WorldWideScience

Sample records for clearance levels arising

  1. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  2. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  3. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  4. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author)

  5. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  6. Diagnostic Reference Level Arising from Dental Panoramic Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes a study in which, based on patient dose measurements, thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to obtain the diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography. Ten panoramic units and a sample of 15 patients per X-ray unit were studied. Two thermoluminescent dosimeter chips were placed on the skin surface of selected organs. Mean value of two ESDs was taken as the measured representation dose at the point of interest. Mean ESD on parotid glands derived from panoramic radiography was equal to 369.2 μGy. Individual patients' dose value varied from 180.1 to 470.3 μGy. Third quartile of mean absorbed dose distribution arising from a particular examination has been adopted as diagnostic reference level. Based on this definition, local diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography of the greater Khorasan province is equal to 400 μG.

  7. EC and IAEA guidance on exemption and clearance levels and implications on clearance in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Woerlen, S.; Barthel, R. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The current EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS), the Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM of 13 May 1996 [1], contain general provisions for clearance in Article 5 but no specific clearance levels (in terms of nuclide specific mass or surface related activity values). A set of levels has been developed in IAEA Safety Guide RSG-1.7 [5] (for details on the derivation see IAEA Safety Report 44 [6]) as general clearance levels and exemption values for large quantities for inclusion in the IAEA BSS [4]. This set of values has been proposed by the European Commission (EC) as an internationally harmonised set of clearance levels that could be incorporated into the BSS. Furthermore, the EC has proposed to use this set of values also as a new set of exemption values, replacing the current set of mass related exemption values of Annex I Table A Column 3 of the BSS. It was, however, decided that the technical background and further details of the derivation of the set of values should be evaluated before actually incorporating these values into the EURATOM BSS. Therefore, a study was commissioned by the European Commission, DG TREN, and has been prepared by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH in 2008 [7]. This study provides a basis for a decision whether the levels of RS-G-1.7 could be used as clearance levels for unconditional clearance and as a replacement for mass related exemption values in the BSS. It also compares the background and approach of the relevant documents (RS-G-1.7 and SR 44 of the IAEA and RP 122 part I [2] of the European Commission) and the way in which clearance levels have been derived (analysis of scenarios, parameter values and calculation codes). The comparison is performed and evaluated on a nuclide-specific basis, and conclusions are drawn where further evaluation of the values of RS-G-1.7 would be needed. In a second part, the study evaluates and discusses implications for practices not requiring reporting or authorisation under the current exemption values

  8. Decision Assessment of Clearance Level on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste on the safe level activity containing very small radioactive material gives small radiology influence to the human, it is not necessary to control by regulatory body. The radioactive waste on the safe level activity is safe to release as the common waste. For exemption of the control, it is required the safe activity level limits in which the value of clearance level is fulfilled by regulatory body, however until now it is not decided yet. The exemption decision is obtained if its activity is lower than or same with clearance level based on the annual effective dose receiving by public on the value is lower than or same with 0,01 mSv. The exposure pathways of radioactive waste to the human have important role for determination of clearance level. The decision assessment of clearance level on the radioactive waste management has been done by analysis of radioactive exposure pathways to the human for activities of the disposal and the recycle of solid wastes, also the release of liquid and gas effluent. For solid waste disposal, the exposure pathway was evaluated since the transportation of packed waste from the treatment facility to the disposal facility and during its operation. Exposure pathways for solid waste recycle consist of the pathways for handling and transportation of cleared material to the recycling facility, the fabrication and the utilization of its product. Exposure pathways for liquid and gas releases occur since its releases to the environment up to the human (public) by specific traffic lane. (author)

  9. Treatment of High Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the JSC «SSC RIAR» research experience on management high-level waste (HLW) arising from pyrochemical processes. The laboratory investigations including simulated and real waste forms generated as a result of the experimental reprocessings of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of fast reactors are summarized. Pyrochemical processes are characterized by a few types and a small volume of the waste, their high specific activity and, practically, absence of the liquid process HLW. The main types of solid process wastes are phosphate and oxide precipitates and spent electrolytes. The investigation included the chemical and radionuclide composition, gas release, chemical durability, thermal stability of the precipitates and spent electrolytes. The results of the analysis suggest that the main waste forms of the pyrochemical processes can be stored for a long time in shielded containers without any chemical conversion and immobilization. To increase the efficiency of the shielded barrier for the purposes of the long-term geological storage, the waste forms of the pyrochemical processes can be transferred into more stable chemical forms. (author)

  10. Estimate of clearance levels for metal materials contaminated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance levels for the solid materials contaminated with uranium were estimated based on deterministic dose calculation approach for metal reuse scenario. The activity concentrations for major radionuclides, U-234, U-235 and U-238, were calculated to be 1.5Bq/g, 1.4Bq/g and 1.8Bq/g, respectively. In order to confirm the validity of the calculated concentrations, the authors estimated the uncertainties on scenario description after metal recycling and on parameter values used in the deterministic calculation. The validity of the calculated activity concentrations by the deterministic approach was confirmed from the results of both the analysis for an additional scenario on the landfill disposal of residue of slag after metal recycling and the Monte Carlo-based analysis for parameter uncertainties. (author)

  11. Level rings arising from meet-distributive meet-semilattices

    OpenAIRE

    Herzog, Juergen; Hibi, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    The homogenized ideal dual complex of an arbitrary meet-semilattice is introduced and described explicitly. Meet-distributive meet-semilattices whose homogenized ideal dual complex is level are characterized.

  12. A simple method for the verification of clearance levels for non-radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's radiopharmaceutical production laboratories generate 25 m3 of solid waste per month. Most of this waste is not radioactive. Up until recently the non-radioactive waste was cleared from the controlled area and stored for 10 halflives prior to disposal as normal solid refuse. To eliminate the storage and ''double handling'' of the large quantities of non-radioactive waste a simple clearance method was devised to allow direct disposal. This paper describes how clearance levels were determined. Here the term ''clearance level'' is used as a general term for the release of material regardless of whether it was previously subject to regulatory control. This contrasts with the IAEA definition of a clearance level and highlights a potential problem with the implementation of exemption levels to keep material out of regulatory control and the use of clearance levels to allow removal of materials from regulatory control. Several common hand held contamination monitors were tested to determine their limits of detection and ability to meet these clearance levels. The clearance method includes waste segregation and size limitation features to ensure the waste is monitored in a consistent manner, compatible with the limits of detection. The clearance levels achieved were subsequently found to be compatible with some of the unconditional clearance levels in IAEA-TECDOC-855 and the measurement method also meets the required features of that document. The ANSTO non-radioactive waste clearance system has been in operation for more than 12 months and has proved simple and effective to operate. Approximately 12m3 of the solid waste is now been treated directly as normal solid refuse. This paper describes the ANSTO clearance system, the contamination monitor tests and details practical problems associated with the direct monitoring of solid waste, including averaging of the activity in the package. The paper also briefly highlights the potential problem with the use of exempted

  13. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  14. A stochastic approach to the derivation of exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciding what clearance levels are appropriate for a particular waste stream inherently involves a number of uncertainties. Some of these uncertainties can be quantified using stochastic modeling techniques, which can aid the process of decision making. In this presentation the German approach to dealing with the uncertainties involved in setting clearance levels is addressed. (author)

  15. Some problems on measurements of low level activity close to clearance level in metal waste and the solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    On March 1999, Nuclear Safety Commission reported clearance levels, which can classify solid wastes in decommissioning and operation as a non-radioactive material and also represented a basic concept on confirmation of the clearance level on July 2001. In this paper, some problem to confirm the radioactivity level of metal wastes are arranged and a solution is described. (author)

  16. Approach to establishing safety margin for uncertainty in measurement and nuclide spectrum in clearance level inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level, the concentrations of objective nuclides, such as alpha or low-energy beta emitters, can be estimated without direct gamma measurement by assuming the existence of objective nuclides at geometric mean concentrations or by using previously assessed information on nuclide spectra and measurement results for a key gamma nuclide. To determine whether clearance can be carried out, the uncertainty in the mean concentrations and concentration ratios to the key gamma nuclide should be appropriately considered, in addition to the measurement uncertainty. In this work, the concept of the clearance level has been reconsidered and a new approach to establishing an appropriate safety factor of the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level has been proposed. This approach was adopted in the draft of standard of 'Monitoring for Compliance with Clearance Level' prepared by the Standards Committee (SC) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). (author)

  17. Present status of clearance levels in Japan and other countries and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of clearance was introduced by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1996 and has proven to be very useful for the management of extremely low-level solid materials generated from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Therefore, the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan began setting clearance levels for solid materials generated from nuclear reactors in 1997, and published related reports in 1999 and 2001, respectively. The European Commission has also published several guides to clear metals, concrete, building and other solid material from regulatory control. Some organizations, including the IAEA and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are still discussing how to establish clearance levels. This paper summarizes the present status of clearance in organizations in Japan and other countries. Also discussed information is compiled to realize the concept of clearance and the related problems. (author)

  18. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material (85Kr and 232Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  19. Derivation of UK unconditional clearance levels for solid radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a study to derive radionuclide concentration levels suitable for use in the UK for the unconditional clearance of radioactively contaminated solid materials. These new levels are based on the radiological criteria for clearance given in international basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation. It is shown that continued use of the levels in existing UK legislation would also meet these criteria. (author)

  20. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  1. Peripheral Amyloid-β Levels Regulate Amyloid-β Clearance from the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Marcos A.; Kulstad, J. Jacob; Savard, Christopher E.; Green, Pattie S.; Lee, Sum P.; Craft, Suzanne; Watson, G. Stennis; Cook, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is cleared from the brain by both proteolytic digestion and transport across the blood-brain-barrier into the peripheral circulatory system. To investigate the role peripheral Aβ levels play in regulating Aβ brain clearance, we measured the clearance of [125I]-Aβ-{1-40 injected into the brains of liver-ligated rats that allowed peripheral Aβ levels to be maintained at elevated levels for approximately one hour with/without a single peripheral bolus of unlabeled Aβ-{1-40. We fou...

  2. The value of level III clearance in patients with axillary and sentinel node positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, Mary F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of level III axillary clearance is contentious, with great variance worldwide in the extent and levels of clearance performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of level III positivity in patients undergoing level I-III axillary clearance, and identify which patients are at highest risk of involved level III nodes. METHODS: From a database of 2850 patients derived from symptomatic and population-based screening service, 1179 patients who underwent level I-III clearance between the years 1999-2007 were identified. The pathology, surgical details, and prior sentinel nodes biopsies of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven hundred seventy nine patients had level I-III axillary clearance. Of the patients, 63% (n = 747) were node positive. Of patients with node positive disease, 23% (n = 168) were level II positive and 19% (n = 141) were level III positive. Two hundred fifty patients had positive sentinel node biopsies prior to axillary clearance. Of these, 12% (n = 30) and 9% (n = 22) were level II and level III positive, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of level III involvement in patients with node positive disease were tumor size (P < 0.001, OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), invasive lobular disease (P < 0.001, OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.95), extranodal extension (P < 0.001, OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.4), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.04, OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-1). Lobular invasive disease (P = 0.049, OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1-16.8), extranodal spread (P = 0.003, OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57), and having more than one positive sentinel node (P = 0.009, OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.1) were predictive of level III involvement in patients with sentinel node positive disease. CONCLUSION: Level III clearance has a selective but definite role to play in patients who have node positive breast carcinoma. Pathological characteristics of the primary tumor are of particular use in identifying those who are at various risk of level III nodal

  3. Derivation of unconditional clearance levels for short-lived radionuclides - A Korean approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unconditional clearance levels were derived for fifteen short-lived radionuclides. Due to the uncertainty of long-term radiological impact analysis, alpha emitting nuclides and nuclides with half-lives longer than 30 years were excluded from the scope of this study. The candidate waste streams are solid waste and waste oil generated from nuclear power reactors. The clearance levels were derived by generic assessment for enveloping scenarios, along with specific assessment for each detailed scenario such as landfill, incineration and recycling. The derived values lie in the range from 1E-2 to 1E+2 Bq/g. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management: Review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste. - Highlights: • Legislation, requirements and standards in radioactive waste management. • Strategies and methods to maintain the relevant clearance levels and acceptance criteria. • International, European and national activity levels and limits for exemption and clearance of radioactive waste. • Requirements for acceptance for storage and final disposal of radioactive waste. • Metrological requirements for radioactive waste characterisation

  5. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) “Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management”. The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. - Highlights: • The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025 • The proficiency testing items were basically in two categories, box and barrel types • Analyzed the MDA and that should be less than 20% of the release level given in the AEC. • The are three limitations: MDA< AMDA, -0.25< Bi<+0.5, and En≤1.0 and uncertainty<20%

  6. Management of metal arising from an Italian Nuclear Facility: techniques for clearance and unconditional release - Management of metals resulting from an Italian nuclear facility: techniques for clearance and unconditional release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of the decommissioning of nuclear plants in Italy lead to an appreciable increase in the volume of metal materials that will need to radiological characterization for the unconditional release. The nuclear fuel reprocessing plant ITREC, located in Rotondella (MT) in the south of Italy, is currently undergoing safety maintenance. As part of these activities was necessary the replacement of approximately 5000 m of radioactive liquid effluents discharge's pipeline. The entire pipeline is undergoing treatment within a small Waste Management Facility suitably equipped for the cutting, the separation of non-metallic residue and decontamination. 100% of the pipe portions are characterized through measurements of gross-beta and high resolution gamma spectrometry in order to verify the clearance of materials. The target levels of surface activity and specific activity, prescribed by the National Regulatory Authority, is verified through measurement activities implemented according to specific MQOs defined for the specific process. Activities, subject to National Regulatory Authority control, allow the unconditional release of metallic materials originated from the removal of the radioactive liquid effluents discharge's pipeline in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant ITREC managed by SOGIN SpA. The methodology described provides a good example of management, treatment and decontamination of metallic materials for unconditional release. (authors)

  7. Estimation of low level waste by a regulatory clearance in JT-60U fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level waste of JT-60U fusion device has been estimated by a regulatory clearance. The JT-60U consists of the heating devices such as neutral beam injectors and radio frequency systems, the main devices including the vacuum vessel and the coils, and the diagnostic devices in the torus hall. Those structure materials of the JT-60U device include copper, stainless steels, carbon steel, high manganese steel, inconel 625, ferritic steel, and lead. The gross weight of the device is about 6,400 tons. Radiation transport calculations are performed using 1D code ANISN. In the activation calculations, ACT-4 was employed. The stainless steels of about 50 tons are used for the base of the first wall on the vacuum vessel in JT-60U. For the low level waste management, the evaluation for the steels with the activated nuclides is important. IAEA RS-G-1.7 is applied to the clearance level for the structures of the activated materials. The activated level of the material with 60Co takes about 45 years until less than the clearance level. (author)

  8. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  9. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  10. The management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes arising from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in the generation of radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, gases and solids. This paper outlines the principles and major elements of the waste management systems currently in use or under development for the category of waste known as intermediate-level wastes. To enable implementation of an optimized waste management system, engineering process evaluations, development and design in the following areas are required: The definition of cost effective options taking account of constraints which may arise from other operations in the overall system, e.g. from transport requirements or from criteria derived from environmental impact assessments of alternative disposal routes; Plant and equipment development to enable acceptable system and active plant operations on an industrial scale; Safety and reliability studies to ensure adequate protection of both the general public and plant operators during all stages of the waste management system including disposal

  11. Development of elemental components in NDA systems for certifying radioactive wastes with the clearance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of low-level radiation monitoring development, we have designed and developed a gamma measurement system to certify radioactive wastes below the clearance level. By advancing non-destructive gamma-ray assay technology, it aims at quantitative determination of radionuclides contained in 200 litter drum/container wastes. Unlike the waste from a nuclear power plant, it is assumed that the waste originating from radioisotope usage and nuclear research laboratory have a variety of contents and a complex mixture of radionuclides, and furthermore the uniformity of activity concentration is unknown. To cope with the problems caused by the property of the waste, we have developed the gamma-ray measuring instruments (units) with effective improvement of capability against each problem. They are (1) germanium gamma spectrometry unit for enhanced peak identification. (2) positioning detection unit for deducing activity distribution and (3) high-efficiency detection unit for separation of low-energy component. This report summarizes the direction of the clearance level measuring system and the three developed measuring units with their performances. (author)

  12. Prospective use of xenon 133Xe clearance for amputation level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon 133Xe clearance was used to select the most distal amputation level that would allow sufficient blood flow for healing. Capillary blood flow was first measured at the most distal potential amputation level, then at successive proximal levels until an amputation site was found that had a capillary skin blood flow rate greater than or equal to 2.6 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Xenon 133Xe in saline was injected intracutaneously at each level, and flow rates were determined using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer system programmed for the Ketty-Schmidt formula modified for capillary blood flow. There were 45 cases, including one toes, six transmetatarsal, five Syme's, 25 below-knee, four knee disarticulation, three above-knee, and one hip disarticulation amputation. All amputations in patients with flow rates exceeding 2.4 mL/min/100 g of tissue healed, with two exceptions

  13. Uncertainty of simulated groundwater levels arising from stochastic transient climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Burton, Aidan; Fowler, Hayley; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    applied not only to the mean of climatic variables, but also across the statistical distributions of these variables. This is important as these distributions are expected to change in the future, with more extreme rainfall events, separated by longer dry periods. (2) The novel approach used in this study can simulate transient climate change from 2010 to 2085, rather than time series representative of a stationary climate for the period 2071-2100. (3) The weather generator is used to generate a large number of equiprobable climate change scenarios for each RCM, representative of the natural variability of the weather. All of these scenarios are applied as input to the Geer basin model to assess the projected impact of climate change on groundwater levels, the uncertainty arising for different RCM projections and the uncertainty linked to natural climatic variability. Using the output results from all scenarios, 95% confidence intervals are calculated for each year and month between 2010 and 2085. The climate change scenarios for the Geer basin model predict hotter and drier summers and warmer and wetter winters. Considering the results of this study, it is very likely that groundwater levels and surface flow rates in the Geer basin will decrease by the end of the century. This is of concern because it also means that groundwater quantities available for abstraction will also decrease. However, this study also shows that the uncertainty of these projections is relatively large compared to the projected changes so that it remains difficult to confidently determine the magnitude of the decrease. The use and combination of an integrated surface - subsurface model and stochastic climate change scenarios has never been used in previous climate change impact studies on groundwater resources. It constitutes an innovation and is an important tool for helping water managers to take decisions.

  14. Low serum hyaluronic acid levels associated with spontaneous HBsAg clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Arends, J. E.; van den Hoek, A.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Boland, G. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological underlying mechanism of spontaneous HBsAg clearance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients is largely unknown. However, serum hyaluronic acid (sHA) plays a role in liver fibrosis progression and reversely could serve as a potential biomarker for HBsAg clearance.

  15. Clearance of very low level radioactive waste in spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to present Spanish legislation a radioactive waste is defined as any material or waste product, without any possible planned use, that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides in concentrations or activity levels higher than those established by the Regulatory Authorities. Legally, this situation allows to develop a conventional management of very low level radioactive waste, by checking the negligibility of their radiological impact, and thus obtaining the corresponding Authorization to treat them as conventional waste. This presentation describes the clearance project of contaminated oils from spanish nuclear power plants. The on-site management includes: -) preliminary settling, centrifugation and filtration; -) oil purification; and -) radiological characterization. The off-site management includes the following operations: -) transportation to the facility where treatment is developed (dilution); -) temporary storage (decay); -) transportation to the place where final management is carried out; -) oil burning (dilution); and management of ashes and other combustion products. An annual amount of 70 m3/year (63 MBq) of very low contaminated oil with a specific concentration of 1 Bq/g could be disposed off. (A.C.)

  16. Cystatin C levels in healthy kidney donors and its correlation with GFR by creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine Serum Cystatin C (S.CysC) levels in healthy potential kidney donors and its correlation with Serum Creatinine (S.Cr), Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 24 hour urinary Creatinine clearance (CCL) and GFR by formulae of Cockcroft Gault (CCG) and Modification of diet in Renal Disease (MDRD). Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, between June and December 2012. One hundred and three potential healthy kidney donors were enrolled in the study to measure their S.CysC and correlate it with S.Cr, CCL and GFR by CCG and MDRD. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 17. Results: The mean age of the healthy kidney donors was 32.19+8.27 years with a M:F ratio of 1.86:1. The mean Serum Creatinine (S.Cr) was 0.86+0.18 mg/dl and mean S.CysC was 0.88+0.12 mg/dl. S.CysC showed significant correlation with S.Cr (r = 0.78, p<0.001), CCL (r = 0.67, p<0.001), GFR CCG (r = 0.54, p<0.001) and GFR MDRD (r = 0.67, p<0.001). Correlation of S.CysC was better than S.Cr for CCL, S.Cr (0.60) vs S.CysC (0.67) and GFR CCG, S.Cr (0.41) vs S.CysC (0.54). Correlation was comparable for MDRD, S.Cr (0.67) vs S.Cys (0.67). Conclusion: S.CysC is better marker of kidney function in potential healthy kidney donors. It is a reliable, convenient and economical marker that can be used especially in routine clinical practice. (author)

  17. Modeling Abrupt Change in Global Sea Level Arising from Ocean - Ice-Sheet Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M Holland

    2011-09-24

    It is proposed to develop, validate, and apply a coupled ocean ice-sheet model to simulate possible, abrupt future change in global sea level. This research is to be carried out collaboratively between an academic institute and a Department of Energy Laboratory (DOE), namely, the PI and a graduate student at New York University (NYU) and climate model researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The NYU contribution is mainly in the area of incorporating new physical processes into the model, while the LANL efforts are focused on improved numerics and overall model development. NYU and LANL will work together on applying the model to a variety of modeling scenarios of recent past and possible near-future abrupt change to the configuration of the periphery of the major ice sheets. The project's ultimate goal is to provide a robust, accurate prediction of future global sea level change, a feat that no fully-coupled climate model is currently capable of producing. This proposal seeks to advance that ultimate goal by developing, validating, and applying a regional model that can simulate the detailed processes involved in sea-level change due to ocean“ ice-sheet interaction. Directly modeling ocean ice-sheet processes in a fully-coupled global climate model is not a feasible activity at present given the near-complete absence of development of any such causal mechanism in these models to date.

  18. Management of Low Level Rad-Waste Arising From Nuclear Power Stations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power stations in Japan, in order to reduce radioactivity release into the environment based on the concept of ALARA, various improvements of the gaseous and liquid waste treatment systems have been made in both aspects of facilities and operations as follows: In order to reduce the release of gaseous waste, the following facilities were introduced: Charcoal bed typed noble gas holdup facility, Clean steam supply system for turbine gland seal, No leak typed valve In order to reduce the release of liquid waste, the following measures were taken: Evaporating floor drain, Evaporating laundry drain;, Demoralizing plant surplus water by a mix bed typed ion exchange resin. As a result of these counter measures, the release of gaseous and liquid radioactivity into the environment has been reduced gradually, and is now virtually 'zero' as shown in Islet. 1. Contrary to reduction in radioactivity release into the environment, residual radioactivity inside nuclear power station has made consequent increase of low level radioactive wastes in the form of solid

  19. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  20. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF. PMID:27144905

  1. Renal clearance of melatonin

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    1996-01-01

    Only two publications exist in which actual values for the renal clearance of intact melatonin in man is described. The melatonin clearance values were, however, obtained either after the oral intake of melatonin, or by applying different techniques for the determination of melatonin in urine and plasma. In this study, renal clearance of melatonin was determined during the hours where melatonin concentrations are relatively constant. Melatonin levels in plasma and urine respectively were e...

  2. A study on the representative sampling survey for the inspection of the clearance level for the radioisotope waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization facilities for radioisotope (RI) are increasing annually in South Korea, and the total number was 2,723, as of December 31, 2005. The inspection of a clearance level is a very important problem in order to ensure a social reliance for releasing radioactive materials to the environment. Korean regulations for such a clearance are described in Notice No. 2001-30 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Notice No. 2002-67 of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE). Most unsealed sources in RI waste drums at a storage facility are low-level beta-emitters with short half-lives, so it is impossible to measure their inventories by a nondestructive analysis. Furthermore, RI wastes generated from hospital, educational and research institutes and industry have a heterogeneous, multiple, irregular, and a small quantity of a waste stream. This study addresses a representative (master) sampling survey and analysis plan for RI wastes because a complete enumeration of waste drums is impossible and not desirable in terms of a cost and efficiency. The existing approaches to a representative sampling include a judgmental, simple random, stratified random, systematic grid, systematic random, composite, and adaptive sampling. A representative sampling plan may combine two or more of the above sampling approaches depending on the type and distribution of a waste stream. Stratified random sampling (constrained randomization) is proven to be adequate for a sampling design of a RI waste regarding a half-life, surface dose, undertaking time to a storage facility, and type of waste. The developed sampling protocol includes estimating the number of drums within a waste stream, estimating the number of samples, and a confirmation of the required number of samples. The statistical process control for a quality assurance plan includes control charts and an upper control limit (UCL) of 95% to determine whether a clearance level is met or not. (authors)

  3. Determination of radioactivity levels and recommendations for the exemption of radioactive waste arising outside the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is aimed at proposing radioactivity levels, which present a limit below which waste of very low radioactivity content arising in hospital and research facilities may follow the same disposal routes as normal refuse. After having described the actual French situation of management of this waste type, a methodology is given, allowing the evaluation of limits of radioactivity to be applied rendering such waste acceptable for normal disposal facilities. These limits are determined following realistic exposure scenarios for wastes and the population concerned. Together with these proposed limits, recommendations are given aimed at ensuring that criteria for the transition to the public domain are not violated by producers. 1 fig.; 35 tabs; 29 refs

  4. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  5. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... diseases characterized by defective mucus clearance have resulted in a variety of therapies, which might be able to enhance clearance from the lungs. In addition, ways to study in vivo mucociliary clearance in humans have been developed. This can be used as a means to assess the effect of different...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and...

  6. Testing and Performance Validation of a Shielded Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor Designed for the Measurement of Low Level Waste-13043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a shielded waste segregation and clearance monitor designed for the measurement of low-density low-level waste (LLW). The monitor is made of a measurement chamber surrounded by detectors and a shielded outer frame. The shielded chamber consists of a steel frame, which contains typically 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) of lead and 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of steel shielding. Inside the shielding are plastic scintillator panels, which serve as gross gamma ray detectors. The detector panels, with embedded photomultipliers, completely surround the internal measurement chamber on all 6 sides. Care has been taken to distribute the plastic scintillator detectors in order to optimise both the efficiency for gamma ray detection and at the same time achieve a volumetric sensitivity, which is as uniform as possible. A common high voltage power supply provides the bias voltage for each of the six photomultipliers. The voltage signals arising from the detectors and photomultipliers are amplified by six sensitive amplifiers. Each amplifier incorporates a single channel analyser with both upper and lower thresholds and the digitised counts from each detector are recorded on six scalars. Operation of the device is by means of a microprocessor from which the scalars are controlled. An internal load cell linked to the microprocessor determines the weight of the waste object, and this information is used to calculate the specific activity of the waste. The monitor makes background measurements when the shielded door is closed and a sample, usually a bag of low-density waste, is not present in the measurement chamber. Measurements of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of an earlier large volume prototype instrument are reported as part of the development of the Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor (WSCM) described in the paper. For the optimised WSCM a detection efficiency of greater than 32% was measured using a small Cs-137

  7. Testing and Performance Validation of a Shielded Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor Designed for the Measurement of Low Level Waste-13043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John A.; Burke, Kevin J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Beaven, Graham; Spence, Robert [Dounreay Site Restoration Ltd., Thurso, Caithness, Scotland, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a shielded waste segregation and clearance monitor designed for the measurement of low-density low-level waste (LLW). The monitor is made of a measurement chamber surrounded by detectors and a shielded outer frame. The shielded chamber consists of a steel frame, which contains typically 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) of lead and 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of steel shielding. Inside the shielding are plastic scintillator panels, which serve as gross gamma ray detectors. The detector panels, with embedded photomultipliers, completely surround the internal measurement chamber on all 6 sides. Care has been taken to distribute the plastic scintillator detectors in order to optimise both the efficiency for gamma ray detection and at the same time achieve a volumetric sensitivity, which is as uniform as possible. A common high voltage power supply provides the bias voltage for each of the six photomultipliers. The voltage signals arising from the detectors and photomultipliers are amplified by six sensitive amplifiers. Each amplifier incorporates a single channel analyser with both upper and lower thresholds and the digitised counts from each detector are recorded on six scalars. Operation of the device is by means of a microprocessor from which the scalars are controlled. An internal load cell linked to the microprocessor determines the weight of the waste object, and this information is used to calculate the specific activity of the waste. The monitor makes background measurements when the shielded door is closed and a sample, usually a bag of low-density waste, is not present in the measurement chamber. Measurements of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of an earlier large volume prototype instrument are reported as part of the development of the Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor (WSCM) described in the paper. For the optimised WSCM a detection efficiency of greater than 32% was measured using a small Cs-137

  8. Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials. Application of exemption principles. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes levels of radionuclides in solid wastes below which regulatory control may be relinquished on the grounds that the associated radiation hazards are trivial. The radiological basis for the guidance is the international consensus on principles for the exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control reached in 1988 and published in IAEA Safety Series No. 89. The levels are intended as international reference values. The levels may be seen as those below which release from regulatory control is 'automatic' without further consideration being needed. Release from regulatory control may, of course, be allowed under other conditions; regulatory authorities may decide, on the basis of a generic or site specific optimization subject to dose constraints, to select other, less restrictive, release levels. This optimization process includes consideration of factors other than those associated with radiation protection, for example, those concerned with the health, social, environmental and economic benefits and risks of implementing the practice. 44 refs, tabs

  9. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  10. Study on measurement of spatial dose rates from simulated products made from recycled metal below clearance levels arising from dismantling of nuclear facilities. Contract research

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, A; Kitami, Y; Nakamura, H; Nakashima, M; Saitô, K

    2002-01-01

    In order to contribute to safety assessment of recycling products made from dismantling metal wastes, metal ingots containing sup 6 sup 0 Co were produced and spatial dose rates from ingots were evaluated by gamma-ray measurement and calculation. Stripping operations were made using detector response functions calculated by Monte Carlo program to derive spatial dose rates from measured gamma-ray spectra. In the computer simulation, Monte Carlo and point kernel calculation codes were used. Agreement between measured and calculated values was satisfactory in spite of an extremely low concentration of sup 6 sup 0 Co in the ingots and a complicated geometric condition between detector and samples.

  11. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors)

  12. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  13. Statistical Approach for Determination of Compliance with Clearance Criteria Based upon Types of Radionuclide Distributions in a Very Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Jae Hak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    A statistical evaluation methodology was developed to determine the compliance of candidate waste stream with clearance criteria based upon distribution of radionuclide in a waste stream at a certain confidence level. For the cases where any information on the radionuclide distribution is not available, the relation between arithmetic mean of radioactivity concentration and its acceptable maximum standard deviation was demonstrated by applying widely-known Markov Inequality and One-side Chebyshev Inequality. The relations between arithmetic mean and its acceptable maximum standard deviation were newly derived for normally or lognormally distributed radionuclide in a waste stream, using probability density function, cumulative density function, and other statistical relations. The evaluation methodology was tested for a representative case at 95% of confidence level and 100 Bq/g of clearance level of radioactivity concentration, and then the acceptable range of standard deviation at a given arithmetic mean was quantitatively shown and compared, by varying the type of radionuclide distribution. Furthermore, it was statistically demonstrated that the allowable range of clearance can be expanded, even at the same confidence level, if information on the radionuclide distribution is available.

  14. Statistical Approach for Determination of Compliance with Clearance Criteria Based upon Types of Radionuclide Distributions in a Very Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical evaluation methodology was developed to determine the compliance of candidate waste stream with clearance criteria based upon distribution of radionuclide in a waste stream at a certain confidence level. For the cases where any information on the radionuclide distribution is not available, the relation between arithmetic mean of radioactivity concentration and its acceptable maximum standard deviation was demonstrated by applying widely-known Markov Inequality and One-side Chebyshev Inequality. The relations between arithmetic mean and its acceptable maximum standard deviation were newly derived for normally or lognormally distributed radionuclide in a waste stream, using probability density function, cumulative density function, and other statistical relations. The evaluation methodology was tested for a representative case at 95% of confidence level and 100 Bq/g of clearance level of radioactivity concentration, and then the acceptable range of standard deviation at a given arithmetic mean was quantitatively shown and compared, by varying the type of radionuclide distribution. Furthermore, it was statistically demonstrated that the allowable range of clearance can be expanded, even at the same confidence level, if information on the radionuclide distribution is available.

  15. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  16. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance system is a legal word to define as 'the waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' on the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on the approval and the confirmation of clearance measurement by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects. In this study, the criteria of the techniques were examined, and the strategy for setting of radioactivity concentration evaluation level was prepared. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources to apply to a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment were made, and these applicability and problem were studied. The method of the validity evaluation of the performance confirmation of the measuring equipment was devised by measurement experiment using this source. The manual for unexpected incidents which maintained in FY2011 was reviced by reflection of the experience of the radioactivity concentration measurement of disaster waste contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. JNES also supports NISA technically for the issue on influence of fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS on clearance system and NR system. In addition, the latest situation of a clearance system operated in Europe was studied. (author)

  17. Comparison of the plant requirements, process performance and waste arisings for potential processes for the partitioning of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual overall processes have been compared for six partitioning technologies for high level waste (HLW) integrating them with the PUREX process and with the downstream processes required to convert the products into forms suitable for transmutation or other purposes. Based on the process flowsheets, a semi-quantitative assessment ha been made of the relative investment in plant necessary for each process. An assessment is also made of the secondary wastes and by-products resulting from each process

  18. Genetic variation in SULF2 is associated with postprandial clearance of triglyceride-rich remnant particles and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Matikainen

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Nonfasting (postprandial triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG pathway is important for the hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs in mice, but its relevance in humans is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for HSPG assembly and disassembly contribute to atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias in humans. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: We performed an oral fat load in 68 healthy subjects. Lipoproteins (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 1 and 2 were isolated from blood, and the area under curve and incremental area under curve for postprandial variables were calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding syndecan-1 and enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of HSPG were genotyped in the study subjects. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the genetic variation rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with postprandial clearance of remnant TRLs and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the SNP rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: In humans, mild but clinically relevant postprandial hyperlipidemia due to reduced hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs may result from genetic polymorphisms that affect hepatic HSPG.

  19. Genetic Variation in SULF2 Is Associated with Postprandial Clearance of Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Particles and Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefano; Hakkarainen, Antti; Adiels, Martin; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Lundbom, Nina; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Orho-Melander, Marju; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Borén, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Context Nonfasting (postprandial) triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) pathway is important for the hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs in mice, but its relevance in humans is unclear. Objective We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for HSPG assembly and disassembly contribute to atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias in humans. Patients And Design We performed an oral fat load in 68 healthy subjects. Lipoproteins (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 1 and 2) were isolated from blood, and the area under curve and incremental area under curve for postprandial variables were calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding syndecan-1 and enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of HSPG were genotyped in the study subjects. Results Our results indicate that the genetic variation rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with postprandial clearance of remnant TRLs and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the SNP rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels. Conclusions In humans, mild but clinically relevant postprandial hyperlipidemia due to reduced hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs may result from genetic polymorphisms that affect hepatic HSPG. PMID:24278138

  20. Estimated Creatinine Clearance, Homocysteine and High Sensitivity-C-Reactive Protein Levels Determination for Early Prediction of Nephropathy and Atherosclerosis Risk In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Deebukkhum, Suwipar; Pingmuangkaew, Patchanrin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai; Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients are increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many studies had demonstrated that CKD is significantly associated with CVD. We aim to indicate the using estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl), homocysteine (tHcy), and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, may have an impact on the interpretation risk for nephropathy and CVD. eCrCl was using the Cockroft-Gault formula, eCrCl levels were stratified acc...

  1. Innovative alpha-radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transportation technology (1). Comparison with mass spectral analysis using uranium-attached samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing an alpha-radioactivity monitor based on ionized air transportation technology (alpha clearance monitor) for efficiently performing clearance level inspection of massive amounts of uranium-contaminated waste. This paper is one of a series related to a method for quantitatively evaluating alpha radioactivity from a measured ion current value. Using a prototype alpha clearance monitor, we measured alpha radioactivities of uranium-attached components used in back-end facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle (uranium-attached samples). We compared the measured radioactivities with reference radioactivities by assaying the samples with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the radioactivities measured with a scintillation survey meter. The radioactivities of curved plate samples measured with the prototype monitor were highly linear with respect to the reference radioactivities (a residual standard deviation of 8%). Absolute values of the radioactivities obtained with the prototype monitor and with the survey meter were about 40% and 50% smaller than the reference radioactivities, respectively. Measurements of complex-shaped samples indicated that, to measure diverse-shaped waste, it was necessary to classify the waste by shape and determine conversion coefficients corresponding to each group in advance, experimentally and theoretically. (author)

  2. Methodology for evaluating radiological consequences of the management of very low-level solide waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a methodology is described, and illustrated by examples, for the evaluation of individual doses and collective dose commitments arising as a result of various management modes for very low-level solid wastes arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Estimates have been made of the masses of materials activated and contaminated to within three concentration limits, 0.37, 3.7 and 37 Bq g-1, at three times after reactor shutdown, 5 y, 25 y and 100 y. The disposal options considered are shallow land burial, at a municipal landfill site or at the reactor site, and disposal on the seabed in coastal waters or the deep ocean. It is assumed that there is no special treatment to reduce or eliminate the potential radiological hazard. Consideration has also been given to the radiological impact of recycling of contaminated steel. The radiological impacts of all the management options for the wastes considered were found to be small. It may therefore be acceptable to allow such very low-level wastes to be disposal of without special restrictions provided that the level and type of activity of the wastes can be verified. In addition the health detriment cost associated with all the management options is small, so it is likely that other factors such as transport and engineering costs will be more important in final decisions about the management of these wastes

  3. Giant Cell Tumor Presenting as A Spindle Shaped Tumor Arising From the Costovertebral Junction at D7, d8, d9 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Kale, Sachin; Chaudhary, Prasad; Dhar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor accounts for 5 to 9 percent of all primary bony tumors. Giant cell tumors are usually found in the long bones, most often the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal radius and rarely arising from the ribs. In this paper, we describe a case of giant cell tumor presented at an unusual location of the costovertebral junction as a dumbbell shaped tumor. Case Report: Authors report a case of a 27 year old male patient with a giant cell tumor arising from the costovertebral junction at D7, D8, and D9 levels compressing the cord. Well-defined osteolysis with nonsclerotic borders were visualized on radiographs and CT scan images. Intermediate signal intensity on T1 sequences and central high signal and peripheral intermediate signal intensity on T2 sequences was visualized on MRI images. CT guided biopsy was reported as a moderately vascular lesion with spindle cell neoplasm suggestive of schwannoma. The cord was decompressed, tumor mass was surgically resected and stabilization with instrumentation was done. Histopatholgy was suggestive of giant cell tumor. Conclusion: Giant cell tumor may be included in the differential diagnosis in a well-defined lytic lesion when involving the costovertebral junction presenting as a spindle cell tumor on biopsy reports. PMID:27299118

  4. Application of dynamic analysis of radiation from low-level solid waste for clearance from regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodological approaches to measuring the radiation from low-level radioactive waste using dynamic analysis of non-stationary radiation fields are considered. The proposed dynamic analysis method allows identifying low-level radiation sources at high background levels and can be applied for the characterization of radioactive waste for release from regulatory control

  5. The management of low level radioactive waste arising from the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear fuel production facilities at NECSA - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the decommissioning of the Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa's (NECSA) redundant nuclear fuel production facilities and on the the waste management and site remediation activities at Pelindaba, near Pretoria. These facilities include the uranium conversion plant (U plant), the pilot enrichment plant (Y plant), semi-commercial plant (Z plant), fuel fabrication plant (Beva) and ancillary facilities. The Y plant was used to produce highly enriched uranium for strategic purposes, whereas the Z plant was used for commercial application and licensed for a maximum enrichment level of 5% 235U. The management of the materials arising from the decommissioning activities is discussed, including the decontamination and recycling of useful scrap metals as well as the subsequent management of the radioactive waste, culminating in final disposal. The overall nuclear liability management programme is discussed against the background of South Africa's draft Policy and Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management. It aims to coordinate the various radioactive waste management activities within the country as well as to provide the necessary guidance regarding the development of a national radioactive waste management system. (author)

  6. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  7. Cortisol does not inhibit prednisolone clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Meffin, P J; Sallustio, B C; Purdie, Y J; Robson, R A; Wing, L M; Brooks, P M

    1985-01-01

    The disposition of prednisolone has been studied in eight male subjects with and without the concomitant administration of cortisol which produced plasma cortisol concentrations 10-fold higher than endogenous levels. The clearance and steady-state distribution volume of total prednisolone were increased as was the prednisolone free fraction but the clearance of unbound prednisolone was unaltered by cortisol co-administration.

  8. The Arising of Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Some Buddhist scholars have periodized the expected lifetime of the Buddha's teachings. According to them, these periods of 500 years each have different characteristics. The first is called 'the period of the results'. Therefore some scholars have claimed that only in the first 500 years after the...... Buddha results can arise. Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön has argued that results arise through practise as long as Dharma and Sangha exist....

  9. 慢性乙型肝炎免疫清除期甲胎蛋白与HBV DNA清除的相关性研究%Correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晓鹰; 徐洪涛; 杨秀珍; 咸建春; 沈美龙

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨乙型肝炎免疫清除期,甲胎蛋白(AFP)与HBV DNA清除之间的相关性。方法收集处于免疫清除期发病2周内AFP升高5倍以上患者共58例,分为非抗病毒治疗组(下称观察组)31例和核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒治疗组(下称阳性对照组)27例,另取同期住院AFP阴性首次发病的慢性乙型肝炎核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒患者30例作为阴性对照组。分析影响HBV DNA清除率的相关因素。结果阳性对照组及阴性对照组患者均行抗病毒治疗,HBV DNA定量与各临床数据之间均无相关性,观察组HBV DNA定量与各指标之间的关系结果显示,AFP与HBV DNA清除具有显著相关性(r=0.8420,P=0.018),以下依次为ALT(r=0.7888,P=0.027)和总胆红素(TBil)(r=0.7816,P=0.032)。HBsAg(r=0.0480,P=0.413)和HBeAg(r=0.3356,P=0.191)与HBV DNA清除无显著相关性。结论对乙型肝炎免疫清除期AFP升高5倍以上患者,可先进行密切病情观察,根据病情需要进行抗病毒治疗。%Objectives To investigate the relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods Total of 58 cases with CHB, who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level>5 upper limits of normal in two weeks since disease onset were enrolled. Among which 31 cases received non-antiviral therapy as experimental group, and 27 cases received antiviral therapy as positive control group. While other 30 cases with CHB who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level were normal in two weeks since disease onset, were enrolled as negative control group. And the correlation factors of HBV DNA clearance were analyzed, respectively. Results There were no signiifcant correlation between HBV DNA clearance and other data in patients who received antiviral therapy in positive and negative

  10. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry - A review of the concepts from a South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks from mining and processing of ores is reviewed on a generic basis with particular reference to some of the confusions which can arise due to lack of consistency or common logic in the use of exclusion, exemption and clearance. The difference in exclusion and exemption are challenged by comparing doses received in high background radiation areas and the doses received from a mining practice. The common principle of risk to the human species is not applied consistently. The differences between IAEA recommendations and local regulatory conditions are compared, and the use of exemption levels as clearance levels is considered. A case study on management of mine tailings is presented with special focus on the use of clearance levels. In all areas of review the interpretation of regulation is subject to confusion resulting from inconsistencies which can distort free market economics. (author)

  11. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  12. The parasite clearance curve

    OpenAIRE

    White NJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Parasite clearance rates are important measures of anti-malarial drug efficacy. They are particularly important in the assessment of artemisinin resistance. The slope of the log-linear segment in the middle of the parasite clearance curve has the least inter-individual variance and is the focus of therapeutic assessment. The factors affecting parasite clearance are reviewed. Methods of presentation and the approaches to analysis are discussed.

  13. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  14. Review and Analysis of Solid Long-lived and High Level Radioactive Waste arising at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Restricted Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study characterised potential waste arisings in the Exclusion Zone surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studied sites include the Industrial Zone outside the Sarcophagus, three engineered disposal sites (the so-called PZRO), non-engineered near surface trench dumps (PVLRO), contaminated soil and sites of ''unauthorized'' disposal within the Exclusion Zone. Analysis of the previous methodology used for waste characterisation and inventory estimates identified a number of errors. A new database was established, which contains the most up-to date information on radwaste in the Exclusion Zone. Based on the analysis of the available information and potential radiological consequences, a judgement was taken regarding the priority of waste retrieval. In a number of cases it is necessary to carry out risk assessment to ensure that in-situ disposal would satisfy the Ukrainian regulations. Assessments of waste stream volumes for subsequent incineration, encapsulation, storage and disposal in the planned near-surface facilities have been made. It is judged that throughput and capacity of the planned waste management facilities specified by OSAT is, in general, appropriate to the likely waste arisings. (author)

  15. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  16. Calculating Clearances for Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. L.; Peticolas, J. D.; Ray, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Set of algorithms rapidly calculates minimum safe clearances for remote manipulators. Such calculations are used in design of trajectories for manipulators to ensure they do not accidentally strike surrounding objects. Structural parts are considered as cylindrical shells having circular plane areas for ends. Clearance calculation method offers special benefits in industrial robotics, particularly in automated machining.

  17. Importance of different clearance options for the dismantling of the NPP Stade (KKS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the IAEA-Safety Guide RS-G 1.7 is an adaption of the clearance level in European and national German law in preparation. This paper analyse the effect of the different clearance levels of the realisation of the clearance, especially if some conditioned clearance according to German law will not exist further more. (orig.)

  18. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2007-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinar...

  19. Optimisation-based clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2002-01-01

    The basic feature of the optimisation-based clearance approach is to reformulate the clearance problems as equivalent minimum distance problems for which ”anti”-optimisation is performed to determine the worst-case parameter combination/ flight condition leading to worst performance. The basic requirements for the applicability of the optimisation-based approach are the availability of suitable parametric models describing the overall nonlinear dynamics of the augmented aircraft and of accomp...

  20. Over-estimation of sea level measurements arising from water density anomalies within tide-wells - A case study at Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.

    at the mouth of the Zuari estuary, and anomalies were reported at all periods except during peak summer and the onset of the summer monsoon. These anomalies lead to an over-estimation of sea level by a tide-well based gauge. The density difference, delta p...

  1. The feasibility of recycling and clearance of active materials from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: massimo.zucchetti@polito.it; El-Guebaly, L.A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Forrest, R.A. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Marshall, T.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Taylor, N.P. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Tobita, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    In order to minimize the quantity of active materials that require long-term storage, arising during operation and after fusion power plant decommissioning, maximum use should be made of both recycling within the nuclear industry and clearance. For the latter, revised limits have been recently issued at the international level and in the US and Europe. In this paper the implications for fusion materials of these new levels are considered. Concerning recycling, power plant studies have employed criteria based solely on radiological parameters. Reviews of remote procedures currently used within the nuclear industry suggest that these criteria have been unduly conservative and should be revised.

  2. Clearances of solid waste uranium by using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearances of contaminated materials arising from desmantling or decommissioning must be provided with the result of measurement of radionuclide content in such materials. In this research, direct measurement of uranium in solid waste for a clearance requirement had been developed by using gamma spectrometric with HPGe detector. The measurement method was developed based on 1001 keV gamma energy of Pa-234m considering a self absorption, detector characteristic, background level factors. For validation purpose, this method was compared with a neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Efficiency for 1001 keV of Pa-234m was 0,0991– 0,1369 cps/Bq on density of 0,51–1,81 g/cm3 with a minimum detectable level of 8–10 Bq/kg. This method was useful for high concentration of U-238 with a precision in acceptance criteria P < 1% and the gamma spectrometer showed a high performance with a value Zscore <1. (author)

  3. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute groundwater

  4. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  5. Dynamic Ground Clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamache, Violette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a test method which will consider the variation of the ground clearance when driving, the so-called dynamic ground clearance. This has been done through the analysis of a specific application: the tractors in grain used in Brazil. Series of real life tests are run in order to obtain data on the tire compressions and the suspension travels. The tractor used is a 6x4 and is loaded with a trailer. When investigating critical cases, the minimum dynamic groun...

  6. A comprehensive study of the relation between serum concentrations, concentration ratios, and level/dose ratios of carbamazepine and its metabolites with age, weight, dose, and clearances in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Delgado, M R

    1994-01-01

    We made a comprehensive study of the relation between age, weight, carbamazepine (CBZ) dose, total clearance (TC), and intrinsic clearance (IC) and concentrations, concentration ratios, and level/dose ratios of CBZ, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and trans-10,11-dihydroxy-10,11- dihydro-carbamazepine (CBZ-H) in a group of epileptic children receiving CBZ monotherapy. Body weight and age showed negative correlations with TC, IC, CBZ dose, and CBZ-E/CBZ and CBZ-H/CBZ concentration ratios, and had positive relation with CBZ, CBZ-E, and CBZ-H level/dose ratios. These results indicate decreased CBZ metabolism with patient maturity. Correlations between CBZ dose with TC, IC, and the concentration ratios of CBZ-E/CBZ, CBZ-H/CBZ-E, and CBZ-H/CBZ were positive. CBZ dose also had negative associations with CBZ and CBZ-E level/dose ratios, indicating dose-dependent autoinduction of CBZ metabolism. Our data suggest that weight, age, and CBZ dose have less influence on epoxide-hydrolase activities than on epoxidase activities. The CBZ-E/CBZ concentration ratio can be used as an indicator of the degree of autoinduction of CBZ metabolism, even in patients receiving CBZ monotherapy. PMID:7988515

  7. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  8. Mucociliary clearance in chronic sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Surinder Mohan; Singh, Sunder; Singh, Ajit

    1998-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance is an important defence mechanism of upper and lower respiratory tracts. Any disturbance in the mechanism leads to stagnation of secretions and secondary infection with prolonged mucociliary clearance time. The present study was undertaken to establish normal mucociliary clearance time in our region and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in chronic sinusitis of variable duration with and without obstructive diseases.

  9. Phagocytic Clearance in Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolowski, Jennifer D.; Mandell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and debris have been intensely studied in invertebrate model organisms and in the mammalian immune system. This evolutionarily conserved process serves multiple purposes. Uncleared debris from dying cells or aggregated proteins can be toxic and may trigger exaggerated inflammatory responses. Even though apoptotic cell death and debris accumulation are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, relatively little ...

  10. Modelling mucociliary clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D.J.; Gaffney, E.A.; Blake, J R

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the fluid mechanics of mucociliary clearance (MCC) is reviewed and future challenges for researchers are discussed. The morphology of the bronchial and tracheal airway surface liquid (ASL) and ciliated epithelium are briefly introduced. The cilia beat cycle, beat frequency and metachronal coordination are described, along with the rheology of the mucous layer. Theoretical modelling of MCC from the late 1960s onwards is reviewed, and distinctions between ‘phenomenolog...

  11. Radioaerosol delivery and clearance in patients with respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for radioaerosol delivery to patients requiring mechanical ventilation is described. Ventilation images and pulmonary radioaerosol clearance rates were successfully obtained in 35 patients regardless of ventilator type or level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Those patients with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) had significantly increased clearance rates relative to those patients in whom NPE was not present

  12. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  13. Human achaete-scute homologue (hASH1) mRNA level as a diagnostic marker to distinguish esthesioneuroblastoma from poorly differentiated tumors arising in the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhawech, Paulette; Berczy, Margaret; Assaly, Mounia; Herrmann, Francois; Bouzourene, Hanifa; Allal, Abdelkarim S; Dulguerov, Pavel; Schwaller, Jürg

    2004-07-01

    Distinction of high-grade esthesioneuroblastomas from other poorly differentiated tumors arising in the nasal cavity is an important diagnostic challenge because it determines patient management and prognosis. The human achaete-scute homologue (hASH1) gene is critical in olfactory neuronal differentiation and is expressed in immature olfactory cells; therefore, it could have potential use as a diagnostic marker The aim of the present study was to determine the value of hASH1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in differentiating esthesioneuroblastoma from other poorly differentiated tumors. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed, permitting the comparative determination of hASH1 mRNA levels in triplicate in a double-blind pilot study including 24 frozen cases of esthesioneuroblastoma and poorly differentiated tumors. All 4 positive cases were esthesioneuroblastomas, and all 19 poorly differentiated tumors were negative. In addition, there was an inverse association between the grade of esthesioneuroblastomas and hASH1 mRNA levels. The hASH1 mRNA level might represent a useful tool for distinguishing esthesioneuroblastoma from poorly differentiated tumors of the sinonasal region. PMID:15272537

  14. Effects of airborne pollutants on mucociliary clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, R K

    1986-01-01

    The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of data on the effect of in vivo air pollutant exposures on the clearance of test particles from airways. Data from both animals and humans are compared whenever possible, so that estimates of human health effects may be made. Mechanisms of action are also discussed, presenting the view that for low level exposu...

  15. Impact of Glycation on Antibody Clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jane; Primack, Ronya; Frohn, Mike; Wang, Wei; Luan, Peng; Retter, Marc W.; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Glycation of therapeutic proteins occurs during mammalian cell culture expression and upon administration to patients. Since the chemical attachment of mannose or other sugars via a chemical linker has been shown to increase a protein’s clearance rate in mice through the mannose receptor, we explored the effect of mannose glycation on the clearance of an IgG in mice. An IgG decorated with high levels of mannose (~18 mol/mol protein) through glycation did not clear faster in mice than the unde...

  16. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  17. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  18. An accredited infrastructure for clearance of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear research reactors and a hot-cell facility at the Riso site in Denmark have been closed and are in the process of being decommissioned. This has prompted the development of an accredited infrastructure called the Clearance Function. This function is responsible for the activity concentration measurements of the clearance candidates and for the demonstration of compliance with the clearance levels for the released objects. The Clearance Function comprises laboratory facilities, measuring equipment, measuring procedures, waste handling software, software for clearance related calculations and trained personnel. An accreditation of the Clearance Function has been granted from the accreditation body, DANAK, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005. DANAK is a member of ILAC, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. The Clearance Function has been accredited to measure surface-specific and mass-specific activities using surface contamination monitors and high purity germanium detectors. The germanium detectors are characterised and in each measurement they are calibrated using the ISOCS (registered) calibration software. Activity concentration measurements can be made on items as a whole (one or several combined measurements) or on samples from an item. In the latter case a statistical method is used to evaluate whether the activity concentration is above or below the clearance level. The paper describes the different elements of the Clearance Function and the processing of items through the flow routes depending on the likely activity content and the distribution of activity. It is shown how uncertainties are incorporated in the clearance criteria. Experience from the first year of operation of the Clearance Function is reported. (author)

  19. An accredited infrastructure for clearance of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear research reactors and a hot-cell facility at the Riso site in Denmark have been closed and are in the process of being decommissioned. This has prompted the development of an accredited infrastructure called the Clearance Function. This function is responsible for the activity concentration measurements of the clearance candidates and for the demonstration of compliance with the clearance levels for the released objects. The Clearance Function comprises laboratory facilities, measuring equipment, measuring procedures, waste handling software, software for clearance related calculations and trained personnel. An accreditation of the Clearance Function has been granted from the accreditation body, DANAK, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005. DANAK is a member of ILAC, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. The Clearance Function has been accredited to measure surface-specific and mass-specific activities using surface contamination monitors and high purity germanium detectors. The germanium detectors are characterised and in each measurement they are calibrated using the ISOCS calibration software. Activity concentration measurements can be made on items as a whole (one or several combined measurements) or on samples from an item. In the latter case a statistical method is used to evaluate whether the activity concentration is above or below the clearance level. The paper describes the different elements of the Clearance Function and the processing of items through the flow routes depending on the likely activity content and the distribution of activity. It is shown how uncertainties are incorporated in the clearance criteria. Experience from the first year of operation of the Clearance Function is reported. (author)

  20. Family study of antipyrine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Blain, P G; Mucklow, J C; Wood, P; Roberts, D F; Rawlins, M D

    1982-01-01

    Antipyrine clearance was measured in 208 healthy volunteers from 78 families. After the values had been corrected for weight and sex, antipyrine clearance was observed to be significantly correlated between siblings (r = 0.590) and between spouses (r = 0.320), but not between parents and their offspring. After the clearance values had been corrected for tobacco and oral contraceptive use, there was still no significant correlation between parents and offspring. These results are incompatible ...

  1. Clearance and Exemption- Application in EU Member Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the findings of the European Commission project commissioned to provide information on the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance for practices according to Title III of Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM (Directive) of 13 May 1996 (Directive). The study collated and then evaluated information on the legal instruments and application of exemption and clearance in all EU Member States. It was found that most Member States in the EU have introduced new legislation to address the Directive within the past 2-3 years. Exemption has been implemented by the majority of Member States in a way consistent with Title III of the Directive. The area of greatest variation relates to the introduction of clearance levels. In most Member States clearance levels, when adopted, are not based on values published in guidance from the European Commission. It was found that there is a variation of up to four orders of magnitude between the clearance levels used in some Member States and those recommended in European Commission guidance. It is clear, following the review of implementation in Member States, that there is a need for additional guidance on various aspects of the implementation of the concepts of exemption and clearance; including on surface contamination levels and decay storage. Clearance guidance for small users such as universities and hospitals would also be welcomed. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Guidance of clearance related standards in reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor regulation law was amended in May 2005 to provide for the clearance system. The regulatory body confirmed radioactivity concentration of material and allowed the material be classified as 'material cleared from regulatory control'. The procedure of confirmation consisted of two steps; 1) methodology and 2) results, of measurement and assessment. Clearance related standards were issued as ordinance of Ministry and NISA information notice, which specified radioactive nuclides, radioactivity concentration, evaluation unit, how to decide radioactivity concentration, radiation measurement equipment and control of object material. This report was guidance of clearance related standards in reactor facilities with explanatory notes. By applying the clearance system, material of insignificant radiation level, which was part of concrete or metals generated from decommissioning of reactor facilities, could be released from regulatory control of radioactive waste as clearance material, and recycle of such material could result in reduction of radioactive waste amount. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  4. RATIONAL CUSTOMS CLEARANCE TECHNOLOGY CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  5. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  6. Importance of different clearance options for the dismantling of the NPP Stade (KKS); Bedeutung verschiedener Freigabeoptionen fuer den Rueckbau des KKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacmeister, G.U. [E.ON Kernkraftwerk Stade (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    As a consequence of the IAEA-Safety Guide RS-G 1.7 is an adaption of the clearance level in European and national German law in preparation. This paper analyse the effect of the different clearance levels of the realisation of the clearance, especially if some conditioned clearance according to German law will not exist further more. (orig.)

  7. Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Foreign-Body Biofilm Infections through Reduction of the Cyclic Di-GMP Level in the Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louise D.; van Gennip, Maria; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Wu, Hong; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Alhede, Morten; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2013-01-01

    be used for biofilm control in vivo. We constructed a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in which a reduction in the c-di-GMP level can be achieved via induction of the Escherichia coli YhjH c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Initial experiments showed that induction of yhjH expression led to dispersal of the...

  8. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Nasal mucociliary clearance in coal mine workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinar, F.; Beder, L. [Karaelmas University, Kozlu Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of coal dust particles on nasal mucociliary function in coal mine workers. Using the saccharin method, nasal mucociliary clearance was determined for 77 subjects, of which 39 who worked in a coal mine were actively exposed to coal dust whereas 38 were unexposed control subjects. The measurements were performed in the coal mine, at the level of 170 m below sea level. The average saccharin nasal transit time in coal mine workers, 12.61 (SD: 4.30) minutes, is longer, than that of the control subjects, 10.97 (SD: 3.22). Although the findings of this study demonstrate that the coal particles affect the nasal mucociliary clearance, the difference in saccharin nasal transit time between the two groups (exposed vs unexposed) is not statistically significant (P = 0.063).

  11. Clearance of nuclear waste and decommissioned nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The guide is applied to waste, including recyclable materials, arising from the operation and decommissioning of a nuclear facility, as well as to non-dismantled buildings and surrounding sites being subject to regulatory control. The guide gives the radiation protection principles to be followed in the planning and implementation of clearances. The guide also covers the clearance procedures and the activity monitoring and record-keeping of materials to be cleared. The guide does not address radioactive waste or contaminated sites arising as a consequence of the utilization of natural resources. The guidance for such activities is given in Section 13 of the Finnish Radiation Act, Section 6 of the Radiation Decree and in STUK's (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) guides ST 6.2, ST 12.1 and ST 12.2

  12. Antipyrene clearance in Indian villagers.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, N K; Sheth, U K; Mucklow, J C; Fraser, H S; Bulpitt, C J; Jones, S.W.; Dollery, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    1 Antipyrine clearance has been measured using saliva samples in 50 Maharashtrans from a village to the north of Bombay. 2 All subjects were very lean and were also anaemic probably as a result of hookworm infestation. 3 Antipyrine clearance was 36% faster than in White Londoners studied previously and more than twice as fast as in Asian immigrants living in London. 4 Clearance was 25% faster in men than in women but volume of distribution was also greater in men and mean half-lives did not d...

  13. Clearance of von Willebrand factor. : Clearance of von Willebrand factor

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Cécile; Christophe, Olivier; Oortwijn, Beatrijs,; Lenting, Peter,

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of von Willebrand factor (VWF) comprises a number of distinct steps, ranging from the controlled expression of the VWF gene in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes to the removal of VWF from the circulation. The various aspects of VWF clearance have been the objects of intense research in the last few years, stimulated by observations that VWF clearance is a relatively common component of the pathogenesis of type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, improving the survival ...

  14. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  15. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption of...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion that...... lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  16. Measurement of nasal mucociliary clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbo, G M; Foresi, A; Bonfitto, P; Mugnano, A; Agabiti, N.; Cole, P J

    1989-01-01

    The saccharin test was carried out in a randomly selected sample of schoolchildren (142 boys and 153 girls, age range 11-14 years) to determine the variability and reproducibility of the test and to assess whether it could be used as a screening test for nasal mucociliary clearance. Nasal mucociliary clearance times were analysed according to clinical history (asthma, rhinitis, asthma with rhinitis, and acute upper respiratory tract infections), laboratory findings (positive skin test respons...

  17. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrom...

  18. Method of mucociliary clearance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.

  19. Re-entry flight clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear models. The stability of re-entry vehicles in the presence of model uncertainties was chosen as the clearance criterion, which is represented by two mathematical criteria: worst-case eigenvalues (linear...

  20. Human achaete-scute Homologue (hASH1) mRNA Level as a Diagnostic Marker to Distinguish Esthesioneuroblastoma From Poorly Differentiated Tumors Arising in the Sinonasal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Berczy, Margaret; Assaly, Mounia; Herrmann, François; Bouzourene, Hanifa; Allal, Abdelkarim Said; Dulguerov, Pavel; Schwaller, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    Distinction of high-grade esthesioneuroblastomas from other poorly differentiated tumors arising in the nasal cavity is an important diagnostic challenge because it determines patient management and prognosis. The human achaete-scute homologue (hASH1) gene is critical in olfactory neuronal differentiation and is expressed in immature olfactory cells; therefore, it could have potential use as a diagnostic marker. The aim of the present study was to determine the value of hASH1 messenger RNA (m...

  1. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  2. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption of...... lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  3. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  4. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  5. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  6. ADMA metabolism and clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Teerlink, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is the resultant of many processes at cellular and organ levels. Post-translational methylation of arginine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in the regulation of their functions, which include processes such as transcription, translation and RNA splicing. Because protein methylation is irreversible, the methylation signal can be turned off only by prot...

  7. ADMA metabolism and clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Teerlink, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is the resultant of many processes at cellular and organ levels. Post-translational methylation of arginine residues of pro teins plays a crucial role in the regulation of their functions, which include processes such as transcription, translation and RNA splicing. Because protein methylation is irreversible, the methylation signal can be turned off only by pro...

  8. Relevant aspects in the application of exemption and clearance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays the relevant question in the Radiological Protection is the necessity of the establishment of criteria to remove materials (scrap) from the regulatory control. In 1996, the International Atomic energy Agency -IAEA published the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources- the BSS-115, which establishes the requirements for exclusion, exemption and clearance for practices, sources, materials and pieces. The BSS's criteria were established in terms of effective dose and the collective effective dose committed expected to be incurred by any member of the public due to practices or sources that will be free from regulatory control (exemption) or a material that will be removed from authorized practices (clearance). In order to become easy to implement these criteria, in the Schedule I of BSS were established exemption levels specified in activity concentration or activity for several radionuclides. These levels that would give rise to doses to appropriate critical groups that correspond to the dose criteria for the exemption of practices. In Brazil the regulatory authority, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, published in 2005 The Basic Guidelines for Radiological Protection, the CNEN-NN-3.01, incorporating BSS's concepts and criteria for exemption and clearance. However, in the practical implementations of this guidelines during the practices licensing and inspections activities were verified the necessity of clearance criteria in terms of superficial activity, for become accomplishable to implement the monitoring process of pieces and materials (scrap) before remove that from regulatory control (clearance). (author)

  9. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  10. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing clearance. 154.48 Section 154.48 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.48 Issuing clearance. (a) Authorities designated in paragraph...

  11. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance...

  12. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated,...

  13. 76 FR 47917 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... August 5, 2011 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 745 Lead; Clearance and Clearance... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the... 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule, the EPA agreed to propose a number...

  14. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  15. Impaired tracheobronchial clearance in bronchiectasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, D C; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Diamond, P D; Cole, P J; Clarke, S. W.

    1987-01-01

    Tracheobronchial clearance was measured by a radioaerosol technique in 12 patients with bronchiectasis, seven patients with chronic obstructive lung disease expectorating mucoid sputum daily (group X), eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease but negligible sputum expectoration (group Y), and 10 healthy subjects. The patients with bronchiectasis all expectorated purulent sputum daily (mean wet weight 47 g/day), had reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (mean 47.5% ...

  16. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Brant, Tereza C S; Yoshida, Carolina T; Tomas de S. Carvalho; Nicola, Marina L; Jocimar. A. Martins; Lays M. Braga; Regiani C. de Oliveira; Vilma Leyton; Carmen S. de André; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Rubin, Bruce K.; Naomi K. Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS:...

  17. Clearance of glucose and sucrose from the saliva of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebny, L M; Chatterjee, R; Kleinberg, I

    1985-01-01

    The ability of 20 healthy people to clear test solutions of sucrose (0.73 M) and glucose (1.4 M) from the mouth was examined. Both sugars were cleared within 20 min in a two-step manner. Rapid clearance occurred between 0 and 6 min; much slower clearance occurred thereafter. It took 7.2 min with glucose and 6.3 min with sucrose for the saliva-sugar concentration to fall to 1 mg/ml. Salivary flow, stimulated during sugar exposure, decreased in a two-step pattern similar to sugar clearance. Evidently, clearance was dependent on the rate of flow of saliva which took about 1 h to return to its resting flow level. Comparison of the pattern of sugar clearance to the Stephan curve (the rapid pH fall followed by a slow pH rise seen after rinsing with sugar solutions) indicated that the pH-fall phase of the curve occurs during the initial period of rapid sugar clearance and salivary flow, and the pH-rise phase occurs during the subsequent period of slower clearance and slow saliva flow. Comparison with the data of Swenander-Lanke (1957) [Acta odont. scand. 15, 3-156], indicated that the clearance of sugar solutions also reflects the clearance of sugar-containing solid foods from the mouth. PMID:3857898

  18. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  19. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Greco; Giovanna Guiotto; Antonino Maffei; Stefania Martino; Giuseppe Romano; Fernando Schiraldi

    2007-01-01

    Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours) lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8) (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1), we...

  20. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  1. The Clearance of Cyclosporine by Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramanan, Raman; Ptachcinski, Richard J.; Burckart, Gilbert J.; YANG, SHIN L.; Starzl, Thomas E.; VAN THEIL, DAVID H.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine were studied in five liver transplant patients when they were on and off hemodialysis. There was no significant difference in the blood clearance of cyclosporine between these two periods. Less than 1 per cent of the dose of cyclosporine was recovered in the dialysate. The mean dialysis clearance was less than 1 ml/min. This represents less than 1 per cent of the total blood clearance of cyclosporine. Dosage alterations of cyclosporine during or after hemo...

  2. Revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Paulo; Ambrósio, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    A computational methodology for dynamic analysis of multibody mechanical systems with joint clearance is presented in this work. Clearances always exist in real joints in order to ensure the correct relative motion between the connected bodies being the gap associated to them a result of machining tolerance, wear, and local deformations. Clearance at different joints is the source for impact forces, resulting in wear and tear of the joints, and consequently the degradation of the system perfo...

  3. Mucociliary clearance in early simple chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was measured in 37 patients with early simple chronic bronchitis. A non-invasive radio-aerosol technique with inhalation of 99Tcm labelled 5-μm polystyrene particles followed by assessment of radio-nuclide distribution by posterior gamma-camera scans was employed. The mucociliary clearance of the bronchitics was significantly slower than clearance of a non-smoker control group. An interim analysis of the effect of treatment with a surfactant stimulating drug, ambroxol, suggested a dosage-dependent tendency to a faster mucociliary clearance than seen in placebo-treated bronchitics. (author)

  4. Korean regulatory practices in clearance of solid materials-experience for the last 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Jae Hak [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The Korean nuclear industry has more than 10 years experience of releasing slightly contaminated radioactive wastes, which have been generated during operation of nuclear facilities and use of radioisotopes, from regulatory control. Domestic legislations and regulations adopted the concept of clearance in 1994, based upon internationally endorsed dose criteria for clearance. A single concentration limit was set forth for short-lived beta/gamma emitting radionuclides. For waste streams containing other radionuclides, the feasibility of release has been determined on a case-by-case basis. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) derived draft clearance levels for other major radionuclides and proposed draft guidance for clearance in 2002. Since then, the case-by-case regulatory reviews have been performed based on the draft guidance. This paper introduces Korean legislations, regulations, regulatory review process, the characteristics of cleared waste, and safety research for implementing the concept of clearance.

  5. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Sisson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO, we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC analyzed for NO metabolites (. Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; . CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  6. Clearance of materials, buildings and land with low content of radioactive materials. Methodology and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concepts and methods of clearance of materials originating from the decommissioning af the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are described as well as procedures for clearance of buildings and land. The recommendations from international organisations as well as national regulation on clearance are presented. Methods for characterisation and separation of waste being candidate for clearance are presented.Di .erent methodologies for determining the content of radionuclides in candidate waste for clearance are discussed,and the need for and construction of a low-level laboratory for activity analyses in both bulky and less bulky subjects is described. Laboratory analyses, documentation of results and education of health physics personnel is presented. (au)

  7. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  8. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-[3H]deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared with nonimmobilized control rats. During running, glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels were always similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusion, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular affects steps involved in insulin-mediated action that are not part of contraction-induced glucose uptake and metabolism. Presence of intracellular 2DG shows that separate determination of phosphorylated 2DG is necessary for accurate estimates of glucose metabolism and that accumulation of phosphorylated 2DG does not accurately reflect glucose transport

  9. Initial deposition and early clearance of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from exposures of 113 beagle dogs to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols were analyzed for effects of aerosol properties on deposition and early clearance. The percent of inhaled aerosols deposited was not significantly dependent on particle size or aerosol concentration. The early clearance rate was significantly slower at the highest exposure levels than at medium and low levels

  10. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance....

  11. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11008 Restricted clearance. Where...

  12. 28 CFR 524.74 - Activities clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities clearance. 524.74 Section 524.74 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.74 Activities clearance. (a) Except as provided for in...

  13. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless...

  14. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  15. Clearance values and permitted activities in the new EU radiation protection basis safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current draft version of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the European Union of 24 May 2013 introduces new and joint values for exemption and clearance (from IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7). The mass related activity values will then be numerically identical for general exemption and for unconditional clearance (the existing sets of exemption values will be kept, but only for 'moderate amounts'). The hitherto existing principle that clearance levels must not exceed exemption values (so that no cleared material would need to be regarded as radioactive) therefore now needs to be discarded. If options of clearance for a specific purpose as laid down in Sect. 29 para. 2 no. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance disappeared, a tremendous increase of the amount of radioactive waste and of costs for radwaste disposal would result, as was discussed elsewhere. The guiding light from this dilemma comes from the way in which the principles for clearance and exemption are treated in the new IAEA BSS. The primary criterion for clearance and exemption is not formed by sets of activity values, which are only derived limits, but by the criterion of trivial dose, which is the original limit. On this basis, all seeming conflicts between clearance levels and exemption values dissolve. (orig.)

  16. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Brant, Tereza C S; Yoshida, Carolina T; de S. Carvalho, Tomas; Marina L. Nicola; Jocimar A. Martins; Lays M. Braga; de Oliveira, Regiani C; Leyton, Vilma; Carmen S. de André; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Rubin, Bruce K; Naomi K. Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urba...

  17. Recycling and reuse of very low level radioactive steel in motorway tunnel scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for the reuse of very low radioactive material was developed. • Radiation impact assessment for the motorway tunnel scenario was performed. • New clearance levels for analyzed radionuclides were derived. • Recyclable amount of radioactive steel arising from decommissioning was determined. • Cost-benefit analysis of application of concept of conditional clearance was done. -- Abstract: Since a number of nuclear power plants are approaching the end of their lifetime is continuously increasing, decommissioning issues and radioactive waste management have become widely discussed topics. Considerable amounts of materials arising from decommissioning could be categorized as very low level radioactive waste. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are suggested, analyzed and discussed. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional clearance of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in the industrial sector. The present paper describes an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally cleared steel in motorway tunnels. The analyzed scenario assumes that very low level radioactive steel would be reused in the form of steel reinforcing components, such as reinforcing mesh and bars, assembled in the primary and secondary linings of a motorway tunnel. However, prior to real application, a radiological impact assessment has to be done in order to prove compliance with radiation protection criteria. Methodology for implementation of the concept of conditional clearance was created and applied on two selected NPPs located in the Slovak Republic, which are currently under decommissioning. Assessment of relevant exposure pathways, which are likely to occur in the analyzed scenario, was performed. The aim of the paper is to derive and to justify new clearance levels for each radionuclide contained in steel

  18. Influence of chronic dosing on theophylline clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Efthimiou, H; Morgan, D. J.; Ioannides-Demos, L; Raymond, K.; McLean, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Theophylline clearance was studied in normal healthy volunteers before and after chronic oral dosing. Oral theophylline clearance showed a significant decrease (P less than 0.001) from 59.3 +/- 6.48 ml/min (mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 10) to 48.0 +/- 6.4 ml/min. Steady-state intravenous clearance decreased by 26 +/- 2% from 55.1 +/- 7.7 ml/min to 41.0 +/- 5.96 ml/min (mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 6; P less than 0.001) at constant steady-state intravenous test concentrations (mean 15.0 +/- 1.6 microgra...

  19. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Shashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.

  20. Nucleotide-mediated airway clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas; Clunes, Lucy A; Salathe, Mathias; Verdugo, Pedro; Dietl, Paul; Davis, C William; Tarran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lines the entire surface of the lung and is the first point of contact between the lung and the environment. Surfactants contained within this layer are secreted in the alveolar region and are required to maintain a low surface tension and to prevent alveolar collapse. Mucins are secreted into the ASL throughout the respiratory tract and serve to intercept inhaled pathogens, allergens and toxins. Their removal by mucociliary clearance (MCC) is facilitated by cilia beating and hydration of the ASL by active ion transport. Throughout the lung, secretion, ion transport and cilia beating are under purinergic control. Pulmonary epithelia release ATP into the ASL which acts in an autocrine fashion on P2Y(2) (ATP) receptors. The enzymatic network describes in Chap. 2 then mounts a secondary wave of signaling by surface conversion of ATP into adenosine (ADO), which induces A(2B) (ADO) receptor-mediated responses. This chapter offers a comprehensive description of MCC and the extensive ramifications of the purinergic signaling network on pulmonary surfaces. PMID:21560046

  1. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  2. Deposition of aerosols and bronchial clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special inhalative device is described for reproducible deposition patterns of radioactive aerosols to measure mucociliary and tussive clearance and to evaluate the effect of drugs on the bronchial tree is described. Additive actions on mucus transport exist between β2-agonists and theophylline, but not incombination with inhalative quarternary ammonium compounds (ipatropium and oxitropium bromide). Mucolytics are generally less effective on mucociliary clearance than β2-agonists and theophylline, positive, negative and nonresponders are ofter seen due to the different viscoelastic properties of the mucus. Mucus transport is more than mucociliary clearance. Two-phase gas/liquid movement and coughing are also important transport mechanisms for bronchial mucus. Therefore, bronchodilators enhance mucus transport by increasing airway patency, which increases total and regional air flow and improves cough clearance. (orig.)

  3. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  4. Clearance of germ granules in the soma

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Asako

    2009-01-01

    Germ granules are ribonucleoprotein complexes specifically segregated into germ cell lineages in diverse organisms. Recent studies indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved in the clearance of germ granules and their components in somatic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

  5. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter is...

  6. The curious world of apoptotic cell clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Weitzman, Jonathan B

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of knockout mice has brought into question the previously proposed role of the phosphatidylserine receptor (Ptdsr) in the clearance of apoptotic cell corpses, and has suggested important functions in regulating differentiation and inflammation.

  7. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  8. Metabolic clearance of recombinant human growth hormone in health and chronic renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Haffner; Schaefer, F.; Girard, J.; Ritz, E.; Mehls, O

    1994-01-01

    Despite the increasing therapeutic use of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), its metabolic clearance has not been investigated in detail. To evaluate the kinetics of rhGH as a possible function of GH plasma concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we investigated the steady state metabolic clearance rate (MCR), disappearance half-life, and apparent volume of distribution of rhGH at low and high physiological as well as supraphysiological plasma GH levels during pharmacologica...

  9. Blade by Blade Tip Clearance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Sheard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a capacitance-based tip clearance measurement system which engineers have used in the most demanding turbine test applications. The capacitance probe has survived extended use in a major European gas turbine manufacturer's high-temperature demonstrator unit, where it functioned reliably at a turbine entry temperature in excess of 1800 degrees Kelvin. This paper explores blade by blade tip clearance measurement techniques and examines probe performance under laboratory con...

  10. Clearance of inhaled particles in ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, D R; Chamberlain, M. J.; McCain, G A; Morgan, W K

    1989-01-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis may uncommonly develop apical fibrobullous lung disease, the cause of which is unknown. It is postulated here that rigidity of the thoracic cage leads to reduced apical clearance of inhaled particles and may thereby predispose to chronic infection. Deposition and clearance of inhaled technetium-99m sulphur colloid particles were studied in eight male patients with ankylosing spondylitis who had chest wall rigidity (mean (SD) chest expansion 1.8 (1.07) cm) ...

  11. Reduction of antipyrine clearance in psoriasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, J R; Williams, F M; Keys, B; Rawlins, M D; Shuster, S

    1984-01-01

    Antipyrine clearance was determined in 41 psoriatics and age-sex matched controls, using sequential measurements of salivary concentration. Antipyrine clearance and elimination rate constant were less in psoriatics (P less than 0.05) and apparent volumes of distribution were similar. These differences were greater between female psoriatics and controls (P less than 0.025; P less than 0.05) and the differences between male psoriatics and controls were not significant. Correlation of simultaneo...

  12. Extreme contagion in global habitat clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Boakes, Elizabeth H.; Mace, Georgina M; Philip J K McGowan; Fuller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat clearance remains the major cause of biodiversity loss, with consequences for ecosystem services and for people. In response to this, many global conservation schemes direct funds to regions with high rates of recent habitat destruction, though some also emphasize the conservation of remaining large tracts of intact habitat. If the pattern of habitat clearance is highly contagious, the latter approach will help prevent destructive processes gaining a foothold in areas of contiguous in...

  13. Hemodialysis clearance of metronidazole and its metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, A. H.; Chang, C W; Sabatini, S

    1986-01-01

    Metronidazole is now being used with increasing frequency for various infectious conditions in patients with renal failure. It is commonly administered to septic patients who have developed acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. The hemodialysis clearances of metronidazole and its metabolites were evaluated in nine renal failure patients on maintenance hemodialysis. The mean +/- standard deviation clearance and the extraction ratio were 106.9 +/- 16.3 ml/min and 0.65 +/- 0.08, respective...

  14. Papillary carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a case of papillary carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) in a young woman. Imaging showed a heterogeneous cystic lesion at the level of the hyoid, with calcifications and enhancing septae. We compared the USG, CT scan, and MRI findings with those reported previously in literature and we conclude that the presence of a midline cystic lesion with calcification in a young adult should arouse suspicion of papillary carcinoma in a TDC

  15. Deposition and clearance of monodisperse aerosols in the calf lung: effects of particle size and a mucolytic agent (bromhexine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C P; Webster, A J

    1987-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance and retention of monodisperse aerosols of radiolabelled polystyrene particles of both 3.3 microns and 5 microns diameter were investigated in four healthy calves and two sick calves. The effect of the mucolytic agent bromhexine was also assessed at two dosage levels. There were significant differences (P less than 0.05) in clearance rate constant between calves, but similar patterns of clearance for each calf. These characteristics of mechanical lung clearance did not vary over a two month period. Values of clearance rate constant and percentage retention varied significantly (P less than 0.001) between the two different particle sizes, 5 microns particles giving faster clearance and lower retention of particles than 3.3 microns particles. Bromhexine at the recommended dose of 1.6 mg/kg 0.75 caused a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in clearance rate in both healthy and sick calves, but affected percentage retention only in sick calves. This study illustrates the variation in mucociliary clearance rates shown by individuals and also underlines the importance of particle size in aerosols used for studies of pulmonary deposition and clearance. The work also indicates that bromhexine may be of use in the therapy of respiratory disease in calves. PMID:3651885

  16. Enhanced clearance of lactic dehydrogenase-5 in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice: effect of lactic dehydrogenase virus on enzyme clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, T.; Ozaki, M.; Mori, I; Saito, M; Itoh, T.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    The lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level in plasma and the clearance of LDH in C.B-17 scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mice were compared with those in C.B-17 or BALB/cCrSlc mice with or without lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection. The resting enzyme level in SCID mice showed little difference from that in C.B-17 or BALB/cCrSlc mice. The degree of increased plasma LDH level in SCID mice was lower than that in C.B-17 and BALB/cCrSlc mice after LDV infection. To assess the mecha...

  17. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for clearance. 4.61 Section 4.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.61 Requirements for clearance. (a) Application for clearance. A...

  18. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is...

  19. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  20. Parametrial and rectovaginal adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, U; Rhiem, K; Kaminski, M; Wardelmann, E; Trog, D; Valter, M; Richter, O N

    2005-01-01

    Malignant extragonadal tumors arising from endometriosis are rare. We report on two cases. A 41-year-old gravida 1, para 1 (G1P1), with adenocarcinoma of the right parametrium arising from endometriosis and a 51-year-old G1P1 with endometriosis-associated rectovaginal adenocarcinoma were treated. Treatment included radical surgery plus radiation therapy. While the former patient was doing well 2 years after the primary diagnosis, the latter suffered a local pelvic recurrence 2 years later. Although there are no randomized controlled studies, radical surgery followed by radiation therapy seems generally to be the treatment of choice. The analysis of PTEN in various forms of endometriosis and its malignant transformation may help in understanding the early steps of tumorigenesis. PMID:16343215

  1. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which c...

  2. Effect of high mannose glycan pairing on IgG antibody clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoqing Diana; Flynn, Gregory C

    2016-05-01

    IgG antibodies contain N-linked glycans on the Fc portion of each heavy chain. The glycan on one heavy chain can either match the glycan on the other heavy chain (symmetrical pairing) or be different (asymmetrical pairing). These Fc glycans influence effector functions and can alter clearance rates. Previous studies showing that high mannose forms result in faster mAb clearance in humans were incapable of differentiating the impact of symmetrically vs. asymmetrically paired HM forms, and, therefore, the effect of pairing on clearance was not clear. Traditional analytical methods, which are used to measure glycans in such studies, do not determine the number of HM glycans per antibody. With a sensitive method designed to measure HM pairing, we followed the levels of symmetrically and asymmetrically paired HM on antibodies in human pharmacokinetic serum samples to determine the impact of Fc HM glycan pairing on therapeutic human IgG clearance in humans. The two HM paired forms cleared at the same rate, indicating that the effect on clearance was not proportional to the degree of modification. Since both forms can exist on therapeutic antibodies and the ratio can differ between products, measuring their relative levels is necessary to properly estimate effects on clearance. PMID:26992607

  3. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  4. Characterization and Clearance of m/s Sigyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M/s Sigyn was a 2044 ton ship that transported contaminated material between 1982 and 2013. Most of the transports were with spent nuclear fuel between Swedish nuclear power plants and the Swedish fuel repository, Clab. In addition to spent fuel, m/s Sigyn also transported big contaminated components, from nuclear power plants in Europe, to Studsvik for analysis or decontamination and melting. She also transported components from Swedish nuclear power plants to final disposal of short lived waste, SFR. Even though all transported items have been cleaned, checked and wrapped with plastics, some activity ended up as contamination onboard. In December 2013 it was decided that m/s Sigyn was subject for decommissioning due to her age. This Paper describes the method in which the activity onboard m/s Sigyn was characterized and clearance levels were calculated. This method for radiological characterization and clearance has recently been developed in Sweden, the method is efficient in that it does not need a big pre characterization survey. Only the nuclide distribution and history of the object, is needed to start the final survey. In the future there will be further development of the method, making it possible to reduce the number of measurements even more. This will further optimize the method and reduce the cost for final surveys and clearance. (authors)

  5. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavya; Cusack, Corey L; Nnah, Israel C; Khayati, Khoosheh; Saqcena, Chaitali; Huynh, Tuong B; Noggle, Scott A; Ballabio, Andrea; Dobrowolski, Radek

    2016-03-01

    Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD. PMID:26923592

  6. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP, hemoglobin (Hb and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy.

  7. 75 FR 25037 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 745 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation..., 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead... 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule that established accreditation,...

  8. 75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... established in the Federal Register of May 6, 2010 (75 FR 25038) (FRL-8823-5). In that document, EPA proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the... Federal Register of May 6, 2010, concerning several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair,...

  9. The Swedish nuclear industry way to approach higher demands on characterisation prior to clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has introduced new regulations for clearance SSMFS 2011:2 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionizing radiation'. The new regulations came into force January 1, 2012. Compared to the previous regulations these new regulations have a broader scope and have introduced new conditions such as nuclide specific clearance levels. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated. Cleared material can be reused, recycled or if these two possibilities are not available, disposed of as conventional waste. To be able to meet the requirements for clearance the Swedish nuclear industry has jointly developed guidance for clearance in the form of a handbook and a training course covering the competence requirements in the new regulations. The handbook was developed by a team of representatives from the Swedish nuclear license holders managed by Studsvik on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The training program was developed in co-operation between Nuclear Safety and training Company (KSU) and Studsvik on behalf of the Swedish nuclear license holders. A major challenge in the adoption to the new regulations is how to provide robust yet cost effective characterisation data. This is especially difficult for mobile materials and equipment which cannot be fully tracked but also for other materials and areas where the nuclide fingerprint has varied over the years. To be able to deal with these issues a lot of attention has to be paid to the historical inventory records and traceability in the clearance process. Materials, rooms and buildings have been divided in four categories with different requirements on frequency and requirements of measurements. The categories are named 'extremely small risk', 'small risk', 'risk' and 'known contamination above clearance levels'. The two day training course is dived into seven parts

  10. Angiomyolipoma arising in the gluteal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Constantine Bramis; Othon Mich; George Liapis; Evangelos Felekourasx; Vassiliki Kyriakou; John Griniatsos

    2007-01-01

    @@ Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a tumour of uncertain histogenesis originally believed to be a hamartomatous lesion, but recently recognized as a usually benign clonal mesenchymal neoplasm.1 Along with lymphagiomyomatosis (LAM), clear cell "sugar"tumour (CCST) and clear cell myelomelanocytic tumour (CCMMT), AML was classified in the so called perivascular epithelioid cell (PEComa) neoplasm family.1 Kidney constitutes the principal site of its development.Extrarenal AMLs are rare and to the best of our knowledge, only two cases of AML development in the soft tissues have been reported so far.2,3 We presented a 23 years old female patient with an AML arising in the left gluteal region.

  11. Wind Power and Fault Clearance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikesjoe, Johnny; Messing, Lars (Gothia Power (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    in case of a fault occurring elsewhere in the network. This can occur in a feeder bay connecting generation. Directional short circuit protection is proposed in these cases. - Prevention of feeder protection function. Fault current infeed from connected generation along a feeder will influence the fault current through the feeding bay. This problem occurs probably only for very long feeders with large infeed close to the feeding substation. - Clearance of busbar faults in the feeding substation. Normally used blocked overcurrent protection of busbars must be modified in case of fault current infeed from any feeder. Two solutions are possible: use of arc detection protection and/or directional short circuit protection in bays connecting feeders with generation. The impact of fault current infeed from wind generator systems at grid faults is discussed. Fault currents from the new types of generator systems; DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) and full power converter connected generator, differ from conventional synchronous generators. It is therefore concluded that conventional fault calculations will not give correct fault current levels. In many applications this error is negligible, but not always. Three different types of wind power applications are studied: - Protection with a limited number of wind power units connected to a distribution feeder - Protection with a small wind farm connected one feeder in a distribution system - Protection of a wind farm connected to the sub-transmission or transmission system Short circuits and earth faults are studied for different fault locations: in the wind power plant, on a feeder in the distribution/collection grid and in the connecting subtransmission/transmission grid. For these faults different kind of protections are discussed. Also protection for deviating voltage and frequency are discussed. As conclusion, guidelines are given for the choice of protection of different objects: - Protection in a substation bay

  12. Malignant Insulinoma Arising from Intrasplenic Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Domínguez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Heterotopic pancreas is defined as ectopic pancreatic tissue without vascular or anatomic continuity with the normal pancreas. The spleen is a rare site of origin. This case report describes a patient with a malignant insulinoma which originated from an intrasplenic heterotopic pancreas. Case report A 46-year-old man with three previous episodes of neuroglucopenic and adrenergic symptoms was referred to our hospital. A fasting test was performed and discontinued due to hypoglycemic symptoms. Preoperative studies failed to demonstrate any pancreatic lesions. However, a heterogeneous encapsulated tumor in the spleen was found on MRI. During surgery, only the splenic tumor was found, with neither vascular nor anatomical connections to the normal pancreas. Pathology reported a malignant insulinoma. Insulin and proinsulin were documented by immunohistochemistry. After one year of follow up, the patient is free of symptoms and no recurrent disease has been documented. Discussion Only seven cases of splenic heterotopic pancreas have been reported, six with cystic mucinous neoplasms. In addition, only one case of a malignant insulinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas has previously been described. This is the second case reported of an insulinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas and the first to originate from intrasplenic heterotopia.

  13. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed. PMID:25646164

  14. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J; Ohkuwa, T; Ploug, Thorkil;

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise......-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-[3H]deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared...... with nonimmobilized control rats (red gastrocnemius 0.46 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.08 and soleus 1.10 +/- 0.30 vs. 3.97 +/- 0.54 ml.min-1.100 g-1, P less than 0.005). During running (18 m/min), glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels...

  15. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Airway Clearance Therapies in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Shawna L; Rubin, Bruce K; Haas, Carl F; Volsko, Teresa A; Drescher, Gail S; O'Malley, Catherine A

    2015-07-01

    Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis. The routine use of bronchodilators to aid in secretion clearance is not recommended. The routine use of aerosolized N-acetylcysteine to improve airway clearance is not recommended. Aerosolized agents to change mucus biophysical properties or promote airway clearance are not recommended for adult or pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease, respiratory muscle weakness, or impaired cough. Mucolytics are not recommended to treat atelectasis in postoperative adult or pediatric patients, and the routine administration of bronchodilators to postoperative patients is not recommended. There is no high-level evidence related to the use of bronchodilators, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and novel therapy to promote airway clearance in these populations. PMID:26113566

  16. Mucociliary clearance from the calf lung.

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Jones

    1983-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance rate constants for ten calves were obtained using Technetium 99m-sulphur colloid complex. The mean rate constant measured at the lung for all calves was 0.012 (+/- 0.009) min-1 (half-life 58 minutes). The clearance rate constants obtained from measurements made at the larynx were higher (0.02 +/- 0.007 min-1), although not significantly higher, than those determined from measurements taken at the lung. The constants can be used to predict the particle burden on the lungs...

  17. Nasal mucociliary clearance in patients with tracheostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Janab, Khan Shariq; Singh, Jagat; Ranga, Rupender K.

    2003-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) time was estimated in 30 tracheostomized patients (24 males & 6 females) in the age group of 13–55 years which was 7.04±0.38 minutes: The patients suffering from nose and paranasal sinus disorders; taking drugs like bromhexine; undergoing radiotherapy and smokers were excluded from the study. The nasal mucociliary clearance in 30 age & sex matched healthy controls was 9.16±0.62 minutes. The NMC was found to he significantly lowered in patients with tracheosto...

  18. Glycerol clearance in alcoholic liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D G; Alberti, K. G.; Wright, R; Blain, P G

    1982-01-01

    Glycerol clearance was studied by a primed dose-constant infusion technique in 14 patients with alcoholic liver disease and six normal control subjects. Fasting blood glycerol concentrations were raised in the alcoholic subjects (0.09 +/- 0.01 vs 0.06 +/- 0.01 mumol/l, p less than 0.05) and glycerol clearance was impaired (24.5 +/- 1.9 vs 37.5 +/- 3.2 ml/kg/min, p less than 0.005). Endogenous production rate of glycerol and distribution space at steady state were similar in alcoholic and cont...

  19. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  20. Optimization problems arising in robust stability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, B.

    1994-12-31

    Robustness is one of the main topics in modern control theory. We consider one aspect of the theme - robust stability analysis under parametric uncertainty. It deals with stability problems for linear time-invariant differential or difference equations with uncertainties in their coefficients. Various optimization problems concerning {open_quotes}the largest{close_quotes} admissible uncertainty naturally arise. Examples: (1) Find the largest cube inscribed in stability domain; (2) Find the box with the largest volume preserving stability; (3) Describe a boundary of a two-dimensional image of a box under linear or nonlinear transformation; (4) Find a sum or a project of sets on a complex plane, e.g., find a product of n discs. These problems require new duality results and new necessary conditions of optimality.

  1. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles

  2. Degenerate Diffusion Operators Arising in Population Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a class of partial differential equations that arise as "backwards Kolmogorov operators" in infinite population limits of the Wright-Fisher models in population genetics and in mathematical finance. These are degenerate elliptic operators defined on manifolds with corners. The classical example is the Kimura diffusion operator, which acts on functions defined on the simplex in R^n. We introduce anisotropic Holder spaces, and prove existence, uniqueness and regularity results for the heat and resolvent equations defined by this class of operators. This suffices to prove that the C^0-graph closure generates a strongly continuous semigroup, and that the associated Martingale problem has a unique solution. We give a detailed description of the nullspace of the forward Kolmogorov operator.

  3. Electric current arising from unpolarized polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey

    2000-10-01

    An appreciable electric current is observed in a system consisting of a polyvinyl formal (PVF) film in a sandwich configuration, in the temperature range 30–110°C. The maximum value of the current during first heating is found to be of the order of 10–10 A and its thermograms exhibit one transition (i.e. current peak) at around 60°C. The position of the current peak in thermal spectrum shifts with the heating rate. A temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage is also observed. The activation energy of the process responsible for the current is determined. The magnitude of the current is more in the case of dissimilar electrode systems. It is proposed that the electric current arising from unpolarized metal–polymer–metal system is a water activated phenomenon, which is influenced by the transitional changes of the polymer.

  4. Juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in an apophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Ho; Kong, Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea); Kim, Chong Jai [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-08-01

    We present a rare case of juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in the lesser trochanter of the right femur which corresponds to an apophysis. Radiography showed a well-defined expansive lesion with a sclerotic margin measuring 5 x 3.5 cm in diameter in the lesser trochanter. On spin echo T1-weighted images, the lesion revealed low signal intensity similar to muscle. On spin echo T2-weighted images, the lesion revealed high heterogeneous signal intensity, which after gadolinium injection showed heterogeneous enhancement. The inner margin of the cortex was intact and adjacent bone marrow was of normal signal intensity. The outer margin of the lesion was also clearly defined and extension into adjacent soft tissue beyond the exophytic cortical outgrowth was not evident. (orig.)

  5. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  6. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  7. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., such as guards, emergency service personnel, firemen, doctors, nurses, police, ambulance drivers, or... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of...

  8. Uptake and clearance of uranium by misgurnus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author studied the bioconcentration and clearance of uranium in misgurnus and determined bioconcentration factors (BCF) as well as uptake and depuration rate constants. The test was performed under semi-static conditions. The depuration of uranium was best described by a two-compartment first order kinetic model

  9. Clearance of seborrhoeic keratoses with topical dobesilate

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Salgüero, Irene; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    A patient with two seborrhoeic keratoses in the face received a single daily application of dobesilate cream during 6 months. Dobesilate achieved complete clearance of the seborrhoeic keratosis lesions with good cosmoses, suggesting that this compound is a safe and efficient candidate in the treatment of seborrhoeic keratoses.

  10. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground §...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028...

  13. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground...

  14. Clearance measurements on a hot cell building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A former hot-cell facility of Siemens AG, in which dose rates in excess of 99 Sv were still prevailing in 1999, was decontaminated and subjected, except for the basement, to radiological clearance measurements. The authorities released the building for demolition in November 2004. Demolition of the upper stories of the building was started immediately afterwards using conventional techniques. For decontamination, the actual cells themselves - rooms with one-meter-thick concrete walls - had been dismantled using diamond saws and the resulting concrete blocks sent off-site for further processing. Contamination was removed from the remaining ceilings, walls and floors by knocking off the plaster and milling away the screed. Material samples were taken to confirm that decontamination had been successful. It was only then that the actual clearance measurements began. The individual rooms were grouped together into logically arranged ''clearance steps'' to simplify documentation. Most of the measurements were performed by in-situ gamma spectroscopy, with and without collimation. In addition, numerous material specimens were removed, direct surface measurements performed using contamination monitors, and wipe tests carried out. Records were made of all measurements and sorted according to clearance steps before being submitted to the competent authorities as an application for release from regulatory control. After the authorities had taken their own verification measurements they issued their approval for release. (orig.)

  15. Tracheobronchial clearance studies in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial clearance in guinea pigs exposed to relatively monodisperse aerosols was studied. Two new techniques were developed which enabled tagging of polystyrene particles with 198Au and with a fluorescent dye. A procedure was also developed to generate polystyrene particles with a vibrating orifice generator. Seventy animals were exposed via inhalation to relatively monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Following exposure, animals were radioactively counted at regular intervals, sacrificed at predetermined times, and the lungs were removed, inflated to a standard pressure, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and freeze-dried. The freeze-dried lungs were sectioned completely, examined with a fluorescent microscope, and measurements were made of airway diameters in which particles were found. The results indicated a significant penetration of particles to the distal bronchioles and air spaces for 7.9 μm (MMD) particles and a lesser, though still significant, penetration for 10.3 μm (MMD) particles. An anatomical model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to classify particular ranges of airway diameters into zones. These zones were used to specify a compartmental model for lung clearance and the experimental particle distributions were categorized using this model. Equations were then developed describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants were then obtained and used to predict airway transport rates in specific lung generations.The predicted transport rates ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea. These values agree with previous models for airway transport rates, and are consistent with experimental determinations of tracheal transport rates. Transit times were calculated and the results indicate a 24 hr clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig

  16. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  17. The RADWASS programme and the management of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's programme on Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) is aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and at formulating guidelines for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Series in an internally consistent set of documents that reflect an international consensus. The paper reviews the status of the programme, which has been substantially revised over the course of the last year to reflect, amongst other things, changes in the IAEA arrangements for managing its Safety Series documents. The paper focuses particularly on existing and planned documents dealing with the management of very low level waste, which is taking on increasing importance in many countries because of the anticipated increase in the volumes of such wastes arising from the decommissioning of old nuclear facilities. The IAEA has for many years developed guidance on the requirements for the clearance of a part of these wastes from regulatory control, and several publications have been issued concerning principles for exemption and clearance, the clearance of materials for recycle and reuse and the unconditional clearance of solid materials. In some countries, however, other options are being planned for the management of very low level wastes. These involve retaining regulatory control over the wastes and devising appropriate low cost solutions for their controlled disposal. The paper discusses recent international developments in this area. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Standardizing the measurement of parasite clearance in falciparum malaria: the parasite clearance estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Flegg Jennifer A; Guerin Philippe J; White Nicholas J; Stepniewska Kasia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant reduction in parasite clearance rates following artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria, and increased failure rates following artemisinin combination treatments (ACT), signaled emergent artemisinin resistance in Western Cambodia. Accurate measurement of parasite clearance is therefore essential to assess the spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The slope of the log-parasitaemia versus time relationship is considered to be the most ro...

  19. Effect of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis on hepatic drug clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Feely, J; Wood, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis on the systemic clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine was studied in seven subjects. Antipyrine clearance was not altered by indomethacin suggesting that oxidative metabolism was not affected. Both aspirin and indomethacin decreased the clearance of indocyanine green presumably by reducing liver blood flow. These results suggest that an effect of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis on hepatic drug clearance is likely to be confined...

  20. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F.; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  1. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  2. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  3. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed

  4. Radiological emergencies arising from accidents in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety and Health Protection Directorate (DISP) of ENEA has organized a structure of officers and technicians on call whenever an accident related to the activity of ENEA-DISP should occur. The most frequent events arise from natural misfortunes, crime, and deficiencies in public services. As regards technical operations such as measurements, removals, decontaminations and transport, DISP requests utilization of the different structures and equipment available to ENEA research centres and, in particular and most frequently, of the Safety and Radioprotection Division of the main ENEA centre: the Casaccia Research Centre. The technicians of this division are always available via telephone or radio, with the firm duty to be present within one hour from the call. The co-operation between these two structures enables timely and efficient intervention in many circumstances so that population and environmental risks can be avoided. Typical accidental situations are earthquakes, adverse atmospheric events, landslides, collapses, railway and road accidents, lost sources discovery, and seizure of illegally detained sources by judicial power. The paper briefly describes some of the situations which have occurred, and the actions carried out to recover sources and to re-establish safe environmental conditions. (author)

  5. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  6. Clearance of materials resulting from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized that the use of sources of radiation should be regulated. The recommended regulatory approach is based on a system of notification and authorization exemplified by the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). However, some types of radiation source do not meet to be subject to regulatory control because they can only give rise to trivial radiation hazards. Such sources may be exempted or cleared from the requirements of regulatory control. Exemption applies to radiation sources which do not enter the regulatory control regime, while clearance is relevant to radiation sources which were within the regulatory regime but can be released because they present an insignificant risk to health. It is the latter situation which is the subject of this publication. While the emphasis of the report is on providing guidance on the clearance process and on methods for determining clearance leaves, taking account of site specific factors as appropriate, a set of conservatively derived generic clearance levels is also presented. These are expected to be of considerable help to users of small quantities of radionuclides in laboratories and hospitals and their regulators. They can be used, taking due account of the associated notes of caution, as reference levels for determining when clearance is the appropriate option for disposing of the materials

  7. The clearance of albumin microspheres from an intramuscular injection site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human serum albumin microspheres of three different diameters were radiolabelled with indium-111, and a suspension injected into rabbit thigh muscle. Clearance from the intramuscular site was monitored for 2 weeks using gamma scintigraphy. The clearance rates were compared with the injection site clearance of non-biodegradable polystyrene microspheres. (U.K.)

  8. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  9. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to Part 512—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance...

  11. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no larger than is necessary to insure...

  12. Wear analysis of revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, ZhengFeng; Zhao, Yang; Wang, XingGui

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the prediction of wear for revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems is investigated using a computational methodology. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a new hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The dynamics model of multibody system with clearance is established using dynamic segmentation modeling method and the computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint in multibody systems is presented. The main computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint includes two steps, which are dynamics analysis and wear analysis. The dynamics simulation of multibody system with revolute clearance joint is carried out and the contact forces are drawn and used to calculate the wear amount of revolute clearance joint based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, a four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the simulation and show the dynamics responses and wear characteristics of multibody systems with revolute clearance joint. The main results of this work indicate that the contact between the joint elements is wider and more frequent in some specific regions and the wear phenomenon is not regular around the joint surface, which causes the clearance size increase non-regularly after clearance joint wear. This work presents an effective method to predict wear of revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems.

  13. Guangzhou Customs Guide to Clearance of Import/Export Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Management of the Enterprises Granted for Convenient and Quick Customs Clearance 1.What is the enterprise granted for convenient and quick customs clearance? Customs General Administration and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation jointly issued policy measures to facilitate customs clearance in 2001 to further support the development of hightech industries.The enterprise .

  14. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  15. RIGHT SUPERIOR POLAR ARTERY ARISING FROM AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital and Research Centre, revealed superior / upper polar artery arising from the lateral aspect of the aorta just proximal to the origin of Main Renal Artery (MRA. T he main renal artery and the accessory renal artery had almost a common point of origin. Th e peri-hilar segmentation of the main renal artery was a fork like pattern. One of the segmental arteries was long and had its portal of entry into the kidney by perforating the capsule of the ant erior substance of the kidney. The remaining segmental branches had their portal of ent ry through the hilum. The lower two segmental branches were placed anterior to the main renal vein causing altered hilar anatomy. A thorough knowledge of the frequently to the rarel y occurring wide range of variations of renal vasculature has significance in exploration and trea tment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal ao rtic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery. Such a rare variation including the combination of extra renal peri-hilar segmentation of MRA with superior polar artery is wor thy of concern to the urologists harvesting kidneys from the live donors for performi ng transplantation procedures, partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologi sts during interpretation of the angiograms

  16. SOIL QUALITY CHANGES FOLLOWING FOREST CLEARANCE IN BENGKULU, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. HANDAYANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense destruction and degradation of tropical forests is recognized as one of the environmental threats and tragedies. These have increased the need to assess the effects of subsequent land-use following forest extraction on soil quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use type on soil quality properties in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. Soil samples were collected from adjacent sites including natural secondary forest, bare land, cultivated land and grassland. The results show that land-use following forest clearance lowered saturated hydraulic conductivity (85%, porosity (10.50%, soil water content at field capacity (34%,C organic (27%, N total (26%, inorganic N (37%, soil microbial biomass C (32%, mineralizable C (22%, and particulate organic matter (50%, but slightly increased water soluble organic C. Specific respiration activi ty rates increased about 14% in cultivated soils compared to natural forest soils, indicating greater C turnover per labile C pool in the form of soil microbial biomass, thus decreased biologically active soil organic matter. Forest conversion tends to reduce the C,ffg/Crer for all deforested sites. All of deforested areas relatively have infertile soil, with the worst case found in cultivated field. The C^g/Crd of cultivated field s was about 24% less than that of remnant fo rest (1.07. Grassland apparently mainta ins only slightly higher soil C levels than the bare land. On average, degradation index of so il following forest clearance was 35% with the highest deterioration occurred in the bare land (38%. Fallowing the fields by naturally growth of Imperata cylindrica for about 15 yr in abandoned land after 3-5 years of cultivation did not improve the soil quality. Moreover, forest clearance has an impact on soil quality as resulted in the loss of a physically protected organic matter and reduction in some labile C pools, thus declined biological activity at disturbed

  17. The CANDU-PHW generating system waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the volume of material and level of contained radioactive nuclides are tabulated for wastes arising from four fuel cycles which might be operated in CANDU-PHW (CANada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) reactors. The data presented, based on Canadian experience and/or studies, cover the range of conditioned waste volumes which could be expected from steady-state (no growth), CANDU-PHW-powered electrical generating systems. The wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of facilities in each phase of each fuel cycle are estimated. Each fuel cycle is considered to operate in isolation with the data given in terms of quantities per gigawatt-year of electricity produced. Three of the fuel cycles for which data are presented, the natural uranium once-through cycle, the plutonium-enriched uranium cycle (plutonium recycle) and the low-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle (thorium and uranium recycle), were studied by INFCE WG.7 (the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, Working Group 7) as fuel cycles 4, 5 and 6. The high-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle is included for comparison. INFCE WG.7 selected many common reference parameters which are applied uniformly to all seven INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycles in determining waste arisings. Where these parameters differ from the data of Canadian origin given in the body of this report, the INFCE WG.7 data are given in an appendix. The waste management costs associated with operation of each INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycle were calculated and compared by the working group. An arbitrary set of costing parameters and disposal technologies was selected by the working group for application to each of the reference fuel cycles. The waste management and disposal costs for the PHW reactor fuel cycles based on these arbitrary cost parameters are given in an appendix. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the Symposium on Recycling of Metals arising from Operation and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium for the Recycling of Metals Arising from Operation and decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities was held in April 2014 at Studsvik's facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The Symposium, hosted by Studsvik in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), covered a wide range of topics concerning current practice, experiences and innovations within the management of contaminated metallic radioactive material. The primary objective was to understand the differing approaches to clearance and recycling of materials from the nuclear industry across Europe in order to appreciate the issues faced from recovering resources once the material meets a country's clearance requirements. The outcome of the symposium has provided some interesting reflections for national and international bodies to consider when developing waste management guidance and policies. Over the three days of the symposium, presentations split into six topical sessions and posters regarding the recycling of contaminated metals were viewed by more than 150 people from 19 different countries. A series of group discussions were also held following each session to promote learning about current practices, highlight strategic issues related to metals recycling and develop professional networks across the industry. To stimulate discussion, a series of questions were posed at each group and the outcomes captured for inclusion within this report

  19. Pulmonary clearance of vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrowcliffe, M P; Morice, A; Jones, J G; Sever, P S

    1986-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide causes bronchodilatation when given intravenously but is less effective in both animals and man when given by inhalation. This difference may be due to poor transit of the peptide across the bronchial epithelium. To test this hypothesis pulmonary clearance of radiolabelled vasoactive intestinal peptide was measured in Sprague Dawley rats and compared with that of pertechnetate (TcO4-) and diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA). Despite a molecular weight (MW) of...

  20. Bomb strike experiment for mine clearance operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Countermeasure Operations, currently sponsored through the Office of Naval Research mine impact burial prediction project, is part of a multi-year, comprehensive effort aimed at enhancing the Navyâ s fleet naval mine clearance capability and success. The investigation discussed in this paper examines the experimental and theoretical characteristics of a rigid body falling through the air, water, and sediment column at high speed. Several experiments were ...

  1. Stereoselective renal clearance of pindolol in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsyu, P H; Giacomini, K M

    1985-01-01

    In this study, pindolol, a beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent marketed as a racemic mixture, was used as a model compound to investigate stereoselective renal clearance of organic cations in human beings. Six normal subjects received an oral dose of 20 mg racemic pindolol. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured throughout the study. A stereospecific high performance liquid chromatographic procedure was used to quantitate the concentrations of d- and l-pindolol in plasma and urine. Renal cl...

  2. Antipyrine clearance during occupational exposure to styrene.

    OpenAIRE

    Døssing, M

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have indicated that styrene, which is a widely used organic solvent, may induce the microsomal enzyme function of the liver. Thirteen workers with long-term exposure to styrene in a polyester plant were investigated. They worked at air concentrations about the maximal allowed time-weighted average concentration of styrene in most Western countries (50 ppm). The clearance of antipyrine was determined from saliva concentrations before and after three weeks free of exposure an...

  3. Clearance of bronchial secretions after major surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Leur, Johannes Peter van de

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive airway suctioning is equally effective as routine endotracheal suctioning but results in less suction related adverse events, less recollection of suctioning and less stress. Thus, although it cannot be employed in all situations, minimally invasive airway suctioning should be the “default setting” for mucus clearance in ICU-patients. Special suction catheters should be marketed that do not pass the distal tip of the endotracheal tube. Alternatively, standard catheters can ...

  4. Promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II

    OpenAIRE

    Luse, Donal S.

    2012-01-01

    Many changes must occur to the RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription complex as it makes the transition from initiation into transcript elongation. During this intermediate phase of transcription, contact with initiation factors is lost and stable association with the nascent transcript is established. These changes collectively comprise promoter clearance. Once the transcript elongation complex has reached a point where its properties are indistinguishable from those of complexes with muc...

  5. Hemodialysis clearance of intravenously administered ribavirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, T H; Gaar, G G; Ray, C G; Minnich, L; Copeland, J G; Connor, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with an implanted artificial heart, acute, anuric renal failure, and disseminated influenza virus type A infection received intravenous ribavirin. Drug elimination by hemodialysis was measured. Plasma dialysis clearance averaged 93.9 +/- 8.6 ml/min. The maximum amount of ribavirin removed from the body during one period of hemodialysis was 79.1 mg. Ribavirin is not removed in important quantities by hemodialysis.

  6. Immune clearance of highly pathogenic SIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Scott G.; Piatak, Michael; Ventura, Abigail B.; Hughes, Colette M.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Ford, Julia C.; Oswald, Kelli; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Li, Yuan; Matthew S. Lewis; Gilliam, Awbrey N.; Xu, Guangwu; Whizin, Nathan; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Planer, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Established infections with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, SIV) are thought to be permanent with even the most effective immune responses and anti-retroviral therapies (ART) only able to control, but not clear, these infections 1–4 . Whether the residual virus that maintains these infections is vulnerable to clearance is a question of central importance to the future management of millions of HIV-infected individuals. We recently reported that ~50% of rhesus macaques (RM)...

  7. ADSORBENTS USED IN THE CLEARANCE OF ENDOTOXIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Tao; Hou Guanghui; YUAN Zhi

    2003-01-01

    A series of modified poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) resins were prepared and compared their adsorption abilities to endotoxin. The results showed that adsorbents, which were grafted with tertiary amine and long spacing arms, had the best adsorption capacities and good blood compatibility, It is hopeful to be used as adsorbent in hemoperfusion for clinical clearance of endotoxin. The influence of original concentration of endotoxin on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were also investigated.

  8. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Hee [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  10. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  11. Alterations in particle accumulation and clearance in lungs of rats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F344 rats were chronically exposed to diesel exhaust at target soot concentrations of 0 (control, C), 0.35 (low, L), 3.5 (medium, M), and 7.0 (high, H) mg/m3. Accumulated lung burdens of diesel soot were measured after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. Parallel measurements of particle deposition and clearance were made to provide insight into the mechanisms of particle accumulation in lungs. The fractional deposition of inhaled 67Ga2O3 particles after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure and of inhaled 134Cs-fused aluminosilicate particles after 24 months were similar for all groups. Progressive increases in lung burdens of soot particles were observed in M and H exposed rats, reaching levels of 11.5 +/- 0.5 and 20.5 +/- 0.8 mg/lung (mean +/- SE), respectively, after 24 months. Rats in the L group had smaller relative increases in lung burden, reaching levels of 0.60 +/- 0.02 mg/lung after 24 months. Tracheal mucociliary clearance measurements, using 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin deposited in the trachea, showed no changes at anytime. There were statistically significant increases in clearance half-times of inhaled radiolabeled particles of 67Ga2O3 as early as 6 months at the H level and 18 months at the M level; no significant changes were seen at the L level. Rats inhaled fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 134Cs after 24 months of diesel exhaust exposure to measure long-term components of pulmonary clearance. The long-term clearance half-times were 79 +/- 5, 81 +/- 5, 264 +/- 50, and 240 +/- 50 days (mean +/- SE) for the C, L, M, and H groups, respectively. Differences were significant between the C and both the M and H exposure groups (p less than 0.01)

  12. Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yalçın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Struma ovarii, which is classified as benign or malignant, is a mature ovarian teratoma consisting mainly of the thyroid tissue. Here, we present the case of malign struma ovarii in a patient with right adnexal mass. In a 53-year-old female, who was referred to our hospital with pelvic pain, abdominopelvic imaging revealed a cystic lesion measuring 15x14 cm in diameter in the right adnexa. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed a 1.5x1x0.5 cm papillary carcinoma focus in frozen sections of the mural nodule which was observed inside the cyst. Following the surgical procedure, the patient’s TSH levels were kept low by thyroxine treatment, and it was decided to follow the patient by annual measurement of thyroglobulin levels and pelvic imaging. There is not a common consensus on optimal treatment of malignant struma ovarii. Treatment options depend on cases or case series. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 112-114

  13. Factors affecting the estimation of pulmonary half clearance times of technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetate aerosol in passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m aerosol lung clearance has been used as a means to evaluate pulmonary-alveolar capillary integrity. Impairment has been demonstrated in conditions such as interstitial lung disease and by active cigarette smoking. The effects of passive smoking have not been well documented. Sixteen volunteers underwent aerosol lung clearance studies with estimation of half clearance times before and immediately following exposure to cigarette smoke. Formal lung function studies, plasma nicotine levels and ambient carbon monoxide levels within the smoke chamber were estimated on both occasions. These results were compared with paired aerosol studies performed on 20 subjects acting as controls. Aerosol clearance was performed via a commercially available system (Ultravent), charged with 1 GBq99mTc DTPA. Aerosol was inhaled for five minutes, with normal tidal breathing, followed by washout for 35 minutes. Thirty-second frames were collected into a 64 x 64 word matrix. A cine was displayed to review movement and position of the stomach. Regions of interest were drawn to allow for these. An exponential fit was applied to the period before the movement was noted. It was noted that movement during the time of data acquisition may cause altered clearance time; similarly, swallowed activity in the oesophagus and stomach may be significant. After correcting for the above, no statistically significant change in aerosol lung half clearance time was demonstrated with passive smoking. 9 refs., 9 figs

  14. New insights into how genetic disorders arise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One questionable assumption in genetic risk assessment is that all members of the population are equally at risk to the causative agent. The invalidity of this assumption can be demonstrated by considering data on the range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from various normal members of the population or from various disease groups associated with extreme radiosensitivity. Some 'normal' cell lines are as sensitive as those from the disease groups. A certain proportion of the normal population may be heterozygotic for many of the genes that lead to radiosensitivity. There are many cancer-facilitating genes in the population. These are made homozygotic by somatic mechanisms, or by breeding patterns. Mechanisms at the DNA level that lead to homozygosity change the risk within tissues and thus individuals. We need to measure heterozygosity, breeding effects, and molecular mechanisms to determine the causes of genetic and somatic risk. (L.L.)

  15. Investigations of renal clearance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative investigations of PAH- and inulin-clearance and results of investigations with J-131-hippurate and Cr-51-EDTA, which were performed by a partly screened whole body counter including measurements of activity retention of blood samples, are showing good correlation. If the radio-isotope nephrography is worked out together with the decreased retention curve, separate results of the function of both kidneys can be given. Modifications which were tried to analyze a small part of the retention curve instead of the whole body are inaccurate, if they are below 300 ml/min. (orig.)

  16. Carbamazepine Clearance and Seizure Stability during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Emily L.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Ritchie, James C; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Newman, Melanee L.; Knight, Bettina; Pennell, Page B

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the alterations in total and free carbamazepine (CBZ) and total and free carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EPO) clearances during pregnancy; to calculate the change in free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-EPO during pregnancy; and to determine whether seizure worsening is associated with a low ratio to non-pregnant baseline concentration of total or free CBZ or CBZ-EPO. Women on CBZ were enrolled before conception or during pregnancy in this prospective, observat...

  17. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO INCREASE TIP CLEARANCE AND ITS EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE OF TURBOCHARGER CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SYED Noman Danish; MA Chaochen; YANG Ce; L(U) Wei

    2007-01-01

    Tip clearance between the blade tip and casing of a centrifugal compressor can be varied through two methods: by changing the blade height (M1) or by changing the casing diameter (M2). Numerical simulations are carried out to compare these two methods and their effect on the stage and impeller performance. The impeller and diffuser are connected through rotor Stator boundary using frozen rotor approach. Overall stage performance and the flow configuration have been investigated for nine tip clearance levels from no gap to 1 mm. Impeller and diffuser performances are also presented separately. It has been found that the overall and impeller performance are comparatively better for Ml below tip clearance of 0.5 mm whereas M2 is found advantageous above 0.5 mm of tip clearance. Both M1 and M2 show performance degradation with the increase in tip clearance. Two models have been proposed for the stage total pressure ratio and efficiency, which are found to be in agreement with experimental results. The impeller efficiency and the pressure ratio are found to be maximum at tip clearance of 0.1 mm for both the cases however minimum diffuser effectiveness is also observed at the same clearance level. Diffuser effectiveness is found to be maximum at zero gap for both cases. As it is practically impossible to have zero gap for unshrouded impellers so it is concluded that the Optimum thickness is 0.5 mm onwards for Ml and 0.5 mm for M2 in terms of diffuser effectiveness. Mass averaged flow parameters, entropy, blade loading diagram and relative pressure fields are presented, showing the loss production within the impeller passage with tip clearance.

  18. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  19. Effectiveness of small barriers as means to reduce clearance distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchouvelev, Andrei V.; Cheng, Zhong [A.V.Tchouvelev and Associates, 6591 Spinnaker Circle, Mississauga, Ont. (Canada); Agranat, Vladimir M. [Hydrogenics Corp., 5985 McLaughlin Road, Mississauga, Ont. (Canada); Zhubrin, Serguei V. [Flowsolve Limited, 130 Arthur Road, London SW19 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    overestimates the hypothetical hydrogen cloud volumes for LFL, or fractions of LFL, for different release times at the current initial stagnation pressure level (700 bar). The current model codes and standards generally specify clearance distances for hydrogen based on the regulators' experience in other flammable gases, like natural gas or propane, rather than on real hydrogen gas properties that particularly deviate from ideal gas law under high pressure. On the other hand, it is relatively more conservative to exploit the ideal gas law to predict the combustible hydrogen cloud extents than using the real gas law for industrial applications. The numerical results from the impingement release also confirm that a small protective wall, or a barrier, can reduce the hydrogen concentration behind the wall. The numerical results can be further applied for defining the zoning requirements for Canadian Electrical Code and clearance distances for Canadian Hydrogen Installation Code. (author)

  20. Effect of lindane on the clearance rate of daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers; Heugens; Deneer

    1999-05-01

    The impact of the insecticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) on the clearance rate (CR) of Daphnia magna was investigated using artificial beads. CR (24-h EC50: 65 &mgr;g L-1) was found to be a more sensitive endpoint than acute lethality for D. magna (48-h LC50: 516 &mgr;g L-1). The onset of the effect was rapid; after 2 h of exposure to approximately 241 &mgr;g L-1 of lindane a significant decrease in CR was observed. Daphnids recovered rapidly after transfer to clean water; after 24 h of exposure to approximately 250 &mgr;g L-1 lindane, transfer into clean water resulted in recovery to 80% of control levels within 2 h and complete recovery within 24 h. PMID:10227859

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from the tailgut cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Jae; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Tailgut cyst is a rare congenital anomaly arising in the retrorectal space. Malignancy arising from the tailgut cyst is very rare. We experienced a case of adenocarcinoma arising from the tailgut cyst. The findings of this rare tumor are bony destruction of the sacrum on plain radiograph, a cystic mass on ultrasound, a low attenuation mass with calcification and enhancement on CT, and a multiseptated cystic mass containing solid component on MRI.

  2. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  3. Application of clearance automatic laser inspection system to clearance measurement of concrete waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed for the clearance measurement of metal scraps. It utilizes three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, y-ray measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, and has outstanding detection ability. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of background (BG) gamma rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be compensated for to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for y-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To apply CLALIS to the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the original activity evaluation method was improved by adding a new compensation procedure. In this procedure, BG count rate due to natural radionuclides is estimated by a Monte Carlo calculation with pre-analyzed data of a representative sample of the measurement target. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in concrete differs markedly depending on the production location of its components, such as cement and aggregates. In this study, using six mock concrete waste samples, which were composed of cement and fine aggregate from various production locations, the accuracy of BG compensation was experimentally estimated. In addition, the accuracy of calibration for concrete waste was also estimated using a number of mock concrete segments of small and large triangular prisms. By considering the uncertainties of BG compensation and calibration, the detection limit of CLALIS for concrete waste was estimated. As a result, it was revealed that CLALIS could be applied to the clearance measurement of concrete segments when the mass of the measurement target is greater than approximately 1.1 kg and the key radionuclide is Co-60

  4. Reprocessed uranium influence on clearance application in uranium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance levels for uranium isotopes have been recently authorized in Japan. The measurement of those elements can be disregarded when the nominal of the element (D/C), expressed as (D/C)*, is less than 10-3, where D is the specific radioactivity concentration of nuclides, C is the clearance level of nuclides, and (D/C)* is defined as (D/C) divided by the highest value of (D/C)'s in the element constitutions of uranium waste. In this study, the concentration of nuclides in reprocessed uranium was evaluated using ORIGEN2 burnup analyses and the most appropriate decontamination factors for determining the (D/C)* values and their influence on clearance application in the uranium fuel fabrication plant. It was concluded that nuclides other than five isotopes, 232U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, can be disregarded with regards to clearance application in the uranium fabrication plant, regardless of operation conditions, whether the fuel is fabricated by receiving reprocessed uranium or not. (author)

  5. Clearance and binding of radiolabeled glycoproteins by cells of the murine mononuclear phagocyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance and binding of radiolabeled lactoferrin and fast α2-macroglobulin were studied. Both glycoproteins cleared rapidly following intravenous injection in mice, and both bound specifically to discrete receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. The simultaneous presence of excess, unlabeled ligands specific for receptors recognizing terminal fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine or galactose residues did not inhibit the clearance or binding of either lactoferrin or fast-α2M. The clearance and binding of enzymatically defucosylated lactoferrin was indistinguishable from native lactoferrin, indicating that terminal α(1-3)-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not necessary for receptor recognition. The clearance and binding of two fast -α2M forms, α2M-trypsin and α2M-MeNH2 cross compete with each other. Saturation binding studies indicated that the total binding of mannosyl -BSA, fusocyl-BSA, and N-acetylglucosaminyl-BSA to macrophages activated by BCG was approximately 15% of the levels observed with inflammatory macrophages elicited by thioglycollate broth. Cross-competition binding studies demonstrated a common surface receptor mediated binding of all three neoglycoprotein ligands and was identical to the receptor on mononuclear phagocytes that binds mannosyl- and N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated glycoproteins. These results suggest that difference between discrete states of macrophage function may be correlated with selective changes in levels of the surface receptor for mannose-containing glycoproteins

  6. Clearance of materials, buildings and land with low content of radioactive materials. Methodology and documentation; Frigivelse af materialer og omraeder med lavt aktivitetsindhold. Metodebeskrivelse og dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L

    2003-06-01

    The concepts and methods of clearance of materials originating from the decommissioning af the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are described as well as procedures for clearance of buildings and land. The recommendations from international organisations as well as national regulation on clearance are presented. Methods for characterisation and separation of waste being candidate for clearance are presented.Di .erent methodologies for determining the content of radionuclides in candidate waste for clearance are discussed,and the need for and construction of a low-level laboratory for activity analyses in both bulky and less bulky subjects is described. Laboratory analyses, documentation of results and education of health physics personnel is presented. (au)

  7. Identification of a lupus-susceptibility locus leading to impaired clearance of apoptotic debris on New Zealand Black chromosome 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Evelyn; Loh, Christina; Minty, Gillian E.S.; Chang, Nan-Hua; Wither, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease marked mainly by the production of anti-nuclear antibodies. Nuclear antigens become accessible to the immune system following apoptosis and defective clearance of apoptotic debris has been shown in several knockout mouse models to promote lupus. However, genetic loci associated with defective clearance are not well defined in spontaneously arising lupus models. We previously showed that introgression of the chromosome 13 interval from lupus-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) mice onto a non-autoimmune B6 genetic background (B6.NZBc13) recapitulated many of the NZB autoimmune phenotypes. Here, we show that B6.NZBc13 mice have impaired clearance of apoptotic debris by peritoneal and tingible-body macrophages and have narrowed down the chromosomal interval of this defect using subcongenic mice with truncated NZB chromosome 13 intervals. This chromosomal region (81–94 Mb) is sufficient to produce polyclonal B and T cell activation, and expansion of dendritic cells. To fully recapitulate the autoimmune phenotypes seen in B6.NZBc13 mice, at least one additional locus located in the centromeric portion of the interval is required. Thus, we have identified a novel lupus susceptibility locus on NZB chromosome 13 that is associated with impaired clearance of apoptotic debris. PMID:23328841

  8. Development of a computer system for support and documentation of clearance of buildings of nuclear installations - 59278

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance of buildings of nuclear installations in Germany has to comply with general requirements laid down in Section 29 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (RPO; Strahlenschutzverordnung), clearance levels as stipulated in Table 1 of Annex III RPO and technical guidance given in the technical standard DIN 25457. Clearance procedures are usually proposed by the licensee and are made part of a decommissioning licence after appropriate review by the authorities. The clearance procedures consist of a radiological characterisation of the various parts of the buildings, a decontamination step if necessary, followed by measurements for checking the success of decontamination, and the actual decision measurements for demonstrating compliance with clearance levels. These three steps rely on various measurement methods, selected depending on the relevant radionuclides to be measured, like sampling with subsequent gamma spectrometry (and if necessary separate evaluation of beta and alpha emitting nuclides), measurements with surface contamination monitory and in situ gamma spectrometry. For a nuclear power plant, the number of samples taken during this procedure can easily reach a few 10, 000, while the number of single measurements can reach several 100, 000 single surface measurements and several 10, 000 measurements with in situ gamma spectrometry. This large number of data together with the correct interpretation according to the valid nuclide vector, the penetration depth of the contamination, the correction for radioactive decay etc have to be managed, which is a error-prone process if carried out manually or with insufficient support by customised software. For this reason, a versatile software tool has been developed by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH that supports the operator in all aspects of clearance of buildings, based on the extensive experience with various clearance procedures in nuclear power plants that Brenk Systemplanung has carried out in the past

  9. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry: Practical application to South African operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although South Africa has no primary uranium mines, a major portion of its very large mining industry involves minerals with moderately elevated levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides, typical of elevated levels found in similar mineral deposits worldwide. Evidence both locally and internationally suggests that, where radioactive elements are not concentrated or extracted, such operations cannot normally give rise to undue radiological risks. The concept of exclusion should therefore play the major role in establishing which minerals-related operations should be subject to regulatory control, but exclusion criteria, which tend to be numerical rather than descriptive, vary widely between countries - in South Africa, very little is excluded and opportunities for granting exemptions are limited. The need for exemptions and clearance would be reduced if more extensive use of the exclusion concept were made, but it is nevertheless important to have better guidance on determining appropriate numerical exemption and clearance criteria - again, there are currently wide variations between countries, one example being the surface activity clearance levels for the reuse or recycling of uranium-contaminated items. Two examples, relating to gold mining tailings disposal and recycling of contaminated scrap steel respectively, are used to illustrate the difficulties that have arisen in South Africa on the clearance of low activity materials from the mining and minerals industry. Radon is identified as requiring separate consideration, and is the one area where more specific international guidance, based on action levels for intervention, is available. The action level for workplaces recommended by the IAEA would appear to represent a common basis for exclusion and exemption with respect to radon exposures from mining and minerals operations. For public exposures, the corresponding action level for homes, although not specifically intended for dealing with radon from nearby

  10. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance and plasma protein clearances in the early phase after unilateral nephrectomy in living healthy renal transplant donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Kamper, A; Skaarup, P;

    1988-01-01

    1. Glomerular and tubular function was studied before and 2 months after unilateral nephrectomy in 14 healthy kidney donors by measurement of the clearances of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetra-acetate, lithium, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G. 2. The glomerular filtration rate...... (GFR) of the kidney that remained in the donor rose from 45 +/- 10 (mean +/- SD) to 59 +/- 10 ml/min (P less than 0.01) 5 days after contralateral nephrectomy and remained at this level through the observation period. 3. The lithium clearance (CLi) of the remaining kidney rose from 11.6 +/- 3.7 to 20.......5 +/- 8.2 ml/min (P less than 0.01) and remained significantly elevated throughout the observation period. 4. Absolute proximal fluid reabsorption rate (APR), which was estimated as GFR minus CLi, was unchanged 5 days after contralateral nephrectomy, but then rose gradually to reach significantly elevated...

  11. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to...

  12. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to...

  13. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personnel. 2452.237-75 Section 2452.237-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General....

  14. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  15. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  16. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  17. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance. PMID:25683459

  18. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  19. 5 CFR 720.307 - Interagency report clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency report clearance. 720.307 Section 720.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program § 720.307 Interagency report clearance. The...

  20. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All...

  1. 33 CFR 160.115 - Withholding of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding of clearance. 160.115 Section 160.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY-GENERAL Control of Vessel and Facility Operations § 160.115 Withholding of clearance....

  2. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facility clearance. 952.204-73 Section 952.204-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-73 Facility clearance. As prescribed in 904.404(d)(5),...

  3. Benefits of Improved HP Turbine Active Clearance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Albers, Bob; Sak, Wojciech; Seitzer, Ken; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the NASA Propulsion 21 program, GE Aircraft Engines was contracted to develop an improved high pressure turbine(HPT) active clearance control (ACC) system. The system is envisioned to minimize blade tip clearances to improve HPT efficiency throughout the engine operation range simultaneously reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

  4. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  5. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  6. Effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate on blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) on blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate (99mTc-P) in dogs was examined, and blood clearance test of 99mTc-P was compared with the cases of serum transaminase test or serum bilirubin test. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels in dogs increased after ANIT administration, however, the degree of increase in these parameters was much lower than the cases in rats. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-P from blood in dogs decreased with the increase in dose of ANIT and with the passage of time after the ANIT administration. Changes of the blood clearance of 99mTc-P after ANIT treatment in dogs may be influenced by the disorder in the hepatocytes rather than in the bile ductule cells. The blood clearance test of 99mTc-P in dogs showed a sensitive reaction for the acute hepatic dysfunction induced by ANIT equally to the serum transaminase test or the serum bilirubin test. (author)

  7. Effect of D-galactosamine on blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of D-galactosamine (GalN) on the blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate (99mTc-P) in dogs was examined, and the blood clearance test of 99mTc-P was compared with the cases of the serum transaminase and bilirubin test. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels in dogs increased dose-dependently after GalN administration, and the degree of increase in these parameters was much higher than the cases in rats. The disapearance rate of 99mTc-P from blood in dogs decreased with the increase in dose of GalN and with the passage of time after the GalN administration. Changes of the blood clearance of 99mTc-P after GalN treatment in dogs may be influenced by the disorder in the hepatocytes. The blood clearance test of 99mTc-P in dogs showed a sensitive reaction for the acute hepatic dysfunction induced by GalN equally to the serum transaminase and bilirubin test. (author)

  8. Probabilistic models and decision rules in residual material clearance or recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rafael; Fernandez, Bermejo [IBERDROLA Engineering y Construction, S. A. U., Avenida de Manoteras, 20. 28050, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The European chemometrics standard says: 'The placing of the analytical sensor in these situations (process analysis within industrial production, and in situ measurements on contaminated land) constitutes the taking of a sample'. Therefore, each clearance measurement result must be considered, as a singular data pertaining to a statistical sample then, the result of each sampling plan is a set of data which treatment is the support of the decision making to select between the available options: waste management, unconditional clearance or, if any, additional material treatment (decontamination). Once all data are collected, they are statistically summarized and graphically analyzed. However, those analyses usually do not include the data fitting to probabilistic models. This paper will analyze the usual probabilistic models: normal distribution, lognormal distribution and Weibull distribution. The optimization of the clearance process depends strongly on the segregation and decontamination activities when they are necessary. However the lowering of clearance levels is less important when the probabilistic approaches were consistent. The simulations of those activities permit us to understand the appropriate probabilistic models in this process and the non parametric test appears robust and more consistent with the applied probabilistic models. Finally, the dose calculations permit us to understand the necessity to determine consistent mass factors avoiding unnecessary efforts and facilitating the waste volume and worker dose savings.(authors)

  9. Establishment of clearance criteria for contaminated scrap metal in uranium mine, milling and processing facilities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays one relevant question concerning Radiological Protection is to establish criteria for the removal of materials, mainly scrap, from the regulatory control (clearance). In 1996, the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA published the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - BSS. The clearance criteria were established in terms of effective dose and the collective effective committed dose expected to be incurred by any member of the public due to a material that will be released from authorized practices. In order to implement the criteria above mentioned, the BSS established clearance levels expressed in terms of activity concentration and/or total activity for several radionuclides. In Brazil, the Regulatory Authority, The Nacional Commission on Nuclear Energy - CNEN, published in 2005 The Basic Guidelines for Radiological Protection, CNEN-NN-3.01, incorporating BSS's concepts and criteria for exemption and clearance, among others. It was verified that the implementation of the requirements related to the licensing process of an existing uranium mine and milling led to the need for the establishment of clearance levels, especially for contaminated scrap metal generated during the operation of the installations. This paper presents the criteria based on surface contamination measurements that were issued by CNEN to fulfil the existing gap in the current regulations in order to establish requirements based on operational levels that must be accomplished by the licensee before the removal of scrap metal from the regulatory control. (author)

  10. Establishment of clearance criteria for contaminated scrap metal in uranium mine, milling and processing facilities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Roges de; Rocha, Antonio Carlos Silva da; Mezrahi, Arnaldo; Marinho, Paulo Renato Barbosa [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: roges@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: acsrocha@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: arnaldo@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: pmarinho@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays one relevant question concerning Radiological Protection is to establish criteria for the removal of materials, mainly scrap, from the regulatory control (clearance). In 1996, the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA published the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - BSS. The clearance criteria were established in terms of effective dose and the collective effective committed dose expected to be incurred by any member of the public due to a material that will be released from authorized practices. In order to implement the criteria above mentioned, the BSS established clearance levels expressed in terms of activity concentration and/or total activity for several radionuclides. In Brazil, the Regulatory Authority, The Nacional Commission on Nuclear Energy - CNEN, published in 2005 The Basic Guidelines for Radiological Protection, CNEN-NN-3.01, incorporating BSS's concepts and criteria for exemption and clearance, among others. It was verified that the implementation of the requirements related to the licensing process of an existing uranium mine and milling led to the need for the establishment of clearance levels, especially for contaminated scrap metal generated during the operation of the installations. This paper presents the criteria based on surface contamination measurements that were issued by CNEN to fulfil the existing gap in the current regulations in order to establish requirements based on operational levels that must be accomplished by the licensee before the removal of scrap metal from the regulatory control. (author)

  11. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated. OBJEC

  12. Calculation of the renal clearance by dynamic measurement of the excreted activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: In this paper we present a new method to measure the renal slope-clearance of Tc-99m-MAG-3 in a single-shot model (Excretion-clearance). Method: A renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MAG-3 was performed in 22 patients. The excreted activity of the tracer in the kidneys and the bladder was dynamically measured using a double-head gamma-camera. Additionally, the total absorption over the kidneys and the bladder was determined. The Excretion-clearance was calculated in a differential and an integral variant. Simultaneously the 2-compartment-clearance (Sapirstein-clearance), the Oberhausen-clearance and the Bubeck-clearance were calculated. Results: The Sapirstein-clearance is considered as the 'goldstandard' in a single-shot modell. The correlation of the Bubeck-clearance and the Oberhausen-clearance ranged from r=0.96 to r=0.97, the Excretion-clearance (differential-method) correlated with r=0.90. The absolute difference of the clearance-values was lowest comparing the Bubeck-clearance with the Sapirstein-clearance with an average difference of 11%, whereas the Excretion-clearance revealed at least an average difference of 21% and the Oberhausen-clearance of 24%. Discussion: The Excretion-clearance requires a more complicated protocoll measuring the clearance in comparison to the Bubeck-clearance. The results of the excretion-clearance differ more from the Sapirstein-clearance with regard to the examined patient population than the Bubeck-clearance. Regarding the theoretical basis of the methods, we expect advantages of the Excretion-clearance compared with the Bubeck-clearance in patients with compartmental disproportion or with a low clearance. We are going to prove this in combination with the above mentioned methodical improvements in a further study. (orig.)

  13. Clearance values and permitted activities in the new EU radiation protection basis safety standards; Freigrenzen und Freigabewerte in den neuen Strahlenschutz-Grundnormen der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The current draft version of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the European Union of 24 May 2013 introduces new and joint values for exemption and clearance (from IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7). The mass related activity values will then be numerically identical for general exemption and for unconditional clearance (the existing sets of exemption values will be kept, but only for 'moderate amounts'). The hitherto existing principle that clearance levels must not exceed exemption values (so that no cleared material would need to be regarded as radioactive) therefore now needs to be discarded. If options of clearance for a specific purpose as laid down in Sect. 29 para. 2 no. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance disappeared, a tremendous increase of the amount of radioactive waste and of costs for radwaste disposal would result, as was discussed elsewhere. The guiding light from this dilemma comes from the way in which the principles for clearance and exemption are treated in the new IAEA BSS. The primary criterion for clearance and exemption is not formed by sets of activity values, which are only derived limits, but by the criterion of trivial dose, which is the original limit. On this basis, all seeming conflicts between clearance levels and exemption values dissolve. (orig.)

  14. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  15. Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters. PMID:26838547

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  17. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    OpenAIRE

    Paksoy, N.; Demircan, A.; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration.

  18. Malignant melanoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi E Godoy; Kesterson, Joshua P.; Kasznica, John M.; Lele, Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    ► Teratomas are composed of elements of all three germ layers, all potentially capable of undergoing malignant transformation. ► A case of malignant melanoma arising in a mature teratoma is presented.

  19. Identities involving Bessel polynomials arising from linear differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study linear di?erential equations arising from Bessel polynomials and their applications. From these linear differential equations, we give some new and explicit identities for Bessel polynomials.

  20. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  1. Measurement of tracheobronchial clearance after sauna in subjects with chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Hengstum, M; Festen, J.; Corstens, F.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sauna on tracheobronchial clearance was studied in five male patients with chronic bronchitis by a radioaerosol technique. No enhancement of tracheobronchial clearance could be detected.

  2. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [14C]erythritol and [3H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [14C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [14C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [3H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [14C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [3H]inulin clearance. The increase in [14C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [14C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [14C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  3. Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K

    1984-03-01

    The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally. PMID:6328631

  4. Secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Atsushi; Hatori, Masahito; Hosaka, Masami; Watanuki, Munenori; Itoi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Secondary osteosarcoma arising after the treatment of hematologic malignancies other than Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. We report two cases of secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia). A 10-year-old boy, at the age of 3, was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and bone-marrow transplantation and then was in complete remission. At 6 years, he complained of incr...

  5. Number theory arising from finite fields analytic and probabilistic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Knopfmacher, John

    2001-01-01

    ""Number Theory Arising from Finite Fields: Analytic and Probabilistic Theory"" offers a discussion of the advances and developments in the field of number theory arising from finite fields. It emphasizes mean-value theorems of multiplicative functions, the theory of additive formulations, and the normal distribution of values from additive functions. The work explores calculations from classical stages to emerging discoveries in alternative abstract prime number theorems.

  6. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; AISU, NAOYA; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomo...

  7. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measurement should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y should be complied with the 97.5. percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and estimation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is representative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the representative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person randomly selected from the population receiving a high dose. From the new concept of the ICRP, it is reasonable to consider that the 95. percentile of the dose distribution for the representative person is theoretically always lower than the dose constraint. Using this established relationship, it can be concluded that the minimum dose

  8. Tip-Clearance Vortex Characterized With Three-Dimensional Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, W. Trevor

    2002-01-01

    dynamics researchers to validate their predictions to a level of accuracy not previously attainable. In an effort to understand the effects of this flow phenomenon on the operation of the low speed axial compressor, data were acquired at two mass flow coefficients: 0.395 (design operating point) and 0.35 (operating point just above stall). In order to identify the spatial extent, location, and magnitude of the tip clearance vortex for each mass flow condition, data were acquired at five equally spaced spanwise locations, from 90- to 100-percent span. The data presented shows a cross section of the tip clearance vortex at 94-percent span and a mass flow coefficient of 0.395, where the color contours represent the radial velocity component. The blue (flow towards the hub) and red (flow towards the casing) regions illustrate the extent of the tip clearance vortex. The interface between the blue and red regions delineates the location of the vortex core.

  9. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, Suruchi; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0), postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1), and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively). The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial – lactate delayed]/lactate initial) ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1–T6, T1–T12, T1–T18, and T1–T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10%) after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance. PMID:27052060

  10. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Ladha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0, postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1, and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively. The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10% after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.

  11. Renal function analysis by CT. CT clearance versus [sup 131]I-Hippuran clearance. Eine Nierenfunktionsanalyse durch die Computertomographie. CT-Clearance versus [sup 131]Jod-Hippuran-Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenborn, H.; Klose, K. (Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Radiologische Klinik (Germany))

    1992-06-01

    The CT clearance in a number of urological patients (39 patients, 25 with normal renal function) was studied by means of an ''area under curve'' (AUC) method, using a region of interest. 31 patients were given meglumine ioxithalamate and 8 patients Iopamidol as a contrast medium. Both for total and partial function there was highly significant correlation with isotope clearance with good reproducibility. The difference in the pharmacokinetics of the contrast media affected the absolute clearance values. (orig.).

  12. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  13. Scintigraphic examination of mucociliary clearance; Die szintigrafische Untersuchung der mukoziliaeren Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierdt, E. van de; Haidl, P. [Gemeinschaftspraxis F. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany); Abt. Pneumologie II, Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Scintigraphic evaluation of mucociliary clearance (MC) is in consideration of some guidelines (choice of a suitable inhalator and standardization of inhalation procedure) simply practicable. Using a standardized median aerosol with a diameter of approximately 8 {mu}m a dynamic investigation over 60 min is sufficient. Depending on the medical problem MC can be calculated globally or regionally. Indications for the investigation of MC are primary ciliary dyskinesia, persistent cough of unknown origin as well as a possible regional disturbance of MC. Disturbances of MC occur before changes in spirometric pulmonary function tests. Therefore scintigraphic evaluation of MC is suited to early diagnosis of changes in mucociliary removal rates. (orig.)

  14. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  15. Effects of CdCl2 on the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and placental blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper is an essential element while Cd is an extremely toxic heavy metal of questionable biological usefulness. Cadmium has been reported to interfere with the metabolism of Cu, be teratogenic, and decrease blood flow in the fetal placenta. Because of these reported biological interactions of Cd and Cu, this investigation was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on placental transport of 67Cu and placental blood flow in the guinea pig. All guinea pigs used were 60 +/- 1 days pregnant. A placental perfusion technique was used to measure the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and 3H2O across the placenta. The clearance of 3H2O served as an indicator of placental blood flow on the maternal side of the circulation. The results indicated that an iv injection of 1 mg Cd/kg body weight resulted in an immediate increase in the clearance of 67Cu which declined over the next 8 min to an elevated level compared to the extrapolated best-fit curve of control values. This iv injection of CdCl2 concomitantly reduced the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 3H2O across the placenta. In conclusion, an acute exposure of the pregnant female to CdCl2 results in an increased maternal-to-fetal clearance 67Cu and a reduced placental blood flow that can alter the supply of nutrients to the developing embryo or fetus, and therefore modify normal development

  16. [Bromsulphalein clearance in persons in occupational contact with pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkov, G; Petkova, V; Zakhariev, N

    1987-01-01

    In 46 persons (sprayers, disinfectors, technicians of the agricultural aviation) the bromsulphalein clearance is traced, during the active work season with pesticides, after the method of Caroly, Nys and Alliot. It is established, that the mean value of bromsulphalein clearance (8.91%) is lower than that of the referent group healthy persons (14.5%). In 14 (31.34%) of the examined the values of the clearance are under 10%. The changes of the last do not correlate closely to other indices of the liver function. As an explanation of the results the authors presuppose general pathogenetic relations between the metabolism of pesticides and of bromsulphalein in the liver cell, with inclusion of glutathione-S-transferase systems. The study allows to give a practical conclusion for the meaning of the bromsulphalein clearance and assessment of the pesticides effect in persons who are in professional contact with them. PMID:3441475

  17. The compliance contact model of cylindrical joints with clearances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caishan Liu; Ke Zhang; Lei Yang; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determination of the normal force-displacement (NFD) relation for the contact problem of cylindrical joints with clearance. A simple formulation for this contact problem is developed by modeling the pin as a rigid wedge and the elastic plate as a simple Winkler elastic foundation. The numerical results show that the normal displacement relation based on Hertz theory is only valid for the case of large clearance with a small normal load, and the NFD relation based on Persson theory is only effective in the case of very small clearance. The proposed approximate model in this paper gives better results than Hertz theory and Persson theory in a large range of clearances as seen from the comparison with the results of FEM.

  18. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  19. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  20. Design Optimization of Ground Clearance of Domestic Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Mitra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag and lift forces plays a vital role in the performance and stability of vehicles. Less drag means less fuel consumption and hence less vehicular pollution. Also, lower lift force means higher chance of adhesion of the car body with the ground causing less overturning of the vehicle, which improves the vehicle performance. Both drag and lift forces can be manipulated by varying the ground clearance of the cars. The present study concentrates on studying the effect of ground clearance on these aerodynamic forces experimentally. Wind tunnel studies with a notch-back car model revealed increase in drag and decrease in lift with increase in ground clearance. Therefore, optimization is required for designing the best ground clearance and a preferable value of the same is thus obtained.

  1. Increased Glyburide Clearance in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lin; ZHANG Yi; Hebert, Mary F.; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    Glyburide (GLB) is an oral sulfonylurea, commonly used for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that the clearance of GLB in pregnant women is significantly higher than that in nonpregnant women. The molecular mechanism by which pregnancy increases the clearance of GLB is not known, but it may be caused by increased CYP3A activity. Because liver tissue from pregnant women is not readily available, in the present study, we investigated the mechanism of such preg...

  2. The optimal clearance design of micro-punching die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is focused on the optimal clearance design of micro-punching die by abductive network and SA method.Design/methodology/approach: The punching data (input and wear size (output were collected for a training database. In order to select proper clearance to evaluate the wear of die, the abductive network was used to establish an efficient relationship between input parameters and output result. This can help to predict wear size under any degree of clearance and hence to replace worn punches and dies at the right time. A simulated annealing (SA optimization algorithm with a performance index is then applied to the neural network for searching the optimal clearance parameters, and obtains rather satisfactory result as compared with the corresponding experiment verification.Findings: This study aims to identify the relationship between clearance and service life of micro punches using the Neural Network, and to find relational data involving the service life of punches and punching parameters in non-metal blanking processes. The result can be used to estimate optimal clearance between punch and die for industrial applications.Research limitations/implications: In this study, the practical punching processes with different punching conditions were carried out for a set of training data. A trained model exhibited a relationship between service life and clearance of micro punch and die through an abductive network system. The predicted value of wear by abductive network is very close to the actual experimental value, with an error of less than 8%. This result satisfies the required standard for IC factory production.Originality/value: A good clearance design not only increases the quality of product manufactured, but also reduces product’s burr. As a result, the wear of punches and dies can be greatly reduced and the life expectancy of punching dies increased.

  3. The impact for the clearance of dying cells of CRP

    OpenAIRE

    Janko, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An efficient clearance by phagocytes of apoptotic cells is of major importance to avoid secondary necrosis. The leakage of intracellular autoantigens from improperly cleared cells may provoke inflammation and finally autoimmunity. Therefore, the clearance of dying and dead cells is secured by a plethora of soluble adaptor molecules and receptors that recognize apoptotic cell associated molecular patterns (ACAMP) on the surfaces of the target cells. A pattern recognition molecule of the acute ...

  4. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

  5. Performance verification test on wet-blast type decontamination for the clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination test was carried out to verify its performance of the wet blast decontamination device which is placed in Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and to determine the optimal conditions for decontamination using test specimens gathered from pipes of facilities which are going to be applied for the clearance. According to the test result, the contamination on inner surface of the pipes can be removed easily by more than 100 of decontamination factor with rust and its coating and can be decontaminated in less than clearance level in relatively short period of blasting process. Besides, it was proved that the optimal condition for decontamination is 0.4 MPa in blast pressure and 100 mm in blast distance, which is the basic specification of the device. (author)

  6. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p99mTc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99mTc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99mTc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  7. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β2-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  8. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 μU kg-1 min-1. Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations (μU/ml) and excretion rates (μU/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay

  9. Experimental study on fluid flow in arciform clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 汤卉; 贾慧娟

    2002-01-01

    The system damping and dynamic characteristics can be further improved by properly increasing thedamping coefficient ξh. For a special hydraulic damping structure, an arciform damping clearance often used inFCS, a mathematical model has been established for fluid flow using the theory of laminar flow in the clearanceof parallel plates. Analytical calculations are made for fluid flow in the arciform clearance and relational expres-sion is deduced for flow rate along the arciform cleaance height, pressure difference, maximum arciform clear-ance height, the flow rate for the fluid flow in arciform clearance as well, and its simplified formula is obtainedby using the theory of hydrodynamics and the curve - fitting method. This paper consists of two sections: the firstsection focuses on the theoretical analysis by using the simplified mathematical model and the second sectionmainly describes experimental analysis. The simplified formula is corrected with experimental results by consid-erig various boundary conditions of the damping clearance. Experimental results show that this study of arciformdamping clearance is reliable and practical.

  10. A high sensitivity inductive sensor for blade tip clearance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiplexed inductive sensor consisting of multiple mini-sized planar spiral coils for detecting multiple tip clearances of rotor blades is presented. The sensor measures the tip clearances by monitoring the inductance changes of planar spiral coils caused by the passage of the rotor blades. A resonance frequency division multiplexing technique and parallel LC resonance measurement were applied to the multiple sensor coils, making it feasible to measure multiple tip clearances using only one set of measurement electronics with high sensitivity and resolution. The results from tests conducted on a bench-top test rig have demonstrated that the sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple tip clearances from 0 to 5 mm with a 10 μm resolution at a high rotary speed up to 80 000 RPM. With its high resolution, high sensitivity and capability of monitoring a large number of tip clearances simultaneously, this sensor can potentially be used for advanced active tip clearance control in turbine machinery. (papers)

  11. Model of mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, P; Bessonov, N; Volpert, V; Tiddens, H A W M; Cornu, C; Nony, P; Caudri, D

    2015-05-01

    Mucus clearance is a primary innate defense mechanism in the human airways. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CF is characterized by dehydration of airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, microorganisms are not efficiently removed from the airways, and patients experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. We propose a new physiologically based mathematical model of muco-ciliary transport consisting of the two major components of the mucociliary clearance system: (i) periciliary liquid layer (PCL) and (ii) mucus layer. We study mucus clearance under normal conditions and in CF patients. Restoring impaired clearance of airway secretions in one of the major goals of therapy in patients with CF. We consider the action of the aerosolized and inhaled medication dornase alfa, which reduces the viscosity of cystic fibrosis mucus, by selectively cleaving the long DNA strands it contains. The results of the model simulations stress the potential relevance of the location of the drug deposition in the central or peripheral airways. Mucus clearance was increased in case the drug was primarily deposited peripherally, i.e. in the small airways. PMID:25746843

  12. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  13. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Namiki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous.

  14. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  15. Laparoscopic resection of a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Seok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Hemangiomas are known to be common benign tumors. However, hemangiomas of female genital organs are very rare. Furthermore, a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels has never been reported. Here we report a case of a 29-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma arising from the ovarian vessels of infundibulopelvic ligament, which was treated with laparoscopic resection. The operating time was 30 minutes, and resection was carried out with minimal blood loss. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. Laparoscopic resection of this type of hemangioma is feasible. PMID:19896610

  16. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Diego Cabrera; Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  17. Plasma clearance of cadmium and zinc in non-acclimated and metal-acclimated trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, M. Jasim; Grosell, M.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M

    2003-08-20

    Adult rainbow trout were pre-exposed to a sublethal concentration of waterborne cadmium (Cd, 26.7 nmol/l) or waterborne zinc (Zn, 2294 nmol/l) for 30 days to induce acclimation. A single dose of radiolabeled Cd (64.4 nmol/kg) or Zn (183.8 nmol/kg) was injected into the vascular system of non-acclimated and Cd- or Zn-acclimated trout through indwelling arterial catheters. Subsequently, repetitive blood samples over 10 h and terminal tissue samples (liver, heart, bile, stomach, intestine, kidney, gills, muscle, and spleen) were taken to characterize the effect of metal acclimation on clearance kinetics in vivo. Plasma clearance of Cd in Cd-acclimated fish (0.726{+-}0.015 and 0.477{+-}0.012 ml/min per kg for total and newly accumulated Cd, respectively), was faster than that in non-acclimated trout (0.493{+-}0.013 and 0.394{+-}0.009 ml/min per kg). Unlike plasma Cd, the levels of Cd in red blood cells (RBCs) were 1.2-2.2 times higher in Cd-acclimated fish than in non-acclimated fish. At 10 h post-injection, the liver accumulated the highest proportion ({approx}22%) of the injected Cd dose in both non-acclimated and Cd-acclimated fish but did not account for the difference in plasma levels of Cd between two groups. Plasma clearance of Zn ({approx}0.23 ml/min per kg for new Zn) was substantially lower than Cd clearance. Pre-acclimation to waterborne Zn reduced the new Zn levels in RBCs, but did not affect the clearance of Zn from blood plasma or tissue burdens of Zn in fish. Bile concentrations of both Cd and Zn were elevated in acclimated fish, but total bile burden accounted for <1% of the injected metal dose. The results suggest that the detoxification process of injected plasma Cd is stimulated by pre-acclimation to waterborne Cd, and that Zn levels are homeostatically controlled in both non-acclimated and acclimated trout.

  18. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  19. Synovial sarcoma arising in association with a popliteal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial sarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue sarcoma particularly in the adolescent and young adult. We report an unusual case of a synovial sarcoma arising within a popliteal cyst in a 13-year-old female presenting with bilateral popliteal cysts. MR imaging demonstrated the cyst with evidence of subacute haemorrhage and a discrete nodule of tumour. (orig.)

  20. Synovial sarcoma arising in association with a popliteal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, K.S.; Grimer, R.J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedic Oncology; Davies, A.M. [MRI Centre, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Dept. of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Twiston Davies, C.W. [Jersey General Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2000-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue sarcoma particularly in the adolescent and young adult. We report an unusual case of a synovial sarcoma arising within a popliteal cyst in a 13-year-old female presenting with bilateral popliteal cysts. MR imaging demonstrated the cyst with evidence of subacute haemorrhage and a discrete nodule of tumour. (orig.)

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vishwanath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising in a mature cystic teratoma (MCT are being discussed for their rarity and pattern of infiltration of tumor cells in the stroma (alpha mode, beta mode and gamma mode, which is a key factor in deciding the prognosis and patient survival.

  2. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are p...

  3. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma arising in a Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Khajuria, Madalsa Bargotra,Rubey Bhat, V.K.Dubey

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation in a benign cystic teratoma occurs in 1-3% of cases. A rare case of squamouscell carcinoma arising in a benign cystic teratoma ofovary in a 37 year old f~male is reported. The patientpresented with increasing abdominal girth and pain abdomen and was cl inically diagnosed having a largeovarian cyst.

  5. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Adnan A; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management. PMID:26217002

  6. Adenocarcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammeh, S; Ben Abdelkrim, S; Khalifa, M H Ben Hadj; Letaief, R; Mokni, M

    2013-12-01

    Tailgut cyst (TGC), also called retrorectal hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion arising from persistent remnants of the postanal gut. Malignant transformation of TGC is exceedingly uncommon. We report herein the clinicopathologic features and the follow-up of a new case of a TGC with adenocarcinomatous transformation occurring in a 61 year-old woman. PMID:24730339

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Adnan A.; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management.

  8. Age-dependence and intersubject variability of tracheobronchial particle clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY.Background: The detailed study of tracheobronchial clearanceof inhaled particles represents one of the basic research questionsin lung medicine. The clearance efficiency varies in different agegroups and between males and females.The differences can bepartly clarified by the application of a well validated theoreticalapproach. This study applied a relevant model to children (1 year,5 years, 10 years, juveniles (15 years, and adults of different ages(18, 21, 25, 34, 50, and 60 years and to both sexes. Methods: Themathematical model used for clearance simulation is based on theconcept of a stochastic lung structure and considers both early fastmucociliary clearance and a later, slow clearance fraction, fs, effectedby particular uptake by tracheobronchial cells, e.g., macrophagesand epithelial cells. According to this model, the calculated mucusvelocities for each airway generation of the tracheobronchial compartmentare normalized to a respective tracheal mucus velocitythat is estimated for each of the age groups studied from an allometricfunction. Results: In general, tracheobronchial clearanceefficiency undergoes a significant increase from childhood to youngadulthood, reaching a maximum at 25-30 years and decreasingagain from about 30 years to 60 years. Conversely to the improvementof clearance, the continuous change of airway morphometrywith increasing age causes a decrease of the filtering effect in thetrachea and main bronchi, which is of marked importance in infants.The modelling results demonstrate differences in tracheobronchialclearance between males and females, generally in the range from0 to 5%, which are exclusively determined by the individual lunggeometry. Conclusions: Based on theoretical computations itcan be concluded that tracheobronchial clearance is a phenomenonthat depends on both age and sex. Biological studies are necessaryto determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlyingthe age-dependent development of

  9. Stall Characteristics and Tip Clearance Effects in Forward Swept Axial Compressor Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna PV; Govardhan M

    2009-01-01

    Tilting the blade sections to the flow direction (blade sweep) would increase the operating range of an axial com-pressor due to modifications in the pressure and velocity fields on the suction surface. On the other hand, blade tip gap, though finite, has great influence on the performance of a turbomachine. The present paper investigates the combined effect of these two factors on various flow characteristics in'a low speed axial flow compressor. For this present study, nine computational domains were modeled; three rotor sweep configurations (0°, 20° and 30°) and for three different clearance levels for each rotor. Commercial CFD solver ANSYS CFX 11.0 is used for the simulations. Results indicated that tip chordline sweep is found to improve the stall margin of the compressor by modifying the suction surface boundary layer migration phenomenon. Diffusion Factor (DF) contours showed the severity of stalling with unswept rotor. For the swept rotors, the zones of high probable stall are less severe and they become less in size with increasing sweep. Increment in the tip gap is found to gradually affect the perform-ance of unswept rotor, while the effect is very high for the two swept rotors for the earlier increments. As a mini-mum clearance is unavoidable, swept rotors suffer relatively higher deviation from the idealistic behavior than the unswept rotor due to tip clearance.

  10. Mechanistic studies of antibody mediated clearance of tau aggregates using an ex vivo brain slice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan eKrishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that immunotherapy clears amyloid beta (A plaques and reduces A levels in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, as well as in AD patients. Tangle pathology is also relevant for the neurodegeneration in AD, and our studies have shown that active immunization with an AD related phospho-tau peptide reduces aggregated tau within the brain and slows the progression of tauopathy-induced behavioural impairments. Thus, clearance of neurofibrillary tangles and/or their precursors may reduce synaptic and neuronal loss associated with AD and other tauopathies. So far the mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated clearance of tau pathology are yet to be elucidated. In this study we have used a mouse brain slice model to examine the uptake and localization of FITC labeled anti-tau antibodies. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the FITC labelled anti-tau antibody co-stained with phosphorylated tau, had a perinuclear appearance and co-localised with markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Additionally, tau and FITC IgG were found together in an enriched lysosome fraction. In summary, antibody-mediated clearance of intracellular tau aggregates appears to occur via the lysosomal pathway.

  11. FGF21-Mediated Improvements in Glucose Clearance Require Uncoupling Protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Kwon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21-mediated weight loss and improvements in glucose metabolism correlate with increased uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 levels in adipose tissues, suggesting that UCP1-dependent thermogenesis may drive FGF21 action. It was reported that FGF21 is equally effective at reducing body weight and improving glucose homeostasis without UCP1. We find while FGF21 can lower body weight in both wild-type and Ucp1 knockout mice, rapid clearance of glucose by FGF21 is defective in the absence of UCP1. Furthermore, in obese wild-type mice there is a fall in brown adipose tissue (BAT temperature during glucose excursion, and FGF21 improves glucose clearance while preventing the fall in BAT temperature. In Ucp1 knockout mice, the fall in BAT temperature during glucose excursion and FGF21-mediated changes in BAT temperature are lost. We conclude FGF21-mediated improvements in clearance of a glucose challenge require UCP1 and evoke UCP1-dependent thermogenesis as a method to increase glucose disposal.

  12. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women. PMID:1523347

  13. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval [k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min] when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP [0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01]. When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred [k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001]. The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP

  14. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%)

  15. Consequences of the EU basic safety standards. Omission of the clearance for demolition/disposal with respect to the deconstruction projects of WAK GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WAK GmbH's task is to decommission the nuclear installation projects at the KIT Campus Nord. These include the former Reprocessing Plant (WAK-Anlage), the Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR), Research Reactor 2 (FR2), Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK), the Hot Cells (HZ) and some more small research facilities of the KIT. The buildings should be released by paragraph 29 German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) after the demolition of the process-engineering equipment. For this the clearance levels for 'demolition of buildings' Annex III Tab. 1 Column 10 (StrlSchV) must be reached, depth profiles were sampled on order to estimate how much material of the walls has to be removed to reach the values of the clearance levels. In a proposal (10926/12 ATO 90 SOC 501 SAN 149) on the basis of new scientific knowledge the EU plans to introduce clearance levels from the IAEA - ''Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance RS-G-1.7''. In the proposal there are only clearance levels for an unrestricted release. Clearance levels for specific purpose (Annex III Tab. 1 Column 9a - 9d, 10 and 10a StrlSchV) are not named. A worst case scenario has been made what the possible effects are if the unrestricted release in the proposal of the basic safety standards from EU is guilty for every material. An estimation were done how much material and how much volume of building rubbish has to be removed to reach these new resulted clearance. Based on these volumes the caused additional financial costs for the final disposal for the WAK GmbH were calculated. (orig.)

  16. Radioactive Aerosols in the Clinical Study of Pulmonary Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of pulmonary clearance mechanisms has acquired particular importance owing to the growing pollution of the environment and to the increasing incidence and seriousness of cases of pneumoconiosis. Such research is particularly important in radiopathology because of the frequent occurrence of respiratory radioactive contamination. The authors' aim is to tackle this problem and in particular to study long-term clearance mechanisms. Before starting this work, however, they propose to determine the contamination parameters as accurately as possible. For this purpose they plan to study respiratory function in normal subjects by administering labelled aerosols with well-defined physico-chemical characteristics; the first stage of the investigation is then to observe the kinetics of fixation and clearance in the short term. They describe the installations used for this voluntary contamination which must provide a means of producing the aerosols and administering them in controlled amounts and must also ensure efficient protection of the operators against irradiation arid contamination. The choice of the aerosols is also discussed: this is governed mainly by the nature of the vectors, the particle size and the physical characteristics of the tracers. Finally, the authors outline the detection and measuring techniques which they are using to study contamination kinetics, evaluate contamination burdens and follow the short-term clearance. These data constitute a preliminary basis for the study of long-term clearance. (author)

  17. ELMO1 signaling in apoptotic germ cell clearance and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael R; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2010-10-01

    Apoptosis and the subsequent removal of dying cells are crucial processes for tissue development and maintenance. Although we are beginning to understand the signaling pathways that control the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells, the physiological relevance of these pathways is lacking. During spermatogenesis, over half of the developing germ cells eventually die by apoptosis, yet the signaling pathways that regulate the phagocytic clearance of these dying cells or the impact of this clearance on development and maintenance of the germ cell population is not well understood. The ELMO1/Dock180 proteins form an evolutionarily conserved signaling module that functions as a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rac. The subsequent Rac-dependent cytoskeletal changes play an important role in the physical engulfment of apoptotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate an in vivo role for ELMO1-dependent clearance in the testes, with implications for spermatogenesis. Here we will discuss the role of apoptotic cell clearance during spermatogenesis, with a particular emphasis on ELMO1/Dock180 signaling. PMID:20958313

  18. Red Blood Cell Membrane as a Biomimetic Nanocoating for Prolonged Circulation Time and Reduced Accelerated Blood Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jun-Hua; Cai, Bo; Yu, Guang-Tao; Yu, Xiaolei; He, Zhaobo; Huang, Qinqin; Li, Andrew; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Liu, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tza-Huei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    For decades, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely incorporated into nanoparticles for evading immune clearance and improving the systematic circulation time. However, recent studies have reported a phenomenon known as "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)" where a second dose of PEGylated nanomaterials is rapidly cleared when given several days after the first dose. Herein, we demonstrate that natural red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a superior alternative to PEG. Biomimetic RBC membrane-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs) rely on CD47, which is a "don't eat me" marker on the RBC surface, to escape immune clearance through interactions with the signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRP-α) receptor. Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs exhibit extended circulation time and show little change between the first and second doses, with no ABC suffered. In addition, the administration of Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs does not elicit immune responses on neither the cellular level (myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)) nor the humoral level (immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG)). Finally, the in vivo toxicity of these cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles is systematically investigated by blood biochemistry, hematology testing, and histology analysis. These findings are significant advancements toward solving the long-existing clinical challenges of developing biomaterials that are able to resist both immune response and rapid clearance. PMID:26488923

  19. Using the same harvester head for undergrowth pre-clearance and fuel wood harvesting; Ennakkoraivaus ja energiapuun hakkuu samalla laitteella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.

    2011-07-01

    TTS conducted a study on the profitability of undergrowth pre-clearance, which was carried out using the Risutec L3A harvesting head in conjunction with fuel wood harvesting. The experiments were implemented on two sites; one was dominated by birch and the other by pine. On the first site, the productivity level when using the method of pre-clearance with the felling device in conjunction with fuel wood harvesting was even better than the approach where the lumberman had carried out the pre-clearance. On the pine-dominated site, the productivity level of fuel wood harvesting was higher in the method where the lumberman carried out pre-clearance. Once the preclearance expenses had been added to the fuel wood harvesting expenses, the total unit expenses of the two methods were unit expenses of the two methods were nearly similar for this site as well. Based on the results, it is likely that on some sites, it is already feasible to use the investigated device for carrying out preclearance in conjunction with fuel wood harvesting. (orig.)

  20. Angiosarcoma Arising in an Ovarian Fibroma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings.

  1. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  2. Invasive breast carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Bae, Young Kyung

    2013-12-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare benign disease that shows an infiltrative growth pattern of small glands, and it may progress to include atypia and carcinoma. Here we report two cases of breast carcinoma arising in MGA. Case 1 was a 44-year-old woman with a previous history of ductal carcinoma in situ in her right breast. During a follow-up, a 1.8 cm mass-like lesion was found in her left breast. An excisional biopsy suggested that the lesion was breast carcinoma. Case 2 was a 57-year-old woman with a 2.9 cm mass in her right breast. A core needle biopsy of the lesion suggested invasive carcinoma. Both patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Both tumors lacked a myoepithelial cell layer and stained positively for S-100, lysozyme, and α1-antitrypsin, which is typical of MGA. Both cases showed invasive carcinoma arising in MGA. PMID:24454466

  3. [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoyan; Luo, Gui; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-07-01

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa. PMID:25248275

  4. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Arising in CALR Mutated Essential Thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Langabeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an existing myeloproliferative neoplasm is rare with historical cases unable to differentiate between concomitant malignancies or leukemic transformation. Molecular studies of coexisting JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms and mature B cell malignancies indicate distinct disease entities arising in myeloid and lymphoid committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. Mutations of CALR in essential thrombocythemia appear to be associated with a distinct phenotype and a lower risk of thrombosis yet their impact on disease progression is less well defined. The as yet undescribed scenario of pro-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia arising in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia is presented. Intensive treatment for the leukemia allowed for expansion of the original CALR mutated clone. Whether CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms predispose to the acquisition of additional malignancies, particularly lymphoproliferative disorders, is not yet known.

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  6. Carcinosarcoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary.

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, D S; Haldane, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of carcinosarcoma arising within an otherwise benign cystic teratoma is reported. The patient, a 78 year old nulliparous woman, presented with right sided abdominal pain of short duration and subsequently underwent a bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy. Slicing of the left ovary revealed a unilocular cyst containing hair admixed with soft yellow material with a thin wall apart from a solid area at one pole. Extensive areas of necrosis and cystic degeneration were present within this mass....

  7. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis

    OpenAIRE

    McCoubrey, A.; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multilocu...

  8. Sebaceous Carcinoma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma of Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, m...

  9. A Case of Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Adenomyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Taga; Mari Sawada; Aya Nagai; Dan Yamamoto; Ryoji Hayase

    2014-01-01

    Malignant changes in endometriosis are often reported, but those in adenomyosis are rare. We report a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old woman presenting with vaginal bleeding was referred to our hospital. Cytological tests of endometrium revealed atypical glandular cells. Fractional endometrial curettage revealed normal endometrium without atypia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple myomas. The endometrium was slightl...

  10. Some Questions Arising from the Homogeneous Banach Space Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the current state of the homogeneous Banach space problem. We then formulate several questions which arise naturally from this problem, some of which seem to be fundamental but new. We give many examples defining the bounds on the problem. We end with a simple construction showing that every infinite dimensional Banach space contains a subspace on which weak properties have become stable (under passing to further subspaces). Implications of this construction are considered.

  11. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mei; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, CHENFANG

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that p...

  12. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Arising in CALR Mutated Essential Thrombocythemia

    OpenAIRE

    Langabeer, Stephen E.; Karl Haslam; David O’Brien; Johanna Kelly; Claire Andrews; Ciara Ryan; Richard Flavin; Hayden, Patrick J.; Bacon, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an existing myeloproliferative neoplasm is rare with historical cases unable to differentiate between concomitant malignancies or leukemic transformation. Molecular studies of coexisting JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms and mature B cell malignancies indicate distinct disease entities arising in myeloid and lymphoid committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. Mutations of CALR in essential thrombocythemia appear to...

  13. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  14. Unusual gestational choriocarcinoma arising in an interstitial pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsen Meddeb; Mohamed Salah Rhim; Wissal Zarrouk; Mohamed Bibi; Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi; Hedi Khairi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Its association with ectopic pregnancy is very rare and usually with aggressive behavior. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a new case arising in an interstitial pregnancy occurring in a 46-year-old woman. The patient was admitted for severe pelvic pain and abundant metrorrhagia. One month ago, she had had a laparoscopic resection of an interstitial pregnancy subsequent to failure of chemotherapy by methotrexate. The...

  15. Periodic response of multi-disk rotors with bearing clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. B.; Noah, S. T.; Choi, Y. S.

    1991-02-01

    The forced steady state response of a multi-disk rotor system involving a clearance at one of the bearings is determined by using a harmonic balance approach. The impedance method is applied to each of the harmonic steady state components in order to reduce the system to its displacement at the non-linear bearing support. The results reveal the interrelated roles of the bearing clearance, mass eccentricity and side force in producing dangerous subharmonics. The significant effects of the strong non-linearity of a bearing clearance are studied as related to the various system parameters. The results show that the approach developed in this study is computationally superior to numerical integration methods in analyzing multi-disk rotor systems with strong non-linearity.

  16. Bromosulphophthalein clearance rates in sheep with pyrrolizidine liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, G W; Peterson, J E

    1979-05-01

    Sheep fed a ration containing 50% of dried Heliotropium europaeum showed a marked decline in bromosulphophthalein (BSP) fractional clearance rate during the first 3 months feeding. Thereafter, the response of individual animals varied widely on a time basis, although 3 groups could be identified. In the terminal stages, mean clearance rates were below 20% of initial values, with some sheep showing a decline in excess of 90%. Loss of liver functional capacity was generally much greater than indicated by the degree of damage revealed by histopathology. Thus, a suitably modified test could have considerable prognostic value in the field. In this investigation, all sheep with clearance rates below 0.15 died when exposed to a further period of H. europaeum feeding. PMID:475677

  17. Ineffective airway clearance in children with acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was performed with 151 children inpatients of a pediatric hospital in Northeastern Brazil, with the objective to analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the diagnoses ineffective airway clearance in children with acute respiratory infection. A thorough respiratory evaluation was performed and the diagnostic inference was developed by specialists. The most frequent defining characteristics were adventitious breath sounds, ineffective cough, dyspnea, and changes in respiratory rate. Ineffective airway clearance was present in 37.7% of the sample. Agitation was the characteristic with the highest sensitivity. Dyspnea, adventitious breath sounds, orthopnea, changes in respiratory rate and agitation presented higher specificity for the diagnosis. In conclusion, the defining characteristics showed different performances to correctly classify children with infective airway clearance. Studies like this can contribute for a correct nursing diagnostic inference and for the implementation of more effective interventions, thus improving the quality of health care. Descriptors: Respiratory Tract Infections; Nursing Diagnosis; Child.

  18. Pharmacometabonomic Prediction of Busulfan Clearance in Hematopoetic Cell Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L; Randolph, Timothy W; Shireman, Laura M; Raftery, Daniel; McCune, Jeannine S

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous (IV) busulfan doses are often personalized to a concentration at steady state (Css) using the patient's clearance, which is estimated with therapeutic drug monitoring. We sought to identify biomarkers of IV busulfan clearance using a targeted pharmacometabonomics approach. A total of 200 metabolites were quantitated in 106 plasma samples, each obtained before IV busulfan administration in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Both univariate linear regression with false discovery rate (FDR) and pathway enrichment analyses using the Global test were performed. In the univariate analysis, glycine, N-acetylglycine, 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid, creatine, serine, and tyrosine were statistically significantly associated with IV busulfan clearance at P 0.1. Glycine is a component of glutathione, which is conjugated with busulfan via glutathione transferase enzymes. These results demonstrate the potential utility of pharmacometabonomics to inform IV busulfan dosing. Future studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:27350098

  19. Progress with volunteer studies of nasal deposition and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation is the main route of intake of radioactive material for workers, and can be an important pathway for members of the public following accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment. Much of the inhaled radioactivity initially deposits in the nose, typically over 40% for particles of aerodynamic diameter (dae) greater than 2 μm. However, there is remarkably little information on the clearance from the human nose of particles deposited during inhalation and, until now, none on the clearance of the significant fraction of material that remains in the nasal passage for more than 12 hours. NRPB is conducting a volunteer study to determine the effects of particle size and breathing pattern on particle deposition in, and clearance from, the human nasal passage. This article summarises results obtained to date. (author)

  20. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  1. Nuclear security. DOE actions to improve the personnel clearance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the Department of Energy's (DOE) implementation of recommendations in our two reports on DOE's personnel security clearance program was determined. The recommendations were aimed at improving the timeliness, accuracy, and efficiency of personnel security clearance decisions. Specifically, the objective was to determine and report on steps DOE is taking to implement these recommendations. In summary, it was found that DOE has either initiated action or is studying ways to address all the recommendations, but none of the recommendations have been completely implemented. The effectiveness of the DOE actions will depend, in part, on the adequacy of its internal control system for overseeing and evaluating program operations. DOE's personnel security clearance program is intended to provide reasonable assurance that personnel with access to classified information and materials are trustworthy. The Department requests that the Office of Personnel Management or the Federal Bureau of Investigation collect personal data on each person who requires such access to do his or her job. Based on these background investigations, DOE officials authorize individuals whose personal histories indicate that they are trustworthy to have access to classified information, secured facilities, and controlled materials as needed to perform their jobs. DOE has five types of these authorizations or personnel security clearances and must update information on personnel holding each type at 5-year intervals to confirm their continuing reliability. The five types are based on the types of security interests to which the person needs access, e.g., persons needing nuclear weapons-related data must have a Q clearance, and persons with a top secret clearance can have access to national security data classified as top secret

  2. Safety assessment for the disposal of very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate concentration of very low level radioactive concrete wastes which arise from decontamination activities of the KRR-2 auxiliary facility satisfied with the dose limits of clearance level by using RESRAD Ver. 6.21. The maximum individual dose and collective dose were evaluated by using dose conversion factor which was based on the concept of effective dose in ICRP publication 60 and partly adopting input parameter to circumstance in Korea. In case the radionuclide concentration is 0.4 Bq/g, the result of maximum individual dose and collective dose is 49.25 μSv per year, 7.880x10-5 man□Sv per year about landfill workers for the most risky source(Co-60) and 53.44 μSv per year 2.432 10-3 man□Sv per year about residents after closed for the risky source(Cs-137) respectively. The concentration of radionuclide for self-disposition for satisfying the dose limits of clearance level is less than 8.122x10-2 Bq/g in the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

  3. Individual renal clearance measurements in man using the early part of 131I-hippuran renogram. Comparison with 197HgCl2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative measurement of individual renal function was assayed using analysis of the early part of 131I-Hippuran uptake curve obtained from single probes over kidneys and subclavicular area and recorded on magnetic tape. Blood background substraction was performed by calibration of the blood curve with a prior 131I-Albumin injection. Postulating the same detection efficiency for each kidney by a previous 125I-Hippuran injection, we calculated the clearance ratio as the ratio of the angular coefficient of the early part of the corrected renogram against the corresponding blood integral activity curve. Data processing was performed without any preimposed model. Individual clearances were calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using the simplified method without urine collection. In 7 control subjects, clearances expressed in per cent of total clearance, were 51.2+-1.3 and 48.3+-1.4 ml/min for right and left kidney respectively. In 4 uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In 8 patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197Hg Cl2 fixation. A correlation coefficient of 0.95 was found. The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation, allowing repetitive measurements

  4. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    fall in the sitting position, and fell significantly to 26 +/- 5 ml/min (p less than 0.025) in walking subjects. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption rate of fluid correspondingly rose from 83 +/- 16 to 92 +/- 15 ml/min (p less than 0.005) and sodium clearance fell from 1.52 +/- 0.81 to 1.00 +/- 0...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  5. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Munck, O; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended to...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  6. A STUDY ON EGFR, CREATININE CLEARANCE & URINARY PROTEIN TO CREATININE RATIO IN CKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Bhavani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There was a good correlation between Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR values estimated by any of the 3 methods. Crcl correlated better with Cockcroft-Gault (CG eGFR than Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD eGFR and there was also a very good correlation between CG eGFR and MDRD eGFR. Based on this result we feel that in advanced CKD all 3 methods give similar GFR estimates but in earlier stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD Creatinine clearance (Crcl gives higher estimate of GFR. Thus use of Crcl may wrongly classify patients into less severe stages of CKD which might lead to delay in initiation of proper treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CKD patients were selected on the basis of serum creatinine levels. S.C > 2.5 mg/dl values were considered to be having CKD. 75 Samples were tested. Both males & females patients are taken in this study. Serum Creatinine & Urinary Creatinine by Jaffe’s method, Blood Urea by Urease method, Urinary Protein by Pyrogallol red method, estimation of GFR by three methods. Creatinine Clearance &eGFR by using Cockcroft- Gault& MDRD equations. RESULT: A total of 75 patients attending the nephrology department (P.E.S Medical College, Kuppamfor treatment and monitoring for chronic kidney disease where included in the present study. Serum creatinine, serum urea and creatinine clearance were measured in all these patients as per methods described under materials and methods. Estimated GFR (eGFR using CG (Cock croft and MDRD (Modification of Diet in renal disease formulae were calculated. Majority of the cases were complications due to long standing diabetes mellitus or hypertension. CONCLUSION: Creatinine Clearance over estimates GFR in early stages of CKD. Use of Crcl to assess GFR may not be proper to classify CKD into different stages. Any of the 3 methods (Crcl, CG eGFR and MDRD eGFR can be used as markers of GFR in advanced stages of CKD. MDRD eGFR is a better indicator of eGFR for staging CKD in early stages

  7. Assessments of future arisings of conditioned radioactive wastes for waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes two assessments of conditioned radioactive waste arisings. One is based on existing and committed nuclear installations and the other on an assumed nuclear power generation scenario representing a moderate growth in nuclear generation. Radioactive wastes arise from: i. Commercial Nuclear Reactors, ii. Fuel Cycle Activities, iii. Research, Industrial and Medical activities. Decommissioning wastes are also considered. The study uses the SIMULATION 3 code which models waste material flows through a system of waste treatment and packaging to disposal. With a knowledge of the accumulations and average production rates of untreated wastes and their nuclide compositions (or total activities), the rates at which conditioned wastes become available for transportation and disposal are calculated, with specific activity levels. (author)

  8. Uses of ANSI/HPS N13.12-1999, "Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance" and Comparison with Existing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansbury, Paul S.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2001-04-30

    In August of 1999, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved a standard for clearance of materials contaminated with residual levels of radioactivity. "Clearance," as used in the standard, means the movement of material from the control of a regulatory agency to a use or disposition that has no further regulatory controls of any kind. The standard gives derived screening levels (DSLs) in Bq/g and Bq/cm2 for 50 radionuclides. Items or materials with residual surface and volume radioactivity levels below the DSLs can be cleared, that is, managed without regard to their residual radioactivity. Since federal agencies are to use voluntary, industry standards developed by the private sector whenever possible, the standard should play an important role in DOE's regulatory process. The thrust of this report is to explain the standard, make simple observations on its usefulness to DOE, and to explore uses of the standard within DOE facilities beyond the clearance of radioactive materials.

  9. The Therapeutic Role of Vasopressin on Improving Lactate Clearance During and After Vasogenic Shock: Microcirculation, Is It The Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Elchin; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Mousavi, Sarah; Nouri, Masoumeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in septic shock restores vascular tone and mean arterial pressure, meanwhile decreases dose and exposure time to catecholamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasopressin on lactate and lactate clearance as markers of tissue perfusion during septic shock. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with septic shock were enrolled in two groups. One group received norepinephrine infusion (titrated to reach the target MAP of ≥65 mm Hg) and the other group in addition to norepinephrine, received vasopressin at a constant rate of 0.03 u/min. Serum lactate levels were assessed at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after randomization. Lactate clearance was estimated for each patient at 24 and 48 hours. Venous lactate was measured in both groups. Despite a tendency toward higher venous lactate at 24 and 48 hours in the norepinephrine group (3.1 vs. 2.5, P=0.67 and 1.7 vs. 1.1, P=0.47), the conflict was not statistically significant among them. While lactate clearance after 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin treatment group (46% vs. 20%, respectively; P=0.048), the 48-hour lactate clearance did not differ from statistic viewpoints despite their clinical values (66% vs. 40%, P=0.17). Although lactate levels did not significantly differ between treatment groups, lactate clearance at 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin group. This may be the effect of vasopressin effect on microcirculation and tissue hypoperfusion or its catecholamine sparing effect. PMID:26853286

  10. The Therapeutic Role of Vasopressin on Improving lactate Clearance During and After Vasogenic Shock: Microcirculation, Is it The Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Barzegar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in septic shock restores vascular tone and mean arterial pressure, meanwhile decreases dose and exposure time to catecholamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasopressin on lactate and lactate clearance as markers of tissue perfusion during septic shock. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with septic shock were enrolled in two groups. One group received norepinephrine infusion (titrated to reach the target MAP of ≥65 mm Hg and the other group in addition to norepinephrine, received vasopressin at a constant rate of 0.03 u/min. Serum lactate levels were assessed at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after randomization. Lactate clearance was estimated for each patient at 24 and 48 hours. Venous lactate was measured in both groups. Despite a tendency toward higher venous lactate at 24 and 48 hours in the norepinephrine group (3.1 vs. 2.5, P=0.67 and 1.7 vs. 1.1, P=0.47, the conflict was not statistically significant among them. While lactate clearance after 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin treatment group (46% vs. 20%, respectively; P=0.048, the 48-hour lactate clearance did not differ from statistic viewpoints despite their clinical values (66% vs. 40%, P=0.17. Although lactate levels did not significantly differ between treatment groups, lactate clearance at 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin group. This may be the effect of vasopressin effect on microcirculation and tissue hypoperfusion or its catecholamine sparing effect.

  11. Clearance rate of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. I. Response to extreme chlorophyll ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira, Ramón; Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Labarta, Uxío

    2009-01-01

    [EN] Clearance rate (CR) measurements in Mytilus galloprovincialis were determined over 16 experiments in which the mussels were exposed to diets characterized by variable chlorophyll content (0.28–104.88 μg Chla L–1) in order to: (1) establish the lower trigger level and the saturation reduction, (2) elucidate whether these thresholds were controlled by an on/off switch or by a progressive response, and (3) determine whether the experimental time exerted an effect on the CR measurem...

  12. Pregnancy does not alter the metabolic clearance of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] during pregnancy could be due to an increase in production or decrease in the metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D. To answer this question an isotope dilution method was used to determine the clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D in pregnant and aged-matched nonpregnant female rats. A bolus of 0.146 muCi 1,25(OH)2[3H]D3 was given to 60 pregnant and 60 aged-matched nonpregnant rats and the disappearance of the isotope was followed in these animals over the next 48 h. In 12 pregnant rats vs. 14 nonpregnant controls not injected with tracer, plasma calcium (9.6 +/- 0.41 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.17 mg/ml) and 25(OH)D (17.1 +/- 1.15 vs. 25.4 +/- 1.58 ng/ml) levels were significantly lower (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001), whereas plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels (110 +/- 16.1 pg/ml vs. 77 +/- 6.0 pg/ml) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). Clearance rates of 1,25(OH)2D of 25.8 +/- 1.31 microliters/min in pregnant rats and 20.2 20.2 +/- 1.38 microliters/min in nonpregnant aged-matched rats were not significantly different. Similarly, the apparent volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)2D in the pregnant rats (15 +/- 1.0 ml) was not significantly different from that in the nonpregnant control animals (18 +/- 2.1 ml). Production rates of.1,25(OH)2D were elevated in the pregnant rats (2.83 pg/min) compared with the nonpregnant controls (1.55 pg/min). In conclusion, the elevated maternal plasma 1,25(OH)2D level during pregnancy is a result of increased production and is not due to a decreased clearance

  13. Purpose and Working Contents of Clearance%清场的目的和工作内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建玲; 聂森

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce errors in the production process to the minimum level and prevent to cause cross contamination and confusion, the production process must have a program of clearance. Therefore, the content of clearance should aim at every aspect of production activity. The purpose of clearance was introduced, and the working contents of clearance were summarized, mainly containing five aspects of human, machine, material, method and link.%为了将生产过程中的差错降至最低程度,防止引起交叉污染和混淆,生产过程中必须要有清场的程序。清场是对生产活动产生的影响的清除工作,因此,其内容应针对生产活动的各个方面。概括了清场的目的,并总结了清场所需完成的工作内容,主要包括“人、机、料、法、环”五个方面。

  14. A functional equation arising from multiplication of quantum integers

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Melvyn B.

    2002-01-01

    For the quantum integer $[n]_q = 1+q+...+q^{n-1}$ there is a natural polynomial multiplication $*_q$ such that $[m]_q *_q [n]_q = [mn]_q$. This multiplication leads to the functional equation $f_{mn}(q) = f_m(q)f_n(q^m),$ defined on a given sequence $\\mathcal(F)=\\{f_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ of polynomials. This paper contains various results concerning the classification and construction of polynomial sequences that satisfy the functional equation, as well as a list of open problems that arise ...

  15. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  16. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Joo, Hee Jae [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [SungkyunKwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  17. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  18. Review of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent arisings in CAGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the active nuclides present in gaseous and liquid effluents arising during the normal operation of CAGR power stations are identified. The methods of calculation used to predict the activity of nuclides present in effluents discharged during normal station operation are outlined. The results of calculations based on these methods are compared with operating station measurements to obtain an indication of their accuracy. Reasonable consistency between prediction and measurement is obtained in general, but where appropriate the comparison is used to make corrections to input data and the calculational route. (author)

  19. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  20. On the modular functions arising from the Theta constants

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur S. Kirmaci

    2003-01-01

    Some modular functions arising from the theta constants $ \\vartheta_2(\\tau)$, $ \\vartheta_3(\\tau)$, $ \\vartheta_4(\\tau)$ are investigated. Let $n$ be an odd square-free positive integer as in [4,7]. It is obtained a necessary and sufficient condition that $ \\varphi_{\\delta,\\rho,3}(\\tau)=\\prod_{\\delta|n,\\rho|n}\\Big({\\vartheta_3(\\delta\\tau) \\over\\vartheta_3(\\rho\\tau)}\\Big)^{r_\\delta}$  is invariant with respect to transformations in $ \\theta(n)$. Also, It is deduced that $ \\varphi_{\\delta,\\rho,...

  1. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed to...

  2. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: Unclassified. SYSTEM LOCATION: Department of State, 301 4th St., SW., Room 750 Washington, DC 20547. CATEGORIES... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records Summary: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to...

  3. Effect of lindane on the clearance rate of Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgers, E.M.; Heugens, E.W.; Deneer, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide lindane (%-hexachlorocyclohexane) on the clearance rate (CR) of Daphnia magna was investigated using artificial beads. CR (24-h EC50: 65 7g Lm1) was found to be a more sensitive endpoint than acute lethality for D. magna (48-h LC50: 516 7g Lm1). The onset of the effect

  4. Modifications of lung clearance mechanisms by acute influenza A infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four volunteers with naturally acquired, culture-proved influenza A infection inhaled a radiolabeled aerosol to permit investigation of lung mucociliary clearance mechanisms during and after symptomatic illness. Mucus transport in the trachea was undetectable when monitored with an external multidetector probe within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, but was found at a normal velocity by 1 week in three of the four subjects. In two volunteers who coughed 23 to 48 times during the 4.5-hour observation period, whole lung clearance was as fast within the first 48 hours of illness as during health 3 months later in spite of the absence of measurable tracheal mucus transport. Conversely, in spite of the return 1 week later of mucus transport at velocities expected in the trachea, whole lung clearance for the 4.5-hour period was slowed in two volunteers who coughed less than once an hour. The data offer evidence that cough is important in maintaining lung clearance for at least several days after symptomatic influenza A infection when other mechanisms that depend on ciliary function are severely deficient

  5. 33 CFR 157.455 - Minimum under-keel clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum under-keel clearance. 157.455 Section 157.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain...

  6. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ §...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation of clearance. 151.1508 Section 151.1508 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

  8. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed to impr...

  9. In Vivo Renal Clearance, Biodistribution, Toxicity of Gold nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiu; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Fei-Yue; Fan, Sai-Jun; 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.020

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have shown great prospective in cancer diagnosis and therapy, but they can not be metabolized and prefer to accumulate in liver and spleen due to their large size. The gold nanoclusters with small size can penetrate kidney tissue and have promise to decrease in vivo toxicity by renal clearance. In this work, we explore the in vivo renal clearance, biodistribution, and toxicity responses of the BSA- and GSH-protected gold nanoclusters for 24 hours and 28 days. The BSA-protected gold nanoclusters have low-efficient renal clearance and only 1% of gold can be cleared, but the GSH-protected gold nanoclusters have high-efficient renal clearance and 36 % of gold can be cleared after 24 hours. The biodistribution further reveals that 94% of gold can be metabolized for the GSH-protected nanoclusters, but only less than 5% of gold can be metabolized for the BSA-protected nanoclusters after 28 days. Both of the GSH- and BSA-protected gold nanoclusters cause acute infection, inflammation, and kidney fu...

  10. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M‑1 cm‑1 and 1.5 × 108 M‑1 cm‑1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  11. Influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Gao, B.; Yang, L.; Du, W. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Computing models are always simplified to save the computing resources and time. Particularly, the clearance that between impeller and pump casing is always ignored. But the completer model is, the more precise result of numerical simulation is in theory. This paper study the influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump. We present such influence via comparing performance, flow characteristic and pressure pulsation of two cases that the one of two cases is the model pump with clearance and the other is not. And the results show that the head decreases and power increases so that efficiency decreases after computing with front and back cavities. Then no-leakage model would improve absolute velocity magnitude in order to reach the rated flow rate. Finally, more disturbance induced by front cavity flow and wear-ring flow would change the pressure pulsation of impeller and volute. The performance of clearance flow is important for the whole pump in performance, flow characteristic, pressure pulsation and other respects.

  12. Early clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new frontier in prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrall, A.J.; Netea, M.G.; Alisjahbana, B.; Hill, P.C.; Crevel, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Furt

  13. ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Philip L S M; Nock, Ryan; Son, Ni-Huiping; Ramms, Bastian; Lew, Irene; Gonzales, Jon C; Thacker, Bryan E; Basu, Debapriya; Lee, Richard G; Mullick, Adam E; Graham, Mark J; Goldberg, Ira J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Witztum, Joseph L; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and plasma triglycerides (TGs) correlate strongly with plasma apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for ApoC-III reduce plasma TGs in primates and mice, but the underlying mechanism of action remains controversial. We determined that a murine-specific ApoC-III-targeting ASO reduces fasting TG levels through a mechanism that is dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). ApoC-III ASO treatment lowered plasma TGs in mice lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, LDLR, or LRP1 and in animals with combined deletion of the genes encoding HSPG receptors and LDLRs or LRP1. However, the ApoC-III ASO did not lower TG levels in mice lacking both LDLR and LRP1. LDLR and LRP1 were also required for ApoC-III ASO-induced reduction of plasma TGs in mice fed a high-fat diet, in postprandial clearance studies, and when ApoC-III-rich or ApoC-III-depleted lipoproteins were injected into mice. ASO reduction of ApoC-III had no effect on VLDL secretion, heparin-induced TG reduction, or uptake of lipids into heart and skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that ApoC-III inhibits turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins primarily through a hepatic clearance mechanism mediated by the LDLR/LRP1 axis. PMID:27400128

  14. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as creatinine clearance in Wistar-rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averages and standard deviations of 99mTc-DTPA and 131I-hippurate slope clearance were consecutively determined for 56 male Wistar rats, with a body-weight of 271 ± 69 g in a single investigation. Clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.4, that of 131I-hippurate was 34.3 ± 7.2 μl · s-1 per 100 g body weight. For 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were determined after 3 days with the steady-state method with continuous infusion and 3-4 periods of urine collection. During the same periods endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined. 99mTc-DTPA slope clearance correlated well with inulin clearance, also the hippurate with the PAH clearance. The high values of the filtration fraction, calculated from radioisotope and chemical methods, and the low PAH extraction of 42% lead to the conclusion, that PAH and hippurate are incompletely eliminated by the rat kidney from plasma and therefore are inadequate for determining renal blood flow in rats. Creatinine clearance was 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s-1 per 100 g body weight, much lower than that of inulin and 99mTc-DTPA. Therefore is assumed, that tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs and creatinine clearance cannot serve for the evaluation of GFR in rats. For this, however, the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA seems well applicable in Wistar rats. (author)

  15. Cell death, clearance and immunity in the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciorati, C; Rigamonti, E; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal muscle is an immunologically unique tissue. Leukocytes, virtually absent in physiological conditions, are quickly recruited into the tissue upon injury and persist during regeneration. Apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy coexist in the injured/regenerating muscles, including those of patients with neuromuscular disorders, such as inflammatory myopathies, dystrophies, metabolic and mitochondrial myopathies and drug-induced myopathies. Macrophages are able to alter their function in response to microenvironment conditions and as a consequence coordinate changes within the tissue from the early injury throughout regeneration and eventual healing, and regulate the activation and the function of stem cells. Early after injury, classically activated macrophages ('M1') dominate the picture. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages predominate during resolution phases and regulate the termination of the inflammatory responses. The dynamic M1/M2 transition is increasingly felt to be the key to the homeostasis of the muscle. Recognition and clearance of debris originating from damaged myofibers and from dying stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and leukocytes are fundamental actions of macrophages. Clearance of apoptotic cells and M1/M2 transition are causally connected and represent limiting steps for muscle healing. The accumulation of apoptotic cells, which reflects their defective clearance, has been demonstrated in various tissues to prompt autoimmunity against intracellular autoantigens. In the muscle, in the presence of type I interferon, apoptotic myoblasts indeed cause the production of autoantibodies, lymphocyte infiltration and continuous cycles of muscle injury and regeneration, mimicking human inflammatory myopathies. The clearance of apoptotic cells thus modulates the homeostatic response of the skeletal muscle to injury. Conversely, defects in the process may have deleterious local effects, guiding maladaptive tissue remodeling with collagen and fat

  16. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  17. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports. PMID:24009635

  18. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  19. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  20. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin, 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as of the creatinine clearance in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order of magnitude and standard deviation of 99mTc-DTPA and 131I-hippurate slope clearance were analyzed successively in 56 male Wistar rats. The clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.43 μl · s-1 (100 g b-w)-1, of 131I-hippurate 34.3 ± 7.21 μl · s-1 (100 g b-w)-1. In 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were analyzed by steady state method with permanent infusion and 3 to 4 urine collection periods 3 days later. The endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined within the same periods. The 99mTc-DTPA slope clearance corresponded to the inulin clearance, as well as the hippurate clearance to the PAH clearance. The high filtration fraction calculated from nuclear medicine and chemical clearance methods and the low PAH extraction (42%) let suggest that PAH and hippurate are eliminated only incompletely from plasma in rat kidney and are unsuitable for determination of renal blood supply in rats. The creatinine clearance with 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s-1 (100 g b-w)-1 was far beneath the clearance of inulin and 99mTc-DTPA, supposing that creatinine is reabsorbed tubularly in part and the creatinine clearance can not be used for valuation of the GFR in rats. However, for this the 99mTc-DTPA clearance in Wistar rats seems to be well suited. (author)

  1. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1998-01-01

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  2. Consumer Response to Seasonal Clearance Sales: Experimental Analysis of Consumer Personality Traits in Self Service Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, MR

    2006-01-01

    Consumer responses to clearance sales, both in terms of consumer satisfaction with the decision process and in terms of subsequent store choice behavior, are explored in the paper through four controlled experiments conducted involving clearance sales in a consumer choice and decision satisfaction context. The results suggest that consumer response to clearance sales is driven to a large extent by two factors: the effect of a clearance sale on the available options of goods and the degree of ...

  3. Use of HμREL Human Coculture System for Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance and Metabolite Formation for Slowly Metabolized Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Ia; Vedin, Charlotta; Abrahamsson, Anna; Winiwarter, Susanne; Darnell, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Design of slowly metabolized compounds is an important goal in many drug discovery projects. Standard hepatocyte suspension intrinsic clearance (CLint) methods can only provide reliable CLint values above 2.5 μL/min/million cells. A method that permits extended incubation time with maintained performance and metabolic activity of the in vitro system is warranted to allow in vivo clearance predictions and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static HμREL coculture of human hepatocytes with stromal cells to be set up in-house as a standard method for in vivo clearance prediction and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. Fourteen low CLint compounds were incubated for 3 days, and seven intermediate to high CLint compounds and a cocktail of cytochrome P450 (P450) marker substrates were incubated for 3 h. In vivo clearance was predicted for 20 compounds applying the regression line approach, and HμREL coculture predicted the human intrinsic clearance for 45% of the drugs within 2-fold and 70% of the drugs within 3-fold of the clinical values. CLint values as low as 0.3 μL/min/million hepatocytes were robustly produced, giving 8-fold improved sensitivity of robust low CLint determination, over the cutoff in hepatocyte suspension CLint methods. The CLint values of intermediate to high CLint compounds were at similar levels both in HμREL coculture and in freshly thawed hepatocytes. In the HμREL coculture formation rates for five P450-isoform marker reactions, paracetamol (CYP1A2), 1-OH-bupropion (CYP2B6), 4-OH-diclofenac (CYP2C9), and 1-OH-midazolam (3A4) were within the range of literature values for freshly thawed hepatocytes, whereas 1-OH-bufuralol (CYP2D6) formation rate was lower. Further, both phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and an increased number of metabolites were observed in the HμREL coculture compared to hepatocyte suspension. In conclusion, HμREL coculture can

  4. Regulatory Aspects of Clearance and Recycling of Metallic Material forming Part of Buildings of Nuclear Facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic materials as part of buildings of nuclear installations, like reinforcement in concrete, anchor slabs, pipework buried in concrete, but also steel liners of water basins or anchor rails that are welded to the reinforcement steel etc. require special considerations during decommissioning. It is the aim to release as much of this material as possible for recycling (either by melting in conventional foundries or by melting in a controlled recycling plant for reuse in the nuclear field). This poses problems as on the one hand these metallic materials cannot be removed from the buildings prior to their demolition, while on the other hand they would in principle require a specific clearance procedure for which they should be available separately. Besides aspects of radiological characterisation and measurements, this is also a regulatory issue, as the competent authority has to grant clearance of materials that may not be fully characterised by measurements, but for which a significant part of the information required for clearance is inferred from the operational history, from conclusions by analogy and from other sources. This issue has been resolved in different ways in various NPPs in Germany. Examples of materials that pose problems of the kind listed above (including relevant contamination pathways) are given, together with examples for solving these problems by specific considerations in the clearance procedure. The clearance regulations for metal scrap in Germany require adherence to both mass specific and surface related clearance levels in Bq/g and Bq/cm2, respectively, which are similar to those as laid down in the EU recommendations RP 89/101. Therefore, approaches had to be developed for inferring sufficiently comprehensive and conservative estimates of the mass and surface related activities for metallic materials forming an integral part of buildings from measurements that do not cover 100% of the material. The ways are outlined in which the

  5. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity. PMID:692834

  6. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  7. Radiation Impact of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel Reused in Building Industry with Emphasis on External Exposure Pathway - 12569

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable quantities of various materials are accumulated during the decommissioning process of nuclear installations. Some of arising materials are activated or contaminated. However, many of them continue to have an economic value and exist in a form that can be recycled or reused for special purposes. Furthermore much of the material generated during decommissioning process will contain only small amounts of radionuclides. For these materials there exist environmental and economic incentives to maximize the use of the concept of clearance from further regulatory control. This impact analysis is devoted to mentioned incentives. The aim is to conditionally clear maximum amount of the scrap steel and consequently recycle and reuse it in form of reinforcing components in tunnel and bridge building scenarios. Recent calculations relevant for external exposure pathway indicate that concept of conditional clearance represent a feasible option for the management of radioactive materials. Even in chosen specific industrial applications it is possible to justify new, approximately one order of magnitude higher, clearance levels. However analysis of other possible exposure pathways relevant for particular scenario of reuse of conditionally cleared materials has to be performed in order to confirm indications from partially obtained results. Basically, the concept of conditional clearance can bring two basic benefits. Firstly it is saving of considerable funds, which would be otherwise used for treatment, conditioning and disposal of materials at appropriate radioactive waste repository. Moreover materials with intrinsic value (particularly metals) can be recycled and reused in industrial applications instead of investing resources on mining and production process in order to obtain new, 'fresh' materials. (authors)

  8. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  9. Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Kaori; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kanamori, Anriko; Machida, Hiromi; Kojima, Masaru; Fukasawa, Ichio

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis is extremely rare. We encountered such a patient and herein provide a review of the literature. A 56-year-old woman was referred for a huge pelvic tumor, suspected to be an advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma. Intraoperative inspection revealed a mass, mainly located in the uterine myometrium, invading the uterine serosa. The tumor had previously spontaneously ruptured and disseminated to the pelvic cavity. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed an infiltrative pattern of biphasic tumor cells composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and a nonepithelial component with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Benign endometrial glands with stromal cells were found adjacent to the area of the carcinosarcoma. The endometrium and both ovaries and fallopian tubes were microscopically free of tumor cells. The final diagnosis was heterologous type carcinosarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation, originating from uterine adenomyosis. PMID:26663238

  10. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  11. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  12. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous elliptic problems arising in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By variational and topological methods we prove the existence of a positive interval Λ such that for all λ ε Λ there exists at least three positive solutions of (1.1) on Ω = DR {(x,y) ε R2+: x2 + y2 2}, where f: R → R is a function of type (tσ-tσ+α)χ(0,1)(t) with σ > 1 and α ≤ 1, h is a non negative bounded smooth function. Under some restrictions for f and h we show that Λ is independent of R, for R big enough. This type of problem arises in an astrophysical gravity free model of solar flares given by Heyvaerts et al. (author). 9 refs

  13. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW)

  14. Criminal prosecution arising from medical mishaps: a Japanese perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    In Japan, the number of physicians being investigated on suspicion of medical malpractice has increased. Specifically, the criminal prosecutions arising from professional negligence resulting in bodily injury or death have also increased. Article 21 of the Japanese Physician's Act compels a doctor to notify the district police when he diagnoses a death to be 'unnatural'. Originally this provision was to increase public safety through crime detection, but one recent criminal case broadened the application of this article to include the death from a mishap during medical treatment. This criminal case made a tremendous impact on physicians, as the convictions and sentences forced physicians to notify the police even when it is not certain the patient died of the malady or of the medical misconduct itself. Besides, we wonder if such obligation of doctors to notify such 'unnatural' death from medical mishap may be against a person's privilege against self-incrimination which is assured by Japanese Constitutional Law (article 38). PMID:16440862

  15. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58....... CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......-year-old man had pulmonary symptoms, thought to be asthma. Computed tomographic scan revealed a large goiter with a solid hyperechoic nodule. The results of thyroid function tests were normal. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of fibroblast-like spindle cells in a patternless growth. Cellular...

  17. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Nakahira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct.

  18. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects

  19. Determining the mechanisms underlying augmented renal drug clearance in the critically ill: use of exogenous marker compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Udy, Andrew A; Jarrett, Paul; Stuart, Janine; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Starr, Therese; Dunlop, Rachel; Wallis, Steven C; Roberts, Jason A.; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore changes in glomerular filtration (GFR) and renal tubular function in critically ill patients at risk of augmented renal clearance (ARC), using exogenous marker compounds. Methods This prospective, observational pharmacokinetic (PK) study was performed in a university-affiliated, tertiary-level, adult intensive care unit (ICU). Patients aged less than or equal to 60 years, manifesting a systemic inflammatory response, with an expected ICU lengt...

  20. Applicability of the “Gallet equation” to the vegetation clearances of NERC Reliability Standard FAC-003-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2012-03-31

    NERC has proposed a standard to use to specify clearances between vegetation and power lines. The purpose of the rule is to reduce the probability of flashover to a calculably low level. This report was commissioned by FERC’s Office of Electrical Reliability. The scope of the study was analysis of the mathematics and documentation of the technical justification behind the application of the Gallet equation and the assumptions used in the technical reference paper

  1. Unilateral Eye Blinking Arising From the Ictal Ipsilateral Occipital Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Perciavalle, Valentina; Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Elia, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Martino; Caraballo, Roberto; Striano, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    We report on an 18-month-old boy with unilateral left eye blinking as a single ictal manifestation without facial twitching. The clinical onset of this phenomenon was first recorded (as an occasional event) at age 3 months, and it was overlooked. By age 6 months, the child's blinking increased to almost daily occurrence in clusters: during blinking the infant showed intact awareness and occasional jerks in the upper limbs and right leg. A video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) documented clinical correlation with a focal pattern arising from the left occipital region, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe brain damage, consisting in poroencephalic hollows and increased spaces in the convexities involving a large area of the left cerebral hemisphere. The boy was prescribed sodium valproate (30 mg/kg/d), resulting in drastic reduction of his clinical seizures. Follow-up to his current age documented good general status, with persistent partial right hemilateral seizures. The blinking progressively disappeared, and is no longer recorded. The pathogenic hypotheses of the unilateral ictal blinking include involvement of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and/or the cerebellar pathways. Review of previous reports of unilateral eye blinking, arising from the ictal ipsilateral brain, revealed that different damaged regions may give rise to blinking ictal phenomena, likely via the trigeminal fibres innervating the subdural intracranial structures and the pial vessels in the ipsilateral affected brain. The eye blinking in the present child represents a further example of an ictal phenomenon, which is predictive of the damaged brain region. PMID:25179638

  2. Modeling for the derivation of levels for the release of buildings and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Protection Ordinance [1] (RPO) (Strahlenschutzverordnung / StrlSchV) has been issued on July 20, 2001. This Radiation Protection Ordinance transforms the EURATOM Basic Safety Standards [2] into national legislation. It contains for the first time detailed regulations on clearance including nuclide specific sets of clearance levels (CL) for all clearance options: unconditional clearance, clearance of building rubble (> 1000 Mg/a), clearance of buildings for demolition and for reuse, clearance of metals for recycling, clearance of nuclear sites, and clearance for disposal or incineration. All clearance levels are based on the concept of triviality of dose, i.e. the clearance levels have been derived on the basis of 10 μSv/a individual dose. In addition, the assessments of collective dose for each clearance option show that the criterion of 1 man-Sv/a is well fulfilled. The clearance levels in Germany have always been derived in such a way to achieve maximum compatibility with the international development, especially in the European Union, but also with recommendations of the IAEA. All sets of clearance levels (CL) are based on detailed radiological assessments which rely on comprehensive investigations and studies taking into account the distinctive features of the clearance options and the types of materials involved. Each radiological model consists of a variety of scenarios which take into account external irradiation, inhalation, direct and secondary ingestion and skin contamination and a number of pathways (workplaces, home, foodstuff, water pathways etc.). For each nuclide and each clearance option, a separate clearance level value exists in the German RPO. The CL described in this paper are most relevant for decommissioning projects in Germany. The preferred decommissioning variant is early dismantling to green (or brown) field without a safe enclosure period. Therefore, a number of decommissioning projects already have reached a stage where

  3. The relationship between the renal clearance of creatinine and the apparent renal clearance of beta-2-microglobulin in patients with normal and impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B; Walenkamp, G H

    1981-07-18

    The renal clearances of creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin of patients with either normal or impaired kidney function were measured. The renal clearance of beta 2-microglobulin depends on the urinary pH and must be considered as an apparent renal clearance because after tubular reabsorption the compound is metabolized in the kidney. Impaired kidney function reduces the percentage of tubular reabsorption of beta 2-microglobulin. PMID:6166414

  4. Nanoparticle clearance from the airways : development and testing of a new in vitro model to investigate mucociliary clearance of aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Andreas Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current challenge in pulmonary drug delivery is to overcome and to control drug clearance from the lung. Here, the interaction with the mucociliary lung clearance plays a key role for any drug formulation technology. By today many open questions on mucociliary clearance (MC) have to be answered but suffer from limited experimental options. Considering these facts, the central part of this work was to develop a new in vitro test model to investigate the complex mechanism of MC more detaile...

  5. /sup 133/Xe clearance of the knee joint of patients suffering from arthritis and osteoarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, G.; Reviczky, L.A.; Lendvay, J.; Boehm, U.; Kucsera, K.; Genti, Gy. (Orszagos Reuma es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    65 inflammed and 13 non-inflammed knee joints of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis were examined by the Xe/sup 133/ clearance method. The control group consisted of 27 patients with exsudative arthritis of the knee. The counts of 80 ..mu..C /sup 133/Xe given intraarticcularly were measured above the knee joint by NK 350 energy selective counter. The time needed to halve the count rate measured in the 4th minute after administration (biological half life (T1/2)) was significantly different in the three groups. It was the longest in the non-inflammed arthrosis, the shortest in the exsudative arthritis group. Significant differences were apparent regarding joint pain and tenderness in all the three groups. Though the synovial protein level and the C/sub 3/ complement level were significantly different, in the three groups no relationship was found between the T1/2 and synovial/serum protein ratio or between the synovial/serum C/sub 3/ ratio. The authors concluded that /sup 133/Xe clearance, which measures the perfusion of the synovial membrane, can be used for measuring the inflammatory activity of knee joint synovitis.

  6. On a nonlinear partial differential algebraic system arising in technical textile industry: Analysis and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a length-conserving numerical scheme for a nonlinear fourth order system of partial differential algebraic equations arising in technical textile industry is studied. Applying a semidiscretization in time, the resulting sequence of nonlinear elliptic systems with algebraic constraint is reformulated as constrained optimization problems in a Hilbert space setting that admit a solution at each time level. Stability and convergence of the scheme are proved. The numerical realization is performed by projected gradient methods on finite element spaces which determine the computational effort and approximation quality of the algorithm. Simulation results are presented and discussed in view of the application of an elastic inextensible fiber motion.

  7. Antibody response following Hepatitis B vaccination in peritoneal dialysis patients: does normalized urea clearance matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervisoglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Data on the factors that contribute to the antibody response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in peritoneal dialysis patients are scarce. The current study was conducted on a group of peritoneal dialysis patients to learn how the response to hepatitis B virus vaccination varies according to the patient's clearance of urea normalized to total body water (Kt/V. METHODS: A convenience sample of 33 peritoneal dialysis patients (13 women and 20 men, with a mean age of 49¡12 years was administered double doses (20 μg IM in each deltoid muscle of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months. Response to immunization was measured at one to three months after the final dose of vaccine. The subjects were divided into groups according to the level of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs, including non-responders ( 100 IU/L. RESULTS: Among non-responders, weak responders, and good responders, significant differences were found in age (54 ± 12 vs. 56 ± 9 vs. 45¡12 years, respectively; p = 0.049 and recombinant human erythropoietin use (20 vs. 29 vs. 76%, respectively; p = 0.016. No significant differences in weekly total Kt/V (p = 0.704, weekly peritoneal Kt/V (p = 0.064 and residual glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.355 were found across the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Delivered clearance measured by weekly peritoneal Kt/V and total clearance measured by weekly total Kt/V did not predict the response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  8. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels. - Highlights: • Tetrahymena thermophila internalized QDs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. • The egested QDs were not significantly biodegraded in the food vacuoles. • In addition to phagocytosis QDs entered protozoa by alternative uptake pathways. • The clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete after 20 h in fresh medium. • The prolonged retention time of nontoxic NPs in protozoa could increase their transfer in food chain. - In addition to phagocytosis, quantum dots (QDs) entered protozoans by alternative pathways which did not lead to complete clearance of the QDs from the cells

  9. The Results of the Assessment for Clearance of Dismantling the Concrete Waste from the Research Reactor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, G. H.; Seo, B. K.; Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Chung, K. W

    2006-03-15

    In order to estimate the exposure dose to apply a clearance concept for the large amount of very low level concrete wastes generated by dismantling of the accessory building of KRR-2. The external dose was calculated by using MCNP-4C code and internal(inhalation/ingestion) dose was calculated by using a mathematical calculation methods suggested in the international technical criterion and recommendation which were IAEA Safety-Series 111-p-1.1 and NUREG-1640 for each scenario. In case of landfill disposal scenario, the expected dose was estimated by using RESRAD codes. The final results of assessment were satisfied with the clearance level of the AEA(Atomic Energy Act) in Korea. the concrete waste was disposed at the general landfill disposal site after receiving the authorization from the regulation body. These assessment results will contribute to establish a technical bases of the clearance levels for the concrete wastes from dismantling a nuclear facilities the inside and outside of the country.

  10. Project Gasbuggy: radiation contamination clearance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project Gasbuggy was the first US underground nuclear experiment for the stimulation of low-productivity natural gas reservoirs. The report describes the radiological health and safety operations required for site cleanup and restoration to return the site to approximately its original condition. These operations were conducted from August through September of 1978. All equipment on site which was radiologically contaminated during previous gas production test activities was steam decontaminated to well below applicable release criteria and was released for unrestricted use. The radiological site restoration operations were successful. The radiological area survey indicates that no radiation levels above ambient background remain on-site. Only tritium (3H) in quantities well below criteria remains in the on-site soil as determined by soil sampling. The quality of the natural environment was improved by the removal of numerous man-made objects, the removal and controlled disposal of the site contaminants, and the sealing from possible release to the environment of a deep underground radiological source

  11. Preparation of iodine-125-labeled iothalamate for renal clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iothalamate, a derivative of benzoic acid, is used as a contrast medium for renal function studies, particularly for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Its chemical composition and clearance properties are similar to those of diatrizoate. The structural differences between these groups of iodinated benzoic acid derivatives are dependent on the groups attached at the 3- and 5-positions of 2,4,6-tri-iodobenzoic acid. The renal clearance of sodium iothalamate in humans closely approximates that of inulin, and it is used as a replacement for inulin in determining glomerular filtration rate. /sup 125/I-labeled iothalamate sodium can be prepared by the exchange-labeling method at pH 4.0. Iothalamate must first be isolated from the contrast medium preparation and purified before radioiodination. After radioiodination, the product is purified by means of precipitation and is then converted to the sodium salt

  12. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  13. Effect of surface-active substance on nasal mucociliary clearance time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, K E; Svane-Knudsen, V

    1993-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance measured by saccharin clearance time is depending on ciliary function and on the physiological characteristics of mucus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of surface-active substances changed the mucociliary transport time. Twenty healthy persons...... were manually sprayed with surface-active substance in one of their nose cavities. The saccharin clearance time was measured before spraying and statistically compared with saccharin clearance time after spraying. Saccharin clearance time was significantly shortened immediately after spraying with...

  14. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-01-01

    The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after s...

  15. DOES BODY MASS INDEX INFLUENCE NASAL MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvan K, Latha R, Nirmala N, Susiganeshkumar E, Thananjayam A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory system is constantly exposed to particulate matter suspended in the inhaled air and one among the efficient mechanisms to trap and expel the particulate substances is the nasal and bronchial mucociliary clearance mechanism. This mucociliary clearance mechanism is influenced by both physiological and pathological factors that alter the functioning of the respiratory cilia and the overlying mucosal layer that traps the particulate agents. As Body mass index (BMI determines the health of a person by influencing various physiological parameters, this study has been planned to study the effect of normal and abnormal BMI (overweight and obese range on the nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Aim: To evaluate the effect of BMI on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Materials & Methods: NMC was measured in 20 volunteers with normal BMI (18.5-22.9 Kg/m2 and 20 volunteers with BMI in overweight and obese range (23 Kg/m2 and above. The NMC time was recorded by the time the volunteers appreciated the sweet taste following the placement of ¼ of saccharin tablet (1mm x 1mm in the nostril referred as saccharin transit time (STT.Results: NMC was found to be prolonged in overweight and obese population and BMI has positive correlation with NMC as calculated by Pearson correlation with r value of 0.591 and p value 0.001 which is statistically significant. Conclusion: NMC time is prolonged in abnormal BMI referring to the impairment in the mucociliary escalator mechanism thus predisposing to disease states.

  16. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  17. Mathematical modeling and analysis of insulin clearance in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Koschorreck, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Background Analyzing the dynamics of insulin concentration in the blood is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of insulin in vivo. Insulin removal from the blood has been addressed in many studies. The results are highly variable with respect to insulin clearance and the relative contributions of hepatic and renal insulin degradation. Results We present a dynamic mathematical model of insulin concentration in the blood and of insulin receptor activation in hepatocytes. ...

  18. Mathematical modeling and analysis of insulin clearance in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Koschorreck, M.; Gilles, E. D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Analyzing the dynamics of insulin concentration in the blood is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of insulin in vivo. Insulin removal from the blood has been addressed in many studies. The results are highly variable with respect to insulin clearance and the relative contributions of hepatic and renal insulin degradation. Results: We present a dynamic mathematical model of insulin concentration in the blood and of insulin receptor acti...

  19. Mathematical modeling and analysis of insulin clearance in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Koschorreck, M.; Gilles, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Analyzing the dynamics of insulin concentration in the blood is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of insulin in vivo. Insulin removal from the blood has been addressed in many studies. The results are highly variable with respect to insulin clearance and the relative contributions of hepatic and renal insulin degradation. Results: We present a dynamic mathematical model of insulin concentration in the blood and of insulin receptor activation in hepatocytes...

  20. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  1. Lactadherin and clearance of platelet-derived microvesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Swapan K.; Abdel-Monem, Hanan; Niravath, Polly; Le, Anhquyen; Bellera, Ricardo V.; Langlois, Kimberly; Nagata, Shigekazu; Rumbaut, Rolando E.; Thiagarajan, Perumal

    2009-01-01

    The transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer during platelet activation is associated with the release of procoagulant phosphatidylserine-rich small membrane vesicles called platelet-derived microvesicles. We tested the effect of lactadherin, which promotes the phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine-expressing lymphocytes and red blood cells, in the clearance of platelet microvesicles. Platelet-derived microvesicles were labeled with ...

  2. Apoptotic clearance in rabbits with experimental pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Žunić-Božinovski Snežana; Žunić Svetlana; Mladenović-Đorđević Aleksandra; Ruždijić Sabera; Kanazir Selma

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, the model of experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema in Chinchilla rabbits was used for the estimation of apoptotic clearance of pulmonary tissue. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in three groups of animals: experimental group-E on hypercholesterolemic diet (4% edible oil solution of crystalline cholesterol), control group-C1 on standard diet for that animal species and animals on oil...

  3. Early clearance of pneumococci from the lungs of decomplemented rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, S R; Coonrod, J D

    1982-01-01

    Pneumococcal types which exhibited varying degrees of interaction with the complement system in vitro wee aerosolized into normal and decomplemented rats, and the rate of killing of pneumococci was monitored by serial cultures of whole lung homogenates. The clearance of pneumococci from the alveoli did not correlate with the ability of the pneumococci to be opsonized by complement in vitro. Similarly, rats depleted of complement in the serum and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid maintained the...

  4. Mine clearance industry: background, geography, funding, analysis and future projections

    OpenAIRE

    Donmez, Erkan

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Contrary to common belief, the problems caused by landmines or other counter mobility devices have been threatening the lives of human beings for thousands of years. However, the actual efforts to remove the buried mines are a comparatively new issue. The mine clearance industry has been growing steadily, mostly because of increasing demand from the mine-afflicted countries, NGOs, international organizati...

  5. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Jinxuan; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine...

  6. Lung Clearance Index bei erwachsenen Patienten mit Mukoviszidose

    OpenAIRE

    Rückel, Helena Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Die Spirometrie mit Bestimmung des forcierten exspiratorischen Volumens in einer Sekunde gilt derzeit als Gold-Standard bei der Beurteilung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit Cystischer Fibrose. Da die spirometrische Untersuchung eine aktive Mitarbeit des Patienten erfordert, kann sie jedoch erst etwa ab dem fünften Lebensjahr durchgeführt werden. Im Gegensatz dazu kann der Lung Clearance Index (LCI), der aus Gasdilutionsuntersuchungen abgeleitet wird, in jedem Alter, d.h. auch im Säugl...

  7. Guangzhou Customs Guide to "Local Declaration & Port Clearance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.Characteristic of the supervision mode of "Local Declaration & Port Clearance" This new mode means that the consignor,consignee or agent (hereafter referred to as "declarant") could choose any competent customs under the jurisdiction of Guangzhou Customs to make declaration and go through the formalities of document-checking and duty-paying,and then finish the cargo-examination and cargo-release at the customs office of entry or exit.

  8. Clearance of technetium-99m-labeled DTPA in hyperthyroidism without clinical evidence of lung disease, and relation to pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the clearance rate of technetium-99m diethyltriaminepentaaceticacid (Tc-99m DTPA) from lungs in hyperthyroid patients without clinical evidence of lung disease and to explore the interactions between their Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol lung scintigraphy, spirometric measurements, and the levels of thyroid hormones. We studied 19 hyperthyroid patients and 16 sex- and age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed. Spirometric lung function tests, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the clearance rate of Tc-99m DTPA were performed in all participants. Ratio of DLCO value to the alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) and the means of half-time (T1/2) of Tc-99m DTPA clearance rate, which were used to evaluate alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, were calculated. There were no statistical differences between spirometric parameters (vital capacity (VC), force vital capacity (FVC), one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/FVC, mean forced expiratory flow during the middle of FVC (FEF 25-75)) of the two groups (p>0.05). Although the mean FEV1 level was significantly lower in the hyperthyroid patients than the control subjects (p1 was only less than 80 percent of the predicted value. No significant difference in the means of DLCO, DLCO/VA or T1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). In hyperthyroid patients, there was a positive relation between DLCO/VA, DLCO/VA% and T1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance (p1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in hyperthyroid group (p>0.05). We conclude that increased thyroid hormones have no effect on permeability of alveolar-capillary membrane in hyperthyroid patients. (author)

  9. Relationship Between Tongue Base Region Pressures and Vallecular Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Molly A; Thibeault, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Tongue base pressures have been thought to provide primary bolus clearance through the pharynx during swallowing. The relationship between bolus driving pressures and residue remaining in the valleculae after the swallow has not been defined. Thirty-seven dysphagic patients who were evaluated with both videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were identified within the University of Wisconsin Voice and Swallowing Outcomes database. Patients were categorized according to binary ratings of presence or absence of vallecular stasis as well as incomplete or complete tongue retraction on VFSS. Tongue base region pressures measured with HRM during saline swallows of 1 and 10 ml volumes were compared to ratings of vallecular stasis or tongue base retraction. No significant difference could be identified among mean peak HRM pressures when compared to presence or absence of vallecular stasis (1 ml saline: p = .1886; 10 ml saline: p = .7354). When categorized according to complete or incomplete tongue retraction, mean peak HRM pressures were significantly greater in the complete tongue retraction group as compared to incomplete tongue retraction (1 ml saline: p = .0223; 10 ml saline: p = .0100). Findings suggest there are multiple factors that lead to reduced vallecular clearance. In the absence of HRM measures, judging complete or incomplete tongue retraction on VFSS may be a more valid gauge of tongue base region pressures than vallecular clearance when planning dysphagia treatment. PMID:26796743

  10. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung

  11. Respirable industrial fibres: deposition, clearance and dissolution in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A D

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the available experimental and theoretical results describing deposition and clearance of mineral fibres inhaled by animals and humans in order to define the limits which these mechanisms impose on the relevance of animal experiments in the assessment of potential human health risks. Direct experimental data for deposition of spherical particles are extended by examination of the physical processes and by some limited experimental data for fibres. This shows that alveolar deposition efficiency (in rat and in man) is sufficiently similar for particles and fibres with aerodynamic diameters less that 5 microns for rats to be a relevant model for airborne dusts in this size range. Inter-species differences in mechanical clearance are substantial, with clearance being faster in the rat than in man, and this is a factor which should be considered in interpreting animal toxicity studies. The durability of fibres in the biochemical conditions of the lung may be more important over the longer lifespan of humans. PMID:8317856

  12. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  13. Effect of Guide Vane Clearance Gap on Francis Turbine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Koirala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Francis turbine guide vanes have pivoted support with external control mechanism, for conversion of pressure to kinetic energy and to direct them to runner vanes. This movement along the support is dependent on variation of load and flow (operating conditions. Small clearance gaps between facing plates and the upper and lower guide vane tips are available to aid this movement, through which leakage flow occurs. This secondary flow disturbs the main flow stream, resulting performance loss. Additionally, these increased horseshoe vortex, in presence of sand, when crosses through the gaps, both the surfaces are eroded. This causes further serious effect on performance and structural property by increasing gaps. This paper discusses the observation of the severity in hydropower plants and effect of clearance gaps on general performance of the Francis turbine through computational methods. It also relates the primary result with the empirical relation for leakage flow prediction. Additionally, a possible method to computationally estimate thickness depletion has also been presented. With increasing clearance gap, leakage increases, which lowers energy conversion and turbine efficiency along with larger secondary vortex.

  14. Technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine gamma camera clearance calculations: Methodological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major sources of errors in the gamma-camera methods for the calculation of renal clearance are the accuracy of background correction for obtaining the true renal time-activity curve and the validity of the externally recorded pre-cordial activity as an estimate of the plasmatic time-activity curve. With technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3), because of its high protein plasma binding, one could expect minimal extravascular diffusion and hence a more accurate externally detected plasmatic curve. The high extraction rate should reduce the influence of the background, but, on the other hand, the effect of hepatobiliary excretion on the calculation of renal clearance might be significant. Our results suggest that the hepatobiliary excretion of 99mTc-MAG3 does not influence the gamma-camera renal clearance determination, even in patients with low renal function. However, the pre-cordial curve does not reflect accurately the plasmatic disappearance curve; its calibration with a single plasma sample taken at the 20th min is responsible for significant errors, probably because of an unfavourable ratio between the intravascular and extravascular activities at the 20th min. (orig.)

  15. Variational problems arising in classical mechanics and nonlinear elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we consider two different classes of variational problems. First, one-dimensional problems arising from classical mechanics where the problem is to determine whether there is a unique function η0(x) which minimises the energy functional of the form I(η) = ∫ab L(x,η(x), η'(x)) dx. We will investigate uniqueness by making a change of dependent and independent variables and showing that for a class of integrands L with a particular kind of scaling invariance the resulting integrand is completely convex. The change of variables arises by applying results from Lie group theory as applied in the study of differential equations and this work is motivated by [60] and [68]. Second, the problem of minimising energy functionals of the form E(u) = ∫A W(∇u(x)) dx in the case of a nonlinear elastic body occupying an annular region A contains R2 with u : A-bar → A-bar. This work is motivated by [57] (in particular the example of paragraph 4). We will consider rotationally symmetric deformations satisfying prescribed boundary conditions. We will show the existence of minimisers for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-tilde(vertical bar-F-vertical bar, det(F)) in a class of general rotationally symmetric deformations of a compressible annulus and for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-bar(vertical bar-F-vertical bar) in a class of rotationally symmetric deformations of an incompressible annulus. We will also show that in each case the minimisers are solutions of the full equilibrium equations. A model problem will be considered where the energy functional is the Dirichlet integral and it will be shown that the rotationally symmetric solution obtained is a minimiser among admissible non-rotationally symmetric deformations. In the case of an incompressible annulus, we will consider the Dirichlet integral as the energy functional and show that the rotationally symmetric equilibrium solutions in this case are weak local minimisers in a

  16. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongle, Ding; Baowei, Song; Peng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  17. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  18. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  19. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3+ apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b+ cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1+ macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver

  20. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  1. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  2. Unicentric Castleman's Disease Arising from an Intrapulmonary Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman's disease is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, most often involving the mediastinum. It has 2 distinct clinical forms: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric Castleman's disease arising from an intrapulmonary lymph node is rare, and establishing a preoperative diagnosis of this disease is very difficult mainly due to a lack of specific imaging features. We report a case of intrapulmonary unicentric Castleman's disease in an asymptomatic 19-year-old male patient who was accurately diagnosed by preoperative computed tomography (CT. The mass was incidentally found on a routine chest X-ray. A subsequent dynamic CT showed a well-defined, hypervascular, soft-tissue mass with small calcifications located in the perihilar area of the right lower lung. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT angiography indicated that the mass was receiving its blood supply through a vascular network at its surface that originated from 2 right bronchial arteries. The clinical history and CT findings were consistent with a diagnosis of unicentric Castleman's disease, and we safely and successfully removed the tumor via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy. This case shows that the imaging characteristics of these rare tumors on contrast-enhanced CT combined with 3D-CT angiography can be helpful in reliably establishing a correct preoperative diagnosis.

  3. Primary abdominal wall clear cell carcinoma arising from incisional endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Gundogdu; Isin Ureyen; Gunsu Kimyon; Hakan Turan; Nurettin Boran; Gokhan Tulunay; Dilek Bulbul; Taner Turan; M Faruk Kose

    2013-01-01

    A 49 year-old patient with the complaint of a mass located in the caesarean scar was admitted. There was a fixed mass 30í30 mm in diameter with regular contour located at the right corner of the pfannenstiel incision. Computed tomography revealed a (40í50í50) mm solid mass lesion with margins that cannot be distinguished from the uterus, bladder and small intestines and a heterogeneous mass lesion (50í45í55) mm in diameter, located in the right side of the anterior abdominal wall. Cytoreductive surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Final pathology was clear cell carcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma arising from an extraovarian endometriotic focus was diagnosed and the patient received 6 cycles paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. The patient who was lost to follow-up applied to our clinic 2 years after surgery with a recurrent mass in the left inguinal region. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient's tumoral mass in the left inguinal region was excised. The result of the pathology was carcinoma metastasis. It is decided that the following treatment of the patient should be palliative radiation therapy. The patient who underwent palliative radiation therapy died of disease after 4 months of the second operation.

  4. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  5. Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers arising in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz-Gill, A; Webb, J K; Barcons, X

    1997-01-01

    We present here new GHRS observations of Lyman-alpha absorption lines associated with groups or clusters toward the QSOs 1545+2101 and 0850+4400. In the first case we have identified at least eight distinct Lyman-alpha absorption features, with a mean redshift of = 0.2648 \\pm 0.0002 and a velocity dispersion of 163 \\pm 57 km/s. We have also identified a group or cluster of galaxies in the vicinity of this QSO with a mean redshift of = 0.2643 \\pm 0.0004 and velocity dispersion 223 \\pm 91 km/s . The spectrum of QSO 0850+4400, of poorer quality, reveals two Lyman-alpha absorption features at z=0.0909500 \\pm 0.0000070 (which is just resolved) and z=0.0948215 \\pm 0.0000090, separated by $\\sim 1060 km/s. A group or cluster of galaxies is also present in the vicinity of the QSO line-of-sight with a mean redshift =0.0901 \\pm 0.0007 and velocity dispersion of 530 \\pm 200 km/s. The results of this work establish that Lyman-alpha absorption can occur in denser than average galaxy environments, and that it arises in di...

  6. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zong; Ping Chen; Guang-Yao Wang; Qun-Shan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body,but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare.We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum.Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm x 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach.Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin.Microscopically,its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei,which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles.Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117,CD99,CD68,cytokeratin,calretinin,desmin,epithelial membrane antigen,F8 and S-100,but positive for CD34,bcl-2,α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin.The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers,especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  7. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  8. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, C.H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  9. The influence of blade number and tip clearance gap on the tip clearance noise of an axial flow machine; Einfluss der Schaufelzahl und der Kopfspaltweite auf den Spitzenwirbellaerm axialer Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameier, F.; Neise, W.; Schuch, A.

    1996-12-31

    When the tip clearance is small and the blade number is high, fan pressure and efficiency are highest, the useful range of the fan performance curve is widest, and the specific fan sound power level to the right of the stall line is lowest. Reducing the blade number results in lower fan pressure and efficiency and higher specific sound power in the stable fan operation regime. These trends are found to a large extend also when the tip clearance gap is large. As a consequence of large tip clearances, drastic narrow-band level increases are observed below the blade passing frequency which are accompanied by rotating instabilities of the blade flow. The rotating instabilities are a fluctuating source mechanism with a nonuniform azimuthal distribution of strength which moves against the impeller at about half the shaft speed. The tip clearance noise is generated by the interaction of the rotating blade flow instabilities with the impeller blades. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei kleinem Kopfspalt und grosser Schaufelzahl sind die Druckerhoehung und der Wirkungsgrad am hoechsten, der nutzbare Bereich der Kennlinie am groessten und der spezifische Schalleistungspegel rechts von Abreisspunkt am niedrigsten. Wird die Schaufelzahl verringert, sinken Druck und Wirkungsgrad, und im stabilen Kennlinienbereich steigt die spezifische Schalleistung. Diese Trends finden sich weitgehend auch bei grossem Kopfspalt. Im Geraeuschspektrum werden als Folge der Spaltvergroesserung drastische schmalbandige Pegelerhoehungen unterhalb der Schaufelfrequenz beobachtet, die von rotierenden Instabilitaeten der Schaufelstroemung begleitet werden. Die rotierenden Instabilitaeten sind ein fluktuierender Quellmechanismus mit ungleichfoermiger Umfangverteilung, der sich mit etwa der halben Wellengeschwindigkeit entgegen dem Laufrad bewegt. Der Spitzenwirbellaerm entsteht durch die Interaktion der rotierenden Instabilitaeten mit dem Schaufelgitter. (orig.)

  10. Reduced IFNλ4 activity is associated with improved HCV clearance and reduced expression of interferon-stimulated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Bibert, Stephanie; Duong, Francois H T;

    2014-01-01

    levels, better treatment response rates and better spontaneous clearance rates, compared with patients coding for the fully active IFNλ4-P70 variant. Altogether, these data provide evidence supporting a role for the active IFNλ4 protein as the driver of high hepatic ISG expression as well as the cause of......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Both spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of HCV depend on genetic variation within the interferon-lambda locus, but until now no clear causal relationship has...... been established. Here we demonstrate that an amino-acid substitution in the IFNλ4 protein changing a proline at position 70 to a serine (P70S) substantially alters its antiviral activity. Patients harbouring the impaired IFNλ4-S70 variant display lower interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression...

  11. Hepatic clearance mechanism of /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and its effect on quantitation of hepatobiliary function concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameters affecting the hepatobiliary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc N(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (Tc-HIDA) were evaluated in dogs. Competitive clearance studies were performed with Tc-HIDA after infusion to plasma saturation levels of an anion, sodium sulfobromophthalein (BSP), and a cation, oxyphenonium. The results demonstrated that Tc-HIDA is transported through hepatocytes by a carrier-mediated organic-anion pathway. The data are consistent with an alteration of the elimination kinetics of Tc-HIDA induced by elevations in the serum bilirubin level, and it is predicted that serum bilirubin at some increased concentration will dominate the distribution and elimination kinetics of Tc-HIDA independently of hepatobiliary status. A quantitative description of liver function in terms of regional distribution and elimination rate constants will require either a pharmacokinetic model that expressly includes the effects of bilirubin from transport binding sites, or the development of new hepatobiliary agents that use a different clearance mechanism from that used by bilirubin

  12. Regulatory challenges arising from the transition from operation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a nuclear facility is shut down for the final time, the next steps involve reducing the sources of hazard in a systematic and progressive way. At some stage following removal of the bulk of radioactive material, the main process of dismantling down to site clearance may begin. The activities connected with the process of D and D are rather different from the day-today activities on an operating plant in steady-state. Moreover, they vary and change progressively as the D and D process progresses. The NEA Working Party on Dismantling and Decommissioning (WPDD) has long been interested in issues concerned with the regulation of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This issue was the subject of a special topical session during the annual WPDD meeting held in October 2006, and also of a subsequent study, the results of which were discussed at the 2007 annual meeting (in November). It is anticipated that the report from this study will be published during 2008. The recent work of the WPDD suggests that a proportionate regulatory response, to accommodate the new work and risk context during D and D, should result eventually in modified emphasis on matters concerned with the handling and use of nuclear materials, such as criticality control, the potential for illegal diversion and emergency preparedness. At the same time, a shift in emphasis towards matters concerned with the various new activities associated with D and D may be expected, particularly in regard to protection of the work force, the public and the environment. Underlying the changes proposed above is the need to have site licence conditions for D and D that reflect more closely the regulatory norms associated with conventional industrial activities rather than those for specifically nuclear activities. In the context of emerging practices, and regardless of the precise regulatory framework, it is evident that the most important issues for licensing of nuclear sites undergoing D and D are those

  13. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  14. Long-term clearance of inhaled magnetite and polystyrene latex from the lung: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a larger study evaluating the applicability of a magnetic detection technique for monitoring lung retention of inhaled particles, simultaneous radiological measurements of the retention of magnetite and polystyrene latex particles in four donkeys were performed. The radiometric measurements were performed using a scintillation detector series modified for separation of the higher energy γ-emissions of 59Fe and 85Sr. In all animals, after 24 hr post-exposure, both polystyrene and magnetite exhibited a relatively rapid phase for 80 days (Tsub(1/2) = 15-22 days) which, in three donkeys, was clearly followed by a slower phase (Tsub(1/2) = 42-173 days); activity levels after 80 days in the fourth donkey were too low to permit determination of clearance rate. During the second phase, a deviation in pattern was clearly observed between the two aerosols, the polystyrene being cleared consistently faster than the magnetite. It is suggested that this deviation implies that, beginning at this time, there were functional differences between the dominant clearance mechanisms for the two aerosols. Exactly what these mechanisms were, or whether the difference was attributable to specific differences in particle characteristics, could not be determined. (U.K.)

  15. Medical device data systems and FDA regulation. Should medical device data systems require FDA clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is widely understood why medical devices need to be regulated by the FDA and other governing bodies. However medical software does not typically require the same level of regulation. Currently the FDA is investigating whether one type of medical software, Medical Device Data Systems (MDDS), should require FDA clearance because of the potential risk they impose when interconnected with medical devices. Hospitals are looking to implement MDDS because the technology allows nursing staff to spend more time on direct patient care and reduces charting errors. This article will explore the FDA's proposal and will review the possible risks and provide a rationale for why MDDS should be regulated by the FDA and why MDDS vendors should have the right level of quality and risk management procedures in place to ensure that they are developing and bringing to market the safest products possible. PMID:20677470

  16. Estimation of the Decommissioning Waste Arising for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, Kori Unit 1(Pressurized Water Reactor, 587MW) began the first life extension operation since 2008 and Wolsong Unit 1(Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor, 679MW) has waited for the admission of life extension after license expiration since November 2012. However, after Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant accident happened March 2011, the public support for the nuclear power plant life extension has been faded. This is reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. When it comes to the decommissioning cost estimation, the waste treatment and disposal possess about 17% ∼ 43% in the total decommissioning expense. Hence, the accurate analysis of the decommissioning cost has the immense influence on the determination of decommissioning strategy in later. Namely, as the fundamental investigation of the decommissioning outlay, the approach to the expected waste weight estimation is worth of study. In this study, the arising of waste weight during the decommissioning of Kori Unit 1 was estimated with some documents listed in the reference. Finally, the total expected waste amount during the Kori Unit 1 decommissioning is about 49,139 tons. Among them, assumed radioactive waste material is 1,915,214 kg(869 tons). Based on IAEA standard, these wastes are divided in HLW, ILW, LLW, VLLW and EW respectively. Future plan is to assess the radioactivity of primary side components and dose rate distribution of Kori Unit 1 using MCNP and ORIGEN-2 codes. This action will be helpful to design the reasonable decommissioning scenario in the future 4 session

  17. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  18. Leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons arises after pubertal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Cravo

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is required for normal pubertal maturation in mice and humans and, therefore, leptin has been recognized as a crucial metabolic cue linking energy stores and the onset of puberty. Several lines of evidence have suggested that leptin acts via kisspeptin expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus to exert its effects. Using conditional knockout mice, we have previously demonstrated that deletion of leptin receptors (LepR from kisspeptin cells cause no puberty or fertility deficits. However, developmental adaptations and system redundancies may have obscured the physiologic relevance of direct leptin signaling in kisspeptin neurons. To overcome these putative effects, we re-expressed endogenous LepR selectively in kisspeptin cells of mice otherwise null for LepR, using the Cre-loxP system. Kiss1-Cre LepR null mice showed no pubertal development and no improvement of the metabolic phenotype, remaining obese, diabetic and infertile. These mice displayed decreased numbers of neurons expressing Kiss1 gene, similar to prepubertal control mice, and an unexpected lack of re-expression of functional LepR. To further assess the temporal coexpression of Kiss1 and Lepr genes, we generated mice with the human renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP driven by Kiss1 regulatory elements and crossed them with mice that express Cre recombinase from the Lepr locus and the R26-tdTomato reporter gene. No coexpression of Kiss1 and LepR was observed in prepubertal mice. Our findings unequivocally demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are not the direct target of leptin in the onset of puberty. Leptin signaling in kisspeptin neurons arises only after completion of sexual maturation.

  19. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  20. Calculation of forces arising from impacting projectiles upon yielding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations concerning the impact of airplanes upon nuclear power plant buildings usually imply that the building 'acts' as a rigid target. This assumption is justified for considerations concerning the structural integrity of the building being hit. However, for investigating induced vibrations of components within the structure, this approach might -in general- be too conservative. It is expected, that yielding of the structure during impact reduces the peak values of the loads and changes the temporal behavior of the load function which is obtained for a rigid target. To calculate the changes of the load function which are due to deformations of the structure, Riera's method is extended for the case of a yielding target. In view of the applications of the calculations to the impact of airplanes upon buildings which are constructed to withstand loads of this kind without serious damage and without large deformations, it is possible to simplify the calculations to some extent. That is, the investigations need not take into account in detail the behavior of the target during impact. The calculations are performed with a one-dimensional model for the projectile. The direction of impact is perpendicular to the target surface; direction of impact and projectile axis coincide. The calculations were performed for several initial velocities of the projectiles simulating a fast flying military airplane. Variations of the peak values of the load functions as compared to corresponding values for a rigid target do not exceed about 10%. The overall temporal behavior of the load curves turns out to be not very sensitive to the yielding of the target, though, in some cases displacements in time of the peak positions within a single load curve do arise