researching process and all the articles with "mobile learning" keywords were included in this study. As a result of this research, it is determined that the most studies in the field of mobile learning were published in 2013 in Malaysia, UK and Taiwan. Particularly undergraduate students was selected as the sample group of the researches. It is emerged that, experimental research was used maximum as a research model. Quantitative data collection tools were used most as a means of data collection. It was emerged that foreign language education is the most widely used field in mobile learning. It is seen that smart phones as mobile learning devices and IOS operating system as an operating system were used in the most researches. Mobile-based method is seen to be used as the teaching method in the present study.

  7. Practical Reflexivity and Political Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen; Bueger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The simplistic but still influential, idea of a clear-cut boundary between science and politics does not capture the complexities of the ongoing “dialogue between science and politics”. Perhaps it never did. Critical Social Science from Mannheim to Kratochwil has made this painstakingly clear...

  8. 76 FR 59145 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; NINR End-of-Life and Palliative Care Science Needs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ...-Life and Palliative Care Science Needs Assessment: Funding Source (Survey of Authors) Summary: Under... Care Science Needs Assessment: Funding Source (Survey of Authors). Type of Information Collection Request: NEW. Need and Use of Information Collection: The NINR End-of-Life Science Palliative Care (EOL...

  9. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  10. Multiphoton microscopy of cleared mouse organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Sonia G.; Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph P.; Levene, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Typical imaging depths with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are limited to less than 300 μm in many tissues due to light scattering. Optical clearing significantly reduces light scattering by replacing water in the organ tissue with a fluid having a similar index of refraction to that of proteins. We demonstrate MPM of intact, fixed, cleared mouse organs with penetration depths and fields of view in excess of 2 mm. MPM enables the creation of large 3-D data sets with flexibility in pixel format and ready access to intrinsic fluorescence and second-harmonic generation. We present high-resolution images and 3-D image stacks of the brain, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, lung, and testicle with image sizes as large as 4096×4096 pixels.

  11. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female patient with the malignancy at a less common location. Diagnosis was given based on the histopathologic findings. The demographic data and understanding for this tumor needs to be strengthened by reporting all new cases, which are diagnosed, in literature.

  13. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  14. Optical clearing of muscle with propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Clemente, Manuel Pais; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Skeletal muscle presents an internal fibrous structure. The existence of muscle fibers surrounded by interstitial fluid originates an internal step refractive index profile that causes light scattering. One way to minimize this effect inside a muscle is to perform an optical clearing treatment, using an adequate solution that presents a refractive index higher than the interstitial fluid. We have studied muscle spectral transmittance during sample immersion in propylene glycol. With the collection of transmittance spectra registered during a period of 20 minutes of immersion we could represent spectral transmittance evolution for several wavelengths and verify that the tissue samples have become more translucent. The optical clearing effect created in the tissue samples was characterized by an increase of 45% above the natural transmittance and the variations observed in tissue mass, pH and global refractive index. We also identified the initial mechanisms of agent diffusion into the tissue and consequent tissue dehydration from the spectral transmittance evolution. The histological analysis of variations caused in the internal structure of the tissues permitted to better explain the optical clearing effect created. Considering a mathematical model developed in previous studies, we could estimate the amount of agent that was inserted into the tissue samples.

  15. Super Science Fair Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritz, Maxine Haren

    This guide to science fair projects is designed for students and provides clear directions on how to complete a successful science project. Real projects are used as examples and information and advice is provided by teachers, judges, and participants and their families about the process. Topics covered in this book include choosing a science fair…

  16. Science and Society Series off the Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The CAS has published the 2002 Science & Society series. The series, which consists of reports on scientific development, high-tech development and sustainable development, aims to introduce the world's scientific and technological (S&T) progress and developmental trends in 2001, review the changes in the frontiers of science and technology, pinpoint the main problems in research and development (R&D), and recount S&T development in China. Through the series, it is hoped that China's decades-long efforts at capacity building of sustainability will be made clear to the world, including theoretical exploration, contents, identification,dynamic monitoring, parametric system and quantitative analysis.

  17. WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Presentació de la conferència "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentación de la conferencia "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentation of the conference "Science Wiki: Wikipedia for science and technology".

  18. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  19. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?; Alternativer til kostbar clearing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-07-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk.

  20. ASC Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II Review of the Carbon Capture Multidisciplinary Science Center (CCMSC) at the University of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, C. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferencz, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoekstra, R. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hungerford, A. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kuhl, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montoya, D. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wagner, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The review was conducted on March 31 – April 1, 2015 at the University of Utah. Overall the review team was impressed with the work presented and found that the CCMSC had met or exceeded all of their Year 1 milestones. Specific details, comments and recommendations are included in this document.

  1. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  2. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  3. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake - Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Wals, A.E.J.; Oosterheert, I.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils’ application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry

  4. A Meta-Analytic Review of Graphic Organizers and Science Instruction for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Implications for the Intermediate and Secondary Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…

  5. Daniel Courgeau: Probability and social science: methodological relationships between the two approaches [Review of: . Probability and social science: methodological relationships between the two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, humans engaged in games in which randomness plays a role. In the 17th century, scientists started to approach chance scientifically and to develop a theory of probability. Courgeau describes how the relationship between probability theory and social sciences emerged and evolved f

  6. Anatomy of Knowledge Bases used in Design Science Research - A Literature Review : 7. International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gass, Oliver; Koppenhagen, Norbert; Biegel, Harald; Mädche, Alexander; Mueller, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Several papers have addressed the theory foundation of DSR. While researchers usually emphasize that the existence of such a knowledge base (KB) is essential for high quality design science research (DSR), opinions depart what kind of knowledge comprises such a knowledge base and which qualitative r

  7. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  8. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  9. Pragmaticism, Science and Theology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This review assesses Ashley and Deely’s claims regarding the relation of science and religion, taking Einstein’s famous statement that “science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind” as its starting point. It argues that Ashley and Deely’s book How Science Enriches Theology...

  10. Science salaries reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Salaries of experienced geoscientists have risen 215% since 1973, while the consumer price index rose 92.5%, according to a report by the Scientific Manpower Commission (SMC). ‘Salaries of Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians: A Summary of Salary Surveys, Tenth Edition,’ prepared by SMC Associate Director Eleanor L. Babco, is a compilation of salary information from numerous organizations, including federal agencies and departments, educational associations, magazine publishers, and other professional and trade groups. While there is little in the report that cannot be found elsewhere, SMC has collected the data in one place to provide a snapshot of scientists' salaries.Degreed geologists, geophysicists, production engineers, and ‘landmen,’ as a group, earn the highest salaries of almost any professional occupation in the United States, according to several salary studies by Vine Associates over the past 4 years.

  11. Malignant Clear Cell Hidradenoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Reddy, Pavan S; Kallail, K. James

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old female had a mass in the right breast palpable beneath the areola. A mammogram revealed a 1.5-centimeter soft tissue density that was confirmed with a subsequent ultrasound. The patient underwent a core needle biopsy which was initially reported as a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed negative staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). A wide local excision of the mass was performed. The pathology report stated the tumor had an infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal response with enhanced epithelial atypia consistent with malignant transformation of a nodular clear cell hidradenoma. Clear cell hidradenoma is a very rare tumor originating from the sweat gland and has a propensity for the face and extremities. The malignant variant of this tumor is extremely rare and has been reported to originate from the breast in few cases. This case represents the difficulty in diagnosing this tumor along with the radiographic and histologic features that can distinguish this malignancy from other entities.

  12. Comparative properties of optically clear epoxy encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Maury; Zhou, Yan

    2001-12-01

    Three epoxy systems were evaluated for physical dn optical properties. The three systems chosen for the study were selected on the basis of their optical clarity, color and chemistry. Three distinctly different chemistries were chosen, aromatic epoxy-amine cured. Aromatic epoxy- anhydride cured and cycloaliphatic epoxy-anhydride cured. All three systems remained optically clear and water-white after full cure. The three selected systems were tested for physical properties, adhesion and light transmission properties. Light transmission was measured after thermal and humidity exposure. Adhesion was measured after humidity exposure only. Both of the epoxy-anhydride systems performed well in optical properties but poorer in adhesion as compared to the epoxy-amine system. The aromatic epoxy- amine system discolored badly during thermal exposure at 100 C. Data generated from this work will be used in selecting clear encapsulating materials for photonics applications. No single system offers optimal performance in all areas. The best compromise material is the aromatic epoxy-anhydride system.

  13. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  14. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  15. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  16. Revolutionary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  17. Revolutionary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ON HOW THE INTERNET IS CHANGING RESEARCH, COLLABORATION, AND SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, ...

  19. A Review of Computer Science Resources for Learning and Teaching with K-12 Computing Curricula: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Katrina; Vivian, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    To support teachers to implement Computer Science curricula into classrooms from the very first year of school, teachers, schools and organisations seek quality curriculum resources to support implementation and teacher professional development. Until now, many Computer Science resources and outreach initiatives have targeted K-12 school-age…

  20. JASIS and Library and Information Science Journal Rankings: A Review and Analysis of the Last Half-Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisonger, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the "Journal of the American Society for Information Science's (JASIS's)" and its immediate predecessor, "American Documentation's," position in library and information science journal rankings published during the last half-century. Concludes that journal rankings represent a frequently overlooked tool of value to…

  1. A review of science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea - The cockle fishery and gas exploitation controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor, J.R.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential ecological effects of cockle fisheries and gas exploitation in the Dutch Wadden Sea and their implications for policy and management have been the topic of vigorous societal debates. Ecological science has played crucial but controversial roles in these debates. Several social science

  2. Parameter estimation in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kirk D; Mishra, Dharmendra K

    2013-01-01

    Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. Therefore, the inverse problem-estimation of parameters given measured y(t)-is at least as important as the forward problem. However, in the food science literature there has been little attention paid to the accuracy of parameters. The purpose of this article is to summarize the state of the art of parameter estimation in food science, to review some of the common food science models used for parameter estimation (for microbial inactivation and growth, thermal properties, and kinetics), and to suggest a generic method to standardize parameter estimation, thereby making research results more useful. Scaled sensitivity coefficients are introduced and shown to be important in parameter identifiability. Sequential estimation and optimal experimental design are also reviewed as powerful parameter estimation methods that are beginning to be used in the food science literature.

  3. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Sleumer, H.

    1966-01-01

    This is a difficult book on account of the very wide range and complexity of its subject-matter, made more difficult by the fact that the author has not taken the trouble to arrange his writing so as to present a clear sequence of ideas; also he often uses needlessly complex sentences, some made mor

  4. An unusual case of clear cell meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear-cell meningioma (CCM is an uncommon, aggressive variant of meningioma, usually affecting younger females and having predilection for infratentorial locations. We present a rare case of recurrent supratentorial CCM in a 58-year-old male. Ten years back, he had an intra-axial tumor in the left occipital lobe, which was managed by surgical excision and radiotherapy. Currently, the patient presented with sudden severe headache along with speech and vision disturbances. Neuroimaging revealed an extra-axial parietooccipital tumor, with intratumoural bleed. Histopathology of both tumors showed features of CCM, immunopositive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA and vimentin. This case illustrates multiple unusual features of a rare variant of meningioma in the form of affection of an adult age group, supratentorial location, recurrence, and intratumoral bleed. It also highlights the importance of incorporating immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic workup, to exclude CCM mimics, each having distinctive biological behavior, and prognostic outcome, and warranting different therapeutic protocols.

  5. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Aims and ScopeScience in China (monthly) is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Acade-my of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important devel-

  6. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  7. The National Science Foundation's AST Portfolio Review of 2012 is Not Relevant to the Green Bank Telescope of 2017: A White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Lockman, Felix J; Frayer, David T; Mason, Brian D; Ransom, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy Division's Portfolio Review of 2012 is no longer relevant to the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of 2017 for two principal reasons, one instrumental and the other astrophysical: 1) The GBT has begun significant operations in the 3mm band, giving it unrivaled capabilities for spectroscopy and continuum studies over 67-116 GHz. It is now an instrument that is unique worldwide and is a critical complement to ALMA for the U.S. scientific community. These capabilities had not been implemented at the time of the review. 2) The detection of gravitational radiation by LIGO in 2015 places the GBT's work on pulsar observations of nano-Hz gravitational radiation at the forefront of modern astrophysics. The Green Bank Telescope of 2017 is not the GBT that was reviewed by the Eisenstein-Miller committee in 2012, a review that was specific to the NSF Astronomy portfolio. The GBT serves a wide spectrum of science areas including physics, chemistry, and planetary studies as well as ...

  8. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  9. How Mimas cleared the Cassini Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyelles, Benoit; Baillie, Kevin; Lainey, Valery; Charnoz, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Recent measurements of the dissipation of Saturn (Lainey et al. 2016, Icarus, in press) combined with a theoretical study by Fuller et al. (2016, MNRAS) require to revisit the energy dissipation models in planetary systems and the way it affects their satellite system. In addition, the measurements of the large librations of Mimas (Tajeddine et al. 2014, Science) could point to a global ocean underneath the surface of the satellite. These results allowed us to refine the scenarios of the opening of the Cassini Division that we initially presented at the DPS 2012. Assuming a dissipation that is consistent with these latest results, we propose scenarios of combined evolutions of Mimas and the main rings of Saturn, that explain the current size and location of the Division, the excess of density in the outer B ring, a past episode of intense heating of Mimas required to create a global ocean, and its current eccentricity. For that, we show that a past resonance with Tethys increased the eccentricity of Mimas up to 0.2, possibly triggering the melting of Mimas and an episode of inward migration, which created the Cassini Division: the 2:1 resonance between Mimas and the rings pushed the ring material inner to accumulate in the B ring. Once its eccentricity is damped, Mimas resumes its outward migration, leading to a trapping into the current vertical resonance with Tethys. These results are supported by numerical simulations, in which Mimas is driven by the tides, and the rings are simulated with the 1-D hydrodynamical code Hydrorings (Charnoz et al., 2010, Nature). This study has been partially supported by the International Space Sciences Institute in Bern, Switzerland.

  10. Clearing the Waters of the Fracking Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Ellis, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the debate on “fracking” in the United States is fueled by poor communication among stakeholders. Information in the public sphere may be provided by biased sources, and complicated academic research is often misinterpreted by media sources. The goal of this review is to provide an open...... reserves, but instead, to highlight similar environmental challenges presented by other industrial activities. Many research and knowledge gaps remain regarding the ultimate impact of high volume hydraulic fracturing on the environment, however, the high profile nature of the fracking debate can help raise...

  11. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  12. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  13. Astronomical Science with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics: A Brief Review, a Current Snapshot, and a Bright Future

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, M C

    2006-01-01

    We briefly discuss the past, present, and future state of astronomical science with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). We present a tabulation of refereed science papers from LGS AO, amounting to a total of 23 publications as of May 2006. The first decade of LGS AO science (1995-2004) was marked by modest science productivity (~1 paper/year), as LGS systems were being implemented and commissioned. The last two years have seen explosive science growth (~1 paper/month), largely due to the new LGS system on the Keck II 10-meter telescope, and point to an exciting new era for high angular resolution science. To illustrate the achievable on-sky performance, we present an extensive collection of Keck LGS performance measurements from the first year of our brown dwarf near-IR imaging survey. We summarize the current strengths and weaknesses of LGS compared to Hubble Space Telescope, offer a list of desired improvements, and look forward to a bright future for LGS given its wide-scale implementation on large ...

  14. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND It’s About Time: Understanding Einstein’s Relativity An excellent novel explanation of special relativity. The Plane Factory A great way to make projects more quantitative. Spacesaver Microvoltmeter This meter is robust, portable and covers a good range of voltages. Cassell’s Laws of Nature This book covers everything that governs our physical universe. J D Bernal: The Sage of Science Awell researched biography that is hard to put down. AS-Level Physics: The Revision Guide A very good, reasonably priced revision guide. WORTH A LOOK Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe This book on modern physics is fairly readable but a bit haphazard. HANDLE WITH CARE Hover Football An inferior and cheaper version of the Kick Dis. art & science Art students will get more out of this than physics students. WEB WATCH Practicalphysics.org is an excellent site, packed with useful tips and instructions for practical physics experiments. Louisa Jones describes her favourite websites about waves

  15. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Why the Sky is Blue This book gives an excellent answer to the age-old question Science Magic Book of experiments finds the fun in physics Function Generator Kit Build your own simple wave generator Dent pullers Instead of using them to pull out dents, get your pupils to pull them apart Rocket Tracker Launch and track rockets with this kit Stephen Hawking, A biograpy This book looks at both the science and the personal life of the famous physicist WORTH A LOOK The Universe and the Atom All-encompassing but uninspiring physics book Sizzling Magnets Another cheap toy proves its usefulness in the physics lab Efergy Energy-saving meter is easy to use but may not save you energy Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics This book is full of interesting experiments but skewed to a particular hardware system WEB WATCH Gary Williams recounts the valuable lessons he learned at the Software 4 Skint Schools workshop

  16. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  17. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  18. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The user guide consists of a 28-page A5 format brochure. It gives an overview (4 pages of the contents of the CD-Rom and how it can assist in the writing process in three main sections: core skills, writing for science and writing for advocacy. Within each of these subsections more detail is provided, with the authors giving a short introductory aim for each task and the expected outcomes

  19. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Education Using PowerPoint Fun animated slides for 11-14 and 14-16 age groups. Antarctica CD-ROM The Royal Institution Christmas Lectures deliver a great resource. Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey This book tackles the social context of scientific developments. Teaching Science in the Primary Classroom: A Practical Guide Comprehensive guidebook for new primary teachers. Physics for Phun A video featuring 29 simple but effective physics demos. Material Selection and Processing A comprehensive resource pack on the topic of materials. WORTH A LOOK Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century A study of 100 years of developing physics knowledge. Test tube, rainbow and glow-in-the-dark ooze; Stretchy animals and space men These could make useful additions to a collection of physics toys. Electronic hanging balance A decent balance that can be a little hard to handle. PLACES TO VISIT Join the Einstein Trail in Bern and Berlin. WEB WATCH Materials science abounds on the Internet, with topics from Hooke’s law to bungee jumping.

  20. Berliner Ensemble 1957 – Piccolo Teatro 1963. Science in the reception of Brecht’s "Galileo" as from the press reviews on both stagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cuomo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the outcome of an analysis of the reception of Bertolt Brecht’s play, "The Life of Galileo", as presented by Giorgio Strehler (Milan, 1963 and Brecht himself in collaboration with Erich Engel (East Berlin, 1957, carried out on respective press reviews. The reviews were examined by the application of quantitative analysis based on the recurrence of determinate themes associated with images of science. In comparing the results of the analysis of each of the two press reviews, it appears that different images were conveyed by the same play performed in two different contexts for different audiences. Italy, in particular, showed a more frequent recurrence of the conflict between science and religion as a result of the ongoing cultural and spiritual authority of the Church, whereas in the German Democratic Republic’s communist regime, where Brecht is a troublesome but tolerated intellectual, the topics of the scientist’s freedom within the Establishment and intellectual courage were more frequent.

  1. Berliner Ensemble 1957 – Piccolo Teatro 1963. Science in the reception of Brecht’s "Galileo" as from the press reviews on both stagings (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cuomo

    Full Text Available The article reports the outcome of an analysis of the reception of Bertolt Brecht’s play, "The Life of Galileo", as presented by Giorgio Strehler (Milan, 1963 and Brecht himself in collaboration with Erich Engel (East Berlin, 1957, carried out on respective press reviews. The reviews were examined by the application of quantitative analysis based on the recurrence of determinate themes associated with images of science. In comparing the results of the analysis of each of the two press reviews, it appears that different images were conveyed by the same play performed in two different contexts for different audiences. Italy, in particular, showed a more frequent recurrence of the conflict between science and religion as a result of the ongoing cultural and spiritual authority of the Church, whereas in the German Democratic Republic’s communist regime, where Brecht is a troublesome but tolerated intellectual, the topics of the scientist’s freedom within the Establishment and intellectual courage were more frequent.

  2. What do people think when they think about solar geoengineering? A review of empirical social science literature, and prospects for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth T.; Flegal, Jane A.; Keith, David W.; Mahajan, Aseem; Tingley, Dustin; Wagner, Gernot

    2016-11-01

    Public views and values about solar geoengineering should be incorporated in science-policy decisions, if decision makers want to act in the public interest. In reflecting on the past decade of research, we review around 30 studies investigating public familiarity with, and views about, solar geoengineering. A number of recurring patterns emerge: (1) general unfamiliarity with geoengineering among publics; (2) the importance of artifice versus naturalness; (3) some conditional support for certain kinds of research; and (4) nuanced findings on the "moral hazard" and "reverse moral hazard" hypotheses, with empirical support for each appearing under different circumstances and populations. We argue that in the coming decade, empirical social science research on solar geoengineering will be crucial, and should be integrated with physical scientific research.

  3. Language and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent applied linguistic research on science and language, especially studies conducted during the period between 1990 and 1998. Outlines major changes that have taken place in this area since van Naerssen and Kaplan's 1987 review. (Author/VWL)

  4. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed.

  5. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  6. Clear cell renal cell tumors: Not all that is "clear" is cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Cheng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Continued improvement of our understanding of the clinical, histologic, and genetic features of renal cell tumors has progressively evolved renal tumor classification, revealing an expanding array of distinct tumor types with different implications for prognosis, patient counseling, and treatment. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma is unequivocally the most common adult renal tumor, there is growing evidence that some "clear cell" renal neoplasms, such as exemplified by multilocular cystic clear cell renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (formerly multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma), do not have the same potential for insidious progression and metastasis, warranting reclassification as low malignant potential tumors or benign neoplasms. Still other novel tumor types such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma have been more recently recognized, which similarly have shown a conspicuous absence of aggressive behavior to date, suggesting that these too may be recategorized as noncancerous or may be premalignant neoplasms. This importance for prognosis is increasingly significant in the modern era, in which renal masses are increasingly found incidentally by imaging techniques at a small tumor size, raising consideration for less aggressive management options guided by renal mass biopsy diagnosis, including imaging surveillance, tumor ablation, or partial nephrectomy.

  7. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  8. 华语军事科幻创作述评%Review on Creation of Chinese Military Science Fictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军

    2016-01-01

    Summarizing the creation of Chinese military science ifctions from the beginning of the 20th century onward shows that, like any literature genre, military science ifctions also take root in the times, therefore relfect the political and military realities in that time period. From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, Chinese science and technology had been lagging behind those of advanced countries. As a result, Chinese military science ifctions then could only follow the cliché without any innovation. Approaching the contemporary times, as Chinese science and technology developed, themes of Chinese military science ifctions also became more enriched and original with more and more obvious achievements. Both national strategic need and need from teenagers require the outcome of a range of military science ifctions that can catch the audience’s eyes and raise national and military morale. It is our sincere hope that like the Chinese military science and technology, Chinese military science ifctions can in the future be listed among those top ones.%梳理从20世纪初开始的华语军事科幻小说创作,可知军事科幻和任何类型文学一样扎根于时代土壤,每个时期的军事科幻都反映那个时代的政治、军事现实。从晚清到民国时期,中国科技远远落后于世界先进水平,当时的中国军事科幻也只能使用外国作家写烂的题材,并无创新。越接近当代,中国科技实力越强,中国军事科幻的题材越丰富,越具有原创性,成就日渐可观。无论从国家战略层面,还是从青少年教育层面,都迫切需要一批既吸引观众,又能扬我国威、军威的军事科幻作品。希望我国的军事科幻和军事科技一样,早日跻身于世界前列。

  9. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: M. Carmen África Vidal Claramonte. Traducción, manipulación, desconstrucción. Colección Biblioteca Filológica de Salamanca. Salamanca: Ediciones Colegio de España, 1995 / reviewed by Enrique Alcaraz Varó; Diccionario de uso inglés-español/Spanish-English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 450 pp. Diccionario de uso pocket inglés-español/Spanish- English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 274 pages / reviewed by Miguel Ángel Campos Pardillo...

  10. Surge Capacity and Capability. A review of the history and where the science is today regarding surge capacity during a mass casualty disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy D. Kearns

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters which include countless killed and many more injured, have occurred throughout recorded history. Many of the same reports of disaster also include numerous accounts of individuals attempting to rescue those in great peril and render aid to the injured and infirmed. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the transition through several periods of time with managing a surge of many patients. This review will focus on the triggering event, injury and illness, location where the care is provided and specifically discuss where the science is today.

  11. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-particle interactions and oil submergence are of much interest to oil spill responders and scientists, especially as transportation of light and heavy crude oils increases in North America’s coastal marine and freshwater environments. This report contains an up-to-date review of the state of the science for oil-particle aggregates (OPAs), in terms of their formation and stability which may alter the transport, fate, and toxicity of the residual oil and, hence, its level of ecological risk. Operational considerations—detection, containment, and recovery—are discussed.

  12. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research; Straalande forskningsutsikter? En oeversikt om kaernavfallsfraagor inom samhaellsvetenskaplig forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin [Umeaa universitet, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration.

  13. New direction in nanotube science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Terrones

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We review the latest advances in the production and state-of-the art characterization of B- and N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibers. We briefly discuss different approaches to producing these novel doped nano-systems. The use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS, Raman spectroscopy, and allied techniques to characterize these doped systems is reviewed. The field emission properties as well as some applications to the fabrication of novel polymer composites, Li+ batteries, and gas sensors are also discussed. It is clear that these materials possess outstanding properties when compared with pure CNTs, and it is foreseen that these systems will revolutionize some aspects of nanotube science and technology, thus opening a vast field of experimental and theoretical research.

  14. Metallic iron for environmental remediation: A review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2015-11-15

    This article critically evaluates recent review articles on using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for environmental remediation in order to provide insight for more efficient Fe(0)-based systems. The presentation is limited to peer-reviewed articles published during 2014 and 2015, excluding own contributions, dealing mostly with granular Fe(0). A literature search was conducted up to June 15th 2015 using Science Direct, SCOPUS, Springer and Web of Science databases. The search yielded eight articles that met the final inclusion criteria. The evaluation clearly shows that seven articles provide a narrative description of processes occurring in the Fe(0)/H20 system according to the concept that Fe(0) is a reducing agent. Only one article clearly follows a different path, presenting Fe(0) as a generator of adsorbing (hydroxides, oxides) and reducing (Fe(II), H/H2) agents. The apparent discrepancies between the two schools are identified and extensively discussed based on the chemistry of the Fe(0)/H20 system. The results of this evaluation indicate clearly that research on 'Fe(0) for environmental remediation' is in its infancy. Despite the current paucity of reliable data for the design of efficient Fe(0)-based systems, this review demonstrates that sensible progress could be achieved within a short period of time, specific recommendations to help guide future research are suggested.

  15. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  16. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which ca

  18. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  19. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    BALGOOY, M.M.J, VAN. 1998. Malesian Seed Plants. Volume 2. Portraits of tree families. 307 pp., numerous text figures. Published by Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden. ISBN 90-71236-36-6. Paperback. Price: NLG 100.00. This is the second volume of a trilogy [see the review of ‘Spot-characters’ b

  20. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  1. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and…

  2. A Review of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Education Research from 1999-2013: A Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajah, Kamaleswaran; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the research base of STEM education in Malaysia through an analysis review of articles for a 14-year period, from 1999 to 2013. The research base review focuses on identifying four characteristics of STEM education: a) temporal distribution, b) the research areas involved in each discipline, c) the types of…

  3. Introduction to nuclear science, second edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    This book was written to provide students who have limited backgrounds in the physical sciences and math with an accessible textbook on nuclear science. Expanding on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, Introduction to Nuclear Science, Second Edition provides a clear and complete introduction to nuclear chemistry and physics, from basic concepts to nuclear power and medical applications. Incorporating suggestions from professors using this book for their courses, the author has created a new text that is approximately 60 percent larger and more comprehensive and flexible than the first.New to This Edition: Thorough review of nuclear forensics, radiology, gamma cameras, and decay through proton or neutron emission More detailed explanations of the necessary mathematics A chapter on dosimetry of radiation fields Expanded discussion of applications, introduced earlier in the text More in-depth coverage of nuclear reactors, including a new chapter examining more reactor types, their safety systems,...

  4. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  5. Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Ketner, P.; McGuiness, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The vegetation in clear-felled forest showed more adult Avicennia marina than in the hurricane-affected forest, and a virtual absence of A. marina juveniles and saplings. This indicates that A. marina ...

  6. Space Medico-engineering:Theories,Practice and Development Prospects A review of the 358th Session of Xiangshan Science Conferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ M anned spaceflights are facing great risks and challenges.To fulfill future tasks,in particular,scientists and engineers have to deal with many critical technological difficulties regarding the safety,health and efficient performance of astronauts under the guidance of science theories.

  7. Review, Revise, and (re)Release: Updating an Information Literacy Tutorial to Embed a Science Information Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Jeffra Diane; Plovnick, Caitlin E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, University of California, Irvine (UCI) Libraries launched their first Find Science Information online tutorial. It was an innovative web-based tool, containing not only informative content but also interactive activities, embedded hyperlinked resources, and reflective quizzes, all designed primarily to educate undergraduate science…

  8. A Report from the Higher Education Review Board (HERB): Assessment of Undergraduate Student Learning Outcomes in Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, R. W.; Iwaoka, W. T.

    2016-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) has mandated assessment of undergraduate student learning outcomes as the basis for approving food science (FS) programs. No longer is a check-off course system sufficient to be an IFT-approved program. The 4 steps to gaining IFT approval include developing learning outcomes for all…

  9. Review of Education in Mathematics, Data Science and Quantitative Disciplines: Report to the Group of Eight Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Reference Committee firmly shares the view that the state of the mathematical sciences and related quantitative disciplines in Australia has deteriorated to a dangerous level, and continues to deteriorate. Accordingly the author decided to structure this Report around a small number of recommendations, some long term and others to address…

  10. ALMA science data management

    OpenAIRE

    Stoehr, Felix

    2015-01-01

    ALMA has transitioned now from the construction to the operation phase. We review the Science Data Management of ALMA including the concepts of Data Reduction, Quality Assurance as well as of the Science Archive. We also place the Science Data Management of ALMA into the larger context.

  11. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  12. CLEARS An Education and Research Tool for Computational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D; Maier, Hans J; Pinkal, M; Milward, David; Konrad, Karsten; Maier, Holger; Pinkal, Manfred

    1996-01-01

    The CLEARS (Computational Linguistics Education and Research for Semantics) tool provides a graphical interface allowing interactive construction of semantic representations in a variety of different formalisms, and using several construction methods. CLEARS was developed as part of the FraCaS project which was designed to encourage convergence between different semantic formalisms, such as Montague-Grammar, DRT, and Situation Semantics. The CLEARS system is freely available on the WWW from http://coli.uni-sb.de/~clears/clears.html

  13. The science knowledge, conceptions of the nature of science, attitudes about teaching science, and science instructional strategies of bilingual and English-only elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Adelina Victoria

    The goal of this study was to explore bilingual and English-only elementary teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and their self-reported science instructional skills. In this study, a bilingual teacher was defined as a teacher who provides instruction in Spanish and English in core academic subjects and has completed and/or is completing a bilingual certification program. An English-only teacher was defined as a monolingual teacher that only speaks and instructs in English. The principal questions guiding this dissertation investigation were the following: How do bilingual elementary teachers differ from English-only elementary teachers in (a) their science knowledge, (b) their conceptions of the nature of science, (c) their attitude about teaching science, and (d) their self-reported science instructional skills? This dissertation study is a component of a three-year long Eisenhower Project granted to Hueneme School District and the University of California, Santa Barbara Southcoast Science Project. While the Project will last three years (1997--2000), this dissertation study was developed to answer only a subset of questions of the entire project and data was collected in 1998. The research design for this study consisted of a self-administered questionnaire that was given to Hueneme School District elementary teachers that teach science and was developed by reviewing the relevant literature about teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and the instructional strategies that support science learning. The findings showed that both the bilingual and the English-only respondents demonstrated a similar science knowledge base, which is suggested, by this researcher, to be limited. That both bilingual and English-only teacher respondents demonstrated similar positive attitudes about teaching science and both reported making

  14. Galactic planetary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  15. Open peer review at four STEM journals: an observational overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Open peer review, peer review where authors' and reviewers' identities are disclosed to one another, is a growing trend in scholarly publishing. Through observation of four journals in STEM disciplines, PLOS One, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, PeerJ, and F1000Research, an observational overview is conducted. The overview relies on defined characteristics of open peer review. Results show that despite differing open peer review implementations, each journal retains editorial involvement in scholarly publishing. Further, the analysis shows that only one of these implementations is fully transparent in its peer review and decision making process. Finally, the overview contends that journals should clearly outline peer review and editorial processes in order to allow for open peer review to be better understood and adopted by authors, reviewers, editors, and readers of science communications.

  16. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia, Maddenia, Rosa, Malus, and Pyrus. Prunus is taken in the inclusive sense and has 38 species in India, including a number of non-indigenous but cultivated and sometimes naturalized species. Prinsepia...

  17. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  18. How to compare movement? A review of physical movement similarity measures in geographic information science and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ranacher, Peter; Tzavella, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    In geographic information science, a plethora of different approaches and methods is used to assess the similarity of movement. Some of these approaches term two moving objects similar if they share akin paths. Others require objects to move at similar speed and yet others consider movement similar if it occurs at the same time. We believe that a structured and comprehensive classification of movement comparison measures is missing. We argue that such a classification not only depicts the sta...

  19. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This is another in the long list of '500 Tips' series, published by Kogan Page. Phil Race, the author, is a well-known name in learning and teaching and has published extensively. The presentation of advice in this way is clearly a well-tested formula and, judging by the copies from the series in my own institution's library, these are frequently borrowed books, but I wonder whether this format is now a little overused? Advice from a guru can be very valuable, but in an era of evidence-based practice it is even better if the advice is backed up with references to facilitate the reader's further research in the area. Unfortunately in this book references are few and far between. There is a short list of suggested further reading but, for example, in the section on being a group member, where the work of Belbin is referred to, this is not referenced and Belbin does not appear in the subsequent reading list.

  20. Diabetic nephropathy research in China: Data analysis and review from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiang; Xu, Yanying; Dong, Erdan

    2015-05-01

    As the largest funding agency of natural science of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has made great efforts in promoting the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) research in recent years. The aim of the current study is to summarize the diabetic nephropathy research in China by analyzing NSFC-funded projects. Data on all projects in the DN field funded by NSFC from 1986 to 2013 were collected. The funding tendency, funding areas, and hotspots in the DN field, and major research institutions, were analyzed. As one output of this support, outstanding research groups in China, and their representative studies, are also highlighted. From 1986 to 2013, the NSFC has funded a total of 248 projects in the DN field, with a total funding amount of 91.5 million RMB (US$14.9 million). A rapid increase could be seen in the past 5 years, with an average annual 30% increase in projects numbers and a 52% increase in funding amount. All fields in DN research have been covered by the NSFC, including etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Along with increased funding of the DN research, there has been a growth in the papers published in Science Citation Index journals by Chinese scholars. In the past decade, the funding scale and funding budget have increased dramatically. Benefiting from this, DN research in China has also made considerable progression.