Sample records for clearance levels arising

  1. Derivation methods for clearance levels applied to reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Seki, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In order to support the discussion by the Nuclear Safety Commission, JAERI derived the unconditional clearance levels for concrete and metal arising from the operation and dismantling of nuclear reactors. The clearance levels of 20 radionuclides were derived from 10 {mu}Sv/y of individual doses by deterministic approach. In this approach, calculation models were established to assess individual doses resulting from 73 exposure pathways related to disposal and recycle/reuse, and realistic parameter values were selected considering Japanese natural and social conditions. The appropriateness of selected parameter values was confirmed by stochastic analyses. (author)

  2. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))


    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  3. A Study to Determine Clearance Levels of Radioactive Wastes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukakaa, Zaphania O. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Il [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to lack of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Kenya, radioactive wastes are stored in a bonded warehouse until such a time when their activity is low and they meet the criterion for clearance. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established activity concentrations of radionuclides to act as a universal guideline or standard for clearance in member countries. Radioactive wastes whose activity would yield a trivial risk to the people and environment, i.e. with an annual dose below 10 µSv are usually cleared from regulatory control with no further regulatory control mechanisms being taken. The Radiation Protection Board currently depends on the IAEA's generic clearance level activity concentrations for purposes of clearing the radiation wastes within its inventory. This study aims to determine activity concentrations of radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory that correspond to the clearance level dose of 10 µSv/a as set by the IAEA. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) computer code, an important tool developed in 1989 to aid in evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination, will aid in modeling these clearance level values using a pathways analysis method and available site-specific data from Kenya. Afterwards, the obtained clearance level values will be compared with the IAEA's generic clearance level values of the corresponding radionuclides. The results modeled using the RESRAD code are conservative. For most of the radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory, the values do correspond with the IAEA standard generic clearance level values, albeit with minor differences. For most of the radionuclides, the difference is within the acceptable uncertainty limit. For these low probability events the effective dose resulting from them should not exceed 1 mSv per year. Thus, consideration was given to doses to the skin and an equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv per year was duly used in estimating the clearance level activities. The

  4. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  5. The value of level III clearance in patients with axillary and sentinel node positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, Mary F


    BACKGROUND: The value of level III axillary clearance is contentious, with great variance worldwide in the extent and levels of clearance performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of level III positivity in patients undergoing level I-III axillary clearance, and identify which patients are at highest risk of involved level III nodes. METHODS: From a database of 2850 patients derived from symptomatic and population-based screening service, 1179 patients who underwent level I-III clearance between the years 1999-2007 were identified. The pathology, surgical details, and prior sentinel nodes biopsies of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven hundred seventy nine patients had level I-III axillary clearance. Of the patients, 63% (n = 747) were node positive. Of patients with node positive disease, 23% (n = 168) were level II positive and 19% (n = 141) were level III positive. Two hundred fifty patients had positive sentinel node biopsies prior to axillary clearance. Of these, 12% (n = 30) and 9% (n = 22) were level II and level III positive, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of level III involvement in patients with node positive disease were tumor size (P < 0.001, OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), invasive lobular disease (P < 0.001, OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.95), extranodal extension (P < 0.001, OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.4), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.04, OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-1). Lobular invasive disease (P = 0.049, OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1-16.8), extranodal spread (P = 0.003, OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57), and having more than one positive sentinel node (P = 0.009, OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.1) were predictive of level III involvement in patients with sentinel node positive disease. CONCLUSION: Level III clearance has a selective but definite role to play in patients who have node positive breast carcinoma. Pathological characteristics of the primary tumor are of particular use in identifying those who are at various risk of level III nodal

  6. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report; Konservativitaetsanalysen bei Freigabegrenzwerten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.


    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap (the reference). This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. The radiological model for the exposure via the groundwater pathway is much more conservative (concerning mainly beta emitting nuclides). Although radiologically justified

  7. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease. (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A


    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Although the renal clearance of Tc-99m-MAG3 is about 60% of the I-131-hippurate clearance, Tc-99m-MAG3 clearance may be useful to estimate ERPF. In one study, however, proteinuria seemed to influence the MAG3/hippurate clearance ratio. In order to establish whether proteinuria or serum albumin level

  9. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P


    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  10. Modeling Abrupt Change in Global Sea Level Arising from Ocean - Ice-Sheet Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, David M


    It is proposed to develop, validate, and apply a coupled ocean ice-sheet model to simulate possible, abrupt future change in global sea level. This research is to be carried out collaboratively between an academic institute and a Department of Energy Laboratory (DOE), namely, the PI and a graduate student at New York University (NYU) and climate model researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The NYU contribution is mainly in the area of incorporating new physical processes into the model, while the LANL efforts are focused on improved numerics and overall model development. NYU and LANL will work together on applying the model to a variety of modeling scenarios of recent past and possible near-future abrupt change to the configuration of the periphery of the major ice sheets. The project's ultimate goal is to provide a robust, accurate prediction of future global sea level change, a feat that no fully-coupled climate model is currently capable of producing. This proposal seeks to advance that ultimate goal by developing, validating, and applying a regional model that can simulate the detailed processes involved in sea-level change due to ocean ice-sheet interaction. Directly modeling ocean ice-sheet processes in a fully-coupled global climate model is not a feasible activity at present given the near-complete absence of development of any such causal mechanism in these models to date.

  11. A reliable procedure for the analysis of multiexponential transients that arise in deep level transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanine, M. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)]. E-mail:; Masmoudi, M. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France); Marcon, J. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)


    In this paper, a reliable procedure, which allows a fine as well as a robust analysis of the deep defects in semiconductors, is detailed. In this procedure where capacitance transients are considered as multiexponential and corrupted with Gaussian noise, our new method of analysis, the Levenberg-Marquardt deep level transient spectroscopy (LM-DLTS) is associated with two other high-resolution techniques, i.e. the Matrix Pencil which provides an approximation of exponential components contained in the capacitance transients and Prony's method recently revised by Osborne in order to set the initial parameters.

  12. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy. (United States)

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F


    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  13. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  14. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)


    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  15. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68]. (United States)

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli


    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  16. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann


    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  17. HBV/HCV co-infection is associated with a high level of HCV spontaneous clearance among drug users and blood donors in China. (United States)

    Xiong, H; Rong, X; Wang, M; Xu, R; Huang, K; Liao, Q; Huang, J; Chen, J; Li, C; Tang, X; Shan, Z; Zhang, M; Nelson, K; Fu, Y


    Understanding the biology of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to improved strategies to prevent the sequelae associated with chronic HCV infection. Chronic infections with hepatitis virus are very common in China, but the factors associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV have not been adequately studied. We evaluated the spontaneous clearance of HCV among 1918 drug users and 1526 HCV-seropositive blood donors in Guangzhou, China. Among participants who were co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 41.38% of drug users and 39.47% of blood donors had cleared their HCV infection without antiviral therapy compared to 9.41% of drug users and 16.73% of blood donors who were mono-infected with a single virus (PHCV infection was significantly greater in the co-infected subjects whose serum HBV DNA was greater than 2000IU/mL than those with lower levels. A multiple logistic regression analysis found female gender, IL28B rs8099917 TT genotype, HBV co-infection and blood donors (vs drug users) associated with increased spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Although acute HCV infections are common in China, the incidence of chronic HCV may be reduced among the high prevalence of chronic HBV and IL28B genotypes associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese populations.

  18. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.


    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  19. Clearance effect of sandblasting and hand scaling on subgingival plaque and their effect on interleukin 1/6/8/10 and MMP8/TIMP1 levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Li


    Objective:To study the clearance effect of sandblasting and hand scaling on subgingival plaque and their effect on interleukin 1/6/8/10 and MMP8/TIMP1 levels.Methods: A total of 40 patients with subgingival plaque were selected for study, subgingival plaque of left half mouth received hand scaling and was included in hand scaling group, subgingival plaque of right half mouth received sandblasting scaling and was included in sandblasting group, probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed and the percentage of closed periodontal pocket was calculate before and after treatment; gingival crevicular fluid was collected after treatment to determine interleukin 1/6/8/10 and MMP8/TIMP1 levels.Results:7 d and 30 d after treatment, PD and BOP percentage of both groups were lower than those before treatment and the percentage of closed periodontal pocket were higher than those before treatment, the PD and BOP percentage of sandblasting group after treatment were lower than those of hand scaling group and the percentage of closed periodontal pocket was higher than that of hand scaling group; 7 d after treatment, IL-1, -6, -8 and MMP8 levels and MMP8/TIMP1 ratio in gingival crevicular fluid of sandblasting group were significantly lower than those of hand scaling group while IL-10 and TIMP1 levels were significantly higher than those of hand scaling group.Conclusion:Sandblasting scaling has better clearance effect on subgingival plaque than hand scaling, and can adjust the interleukin 1/6/8/10 and MMP8/TIMP1 levels to relieve periodontal tissue inflammation and alveolar bone resorption.

  20. The Arising of Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich


    Some Buddhist scholars have periodized the expected lifetime of the Buddha's teachings. According to them, these periods of 500 years each have different characteristics. The first is called 'the period of the results'. Therefore some scholars have claimed that only in the first 500 years after...... the Buddha results can arise. Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön has argued that results arise through practise as long as Dharma and Sangha exist....

  1. Chondroblastoma arising from acromion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHOU Yue; REN Xian-jun; ZHANG Xia; WANG Jian


    @@ Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign tumor arising in the epiphysis of long bones such as humerus, tibia and femur while the skeletal or extraskeletal presentations are mostly unusual. The chondroblastoma arising from acromion process of scapulus has been extremely rare and only two cases can be screened out in the English literature[1,2]. Here, we reported another case of chondroblastoma that developed on the acromion of scapulus.

  2. Creatinine clearance test (United States)

    ... page: // Creatinine clearance test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The creatinine clearance test helps provide information about how well the ...

  3. Predictive role of minimal residual disease and log clearance in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilm's tumor 1 levels. (United States)

    Rossi, Giovanni; Minervini, Maria Marta; Melillo, Lorella; di Nardo, Francesco; de Waure, Chiara; Scalzulli, Potito Rosario; Perla, Gianni; Valente, Daniela; Sinisi, Nicola; Cascavilla, Nicola


    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as the degree of log clearance similarly identifies patients with poor prognosis. No comparison was provided between the two approaches in order to identify the best one to monitor follow-up patients. In this study, MRD and clearance were assessed by both multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression at different time points on 45 AML patients achieving complete remission. Our results by WT1 expression showed that log clearance lower than 1.96 after induction predicted the recurrence better than MRD higher than 77.0 copies WT1/10(4) ABL. Conversely, on MFC, MRD higher than 0.2 % after consolidation was more predictive than log clearance below 2.64. At univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRD values and log clearance below the optimal cutoffs were associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS). At the univariate analysis, positive MRD values were also associated with overall survival (OS). Therefore, post-induction log clearance by WT1 and post-consolidation MRD by MFC represented the most informative approaches to identify the relapse. At the optimal timing of assessment, positive MRD and log-clearance values lower than calculated thresholds similarly predicted an adverse prognosis in AML.

  4. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  5. Security Clearance Tracking System (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  6. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff [Idaho National Laboratory, Battelle Energy Alliance, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83401-2107 (United States)


    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute

  7. Engineering the electronic health record for safety: a multi-level video-based approach to diagnosing and preventing technology-induced error arising from usability problems. (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Kuwata, Shigeki; Kannry, Joseph


    Electronic health records (EHRs) promise to improve and streamline healthcare through electronic entry and retrieval of patient data. Furthermore, based on a number of studies showing their positive benefits, they promise to reduce medical error and make healthcare safer. However, a growing body of literature has clearly documented that if EHRS are not designed properly and with usability as an important goal in their design, rather than reducing error, EHR deployment has the potential to actually increase medical error. In this paper we describe our approach to engineering (and reengineering) EHRs in order to increase their beneficial potential while at the same time improving their safety. The approach described in this paper involves an integration of the methods of usability analysis with video analysis of end users interacting with EHR systems and extends the evaluation of the usability of EHRs to include the assessment of the impact of these systems on work practices. Using clinical simulations, we analyze human-computer interaction in real healthcare settings (in a portable, low-cost and high fidelity manner) and include both artificial and naturalistic data collection to identify potential usability problems and sources of technology-induced error prior to widespread system release. Two case studies where the methods we have developed and refined have been applied at different levels of user-computer interaction are described.

  8. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons (United States)

    Chen, Shiu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Hui; Wang, Chuan-Chan; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chia-Lin; Wang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng


    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila. Here we report that changes in the ability of the PPL2ab in the central nervous system (CNS) to produce DA strongly impact male-male courtship in D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, the DA-synthesizing abilities of these neurons appear to affect both the courting activities displayed by male flies and the sex appeal of male flies for other male flies. Moreover, the observed male-male courtship is triggered primarily by target motion, yet chemical cues can replace visual input under dark conditions. This is interesting evidence that courtship responses in male individuals are controlled by PPL2ab neurons in the CNS. Our study provides insight for subsequent studies focusing on sexual circuit modulation by PPL2ab neurons. PMID:28294190

  9. Monitoring of trough plasma ganciclovir levels and peripheral blood cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cells to predict CMV DNAemia clearance in preemptively treated allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Solano, Carlos; Azanza, José Ramón; Amat, Paula; Navarro, David


    It is uncertain whether monitoring plasma ganciclovir (GCV) levels is useful in predicting cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia clearance in preemptively treated allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. In this observational study, including 13 episodes of CMV DNAemia treated with intravenous (i.v.) GCV or oral valganciclovir, we showed that monitoring trough plasma GCV levels does not reliably predict response to therapy. Rather, immunological monitoring (pp65 and immediate-early [IE]-1-specific gamma interferon [IFN-γ]-producing CD8+ T cells) appeared to perform better for this purpose.

  10. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul


    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  11. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing clearance. 154.48 Section 154.48... PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.48 Issuing clearance. (a... personnel security clearance in the DCII (see § 154.43). A record of the clearance issued shall also...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance. 35.1340 Section 35.1340... Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1340 Clearance. Clearance examinations required... provisions of this section. (a) Clearance following abatement. Clearance examinations performed...

  13. Turbomachinery Clearance Control (United States)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.


    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  14. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan


    Ahmad, Manzoor


    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  15. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances. (United States)


    ... Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor surfaces, or between uninsulated conductor surfaces and grounded metal surfaces, within the enclosure...

  16. Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Foreign-Body Biofilm Infections through Reduction of the Cyclic Di-GMP Level in the Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louise D.; van Gennip, Maria; Rybtke, Morten Theil


    Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can engage in biofilm-based infections that evade immune responses and develop into chronic conditions. Because conventional antimicrobials cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections....... It has recently been established that the secondary messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) functions as a positive regulator of biofilm formation in several different bacteria. In the present study we investigated whether manipulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria potentially can...... of the majority of the bacteria in in vitro-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms. Subsequently, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilms growing on silicone implants, located in the peritoneal cavity of mice, dispersed after induction of the YhjH protein. Bacteria accumulated temporarily in the spleen after induction...

  17. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P


    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  18. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery. (United States)

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N


    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  19. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section... OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for... specify otherwise for particular drawbridges, clearance gauges shall be designed, installed,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair... to indicate an impaired clearance....

  1. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance...

  2. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010... Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  3. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11008 Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance shall be conspicuously marked....

  4. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  5. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16... clearance. (a) General. (1) The authorities designated in paragraph A, Appendix E are the only authorities authorized to grant, deny or revoke DoD personnel security clearances. The granting of such clearances...

  6. 28 CFR 524.74 - Activities clearance. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities clearance. 524.74 Section 524... clearance. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the Warden is the clearance... Security cases. Central Office Inmate Monitoring Section staff shall be the clearance authority on...

  7. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy. (United States)

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A


    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  8. Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for Screening-Level Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Rats and Its Integration within PBPK Models to Predict Inhalation Pharmacokinetics in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peyret


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (i to develop a screening-level Quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR for intrinsic clearance (CLint obtained from in vivo animal studies and (ii to incorporate it with human physiology in a PBPK model for predicting the inhalation pharmacokinetics of VOCs. CLint, calculated as the ratio of the in vivo Vmax (μmol/h/kg bw rat to the Km (μM, was obtained for 26 VOCs from the literature. The QPPR model resulting from stepwise linear regression analysis passed the validation step (R2=0.8; leave-one-out cross-validation Q2=0.75 for CLint normalized to the phospholipid (PL affinity of the VOCs. The QPPR facilitated the calculation of CLint (L PL/h/kg bw rat from the input data on log Pow, log blood: water PC and ionization potential. The predictions of the QPPR as lower and upper bounds of the 95% mean confidence intervals (LMCI and UMCI, resp. were then integrated within a human PBPK model. The ratio of the maximum (using LMCI for CLint to minimum (using UMCI for CLint AUC predicted by the QPPR-PBPK model was 1.36±0.4 and ranged from 1.06 (1,1-dichloroethylene to 2.8 (isoprene. Overall, the integrated QPPR-PBPK modeling method developed in this study is a pragmatic way of characterizing the impact of the lack of knowledge of CLint in predicting human pharmacokinetics of VOCs, as well as the impact of prediction uncertainty of CLint on human pharmacokinetics of VOCs.

  9. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P


    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  10. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco


    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  11. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Dale


    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  12. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.


    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  13. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A


    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  14. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  15. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request (United States)


    8. Material Tiiie 6. E-mail Address Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request 9. List all contributing organizations...and obtain Public Retease Authorization from the commnnd(s) contributing to this material. I have reviewed all the applicable security classification...AUTHOR(S) Hewitt, Keith; Graham, Jessica; Swiderek, Thomas; Kalt, Dexter; ARSAG Working Group 5 Participants 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N/A 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  16. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi


    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  17. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  18. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus* (United States)

    de Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva


    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition. PMID:28225967

  19. Clearance measurement for waste concerning contained radioactivity; Frei(gabe)messung von Abfall hinsichtlich enthaltener Radioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)


    Clearance measurements are always a compromise between requirements of the measurement technology and economic boundary conditions. Depending on the quantity and the type of waste, different solutions are obtained. For large volumes of more or less homogeneous waste, the conveyor belt method is the biggest favorite, which has already proved its suitability in practice. This is important, because numerous nuclear power stations are being decommissioned in Germany in the coming years and large quantities of waste will be arising. For some applications, e.g. Tritium or C-14, satisfying solutions either do not exist or are currently in the development stages. There is still great potential for the development of clearance methods.

  20. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode. (United States)

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt


    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  1. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  2. Tip Clearance Flows in Turbine Cascades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Qiao Weiyang; Sun Dawei


    This article describes the effects of some factors on the tip clearance flow in axial linear turbine cascades.The measurements of the total pressure loss coefficient are made at the cascade outlets by using a five-hole probe at exit Mach numbers of 0.10,0.14 and 0.19.At each exit Mach number,experiments axe performed at the tip clearance heights of 1.0%,1.5%,2.0%,2.5% and 3.0% of the blade height.The effects of the non-uniform tip clearance height of each blade in the pitchwise direction are also studied.The results show that at a given tip clearance height,generally,total pressure loss rises with exit Mach numbers proportionally.At a fixed exit Mach number,the total pressure loss augments nearly proportionally as the tip clearance height increases.The increased tip clearance heights in the tip regions of two adjacent blades are to be blame for the larger clearance loss of the center blade.Compared to the effects of the tip clearance height,the effects of the exit Mach number and the pitchwise variation of the tip clearance height on the cascade total pressure loss are so less significant to be omitted.

  3. Elastic clearance change in axisymmetric shearing process (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori


    An axisymmetric shearing experiment is conducted for a sheet of low carbon steel and stainless steel. Elastic change in the clearance between punch and die is measured. The increase of the clearance in shearing is confirmed and the influence of sheared material's flow stress on the clearance change is shown. Finite element analysis (FEA) of shearing with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlman model (GTN model) is conducted for shearing of the carbon steels with rigid tools as a numerical experiment. Burr height is predicted in the FEA and the result is compared with the experimental result. In addition, the influence of the clearance on stress state in the material is investigated.

  4. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Sisson


    Full Text Available Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO, we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC analyzed for NO metabolites (. Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; . CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  5. Critical evaluation of mannitol determination and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, E.J.; Kampman, J.W.; Verschure, J.C.M.


    The mannitol clearance in normal persons was found to be lower than is indicated by most authors. The method of the blood collection appeared to have an unexpected influence on the clearance values obtained. In this manner at least some of the discrepancies can be explained.

  6. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while...

  8. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  10. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  11. Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Tip Clearance Size on Unsteadiness in Tip Clearance Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Du; Feng Lin; Hongwu Zhang; Jingyi Chen


    Unsteadiness of tip clearance flow with three different tip clearance sizes is numerically investigated in this paper. NASA Rotor 67 is chosen as the computational model. It is found that among all the simulated cases, the un-steadiness exists when the size of the tip clearance is equal to or larger than design tip clearance size. The relative total pressure coefficient contours indicate that region of influence by tip leakage flow augments with the increase of tip clearance size at a fixed mass flow rate. Root Mean Square contours of static pressure distribution in the rotor tip region are provided to illustrate that for design tip clearance (1.1% tip chord) the strongest fluctuating region is located on pressure side of blade near leading edge, while for the larger tip clearance (2.2% tip chord), it is in the region of the interaction between the shock wave and the tip leakage flow.

  12. Technology arising from High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia


    An exibition was held as a part of the Meeting on Technology arising from High- Energy Physics (24-26 April 1974). The Proceedings (including a list of stands) were published as Yellow Report, CERN 74-9, vol. 1-2.

  13. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  14. Sclerosing haemangioma arising within extralobar pulmonary sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetoglu, Ali; Kosucu, Polat; Guemele, Halit Resit [Department of Radiology, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Imamoglu, Mustafa; Cay, Ali [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Reis, Abdulkadir [Department of Pathology, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)


    Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is a rare anomaly of abnormal pulmonary tissue without any communication to the bronchial tree. Sclerosing haemangioma is a rare lung tumour, generally seen in middle-aged women. The combination of these two rare pathologies has not been previously reported. We describe the CT and CT angiographic findings of sclerosing haemangioma arising within an extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-year-old girl. (orig.)

  15. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  16. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty. (United States)

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie


    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  17. Effect of glucagon infusion on the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine. (United States)

    Tedesco, F J; Davila, E; Gardner, L B


    Recent data seem to support a tubular defect as the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon has been proposed by some to be an important factor in this phenomenon. To examine the role of glucagon as this "tubular dysfunction factor", we investigated the effect of intravenously infused glucagon on the fractional excretion of amylase and the tubular handling of a low molecular weight protein, beta2 microglobulin, in normal, healthy volunteers. At glucagon levels far in excess of those seen in pancreatitis, the clearance ratio of beta2 microglobulin relative to creatinine increased, whereas the clearance ratio of amylase relative to creatinine did not increase above the normal range. The dissociation between beta2 microglobulin clearance and amylase clearance allows one to question the theory that tubular dysfunction is the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon does not appear to be the sole factor responsible for the elevation of renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

  18. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas


    space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter...

  19. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.


    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  20. Determination of tooth clearances at trochoidal pump


    Ivanović, Lozica T.; Erić, Milan D.; Stojanović, Blaža Ž.; id_orcid 0000-0003-4790-2856; Ilić, Andreja B.


    The paper describes the development of a mathematical model of trochoidal gearing with clearances. Gearing of a trochoidal pump's gear set with an outer gear having one gear tooth more than an inner gear is analyzed. The inner gear tooth profile is described by peritrochoidal equidistance and the outer gear profile by a circular arc. Upon the basic principles of ideal profile generation, a mathematical model of gearing with clearances is developed. Using an analytical model, the calculation o...

  1. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential. (United States)

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S


    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  2. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet III, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Tautz, R C [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)


    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  3. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natnicha Girdwichai


    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma.

  4. Angiomyolipoma arising in the gluteal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Constantine Bramis; Othon Mich; George Liapis; Evangelos Felekourasx; Vassiliki Kyriakou; John Griniatsos


    @@ Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a tumour of uncertain histogenesis originally believed to be a hamartomatous lesion, but recently recognized as a usually benign clonal mesenchymal neoplasm.1 Along with lymphagiomyomatosis (LAM), clear cell "sugar"tumour (CCST) and clear cell myelomelanocytic tumour (CCMMT), AML was classified in the so called perivascular epithelioid cell (PEComa) neoplasm family.1 Kidney constitutes the principal site of its development.Extrarenal AMLs are rare and to the best of our knowledge, only two cases of AML development in the soft tissues have been reported so far.2,3 We presented a 23 years old female patient with an AML arising in the left gluteal region.

  5. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects. (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao


    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  6. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios and serum amylase isoenzymes in moderate renal insufficiency. (United States)

    Banks, P A; Sidi, S; Gelman, M L; Lee, K H; Warshaw, A L


    Both the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (normal 1.55%) and proportion of pancreatic isoamylase in serum (normal 41.0%) increase in acute pancreatitis, and are therefore useful measurements to support that diagnosis. Whether renal insufficiency interferes with the accuracy and specificity of these tests has been debated. Our study indicates that even moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 30.5 ml/minute) raises the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (3.23%) close enough to values characteristic of acute pancreatitis (4.41%) to cause potential diagnostic confusion. The fraction of pancreatic isoamylase in serum is also increased (69.9%), but not to the levels of acute pancreatitis (91.0%). We therefore caution against the use of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

  7. Clearance of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) from the rat lung: development of a model. (United States)

    Yu, C P; Zhang, L; Oberdörster, G; Mast, R W; Glass, L R; Utell, M J


    Chronic exposure and postexposure experiments have been recently performed in rats to evaluate the biological responses of inhaled refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) at different concentration levels. The lung burden data in the accessory lobe of the rat lung were collected during and after different exposure and postexposure periods. The size distribution of retained fibers in the lung at different time points was also measured. We used these data to develop a mathematical model of fiber clearance from the rat lung. It was found that the clearance rate did not depend significantly upon fiber size but there was a clear dependence on lung burden. As lung burden increased, the clearance rate was found to decrease. An empirical equation was derived for the clearance rate as a function of lung burden. At low burdens, rats had a retention half-time of about 126 days for RCF compared to a typical half-time of about 60 days for insoluble nonfibrous particles.

  8. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics (United States)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  9. 75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (United States)

    Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William


    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

  11. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips


    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  12. Juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in an apophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Ho; Kong, Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea); Kim, Chong Jai [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)


    We present a rare case of juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in the lesser trochanter of the right femur which corresponds to an apophysis. Radiography showed a well-defined expansive lesion with a sclerotic margin measuring 5 x 3.5 cm in diameter in the lesser trochanter. On spin echo T1-weighted images, the lesion revealed low signal intensity similar to muscle. On spin echo T2-weighted images, the lesion revealed high heterogeneous signal intensity, which after gadolinium injection showed heterogeneous enhancement. The inner margin of the cortex was intact and adjacent bone marrow was of normal signal intensity. The outer margin of the lesion was also clearly defined and extension into adjacent soft tissue beyond the exophytic cortical outgrowth was not evident. (orig.)

  13. Electric current arising from unpolarized polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey


    An appreciable electric current is observed in a system consisting of a polyvinyl formal (PVF) film in a sandwich configuration, in the temperature range 30–110°C. The maximum value of the current during first heating is found to be of the order of 10–10 A and its thermograms exhibit one transition (i.e. current peak) at around 60°C. The position of the current peak in thermal spectrum shifts with the heating rate. A temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage is also observed. The activation energy of the process responsible for the current is determined. The magnitude of the current is more in the case of dissimilar electrode systems. It is proposed that the electric current arising from unpolarized metal–polymer–metal system is a water activated phenomenon, which is influenced by the transitional changes of the polymer.

  14. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Abdu


    Full Text Available Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP, hemoglobin (Hb and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy.

  15. Enhancing the effectiveness of clearance for physical activity participation: background and overall process. (United States)

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Warburton, Darren E R; Makarski, Julie; McKenzie, Donald C; Shephard, Roy J; Stone, James A; Charlesworth, S; Gledhill, Norman


    Recent feedback from physical activity (PA) participants, fitness professionals, and physicians has indicated that there are limitations to the utility and effectiveness of the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening tools for PA participation. The aim of this study was to have authorities in exercise and chronic disease management to work with an expert panel to increase the effectiveness of clearance for PA participation using an evidence-based consensus approach and the well-established Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument. Systematic reviews were conducted to develop a new PA clearance protocol involving risk stratification and a decision-tree process. Evidence-based support was sought for enabling qualified exercise professionals to have a direct role in the PA participation clearance process. The PAR-Q+ was developed to use formalized probes to clarify problematic responses and to explore issues arising from currently diagnosed chronic disease or condition. The original PARmed-X tool is replaced with an interactive computer program (ePARmed-X+) to clear prospective PA participants for either unrestricted or supervised PA or to direct them to obtain medical clearance. Evidence-based validation was also provided for the direct role of highly qualified university-educated exercise professionals in the PA clearance process. The risks associated with exercise during pregnancy were also evaluated. The systematic review and consensus process, conforming to the AGREE Instrument, has provided a sound evidence base for enhanced effectiveness of the clearance process for PA participation of both asymptomatic populations and persons with chronic diseases or conditions.

  16. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS). (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F


    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  17. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Xiangyang DENG; Jingyi CHEN; Weiguang HUANG


    The paper investigates effects of operating conditions, tip clearance sizes and external unsteady excitations on the unsteady tip clearance flow in an isolated axial compressor rotor by unsteady 3D Navier-Stokes simulations. The results show that the unsteady tip clearance vortex takes a periodic flow behavior in the rotor tip region. With the decrease of the flow coefficient, the unsteady tip clearance vortex is enhanced and its frequency becomes lower. A larger tip clearance size can cause bigger unsteady fluctuation amplitude and a lower fluctuation frequency of the tip clearance vortex at the near stall operating condition. The unsteady excitation with the natural frequency of the tip clearance vortex can enhance the unsteadiness of the tip clearance vortex and improve the overall rotor performance. The frequency of the unsteady tip clearance vortex is independent of external unsteady excitations with different frequencies.

  18. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis. (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S


    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  19. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance. (United States)

    Walfield, Scott M


    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed.

  20. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Airway Clearance Therapies in Hospitalized Patients. (United States)

    Strickland, Shawna L; Rubin, Bruce K; Haas, Carl F; Volsko, Teresa A; Drescher, Gail S; O'Malley, Catherine A


    Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis. The routine use of bronchodilators to aid in secretion clearance is not recommended. The routine use of aerosolized N-acetylcysteine to improve airway clearance is not recommended. Aerosolized agents to change mucus biophysical properties or promote airway clearance are not recommended for adult or pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease, respiratory muscle weakness, or impaired cough. Mucolytics are not recommended to treat atelectasis in postoperative adult or pediatric patients, and the routine administration of bronchodilators to postoperative patients is not recommended. There is no high-level evidence related to the use of bronchodilators, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and novel therapy to promote airway clearance in these populations.

  1. Characterizing clearance of helper adenovirus by a clinical rAAV1 manufacturing process. (United States)

    Thorne, Barbara A; Quigley, Paulene; Nichols, Gina; Moore, Christine; Pastor, Eric; Price, David; Ament, Jon W; Takeya, Ryan K; Peluso, Richard W


    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) are being developed as gene therapy delivery vehicles and as genetic vaccines, and some of the most scaleable manufacturing methods for rAAV use live adenovirus to induce production. One aspect of establishing safety of rAAV products is therefore demonstrating adequate and reliable clearance of this helper virus by the vector purification process. The ICH Q5A regulatory guidance on viral safety provides recommendations for process design and characterization of viral clearance for recombinant proteins, and these principles were adapted to a rAAV serotype 1 purification process for clinical vectors. Specific objectives were to achieve overall adenovirus clearance factors significantly greater than input levels by using orthogonal separation and inactivation methods, and to segregate adenovirus from downstream operations by positioning a robust clearance step early in the process. Analytical tools for process development and characterization addressed problematic in-process samples, and a viral clearance validation study was performed using adenovirus and two non-specific model viruses. Overall clearance factors determined were >23 LRV for adenovirus, 11 LRV for BVDV, and >23 LRV for AMuLV.

  2. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S


    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  3. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction]. (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria


    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  4. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska


    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  5. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu


    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  6. Thick Brane Worlds Arising From Pure Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cardenas, R; Cardenas, Rolando; Quiros, Israel


    We study a non-Riemannian modification of 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. In our proposal the Riemannian structure of the five-dimensional manifold is replaced by a Weyl-integrable one. In this context a 4-dimensional Poincar$\\grave{e}$ invariant solution is studied. A spacetime structure with two thick (smooth) branes separated in the extra dimension arises. The massless graviton is located in one of the thick branes at the origin, meanwhile the matter degrees of freedom are confined to the other brane. Due to the small overlap of the graviton's wave-function with the second thick brane, the model accounts for a resolution of the mass hierarchy problem a la Randall-Sundrum. Although, initially, no assumptions are made about the topology of the extra dimension, the solution found yields an extra space that is effectivelly compact and respects $Z_2$ symmetry. Unlike other models with branes, the spectrum of massive Kaluza-Klein states is quantized and free of tachyonic modes.

  7. The Impact of Measles Clearance by Measles Antibody Level in Different Areas of Jiangsu Province%江苏省不同地区人群麻疹抗体水平对消除麻疹的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the measles antibody level of healthy population in Jiangsu Province, to grasp the characteristics of incidence of measles in healthy population of Jiangsu Province. To understand the status and level of population immunity, explore the measles’ prevention. Method Analysis the data of measles antibody level in healthy people of different ages in different areas. Result The total number of the monitoring samples is 5072, 4749 are measles antibody positive, the positive rate was 93.63%. Compared with 87.98%positive rate in Middle Jiangsu, measles antibody level in the population of Northern Jiangsu, South of Jiangsu are a were 95.3% and 95.58%,, there is significant difference in positive rate of antibody regions (χ2=87.29, P<0.01). There were significant differences, measles antibody titer levels of population in F=7.84, P<0.0001. Among them, the measles antibody level of the population of North Jiangsu area was the highest, lowest in middle Jiangsu. Conclusion The measles antibody level of different areas of Jiangsu province and the people of al ages are not consistent. Measles immunization has significant effect on the protection of children's specific age.%  目的对江苏省健康人群麻疹抗体水平进行分析,以掌握江苏省健康人群麻疹发病的特点,了解人群免疫状况和水平,探索人群麻疹预防和控制措施。方法分年龄、分地区综合分析各地采集的健康人群麻疹抗体水平数据。结果本次监测样本共5072人,其中4749人麻疹抗体为阳性,阳性率为93.63%。苏北、苏南地区人群麻疹抗体水平分别为95.3%和95.58%,较苏中地区87.98%高,各地区人群抗体阳性率有统计学差异(χ2=87.29,P<0.01)。各地区人群麻疹抗体滴度水平有统计学差异,F=7.84,P<0.0001。其中,苏北地区抗体水平居首位,苏南地区居中,苏中地区相对最低。结论江苏省各地区、各年龄段人群麻疹抗体水

  8. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance. (United States)


    ... seven inches (for each airplane with nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically.... Positive clearance for airplanes using leaf spring struts is shown with a deflection corresponding to...

  9. Dynamics modeling and simulation of mechanism with joint clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zheng-feng; TIAN Hao; ZHAO Yang


    The existence of clearance in the joints of mechanisms system is inevitable.The movements of the real mechanism are deftection from the ideal mechanism due to the clearances and the motion accuracv is decreased.The effects of the hinge clearance on the crank and rocker mechanism system are studied.The svstem dynamics equation with clearance is presented.The contact dynamics model is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered by using Coulomb friction model.Then the models are incorporated into ADAMS,and based on the model,large numbers numeric simulations are made.The regularity of contact forces in clearance are studied in detail.And the effects of clearance size.clearance friction on the mechanism dynamics characteristic are analyzed.The simulation resuhs Can predict the effects of clearance on the mechanism dynamics characteristic preferably.

  10. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.


    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  11. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance. (United States)


    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  12. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection. (United States)

    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L


    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  13. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.


    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J.; Havard, C W; Dandona, P


    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  14. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan


    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  15. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  16. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation of clearance. 151.1508... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to withhold or revoke the clearance required by 46 U.S.C. app. 91 for a vessel subject to this subpart,...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 512—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number for this part 512 is 2127-0025....

  18. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  19. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facility clearance. 952... clearance. As prescribed in 904.404(d)(5), insert the following provision in all solicitations which require... subcontracts subject to the provisions of 904.70: Facility Clearance (MAY 2002) Notices Section 2536 of...

  20. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27.661 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  1. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife § 14.53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer...

  2. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1327—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number of this regulation is OMB...

  3. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  4. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  5. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.527 Recording Statements of Clearance. On property disposals for...

  6. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29.661 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  7. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  8. 19 CFR 122.157 - Documents required for clearance. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documents required for clearance. 122.157 Section 122.157 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... clearance. As a condition precedent to clearance, the aircraft commander shall present to Customs: (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 157.455 - Minimum under-keel clearance. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum under-keel clearance. 157... § 157.455 Minimum under-keel clearance. (a) The owner or operator of a tankship, that is not fitted with... written under-keel clearance guidance that includes— (1) Factors to consider when calculating the...

  10. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  11. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance (United States)


    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  12. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  13. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.521 Limitations on clearance cost. The following principles...

  14. Guangzhou Customs Guide to Clearance of Import/Export Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Management of the Enterprises Granted for Convenient and Quick Customs Clearance 1.What is the enterprise granted for convenient and quick customs clearance? Customs General Administration and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation jointly issued policy measures to facilitate customs clearance in 2001 to further support the development of hightech industries.The enterprise .

  15. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  16. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;


    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were m...

  17. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  18. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance. (United States)

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L


    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Tao; Hou Guanghui; YUAN Zhi


    A series of modified poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) resins were prepared and compared their adsorption abilities to endotoxin. The results showed that adsorbents, which were grafted with tertiary amine and long spacing arms, had the best adsorption capacities and good blood compatibility, It is hopeful to be used as adsorbent in hemoperfusion for clinical clearance of endotoxin. The influence of original concentration of endotoxin on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were also investigated.

  20. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration. (United States)

    Tattersall, James


    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  1. The tribological behaviour of different clearance MOM hip joints with lubricants of physiological viscosities. (United States)

    Hu, X Q; Wood, R J K; Taylor, A; Tuke, M A


    Clearance is one of the most influential parameters on the tribological performance of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints and its selection is a subject of considerable debate. The objective of this paper is to study the lubrication behaviour of different clearances for MOM hip joints within the range of human physiological and pathological fluid viscosities. The frictional torques developed by MOM hip joints with a 50 mm diameter were measured for both virgin surfaces and during a wear simulator test. Joints were manufactured with three different diametral clearances: 20, 100, and 200 microm. The fluid used for the friction measurements which contained different ratios of 25 percent newborn calf serum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with the obtained viscosities values ranging from 0.001 to 0.71 Pa s. The obtained results indicate that the frictional torque for the 20 microm clearance joint remains high over the whole range of the viscosity values. The frictional torque of the 100 microm clearance joint was low for the very low viscosity (0.001 Pa s) lubricant, but increased with increasing viscosity value. The frictional torque of the 200 microm clearance joint was high at very low viscosity levels, however, it reduced with increasing viscosity. It is concluded that a smaller clearance level can enhance the formation of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film, but this is at the cost of preventing fluid recovery between the bearing surfaces during the unloaded phase of walking. Larger clearance bearings allow a better recovery of lubricant during the unloaded phase, which is necessary for higher viscosity lubricants. The selection of the clearance value should therefore consider both the formation of the EHL film and the fluid recovery as a function of the physiological viscosity in order to get an optimal tribological performance for MOM hip joints. The application of either 25 per cent bovine serum or water in existing in vitro tribological study should

  2. Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yalçın


    Full Text Available Struma ovarii, which is classified as benign or malignant, is a mature ovarian teratoma consisting mainly of the thyroid tissue. Here, we present the case of malign struma ovarii in a patient with right adnexal mass. In a 53-year-old female, who was referred to our hospital with pelvic pain, abdominopelvic imaging revealed a cystic lesion measuring 15x14 cm in diameter in the right adnexa. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed a 1.5x1x0.5 cm papillary carcinoma focus in frozen sections of the mural nodule which was observed inside the cyst. Following the surgical procedure, the patient’s TSH levels were kept low by thyroxine treatment, and it was decided to follow the patient by annual measurement of thyroglobulin levels and pelvic imaging. There is not a common consensus on optimal treatment of malignant struma ovarii. Treatment options depend on cases or case series. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 112-114

  3. Prescreening Military Officer Candidates for High Level Security Clearances (United States)


    a Commission in the United States Air Force (AF Form 56) which asks questions about criminal history, sexual deviancy, etc. Applicants who admit to...0 6 76 Homo-xuality 22 63 92 3 180 77 Sexual Perversion 0 5 16 1 22 78 Good of the Service 7 0 2 0 9 79 Failure of Selection for Promotion 2153 1196...Inan ilra far-y acoso ) ase as cesc be &Dove. FROM TWi DATE FORWARD, ec-ce-s -e Drug~ &me alco’soi aoi~sby mit-ibenrof *,*,eU.S Air orce woiates A.r

  4. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis (United States)


    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  5. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem


    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  6. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137 (United States)


    Goiania ) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides (Chernobyl). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures...immediate and effective recovery (as was done in Goiania , Brazil). It is possible to graphically display the spectrum of clearance levels from

  7. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda


    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  8. Influence of different hematoma clearance rates on patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhong; Jing-Zhu Shi; Yu Liu; Tao Ou; Guo-Jing Liu; Bin Wang


    Objective:To evaluate the influence of different hematoma clearance rates patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods: A total of 94 cases with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage treated with operation from June 2012 to June 2015 were selected. According to theirhematoma clearance rates, they were divided into groups A (50%-70%, 28 cases), B (70%-90%,48 cases) and C (90%, 18 cases). The recovery and perioperative levels of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and soluble S-100 protein of the three groups were compared.Results: The perioperative mortality and the rates of postoperative rebleeding, intracranial infection and other complications of the three groups showed no statistical significant difference (P>0.05). With the increase of the hematoma clearance rate, the drainage tube removal time and hematoma complete absorption time reduced significantly (P<0.05). In the groups B and C, the grade levels of ADL in postoperative 3 months were significantly superior to those in the group A (P<0.05). The levels of serum NSE and S-100 in the three groups increased in the initial stage and then declined after surgery. In the group B and C, the serum levels of NSE and S-100 were significantly higher than those in the group A on the 7th day after surgery (P<0.05). With the increase of the hematoma clearance rate, the serum levels of NSE and S-100 were significantly reduced on the 14th day after surgery (P<0.05). Conclusions:High level of hematoma clearance rate can help to increase the operation efficacy and prognosis of patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

  9. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis]. (United States)

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K


    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  10. Osmotic diuresis-induced hypernatremia: better explained by solute-free water clearance or electrolyte-free water clearance? (United States)

    Popli, Subhash; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S


    Hypernatremia may result from inadequate water intake, excessive water loss or a combination of the two. Osmotic diuresis leads to losses of both solute and water. The relationship between solute and water losses determines the resulting changes in serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Total solute loss is routinely higher than loss of water in osmotic diuresis. Theoretically, then, decreases in serum osmolality (and serum sodium concentration) should follow. In clinical situations of osmotic diuresis, however, reduction in osmolality can take place, but not reduction in serum sodium concentration. It is of note that serum sodium concentration changes are related to urinary losses of sodium and potassium but not to the loss of total solute. In osmotic diuresis, the combined loss of sodium and potassium per liter of urine is lower than the concurrent serum sodium level. Consequently, hypernatremia can ensue. A patient who presented with osmotic diuresis and hypernatremia is described here. In this patient, we have shown that electrolyte-free water clearance is a better index of the effect of osmotic diuresis on serum sodium concentration than the classic solute-free water clearance.

  11. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators (United States)


    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...main molded blade with a span of 3.42 in., a removable molded blade segment with a span of 0.1875 in., and removable blade tip winglets made of glass...segment and the main blade to vary the distance between the blade end and the front wall of the cascade section. The winglets were machined using a

  12. The economics of landmine clearance in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Harris, Geoff


    This paper presents an economic evaluation of landmine clearance in Afghanistan. The main benefits comprise increased agricultural output, saved transport time and running costs, saved human casualties and the saved costs of supporting refugees and displaced persons. An investment of US$100 million between 1988 and 1998 is estimated to provide annual benefits of $50.3 million per annum between 1999 and 2008. This translates into net present values of between $935 and $1,744 million, depending on the rate of discount used. This contrasts with the negative NPVs estimated for several other countries.

  13. Residual kidney function after donor nephrectomy. Assessment by {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamscho, N.; Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Berner, U.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wilhelm, A.; Gossmann, J.; Scheuermann, E.H. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine


    Aim: We evaluated the long-term residual renal function after donor nephrectomy using {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycin (MAG3)-clearance. Donors, methods: Altogether 49 kidney donors were examined using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance after nephrectomy for donation to a relative (m:f=11.38; age 55{+-}27 years). The donors were examined 16{+-}8 years postoperatively (1.5-26 years). 42 donors (86%) showed normal creatinine values, whereas the other seven (14%) exhibited slightly elevated levels. 20 donors were examined pre- and postoperatively and compared intraindividually. The kidney function was compared to the age adapted normal values of healthy persons with two kidneys (67-133% of age related mean). Results: After nephrectomy all donors showed a normal perfusion, good secretion, merely physiological intrarenal transit and a normal elimination from the kidneys. The {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance was 69{+-}15% of the normal mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys regardless of the gender. 20 donors with a preoperative examination showed a significantly reduced total renal function from 84{+-}15% of the mean normal value preoperatively to 60{+-}15% postoperatively (p<0.005). 15 donors of this group exhibited a significant functional increase of the residual kidney from 40% initially to 60% after nephrectomy (p=0.003). No correlation was found between the initial {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance measured prior to nephrectomy and the clearance levels after nephrectomy. Also, no correlation between the preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance and the postoperative serum creatinine values could be observed. Althogether, 22% of the donors (11/49) developed arterial hypertension 10{+-}8 years after donation (1-23 years). This corresponds to the normal age prevalence of hypertension in the carriers of two kidneys. Three donors suffered from arterial hypertension prior to the operation. Conclusion: Kidney donors with normal or slightly elevated creatinine values postoperatively


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SYED Noman Danish; MA Chaochen; YANG Ce; L(U) Wei


    Tip clearance between the blade tip and casing of a centrifugal compressor can be varied through two methods: by changing the blade height (M1) or by changing the casing diameter (M2). Numerical simulations are carried out to compare these two methods and their effect on the stage and impeller performance. The impeller and diffuser are connected through rotor Stator boundary using frozen rotor approach. Overall stage performance and the flow configuration have been investigated for nine tip clearance levels from no gap to 1 mm. Impeller and diffuser performances are also presented separately. It has been found that the overall and impeller performance are comparatively better for Ml below tip clearance of 0.5 mm whereas M2 is found advantageous above 0.5 mm of tip clearance. Both M1 and M2 show performance degradation with the increase in tip clearance. Two models have been proposed for the stage total pressure ratio and efficiency, which are found to be in agreement with experimental results. The impeller efficiency and the pressure ratio are found to be maximum at tip clearance of 0.1 mm for both the cases however minimum diffuser effectiveness is also observed at the same clearance level. Diffuser effectiveness is found to be maximum at zero gap for both cases. As it is practically impossible to have zero gap for unshrouded impellers so it is concluded that the Optimum thickness is 0.5 mm onwards for Ml and 0.5 mm for M2 in terms of diffuser effectiveness. Mass averaged flow parameters, entropy, blade loading diagram and relative pressure fields are presented, showing the loss production within the impeller passage with tip clearance.

  15. A case of delayed methotrexate clearance following administration of a complementary medication containing chlorophyll. (United States)

    Brooks, Sally L; Sanders, Julie; Seymour, John F; Mellor, James D


    A 54-year-old male with relapsed primary cerebral lymphoma and normal renal function was treated with methotrexate (MTX) 3 g/m(2) monthly by intravenous infusion. Throughout treatment the patient self-administered a complementary medicine (Jason Winter's chlorophyll®), which he was advised to cease during methotrexate treatment due to the potential for unknown interactions. For the first four cycles, chlorophyll was ceased two days prior to commencement of methotrexate and withheld until clearance. These cycles were administered without complication, and the methotrexate level reduced to chlorophyll was not ceased and there were no changes to concomitant medications. A literature search found no documented interactions between methotrexate and chlorophyll and the chemotherapy was administered without a delay in treatment. The methotrexate level three days post-administration was 0.36 µmol/L and did not reduce to chlorophyll 48 h prior to methotrexate administration until clearance. There were no further episodes of delayed methotrexate clearance. No impurities were detected in a sample of Jason Winter's chlorophyll®. It is therefore likely that the patient's delayed methotrexate clearance was due to an interaction with chlorophyll. It is recommended that such chlorophyll containing preparations be avoided in patients treated with methotrexate.

  16. Clearance of materials, buildings and land with low content of radioactive materials. Methodology and documentation; Frigivelse af materialer og omraeder med lavt aktivitetsindhold. Metodebeskrivelse og dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L


    The concepts and methods of clearance of materials originating from the decommissioning af the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are described as well as procedures for clearance of buildings and land. The recommendations from international organisations as well as national regulation on clearance are presented. Methods for characterisation and separation of waste being candidate for clearance are presented.Di .erent methodologies for determining the content of radionuclides in candidate waste for clearance are discussed,and the need for and construction of a low-level laboratory for activity analyses in both bulky and less bulky subjects is described. Laboratory analyses, documentation of results and education of health physics personnel is presented. (au)

  17. CSF clearance in Alzheimer Disease measured with dynamic PET. (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry


    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) comes from primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents where predominant extra-cranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Using dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F-THK5117 a tracer for tau pathology, the ventricular CSF time activity was used as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested three hypotheses: 1. Extra-cranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; 2. CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and 3. CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: 15 subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers were examined with (18)F-THK5117. 10 subjects additionally received (11)C-PiB PET scans and 8 were PiB positive. Ventricular time activity curves (TAC) of (18)F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated TAC from extra-cranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF positive extra-cranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinates CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling. (United States)

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected (125)I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of (125)I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of (125)I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in (125)I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes

  19. [Mucociliary clearance function and medicamentous modification]. (United States)

    Konrad, F


    Mucociliary clearance represents a complex self-cleaning mechanism of the lung and is based on the functional unity of ciliated columnar cells and the special viscoelastic properties of the secretion produced in the tracheobronchial system. It has been known for a long time that intubation and mechanical ventilation can impair mucous transport and lead to morphological damage to the tracheobronchial mucosa. Recent studies made it clear, however, that mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia using an appropriate anaesthesiological technique has no deleterious effect on mucus transport in patients with healthy lungs. Ventilated patients in the intensive-care unit frequently have impaired mucus transport, which is associated with the development of retention of secretion and nosocomial pneumonia. In these patients a number of factors combine to form a formidable potential insult to the mucociliary transport mechanism. Numerous drugs can affect mucociliary transport. Beta-mimetics and theophylline, in particular, have a favourable effect on mucociliary transport, whereas the effect of mucolytic agents is controversial.

  20. Number theory arising from finite fields analytic and probabilistic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Knopfmacher, John


    ""Number Theory Arising from Finite Fields: Analytic and Probabilistic Theory"" offers a discussion of the advances and developments in the field of number theory arising from finite fields. It emphasizes mean-value theorems of multiplicative functions, the theory of additive formulations, and the normal distribution of values from additive functions. The work explores calculations from classical stages to emerging discoveries in alternative abstract prime number theorems.

  1. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  2. 10 CFR 95.53 - Termination of facility clearance. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.53 Section 95.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.53 Termination of facility...

  3. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  4. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  5. 30 CFR 77.514 - Switchboards; passageways and clearance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switchboards; passageways and clearance. 77.514 Section 77.514 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.514 Switchboards; passageways and clearance....

  6. 33 CFR 160.115 - Withholding of clearance. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding of clearance. 160.115... § 160.115 Withholding of clearance. Each District Commander or Captain of the Port may request the Secretary of the Treasury, or the authorized representative thereof, to withhold or revoke the...

  7. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency,...

  8. 48 CFR 245.7310-8 - Antitrust clearance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust clearance. 245.7310-8 Section 245.7310-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Antitrust clearance. When property with an acquisition cost of $3 million or more is to be sold, include...

  9. 5 CFR 720.307 - Interagency report clearance. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency report clearance. 720.307 Section 720.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Interagency report clearance. The reports contained in this regulation have been cleared in accordance...

  10. 24 CFR 58.22 - Limitations on activities pending clearance. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on activities pending clearance. 58.22 Section 58.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... clearance. (a) Neither a recipient nor any participant in the development process, including public...

  11. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail:; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail:; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail:; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail:; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail:; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail:; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail:; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail:


    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  12. Do dialysate conductivity measurements provide conductivity clearance or ionic dialysance? (United States)

    Petitclerc, T


    Dialysate conductivity measurements allow on-line estimation of urea clearance during hemodialysis session. Conductivity measurements provide a value of 'conductivity clearance' for some authors, but a value of 'ionic dialysance' for others. This paper aims at explaining which term should be the more appropriate. Clearance is a parameter defined for measuring the power of a mechanism, which aims at 'clearing' a solution by depurating some solutes. In hemodialysis, clearance measures the efficacy of patient's depuration. In contrast, dialysance measures the capability of transferring solutes between blood and dialysate. The conventional definition of dialysance, requiring the absence of convective transfer, should be generalized to the case of the usual presence of ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. For a solute (as urea) absent from the dialysate delivered to the dialyzer inlet, the clearance is equal to its dialysance. In order to avoid a dramatic fall in ionic concentrations during hemodialysis treatment, the clearance of ions is reduced by adding these ions in the dialysate and becomes lower than their dialysance. Conductivity measurements provide a value of electrolytes dialysance. Thus the term of 'ionic dialysance' is more appropriate than the term of 'conductivity clearance'. Nevertheless ionic dialysance represents a good estimation of urea clearance.

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration. (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue


    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance.

  14. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  15. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J


    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  16. Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio and serum immunoreactive trypsin in digestive and pancreatic diseases. (United States)

    Del Favero, G; Fabris, C; Bonvicini, P; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Pedrazzoli, S; Burlina, A; Naccarato, R


    The behavior of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio (Ctr/Ccr) and serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was evaluated in a total of 168 subjects with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr) and serum amylase levels were also evaluated in order to establish their possible relationship with Ctr/Ccr and IRT values. Elevated Ctr/Ccr and IRT values were observed in several patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Abnormal IRT and Ctr/Ccr values were found in 28.2 and 4% of non-pancreatic digestive diseases, respectively. IRT and amylase serum levels showed consensual modifications, while Ctr/Ccr showed a behavior different from that of Cam/Ccr. Liver damage seems to play a role in increasing serum IRT levels of patients without pancreatic involvement, while the increased Ctr/Ccr seems to depend on other factors, for instance renal tubular dysfunction.

  17. A Study on the Requirements for Fast Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control Systems (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.


    This paper addresses the requirements of a control system for active turbine tip clearance control in a generic commercial turbofan engine through design and analysis. The control objective is to articulate the shroud in the high pressure turbine section in order to maintain a certain clearance set point given several possible engine transient events. The system must also exhibit reasonable robustness to modeling uncertainties and reasonable noise rejection properties. Two actuators were chosen to fulfill such a requirement, both of which possess different levels of technological readiness: electrohydraulic servovalves and piezoelectric stacks. Identification of design constraints, desired actuator parameters, and actuator limitations are addressed in depth; all of which are intimately tied with the hardware and controller design process. Analytical demonstrations of the performance and robustness characteristics of the two axisymmetric LQG clearance control systems are presented. Takeoff simulation results show that both actuators are capable of maintaining the clearance within acceptable bounds and demonstrate robustness to parameter uncertainty. The present model-based control strategy was employed to demonstrate the tradeoff between performance, control effort, and robustness and to implement optimal state estimation in a noisy engine environment with intent to eliminate ad hoc methods for designing reliable control systems.

  18. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;


    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... to fall in the sitting position, and fell significantly to 26 +/- 5 ml/min (p less than 0.025) in walking subjects. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption rate of fluid correspondingly rose from 83 +/- 16 to 92 +/- 15 ml/min (p less than 0.005) and sodium clearance fell from 1.52 +/- 0.81 to 1.00 +/- 0...

  19. Numerical simulation and optimization of clearance in sheet shearing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦泗吉; 李洪波; 彭加耕; 李硕本


    An analysis model to simplify the shearing and blanking process was developed. Based on the simplified model, the shearing process was simulated by FEM and analyzed for various clearances. An optimum clearance in the process was determined by new approach based on orientation of the maximum shearing stress on the characteristic line linking two blades, according to the law of crack propagation and experiments. The optimum clearance determined by this method can be used to dictate the range of reasonable clearance. By the new approach, the optimum clearance can be obtained conveniently and accurately even if there is some difference between the selected points, where the initial crack is assumed originated, and the actual one, where the initial crack occurs really.

  20. [A retrospective study on HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B aged 1-7 years]. (United States)

    Zhu, S S; Dong, Y; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L M; Chen, D W; Gan, Y; Wang, F C; Yan, J G; Cao, L L; Wang, P; Zhang, H F


    Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. Results: The HBsAg positive rate of children's mothers was 91.1%. In the age groups of >1-≤2 years, >2-≤3 years, >3-≤4 years, >4-≤5 years, >5-≤6 years, and >6-≤7 years, the HBsAg clearance rates were 66.1%, 65.5%, 45.7%, 41.3%, 20.6%, and 27.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the age groups of >1-≤3 years and >3-≤5 years, >1-≤3 years and >5-≤7 years, and >3-≤5 years and >5-≤7 years (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.008). Of all children, 64.8% were boys, among whom 41.1% achieved HBsAg clearance, and 35.2% were girls, among whom 61.2% achieved HBsAg clearance; there was a significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between boys and girls (P = 0.001). The children with pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of ≤80 IU/L, > 80 IU/L, ≤200 IU/L, and > 200 IU/L had HBsAg clearance rates of 40.7%, 51.2%, 47.6%, and 49.4%, respectively; there were no significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the ALT ≤80 IU/L and ALT > 80 IU/L groups and the ALT ≤200 IU/L and ALT > 200 IU/L groups (P = 0.101 and 0.778). There was no significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between the pretreatment HBV DNA load clearance rate of 57.1%, and 85% had genotype C and an HBsAg clearance rate of 39.5%; there was no significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between the

  1. Lactate clearance as the predictor of outcome in pediatric septic shock (United States)

    Choudhary, Richa; Sitaraman, Sadasivan; Choudhary, Anita


    Context: Septic shock can rapidly evolve into multiple system organ failure and death. In the recent years, hyperlactatemia has been found to be a risk factor for mortality in critically ill adults. Aims: To evaluate the predictive value of lactate clearance and to determine the optimal cut-off value for predicting outcome in children with septic shock. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study was performed on children with septic shock admitted to pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Subjects and Methods: Serial lactate levels were measured at PICU admission, 24 and 48 h later. Lactate clearance, percent decrease in lactate level in 24 h, was calculated. The primary outcome measure was survival or nonsurvival at the end of hospital stay. We performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values. Results: The mean lactate levels at admission were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors than survivors, 5.12 ± 3.51 versus 3.13 ± 1.71 mmol/L (P = 0.0001). The cut-off for lactate level at admission for the best prediction of mortality was determined as ≥4 mmol/L (odds ratio 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.45–12.09). Mean lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than nonsurvivors (17.9 ± 39.9 vs. −23.2 ± 62.7; P < 0.0001). A lactate clearance rate of <10% at 24 h had a sensitivity and specificity of 78.7% and 72.2%, respectively and a positive predictive value of 83.1% for death. Failure to achieve a lactate clearance of more than 10% was associated with greater risk of mortality (likelihood ratio + 2.83; 95% CI = 1.82–4.41). Conclusions: Serial lactate levels can be used to predict outcome in pediatric septic shock. A 24 h lactate clearance cut-off of <10% is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in such patients.

  2. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J


    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated. OBJEC

  3. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections. (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan


    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  4. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser


    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  5. Retention and clearance of C-11 palmitic acid in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Keen, R.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Barrio, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.


    Free fatty acids are the major energy source for cardiac muscle. Oxidation of fatty acid decreases or even ceases during ischemia. Its recovery after transient ischemia remains largely unexplored. Using intracoronary carbon-11 palmitic acid as a tracer of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in an open chest dog model, retention and clearance of tracer in myocardium were evaluated at control, during ischemia and after reperfusion following a 20 minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves were analyzed with biexponential curve-fitting routines yielding fractional distribution and clearance half-times of C-11 palmitic acid in myocardial tissue. In animals with permanent occlusion and intracoronary injection of C-11 palmitic acid distal to the occlusion site, the relative size and half-time of the early clearance curve component differed markedly from control values and did not change with ongoing ischemia. Conversely, in animals with only 20 minutes of coronary occlusion, the relative size of the early C-11 clearance phase was still significantly depressed at 20 and 90 minutes of reperfusion but returned to control level at 180 minutes. Tissue C-11 clearance half-times remained significantly prolonged throughout the reperfusion period. Regional function in reperfused myocardium monitored with ultrasonic crystals recovered slowly and was still less than control after 3 hours of reperfusion. The data indicate that after transient ischemia, myocardial fatty acid metabolism fails to recover immediately. Because the metabolic recovery occurs in parallel with recovery of regional function, C-11 palmitic acid in conjunction with positron tomography may be useful for studying regional fatty acid metabolism noninvasively after an ischemic injury, and may be helpful in identifying reversible tissue injury.

  6. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance. (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M


    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  7. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt


    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  8. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan


    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  9. Lactate production and clearance in exercise. Effects of training. A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vissing, J; Galbo, H


    conditions. Due to influence on hormonal response, mitochondrial oxidative capacity and fiber recruitment, training diminishes glycogenolysis and lactate production. Training also increases lactate clearance. This reflects increased hepatic capacity for gluconeogenesis as well as increased lactate transport...... capacity and oxidative capacity and reduced glycogenolysis in muscle. The fact that endurance performance can be predicted from the plasma lactate versus exercise intensity relationship illustrates that the plasma lactate level is a finely balanced result of the interplay between many factors of importance...

  10. Isolated primary malignant lymphoma arising from the optic chiasm. (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Keiji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    Isolated primary malignant lymphoma rarely arises from the anterior visual pathway. A 59-year-old previously healthy man presented with progressive, painless, bilateral visual disturbance. Neurological imaging revealed an enhancing mass arising from the optic chiasm. Open biopsy was carried out under monitoring of visual evoked potentials and a histopathological diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was made. As systemic examination did not show any evidence of systemic lymphoma, we concluded that this patient had an isolated primary malignant lymphoma at the anterior visual pathway.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The tip-clearance flow in a cascade was numerically simulated by solving the RANS equations of incompressible fluids. The computational model was based upon the artificial compressibility formulation proposed by Chorin. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was used to make the governing equations closed. For the specific structure of tip-clearance flow, a multi-block grid structure was adopted to facilitate numerical computations. The comparison of numerical results with experimental data indicates that the present method is capable of simulating tip-clearance flows with satisfactory accuracy.

  12. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Ladha


    Full Text Available Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0, postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1, and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively. The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10% after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.

  13. Approximate Theoretical Model for the Five Electronic States (Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) Arising from the Ground 3d9 Configuration in Nickel Halide Molecules and for Rotational Levels of the Two Ω = 1/2 States in that Manifold (United States)

    Cheung, Allan S.-C.


    An effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators has been set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni+X-, with an electronic 3d9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni+ moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X&- moiety. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the three crystal field parameters C0, C2, C4 and the spin-orbit coupling constant A. Following this, the usual effective Hamiltonian B(J-L-S)^2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the unusually large Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two Ω = 1/2 states in the 3d9 manifold. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2B, but that their difference can vary between -10B and +10B. The theoretical magnitudes for p are in good agreement with the two observed p values for both NiF and NiCl, but the signs are not. The experimental signs can be brought into agreement with the theoretical signs by a fairly massive change in +/- parity assignments in the NiF and NiCl literature. The last part of the talk will focus on the theoretical and experimental implications of these parity changes.

  14. Overnight salivary caffeine clearance: a liver function test suitable for routine use. (United States)

    Jost, G; Wahlländer, A; von Mandach, U; Preisig, R


    The feasibility of measuring caffeine clearance from saliva (SCl) was assessed in ambulatory patients with liver disease and in a control group, and the results were compared with quantitative liver function tests. For this purpose, the subjects were given 280 mg caffeine p.o. in decaffeinated coffee powder between noon and 4 p.m., and caffeine concentrations were measured in saliva (using an enzyme immunoassay) before bedtime and upon arising. In the cirrhotics (n = 29), SCl was 0.58 +/- S.D. 0.45 ml per min X kg, thus being reduced to approximately one-third of drug-free, nonsmoking controls (1.53 +/- 0.46, n = 18); although patients with noncirrhotic liver disease showed intermediate values (0.95 +/- 0.47), their reduction in SCl was significant (p less than 0.001). SCl was correlated with indocyanine green fractional clearance, galactose elimination capacity and aminopyrine breath test; however, the closest relationship (Rs = 0.80) was observed with the aminopyrine breath test. It is suggested that the measurement of SCl represents a noninvasive and innocuous procedure for quantifying hepatic microsomal function, and is suitable for routine use. Since a.m. saliva concentrations of caffeine are highly correlated (Rs = -0.94) with SCl, further simplification of the test to a single-point measurement appears possible.

  15. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  16. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R


    into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...... in the exposure chamber to investigate a possible acute change in liver function and was repeated two weeks later, shortly before the summer vacation. Antipyrine clearance was measured again at the end of the summer vacation-four weeks after exposure. To study a possible effect of chronic exposure on antipyrine...... clearance 12 printing trade workers with 17 years (median) of occupational exposure to toluene vapour at concentrations of about 100 ppm were investigated before and four weeks after cessation of exposure. No difference in antipyrine clearance was found either within the groups or between the groups at any...

  17. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance (United States)

    Xavier, Patrick G.


    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  18. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  19. Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Alphavirus Infection from Neurons (United States)

    Levine, Beth; Hardwick, J. Marie; Trapp, Bruce D.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Griffin, Diane E.


    Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression.

  20. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request (United States)


    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following...

  1. The compliance contact model of cylindrical joints with clearances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caishan Liu; Ke Zhang; Lei Yang; Keren Wang


    This paper is concerned with the determination of the normal force-displacement (NFD) relation for the contact problem of cylindrical joints with clearance. A simple formulation for this contact problem is developed by modeling the pin as a rigid wedge and the elastic plate as a simple Winkler elastic foundation. The numerical results show that the normal displacement relation based on Hertz theory is only valid for the case of large clearance with a small normal load, and the NFD relation based on Persson theory is only effective in the case of very small clearance. The proposed approximate model in this paper gives better results than Hertz theory and Persson theory in a large range of clearances as seen from the comparison with the results of FEM.

  2. Fluid damping clearance in a control valve of injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianming; ZHANG Weigang; YANG Bing; WANG Yawei


    A force model of a control valve of injector is set up, and the changes of the fluid damping clearance are investigated on the basis of the results of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experiments of control valve of injector. Results indicate that a damping clearance of 0.02-0.03 mm between the poppet and the valve guide is the most sufficient to dampen any excessive control valve poppet bouncing.

  3. Experimental study on fluid flow in arciform clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 汤卉; 贾慧娟


    The system damping and dynamic characteristics can be further improved by properly increasing thedamping coefficient ξh. For a special hydraulic damping structure, an arciform damping clearance often used inFCS, a mathematical model has been established for fluid flow using the theory of laminar flow in the clearanceof parallel plates. Analytical calculations are made for fluid flow in the arciform clearance and relational expres-sion is deduced for flow rate along the arciform cleaance height, pressure difference, maximum arciform clear-ance height, the flow rate for the fluid flow in arciform clearance as well, and its simplified formula is obtainedby using the theory of hydrodynamics and the curve - fitting method. This paper consists of two sections: the firstsection focuses on the theoretical analysis by using the simplified mathematical model and the second sectionmainly describes experimental analysis. The simplified formula is corrected with experimental results by consid-erig various boundary conditions of the damping clearance. Experimental results show that this study of arciformdamping clearance is reliable and practical.

  4. Comparative irritant potency of inhaled sulfate aerosols--effects on bronchial mucociliary clearance. (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B


    The effect of 1-hr oral inhalation exposures to submicrometer aerosols of ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4), ammonium sulfate [NH4)2SO4), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) upon mucociliary clearance from the bronchial tree of rabbits was examined. Exposures to NH4HSO4 at concentrations of approximately 600-1700 micrograms/m3 produced a significant depression of clearance rate only at the highest exposure level. No significant effects were observed with the other sulfates at levels up to approximately 2000 micrograms/m3. When results were compared to those from another study in this laboratory using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol, the ranking of irritant potency was H2SO4 greater than NH4HSO4 greater than (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4. Alteration in bronchial mucociliary clearance due to sulfate aerosols appears to be related to the deposition of [H+] on the mucus lining of conducting airways.

  5. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. (United States)


    ... Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  6. Effect of mouse strain as a background for Alzheimer's disease models on the clearance of amyloid-β. (United States)

    Qosa, Hisham; Kaddoumi, Amal


    Novel animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are relentlessly being developed and existing ones are being fine-tuned; however, these models face multiple challenges associated with the complexity of the disease where most of these models do not reproduce the full phenotypical disease spectrum. Moreover, different AD models express different phenotypes that could affect their validity to recapitulate disease pathogenesis and/or response to a drug. One of the most important and understudied differences between AD models is differences in the phenotypic characteristics of the background species. Here, we used the brain clearance index (BCI) method to investigate the effect of strain differences on the clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) from the brains of four mouse strains. These mouse strains, namely C57BL/6, FVB/N, BALB/c and SJL/J, are widely used as a background for the development of AD mouse models. Findings showed that while Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was comparable between the 4 strains, levels of LRP1, an Aβ clearance protein, was significantly lower in SJL/J mice compared to other mouse strains. Furthermore, these mouse strains showed a significantly different response to rifampicin treatment with regard to Aβ clearance and effect on brain level of its clearance-related proteins. Our results provide for the first time an evidence for strain differences that could affect ability of AD mouse models to recapitulate response to a drug, and opens a new research avenue that requires further investigation to successfully develop mouse models that could simulate clinically important phenotypic characteristics of AD.

  7. A Rare Nasopharyngeal Teratoma Arising From the Vomer. (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoxiao; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Li, Chenghao


    Teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms derived from the 3 germinal layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). Nasopharyngeal teratoma is a very rare teratoma arising anywhere from the oronasal cavity, regarded as an expanding, avity filling lesion, with a high mortality rate because of severe airway obstruction, especially in the neonatal period and make up only 2% of all teratomas. The authors present a case of an infant girl with a single, finger-like, hairy teratoma arising from the vomer and protruding from the mouth with bilateral complete cleft palate, cleft lip, and cleft alveolus. Complete intraoral resection of the teratoma and cleft lip repair was conducted simultaneously. Reconstruction of the cleft palate was performed at a later stage. Recurrence occurred 9 months after surgery and extended complete surgical excision was performed after recurrence, with no recurrence observed again to date. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of congenital mature teratoma.

  8. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms arising from within a hepatocellular carcinoma (United States)

    Chingkoe, C M; Chang, S D; Legiehn, G M; Weiss, A


    We report a case of a 70-year-old man with a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing two pseudoaneurysms measuring up to 2 cm in diameter. The pseudoaneurysms and part of the HCC were supplied by branches from the middle colic artery, which arises from the superior mesenteric artery. This complex arterial vasculature was visualised on CT and confirmed with conventional angiography. PMID:21088082

  9. Multicentric glioblastoma arising in two unusual sites : cerebellum and thalamus


    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pêgas,Karla Lais; Simão,Mariana Fernandez; Stüker, Guilherme


    Multicentric glioblastomas (MGBM) arising in infra/supratentorial regions are uncommon lesions. The authors report a case of MGBM in a 61 year-old female patient, who presented a sudden onset of left hemiplegia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed two expansive large lesions affecting cerebellum and thalamus, with strong contrast enhancement. The patient underwent resection of the cerebellar lesion. Microscopy revealed a high grade glial neoplasm exhibiting high mitotic index, areas o...

  10. Apocrine carcinoma arising in a complex fibroadenoma: a case report. (United States)

    Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Sorensen, Anne Schmidt; Jensen, Vibeke


    A carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is a rare event, which often entails a diagnostic challenge. The most common type is the lobular carcinoma and secondary a ductal carcinoma. We present an extremely rare case of malignant development of an invasive apocrine carcinoma in a complex fibroadenoma and underline the importance for clinicians to recognize the possibility of benign and malignant co-existence especially in older women.

  11. Penile squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans. (United States)

    Pride, H B; Miller, O F; Tyler, W B


    Squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans is rarely reported. We describe an 83-year-old man in whom metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma developed after 18 years of observation for balanitis xerotica obliterans. It is important to recognize the possibility of this uncommon complication of balanitis xerotica obliterans, because survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma depends on early diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Effect of surface-active substance on nasal mucociliary clearance time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, K E; Svane-Knudsen, V


    Mucociliary clearance measured by saccharin clearance time is depending on ciliary function and on the physiological characteristics of mucus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of surface-active substances changed the mucociliary transport time. Twenty healthy persons...... were manually sprayed with surface-active substance in one of their nose cavities. The saccharin clearance time was measured before spraying and statistically compared with saccharin clearance time after spraying. Saccharin clearance time was significantly shortened immediately after spraying...

  13. Hepatic Clearance Prediction of Nine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors in Rat



    This study aimed to determine the rate-limiting step in the overall hepatic clearance of the marketed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) in rats by predicting the experimentally determined hepatic in vivo clearance of these drugs based on in vitro clearance values for uptake and/or metabolism. In vitro uptake and metabolic clearance values were determined in suspended rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. In vivo hepatic clearance was determined afte...

  14. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery. (United States)

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick


    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action.

  15. Alcoholic pancreatitis and parotitis: utility of lipase and urinary amylase clearance determinations. (United States)

    Barnett, J L; Wilson, J A


    Acute alcoholic pancreatitis is a clinical diagnosis made in patients who have acute upper abdominal pain, emesis, and hyperamylasemia soon after ingesting alcohol. We sought to determine whether the clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis was supported by elevated serum levels of pancreatic isoamylase, currently the most specific test for pancreatitis. Serum lipase levels and urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios were examined for comparison with pancreatic isoamylase concentrations. Potential sources for salivary isoamylasemia were explored with technetium scans of the parotid glands. Of 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of alcoholic pancreatitis, 16 had elevated levels of pancreatic isoamylase, and 17 had salivary hyperamylasemia. The diagnostic specificity of the serum lipase level or the urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratio was excellent compared to that of the pancreatic isoamylase level. Three patients had elevated levels of salivary isoamylase only. Scans of the parotid glands in the study group revealed significantly higher uptake values than scans in nonalcoholic control subjects, suggesting one possible source of elevated levels of salivary isoamylase.

  16. Stall Characteristics and Tip Clearance Effects in Forward Swept Axial Compressor Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna PV; Govardhan M


    Tilting the blade sections to the flow direction (blade sweep) would increase the operating range of an axial com-pressor due to modifications in the pressure and velocity fields on the suction surface. On the other hand, blade tip gap, though finite, has great influence on the performance of a turbomachine. The present paper investigates the combined effect of these two factors on various flow characteristics in'a low speed axial flow compressor. For this present study, nine computational domains were modeled; three rotor sweep configurations (0°, 20° and 30°) and for three different clearance levels for each rotor. Commercial CFD solver ANSYS CFX 11.0 is used for the simulations. Results indicated that tip chordline sweep is found to improve the stall margin of the compressor by modifying the suction surface boundary layer migration phenomenon. Diffusion Factor (DF) contours showed the severity of stalling with unswept rotor. For the swept rotors, the zones of high probable stall are less severe and they become less in size with increasing sweep. Increment in the tip gap is found to gradually affect the perform-ance of unswept rotor, while the effect is very high for the two swept rotors for the earlier increments. As a mini-mum clearance is unavoidable, swept rotors suffer relatively higher deviation from the idealistic behavior than the unswept rotor due to tip clearance.

  17. Calpains promote neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in an acute bacterial peritonitis model. (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Everingham, Stephanie; Hall, Christine; Greer, Peter A; Craig, Andrew W B


    Activation of the innate immune system is critical for clearance of bacterial pathogens to limit systemic infections and host tissue damage. Here, we report a key role for calpain proteases in bacterial clearance in mice with acute peritonitis. Using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase primarily in innate immune cells (fes-Cre), we generated conditional capns1 knockout mice. Consistent with capns1 being essential for stability and function of the ubiquitous calpains (calpain-1, calpain-2), peritoneal cells from these mice had reduced levels of calpain-2/capns1, and reduced proteolysis of their substrate selenoprotein K. Using an acute bacterial peritonitis model, we observed impaired bacterial killing within the peritoneum and development of bacteremia in calpain knockout mice. These defects correlated with significant reductions in IL-1α release, neutrophil recruitment, and generation of reactive oxygen species in calpain knockout mice with acute bacterial peritonitis. Peritoneal macrophages from calpain knockout mice infected with enterobacteria ex vivo, were competent in phagocytosis of bacteria, but showed impaired clearance of intracellular bacteria compared with control macrophages. Together, these results implicate calpains as key mediators of effective innate immune responses to acute bacterial infections, to prevent systemic dissemination of bacteria that can lead to sepsis.

  18. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids. (United States)

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M


    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  19. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain. (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai


    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity. (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E


    Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2-3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity.

  1. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque]. (United States)

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S


    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  2. Experimental Investigations of the Three—Dimensional Flow in a Large Deflection Turbine Cascade with Tip Clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Govardhan; S.S.S.R.K.Satri


    Results obtained from an experimental study of the three-dimensional flow survey within and exit of a large deflection lineary turbine cascade are presented for a tip clearance levels of 0.08,1.5,3.0 percent of chord and compared with the help of boundary layer probes and that within and exit of a blade passage was done with a miniaturised five hole probe.End wall and blade tip surface static pressures were also obtained,in addition to flow visualisation studies.A strong horse-shoe vortex forms in front of the leading edge for zero clearance whereas this vortec does not appear for 3 percent clearance indicating that for large clearance the pressure forces have dominating influence than the viscous forces.In addition to normally known clearance vortex,a small tip separation vortex was noticed on the blade tip surface inside the tip gap.Due to the area contraction caused by the tip separation vortex,the fluid moving towards the tip gap from the pressure side is accelerated.Downstream of the vortex,the fluid moving towards the tip gap from the pressure side is accelerated.Downstream of the vortex.the endwall pressure increases due to flow mixing,Both vortices increase in size and strength along the chord.The mixing is incomplete in the aft portion of the blade.The tip gap velocity profiles exhibit wake like characteristics especially at axial positions where the mixing is incomplete,The passage vortex in the present investigations did not diminish with increase in clearance.The discharge coefficient and the total pressure loss coefficient within the tip gap show similar tendency with lower values near the leading and trailing edge regions.

  3. Spectral Distribution of Transport Operator Arising in Growing Cell Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Wu


    Full Text Available Transport equation with partly smooth boundary conditions arising in growing cell populations is studied in Lp  (1

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus* (United States)

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria


    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  5. Syphilitic gumma arising in association with foreign material. (United States)

    Boyd, Alan S


    Until recently the number of patients with syphilis has been diminishing. Although that trend has reversed cases of tertiary syphilis are rare and often difficult to diagnose as a substantial number of patients will have a negative rapid plasma reagin. Histologically, cutaneous lesions in late stage syphilis exist in two forms, noduloulcerative and gummatous. Silver stains for spirochetes are almost invariably negative and, surprisingly, immunohistochemical stains are problematic as most lesions contain few, if any organisms. Presented here is a case of gummatous tertiary syphilis arising in association with foreign material deposited after a motor vehicle accident.

  6. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher......Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...

  7. Parabolic Perturbation of a Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problem Arising in Physiology (United States)

    Colli, P.; Grasselli, M.

    We study a transport-diffusion initial value problem where the diffusion codlicient is "small" and the transport coefficient is a time function depending on the solution in a nonlinear and nonlocal way. We show the existence and the uniqueness of a weak solution of this problem. Moreover we discuss its asymptotic behaviour as the diffusion coefficient goes to zero, obtaining a well-posed first-order nonlinear hyperbolic problem. These problems arise from mathematical models of muscle contraction in the framework of the sliding filament theory.

  8. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciulla Michele M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour. The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision.

  9. [Carcinoma arising within mammary fibroadenomas. A study of six patients]. (United States)

    Tissier, F; De Roquancourt, A; Astier, B; Espie, M; Clot, P; Marty, M; Janin, A


    We report six cases of carcinomas arising within fibroadenomas. Fibroadenoma is a benign neoplasm occurring in young women. Its association with carcinomas is unfrequent and particularly reported in older women. Few data are available on the histologic features of fibroadenomas harboring malignant lesions. In this study, most cases of fibroadenomas showed cysts, sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications or papillary apocrine changes. These fibroadenomas are classified as complex and are a long-term risk factor for breast cancer. The complex fibroadenoma may be specific of fibroadenoma associated with carcinoma.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    . CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  11. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P


    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  12. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ({sup 198}Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  13. Cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong-xing; LI Ming


    To provide clinicians with data support-ing three different clearance techniques in the obtunded patients after severe polytrauma, Methods: This study gave an overview of the avail-able and pertinent literature regarding cervical spine clear-ance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma. Results: Currently, there were three accepted tech-niques for clearance of the cervical spine in obtunded pa-tients after severe polytrauma. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages to both of the patients and the clinicians. Condusions: There are continuous improvements in both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that increase their sensitivities. The continued use of plain radiographs is called into ques-tion with respect to cost and time requirements. An algo-rithmic approach to the evaluation of the cervical spine in the obtunded patients will lead to fewer missed injuries.

  14. Improving mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Bhowmik, Angshu; Chahal, Kamaljeet; Austin, Gillian; Chakravorty, Indranil


    Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of life (HRQL). Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. This review examines the current evidence base and best clinical practice in the area of airway clearance. Mechanical devices such as the flutter valves, positive end expiratory pressure and high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may be able to provide the benefits of improved airway clearance in the patient's home potentially with reduced demands on healthcare resources.

  15. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs. (United States)

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M


    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the end of exposure, and the fiber numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant difference in length of residual ceramic fibers in the lungs was found among the groups. The geometric mean diameter and number of ceramic fibers, however, decreased according to the clearance period. These findings suggest that the fibers were dissolved at their surface.

  16. Quinidine does not affect the renal clearance of moxonidine (United States)

    Wise, Stephen D; Chan, Clark; Schaefer, Hans G; He, Minxia M; Pouliquen, Isabelle J; Mitchell, Malcolm I


    Aims To test the hypothesis that the renal clearance of moxonidine decreases when dosed with quinidine. Methods A randomized, two-period study was conducted with six healthy, male subjects orally dosed with either 0.2 mg moxonidine alone or 1 h after 400 mg quinidine sulphate. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis method. Results When coadministered, quinidine significantly increased moxonidine AUC and t1/2 by 11% and 15%, respectively, and decreased CL/F by 10% compared with the control dosing. CLR and Aeur were not significantly different. Clinically, both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Quinidine does not affect the renal clearance of moxonidine. The decrease in apparent total clearance of moxonidine with quinidine coadministration was possibly due to metabolic inhibition, though not likely to be clinically significant. PMID:12236844

  17. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe. (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen


    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades.

  18. Application of Dsm in Obstacle Clearance Surveying of Aerodrome (United States)

    Qiao, X.; Lv, S. H.; Li, L. L.; Zhou, X. J.; Wang, H. Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J. Y.


    Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM), digital surface model (DSM) receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qiao


    Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  20. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus. (United States)

    Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv


    Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus.

  1. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma


    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  2. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake


    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  3. Secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies (United States)

    Okada, Atsushi; Hosaka, Masami; Watanuki, Munenori; Itoi, Eiji


    Secondary osteosarcoma arising after the treatment of hematologic malignancies other than Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. We report two cases of secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia). A 10-year-old boy, at the age of 3, was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and bone-marrow transplantation and then was in complete remission. At 6 years, he complained of increasing pain of the right thigh and was diagnosed with osteoblastic osteosarcoma. A 26-year-old man, at the age of 6, was diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He received chemotherapy, radiation, and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). At 11 years after PBSCT, he visited with the complaint of left lumbar swelling. He was diagnosed with chondroblastic osteosarcoma. In both cases alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had already increased prior to the onset of the symptom. We should rule out secondary osteosarcoma at the abnormal elevation of ALP during clinical follow-up of patients after treatment of childhood hematologic malignancies. PMID:19961270

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Avcı


    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7 cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient.

  5. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;


    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...... to improve clearance of airway secretions from the lungs. The utility of MCC/CC as a biomarker for disease progression and therapeutic intervention is gaining increased recognition as a valuable tool in the clinical research community. A number of investigators currently active in using MCC/CC for diagnostic...

  6. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance. (United States)

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W


    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  7. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.



    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 mo...

  8. 轴承游隙计算分析%Analysis and calculation of bearing clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the original common bearing clearance, installation clearance,clearance work,what used to solve bearing in C0,C3 clearance clearance work group size,select the project for future reference bearing clearance.%本文通过分析常用轴承的原始游隙,安装游隙,工作游隙,来求解一下常用轴承在C0,C3游隙组中的工作游隙的大小,作为以后项目选取轴承游隙的参考。

  9. [A case of carcinoma arising in a diverticulum of the transverse colon]. (United States)

    Nomi, Masako; Umemoto, Satoshi; Kikutake, Takashi; Hosaka, Seiji; Mase, Takahiro; Kawamoto, Shunji; Yoshida, Takahisa


    A 64 year-old woman presented with advanced, transverse colon cancer arising in the diverticulum. Tumor invasion extended beyond the serosa to the anal side of the colon. Anemia and fatigue progressed after 6 months of iron administration. The hemoglobin value was 5.3 g/dL and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was elevated to 44.2 ng/mL. A palpable and tender fist-sized mass was found in the right upper abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a low-density mass in the transverse colon invading beyond the serosa to the anal side of the colon. Right hemi-colectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The resected specimen contained multiple diverticula including the one from which the tumor arose. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated, tubular adenocarcinoma (UICC TNM T4bN0M0) arising in a transverse colon diverticulum. There has been no recurrence for 2 years. Colon cancer arising in a diverticulum may expand to the extra-serosa and easily invade to the adjacent organ. In such cases, malignancy should be considered.

  10. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness? (United States)

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H


    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

  11. Mannitol clearance for the determination of glomerular filtration rate-a validation against clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA. (United States)

    Kiss, Katalin; Molnár, Miklós; Söndergaard, Sören; Molnár, Gyula; Ricksten, Sven-Erik


    We studied the agreement between plasma clearance of mannitol and the reference method, plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in outpatients with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Forty-one patients with a serum creatinine clearance was measured with the standard bolus injection technique and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by the single-sample method described by Jacobsson. Mannitol, 0·25 g kg(-1) body weight (150 mg ml(-1) ), was infused for 4-14 min and blood samples taken at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h (n = 24) or 2-, 3-, 3·5- and 4-h after infusion (n = 17). Mannitol in serum was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma clearance for mannitol and its apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated according to Brøchner-Mortensen. Mean plasma clearance (±SD) for (51) Cr-EDTA was 59·7 ± 18·8 ml min(-1) . The mean plasma clearance for mannitol ranged between 57·0 ± 20·1 and 61·1 ± 16·7 ml min(-1) and Vd was 21·3 ± 6·2% per kg b.w. The between-method bias ranged between -0·23 and 2·73 ml min(-1) , the percentage error between 26·7 and 39·5% and the limits of agreement between -14·3/17·2 and -25·3/19·9 ml min(-1) . The best agreement was seen when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained and when sampling started 60 min after injection. Furthermore, accuracy of plasma clearance determinations was 88-96% (P30) and 41-63% (P10) and was highest when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained, including the first hour after the bolus dose. We conclude that there is a good agreement between plasma clearances of mannitol and (51) Cr-EDTA for the assessment of GFR.

  12. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission (United States)

    Rasor, Ned S.


    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  13. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)


    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  14. Sphenoid esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the hindmost olfactory filament. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Mami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi


    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Typically, ENBs are found in the olfactory cleft with extension to the ethmoid sinuses or anterior skull base. Here we report a case of ENB located in the sphenoid sinus, which had been considered as an ectopic ENB. However, endoscopic resection revealed the continuity of the tumor with the hindmost olfactory filament. The present case suggests that an ENB in the sphenoid sinus was not ectopic, but arose from the normal olfactory neuroepithelium. This continuity of the ENB with this filament indicated that the tumor was not ectopic, and that there was possible tumor invasion into the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche. Therefore, pathological examination of the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche may be necessary in case of sphenoid ENBs.

  15. Multicentric glioblastoma arising in two unusual sites: cerebellum and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi


    Full Text Available Multicentric glioblastomas (MGBM arising in infra/supratentorial regions are uncommon lesions. The authors report a case of MGBM in a 61 year-old female patient, who presented a sudden onset of left hemiplegia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed two expansive large lesions affecting cerebellum and thalamus, with strong contrast enhancement. The patient underwent resection of the cerebellar lesion. Microscopy revealed a high grade glial neoplasm exhibiting high mitotic index, areas of necrosis and microvascular proliferation. The neoplastic cells showed positive immunoexpression for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. The morphological findings were consistent with glioblastoma (GBM. The patient was referred to radiotherapy, with discrete signs of tumor regression after a 60-day clinical follow-up.

  16. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach


    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  17. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang


    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  18. Hypoalbuminemia is significantly associated with increased clearance time of high dose methotrexate in patients being treated for lymphoma or leukemia. (United States)

    Reiss, Samantha N; Buie, Larry W; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A; Devlin, Sean M; Douer, Dan


    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin's relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥1 g/m(2). Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤0.05 μM. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty-five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34 vs. 12 %, p = 0.006), and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to MTX clearance (median 96 vs. 72 h, p = 0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 vs. 5 days, p clearance and increased length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue, and good supportive care.

  19. Cafeteria diet inhibits insulin clearance by reduced insulin-degrading enzyme expression and mRNA splicing. (United States)

    Brandimarti, P; Costa-Júnior, J M; Ferreira, S M; Protzek, A O; Santos, G J; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Rezende, L F


    Insulin clearance plays a major role in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in physiological and/or pathological conditions, such as obesity-induced type 2 diabetes as well as diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cafeteria diet-induced obesity-induced changes in insulin clearance and to explain the mechanisms underlying these possible changes. Female Swiss mice were fed either a standard chow diet (CTL) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 8 weeks, after which we performed glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, insulin dynamics, and insulin clearance tests. We then isolated pancreatic islets for ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as liver, gastrocnemius, visceral adipose tissue, and hypothalamus for subsequent protein analysis by western blot and determination of mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The cafeteria diet induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased insulin secretion and total insulin content. More importantly, mice that were fed a cafeteria diet demonstrated reduced insulin clearance and decay rate as well as reduced insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) protein and mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle compared with the control animals. Furthermore, the cafeteria diet reduced IDE expression and alternative splicing in the liver and skeletal muscle of mice. In conclusion, a cafeteria diet impairs glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin sensitivity, but it also reduces insulin clearance by reducing IDE expression and alternative splicing in mouse liver; however, whether this mechanism contributes to the glucose intolerance or helps to ameliorate it remains unclear.

  20. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis. (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham


    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  1. Uses of ANSI/HPS N13.12-1999, "Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance" and Comparison with Existing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansbury, Paul S.; Strom, Daniel J.


    In August of 1999, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved a standard for clearance of materials contaminated with residual levels of radioactivity. "Clearance," as used in the standard, means the movement of material from the control of a regulatory agency to a use or disposition that has no further regulatory controls of any kind. The standard gives derived screening levels (DSLs) in Bq/g and Bq/cm2 for 50 radionuclides. Items or materials with residual surface and volume radioactivity levels below the DSLs can be cleared, that is, managed without regard to their residual radioactivity. Since federal agencies are to use voluntary, industry standards developed by the private sector whenever possible, the standard should play an important role in DOE's regulatory process. The thrust of this report is to explain the standard, make simple observations on its usefulness to DOE, and to explore uses of the standard within DOE facilities beyond the clearance of radioactive materials.

  2. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels. (United States)

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios


    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty.

  3. Unilateral Eye Blinking Arising From the Ictal Ipsilateral Occipital Area. (United States)

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Perciavalle, Valentina; Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Elia, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Martino; Caraballo, Roberto; Striano, Pasquale


    We report on an 18-month-old boy with unilateral left eye blinking as a single ictal manifestation without facial twitching. The clinical onset of this phenomenon was first recorded (as an occasional event) at age 3 months, and it was overlooked. By age 6 months, the child's blinking increased to almost daily occurrence in clusters: during blinking the infant showed intact awareness and occasional jerks in the upper limbs and right leg. A video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) documented clinical correlation with a focal pattern arising from the left occipital region, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe brain damage, consisting in poroencephalic hollows and increased spaces in the convexities involving a large area of the left cerebral hemisphere. The boy was prescribed sodium valproate (30 mg/kg/d), resulting in drastic reduction of his clinical seizures. Follow-up to his current age documented good general status, with persistent partial right hemilateral seizures. The blinking progressively disappeared, and is no longer recorded. The pathogenic hypotheses of the unilateral ictal blinking include involvement of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and/or the cerebellar pathways. Review of previous reports of unilateral eye blinking, arising from the ictal ipsilateral brain, revealed that different damaged regions may give rise to blinking ictal phenomena, likely via the trigeminal fibres innervating the subdural intracranial structures and the pial vessels in the ipsilateral affected brain. The eye blinking in the present child represents a further example of an ictal phenomenon, which is predictive of the damaged brain region.

  4. Neuroendocrine carcinomas arising in ulcerative colitis: coincidences or possible correlations? (United States)

    Grassia, Roberto; Bodini, Paolo; Dizioli, Paolo; Staiano, Teresa; Iiritano, Elena; Bianchi, Guglielmo; Buffoli, Federico


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of colorectal malignancies. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest type of colorectal neoplasm associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, but other types of epithelial and non-epithelial tumors have also been described in inflamed bowel. With regards to non-epithelial malignancies, lymphomas and sarcomas represent the largest group of tumors reported in association with IBD, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Carcinoids and in particular neuroendocrine neoplasms other than carcinoids (NENs) are rare tumors and are infrequently described in the setting of IBD. Thus, this association requires further investigation. We report two cases of neoplasms arising in mild left-sided UC with immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers: a large cell and a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. The two patients were different in age (35 years vs 77 years) and disease duration (11 years vs 27 years), and both had never received immunosuppressant drugs. Although the patients underwent regular endoscopic and histological follow-up, the two neoplasms were locally advanced at diagnosis. One of the two patients developed multiple liver metastases and died 15 mo after diagnosis. These findings confirm the aggressiveness and the poor prognosis of NENs compared to colorectal adenocarcinoma. While carcinoids seem to be coincidentally associated with IBD, NENs may also arise in this setting. In fact, long-standing inflammation could be directly responsible for the development of pancellular dysplasia involving epithelial, goblet, Paneth and neuroendocrine cells. It has yet to be established which IBD patients have a higher risk of developing NENs.

  5. Pregnancy does not alter the metabolic clearance of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, S.K.; Ford, K.K.; Langman, C.B. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))


    Increased circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) during pregnancy could be due to an increase in production or decrease in the metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D. To answer this question an isotope dilution method was used to determine the clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D in pregnant and aged-matched nonpregnant female rats. A bolus of 0.146 muCi 1,25(OH)2(3H)D3 was given to 60 pregnant and 60 aged-matched nonpregnant rats and the disappearance of the isotope was followed in these animals over the next 48 h. In 12 pregnant rats vs. 14 nonpregnant controls not injected with tracer, plasma calcium (9.6 +/- 0.41 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.17 mg/ml) and 25(OH)D (17.1 +/- 1.15 vs. 25.4 +/- 1.58 ng/ml) levels were significantly lower (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001), whereas plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels (110 +/- 16.1 pg/ml vs. 77 +/- 6.0 pg/ml) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). Clearance rates of 1,25(OH)2D of 25.8 +/- 1.31 microliters/min in pregnant rats and 20.2 20.2 +/- 1.38 microliters/min in nonpregnant aged-matched rats were not significantly different. Similarly, the apparent volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)2D in the pregnant rats (15 +/- 1.0 ml) was not significantly different from that in the nonpregnant control animals (18 +/- 2.1 ml). Production rates of.1,25(OH)2D were elevated in the pregnant rats (2.83 pg/min) compared with the nonpregnant controls (1.55 pg/min). In conclusion, the elevated maternal plasma 1,25(OH)2D level during pregnancy is a result of increased production and is not due to a decreased clearance.

  6. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection (United States)

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W.


    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. Here we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, despite the fact that MRSA super-infection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared to mice infected with bacteria alone, post-influenza MRSA infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for ROS production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to WT animals, gp91phox−/− mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91phox+/− mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection. PMID:24563256

  7. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level. (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas


    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  8. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update]. (United States)

    Opdekamp, C


    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this report we describe the conditions of collection, storage and handling of urine samples, collected after oral dosing with indometacin in man, in order to maintain the integrity of the labile glucuronide formed. We found that the body clearance occurs predominantly by renal metabolism, due to

  10. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance (United States)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee


    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  11. OMB Forms Clearance: Restrictions on Educational Research Plans. (United States)

    Coan, Donald L.

    Forms Clearance standards and regulations are used by the Office of Management and Budget and by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in order to upgrade the quality of federal data collection, to minimize cost, minimize reporting burden, maximize utility, and to protect the privacy rights of respondents.…

  12. In Vivo Renal Clearance, Biodistribution, Toxicity of Gold nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiu; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Fei-Yue; Fan, Sai-Jun; 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.020


    Gold nanoparticles have shown great prospective in cancer diagnosis and therapy, but they can not be metabolized and prefer to accumulate in liver and spleen due to their large size. The gold nanoclusters with small size can penetrate kidney tissue and have promise to decrease in vivo toxicity by renal clearance. In this work, we explore the in vivo renal clearance, biodistribution, and toxicity responses of the BSA- and GSH-protected gold nanoclusters for 24 hours and 28 days. The BSA-protected gold nanoclusters have low-efficient renal clearance and only 1% of gold can be cleared, but the GSH-protected gold nanoclusters have high-efficient renal clearance and 36 % of gold can be cleared after 24 hours. The biodistribution further reveals that 94% of gold can be metabolized for the GSH-protected nanoclusters, but only less than 5% of gold can be metabolized for the BSA-protected nanoclusters after 28 days. Both of the GSH- and BSA-protected gold nanoclusters cause acute infection, inflammation, and kidney fu...

  13. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;


    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  14. Multistage Axial Compressor Program on Tip Clearance Effects. (United States)


    clearance differs from previous studies in that the main emphasis lies on measure- ment of the secondary flow rather than the tip gap flow and the flow...however in both approaches there is a strong tendancy to focus on the gap flow as the primary loss mechanism. It is not entirely clear that this is the

  15. Dependence between temperature and clearance rate of Balanion comatum Wulff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rychert


    Full Text Available The dependence between temperature and clearance rate of the ciliate Balanion comatum Wulff 1919 was assessed in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. Five in situ experiments were carried out with the use of wheat starch as a surrogate of food particles. The clearance rate rose from 1.4 to 7.0 µl cell-1 h-1 with a temperature rise from 8 to 19°C. B. comatum preferred particles of size 1.9-4.4 µm, and the clearance rates calculated for the preferred particles were consistently higher than those measured for the whole range of particles ingested (Wilcoxon's signed rank test, p = 0.04. The exponential dependence between temperature and clearance rates for preferred particles was statistically significant (R2 = 0.86, p = 0.02 and enabled the Q10 coefficient to be calculated. This amounted to 2.9 and lay within the range of typical values. The linear dependence (also drawn for preferred particles demonstrated a higher significance (R2 = 0.91, p = 0.02, indicating the linear dynamics of the process.

  16. Determinant factor for clearance of ceramic fibres from rat lungs. (United States)

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M


    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles from lungs are known to be important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of alumina silicate ceramic fibres from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibre particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4.2 micron, for six hours a day, five days a week for two weeks. The average exposure concentration was 20.7 (standard deviation (SD) 4.5) mg/m3. The rats were killed at one day, three months, and six months after the end of exposure, and the fibre numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant differences in number and geometric mean length of residual ceramic fibres in the lungs were found between the groups. The geometric mean diameter, however, decreased according to the duration of the clearance period. These findings suggest that solubility of fibre contributes most in the clearance of the inhaled ceramic fibres from the lungs.

  17. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats. (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert


    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  18. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles (United States)

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  19. Functional interferon system is required for clearance of lassa virus. (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Poussard, Allison L; Seregin, Alexey V; Walker, Aida G; Smith, Jennifer K; Aronson, Judith F; Smith, Jeanon N; Soong, Lynn; Paessler, Slobodan


    Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LF) in humans, a deadly disease endemic to West Africa that results in 5,000 to 10,000 deaths annually. Here we present results demonstrating that functional type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling is required for efficient control of LASV dissemination and clearance.

  20. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  1. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request (United States)


    ...The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter...

  2. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance. (United States)

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue


    Before researchers apply nanomaterials (NMs) in biomedicine, they need to understand the blood circulation and clearance profile of these materials in vivo. These qualities determine the balance between nanomaterial-induced activity and unwanted toxicity. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics: they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and their highly active contact interfaces exhibit diverse functionalities. Any new and unexpected circulation features and clearance patterns are of great concern in toxicological studies and pharmaceutical screens. A number of studies have reported that NMs can enter the bloodstream directly during their application or indirectly via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Due to the small size of NMs, the blood can then transport them throughout the circulation and to many organs where they can be stored. In this Account, we discuss the blood circulation and organ clearance patterns of NMs in the lung, liver, and kidney. The circulation of NMs in bloodstream is critical for delivery of inhalable NMs to extrapulmonary organs, the delivery of injectable NMs, the dynamics of tissue redistribution, and the overall targeting of drug carriers to specific cells and organs. The lung, liver, and kidney are the major distribution sites and target organs for NMs exposure, and the clearance patterns of NMs in these organs are critical for understanding the in vivo fate of NMs. Current studies suggest that multiple factors control the circulation and organ clearance of NMs. The size, shape, surface charge, surface functional groups, and aspect ratio of NMs as well as tissue microstructures strongly influence the circulation of NMs in bloodstream, their site-specific extravasation, and their clearance profiles within organs. Therefore structure design and surface modification can improve biocompatibility, regulate the in vivo metabolism, and reduce the toxicity of NMs. The biophysicochemical interactions

  3. CAP-D3 Promotes Bacterial Clearance in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Repressing Expression of Amino Acid Transporters (United States)

    Kemp, Jacqueline R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Deutschman, Emily; Kim, Yeojung; West, Gail; Sadler, Tammy; Stylianou, Eleni; Krokowski, Dawid; Hatzoglou, Maria; de la Motte, Carol; Rubin, Brian P.; Fiocchi, Claudio


    BACKGROUND & AIMS Defects in colonic epithelial barrier defenses are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The proteins that regulate bacterial clearance in the colonic epithelium have not been completely identified. The chromosome-associated protein D3 (dCAP-D3), regulates responses to bacterial infection. We examined whether CAP-D3 promotes bacterial clearance in human colonic epithelium. METHODS Clearance of Salmonella or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82 was assessed by gentamycin protection assays in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressing small hairpin RNAs against CAP-D3. We used immunoblot assays to measure levels of CAP-D3 in colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC and healthy individuals (controls). RNA sequencing identified genes activated by CAP-D3. We analyzed the roles of CAP-D3 target genes in bacterial clearance using gentamycin protection and immunofluorescence assays and studies with pharmacologic inhibitors. RESULTS CAP-D3 expression was reduced in colonic epithelial cells from patients with active UC. Reduced CAP-D3 expression decreased autophagy and impaired intracellular bacterial clearance by HT-29 and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Lower levels of CAP-D3 increased transcription of genes encoding SLC7A5 and SLC3A2, whose products heterodimerize to form an amino acid transporter in HT-29 cells following bacterial infection; levels of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 were increased in tissues from patients with UC, compared with controls. Reduced CAP-D3 in HT-29 cells resulted in earlier recruitment of SLC7A5 to Salmonella-containing vacuoles, increased activity of mTORC1, and increased survival of bacteria. Inhibition of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 or mTORC1 activity rescued the bacterial clearance defects of CAP-D3– deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS CAP-D3 downregulates transcription of genes that encode amino acid transporters (SLC7A5 and SLC3A2) to promote bacterial autophagy by colon epithelial cells. Levels of CAP-D3 protein are reduced in patients with

  4. On a nonlinear partial differential algebraic system arising in technical textile industry: Analysis and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Martin


    In this paper a length-conserving numerical scheme for a nonlinear fourth order system of partial differential algebraic equations arising in technical textile industry is studied. Applying a semidiscretization in time, the resulting sequence of nonlinear elliptic systems with algebraic constraint is reformulated as constrained optimization problems in a Hilbert space setting that admit a solution at each time level. Stability and convergence of the scheme are proved. The numerical realization is performed by projected gradient methods on finite element spaces which determine the computational effort and approximation quality of the algorithm. Simulation results are presented and discussed in view of the application of an elastic inextensible fiber motion.

  5. 77 FR 19673 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Generic Clearance to Conduct... strategy in ] accomplishing reinvention goals is the ability to periodically receive input and...

  6. 78 FR 56222 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance (United States)


    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance OMB... disadvantaged students) are taught by teachers participating in an alternative route to certification...

  7. 78 FR 67344 - Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction AGENCY: Department of... comment for an information collection entitled, ``Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance,''...

  8. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D


    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  9. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis. (United States)

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R


    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (P< .001). Repeated measures pairwise correlation between any of the methods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies.

  10. Triptolide Promotes the Clearance of α-Synuclein by Enhancing Autophagy in Neuronal Cells. (United States)

    Hu, Guanzheng; Gong, Xiaoli; Wang, Le; Liu, Mengru; Liu, Yang; Fu, Xia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiaomin


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an aging-associated neurodegenerative disease with a characteristic feature of α-synuclein accumulation. Point mutations (A53T, A30P) that increase the aggregation propensity of α-synuclein result in familial early onset PD. The abnormal metabolism of α-synuclein results in aberrant level changes of α-synuclein in PD. In pathological conditions, α-synuclein is degraded mainly by the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Triptolide (T10) is a monomeric compound isolated from a traditional Chinese herb. Our group demonstrated for the first time that T10 possesses potent neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo PD models. In the present study, we reported T10 as a potent autophagy inducer in neuronal cells, which helped to promote the clearance of various forms of α-synuclein in neuronal cells. We transfected neuronal cells with A53T mutant (A53T) or wild-type (WT) α-synuclein plasmids and found T10 attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by pathogenic A53T α-synuclein overexpression. We observed that T10 significantly reduced both A53T and WT α-synuclein level in neuronal cell line, as well as in primary cultured cortical neurons. Excluding the changes of syntheses, secretion, and aggregation of α-synuclein, we further added autophagy inhibitor or proteasome inhibitor with T10, and we noticed that T10 promoted the clearance of α-synuclein mainly by the autophagic pathway. Lastly, we observed increased autophagy marker LC3-II expression and autophagosomes by GFP-LC3-II accumulation and ultrastructural characterization. However, the lysosome activity and cell viability were not modulated by T10. Our study revealed that T10 could induce autophagy and promote the clearance of both WT and A53T α-synuclein in neurons. These results provide evidence of T10 as a promising mean to treat PD and other neurodegenerative diseases by reducing pathogenic proteins in neurons.

  11. Evidence of Receptor-Mediated Elimination of Erythropoietin by Analysis of Erythropoietin Receptor mRNA Expression in Bone Marrow and Erythropoietin Clearance During Anemia


    Nalbant, Demet; SALEH, Mohammad; Goldman, Frederic D.; Widness, John A.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter


    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the primary hormone that stimulates erythroid proliferation and differentiation through its cell surface receptor (EpoR) on erythroid progenitor cells. Previous studies have suggested that the bone marrow plays an important role in Epo's elimination. The changes in the EpoR mRNA levels and Epo's clearance in the bone marrow of 11 newborn lambs were studied to elucidate the role of EpoR in Epo's clearance under anemic conditions. Epo mRNA levels were measured by real-ti...

  12. Rapid hepatic clearance of full length CCN-2/CTGF: a putative role for LRP1-mediated endocytosis. (United States)

    Gerritsen, K G F; Bovenschen, N; Nguyen, T Q; Sprengers, D; Koeners, M P; van Koppen, A N; Joles, J A; Goldschmeding, R; Kok, R J


    CCN-2 (connective tissue growth factor; CTGF) is a key factor in fibrosis. Plasma CCN-2 has biomarker potential in numerous fibrotic disorders, but it is unknown which pathophysiological factors determine plasma CCN-2 levels. The proteolytic amino-terminal fragment of CCN-2 is primarily eliminated by the kidney. Here, we investigated elimination and distribution profiles of full length CCN-2 by intravenous administration of recombinant CCN-2 to rodents. After bolus injection in mice, we observed a large initial distribution volume (454 mL/kg) and a fast initial clearance (120 mL/kg/min). Immunosorbent assay and immunostaining showed that CCN-2 distributed mainly to the liver and was taken up by hepatocytes. Steady state clearance in rats, determined by continuous infusion of CCN-2, was fast (45 mL/kg/min). Renal CCN-2 clearance, determined by arterial and renal vein sampling, accounted for only 12 % of total clearance. Co-infusion of CCN-2 with receptor-associated protein (RAP), an antagonist of LDL-receptor family proteins, showed that RAP prolonged CCN-2 half-life and completely prevented CCN-2 internalization by hepatocytes. This suggests that hepatic uptake of CCN-2 is mediated by a RAP-sensitive mechanism most likely involving LRP1, a member of the LDL-receptor family involved in hepatic clearance of various plasma proteins. Surface plasmon resonance binding studies confirmed that CCN-2 is an LRP1 ligand. Co-infusion of CCN-2 with an excess of the heparan sulphate-binding protamine lowered the large initial distribution volume of CCN-2 by 88 % and reduced interstitial staining of CCN-2, suggesting binding of CCN-2 to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Protamine did not affect clearance rate, indicating that RAP-sensitive clearance of CCN-2 is HSPG independent. In conclusion, unlike its amino-terminal fragment which is cleared by the kidney, full length CCN-2 is primarily eliminated by the liver via a fast RAP-sensitive, probably LRP1-dependent

  13. Comparison of Functional Variants in IFNL4 and IFNL3 for Association with Hepatitis C Virus Clearance (United States)

    O’Brien, Thomas R.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Paquin, Ashley; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Chen, Sabrina; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Edlin, Brian R.; Howell, Charles D.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Strickler, Howard D.; Thomas, David L.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila


    Background & Aims Genetic polymorphisms within the interferon lambda (IFN-λ) region are strongly associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance; the IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) polymorphism, which controls generation of the IFN-λ4 protein, is more strongly associated with HCV clearance than rs12979860 (the ‘IL28B variant’). An IFNL3 3′ untranslated region polymorphism (rs4803217) has been proposed as a causal variant that may affect HCV clearance by altering IFNL3 mRNA stability. Methods We compared IFNL4-ΔG/TT and rs4803217 for association with response to pegylated-IFN-α/ribavirin in the VIRAHEP-C and HALT-C trials, and spontaneous HCV clearance in the ALIVE, UHS and WIHS studies. Genotyping was performed with TaqMan assays. We compared differences in mean reduction in HCV RNA levels by genotype and haplotype. For HCV clearance, we calculated p-values comparing c-statistics for IFNL4-ΔG/TT and rs4803217 genotypes by a bootstrap approach. Results Among European Americans, linkage disequilibrium between IFNL4-ΔG/TT and rs4803217 was strong (r2=0.89–0.99) and there were no significant differences between the variants. In African American (AA) individuals enrolled in VIRAHEP-C, HCV RNA at treatment day 28 was more strongly associated with IFNL4-ΔG/TT than rs4803217 (p=0.003); the IFNL4-ΔG:rs4803217-G haplotype, which includes the putatively favorable IFNL3 allele, was actually associated with the poorest day 28 response (p=0.03, comparison to IFNL4-ΔG:rs4803217-T haplotype). Among AA participants, associations were stronger for IFNL4-ΔG/TT than rs4803217 for undetectable HCV RNA at week 24 in Virahep C (p=0.03) and week 20 in HALT-C (p=0.03), as well as for spontaneous HCV clearance (p=0.048). Conclusion IFNL4-ΔG/TT is the primary IFN-λ region polymorphism for impaired HCV clearance. PMID:26186989

  14. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil. (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C


    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  15. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev


    we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  16. 10 CFR 95.20 - Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance. 95.20 Section 95.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... termination of facility clearance. The Division of Security Operations shall provide notification in...

  17. 77 FR 66794 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Master Address File (MAF... (United States)


    ... of each activity conducted. The generic clearance enables OMB to review our overall strategy for MTdb... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Master Address File... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Census Bureau presently operates a generic clearance...

  18. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report. (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang


    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  19. Coalescent processes arising in a study of diffusive clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Greven, Andreas; Winter, Anita


    This paper studies spatial coalescents on $\\Z^2$. In our setting, the partition elements are located at the sites of $\\Z^2$ and undergo local delayed coalescence and migration. The system starts in either locally finite configurations or in configurations containing countably many partition elements per site. Our goal is to determine the longtime behavior with an initial population of countably many individuals per site restricted to a box $[-t^{\\alpha/2}, t^{\\alpha/2}]^2 \\cap \\Z^2$ and observed at time $t^\\beta$ with $1 \\geq \\beta \\geq \\alpha\\ge 0$. We study both asymptotics, as $t\\to\\infty$, for a fixed value of $\\alpha$ as the parameter $\\beta\\in[\\alpha,1]$ varies, and for a fixed $\\beta=1$, as the parameter $\\alpha\\in [0,1]$ varies. A new random object, the so-called {\\em coalescent with rebirth}, is constructed and shown to arise in the limit. In view of future applications we introduce the spatial coalescent with rebirth and study its longtime asymptotics as well. The present paper is the basis for fort...

  20. Primary abdominal wall clear cell carcinoma arising from incisional endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Gundogdu; Isin Ureyen; Gunsu Kimyon; Hakan Turan; Nurettin Boran; Gokhan Tulunay; Dilek Bulbul; Taner Turan; M Faruk Kose


    A 49 year-old patient with the complaint of a mass located in the caesarean scar was admitted. There was a fixed mass 30í30 mm in diameter with regular contour located at the right corner of the pfannenstiel incision. Computed tomography revealed a (40í50í50) mm solid mass lesion with margins that cannot be distinguished from the uterus, bladder and small intestines and a heterogeneous mass lesion (50í45í55) mm in diameter, located in the right side of the anterior abdominal wall. Cytoreductive surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Final pathology was clear cell carcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma arising from an extraovarian endometriotic focus was diagnosed and the patient received 6 cycles paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. The patient who was lost to follow-up applied to our clinic 2 years after surgery with a recurrent mass in the left inguinal region. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient's tumoral mass in the left inguinal region was excised. The result of the pathology was carcinoma metastasis. It is decided that the following treatment of the patient should be palliative radiation therapy. The patient who underwent palliative radiation therapy died of disease after 4 months of the second operation.

  1. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.


    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  2. A closest vector problem arising in radiation therapy planning

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbeen, Celine; Kiesel, Antje


    In this paper we consider the problem of finding a vector that can be written as a nonnegative, integer and linear combination of given 0-1 vectors, the generators, such that the l_1-distance between this vector and a given target vector is minimized. We prove that this closest vector problem is NP-hard to approximate within an additive error of (ln 2 - eps) d for all epsilon > 0, where d is the dimension of the ambient vector space. We show that the problem can be approximated within an additive error of (e/4+ln 2/2) d^{3/2} in polynomial time, by rounding an optimal solution of a natural LP relaxation for the problem. We also give a proof that in the particular case where the vectors satisfy the consecutive ones property, the problem can be formulated as a min-cost flow problem, hence can be solved in polynomial time. The closest vector problem arises in the elaboration of radiation therapy plans. In this context, the target is a nonnegative integer matrix and the generators are certain binary matrices whos...

  3. Primary Extraskeletal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Arising from the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Bae Geun; Han, Yoon Hee; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Seo, Jung Wook; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham; Joo, Mee [Inje University, School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    The CT scans showed a heterogeneously enhancing necrotic mass with numerous areas of coarse calcification, and this was located in the left side of the retroperitoneal space and involved the body and tail of the pancreas. Portal venography via the celiac axis also showed invasion of the splenic vein. It represents approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas and it carries a poor prognosis. It can occur in extraskeletal locations and mainly in the soft tissues of the orbit, the cranial and spinal meningeal coverings and the lower limbs. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the pancreas. Only two instances of metastatic chondrosarcomas in the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report here on a case of primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the pancreas in a 41-year-old man. In summary, we present here a case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma that arose from the pancreas. Radiologically, it manifested as a necrotic soft tissue mass with chondroid calcifications.

  4. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Anderson

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus.

  5. Sparse gamma rhythms arising through clustering in adapting neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Kilpatrick


    Full Text Available Gamma rhythms (30-100 Hz are an extensively studied synchronous brain state responsible for a number of sensory, memory, and motor processes. Experimental evidence suggests that fast-spiking interneurons are responsible for carrying the high frequency components of the rhythm, while regular-spiking pyramidal neurons fire sparsely. We propose that a combination of spike frequency adaptation and global inhibition may be responsible for this behavior. Excitatory neurons form several clusters that fire every few cycles of the fast oscillation. This is first shown in a detailed biophysical network model and then analyzed thoroughly in an idealized model. We exploit the fact that the timescale of adaptation is much slower than that of the other variables. Singular perturbation theory is used to derive an approximate periodic solution for a single spiking unit. This is then used to predict the relationship between the number of clusters arising spontaneously in the network as it relates to the adaptation time constant. We compare this to a complementary analysis that employs a weak coupling assumption to predict the first Fourier mode to destabilize from the incoherent state of an associated phase model as the external noise is reduced. Both approaches predict the same scaling of cluster number with respect to the adaptation time constant, which is corroborated in numerical simulations of the full system. Thus, we develop several testable predictions regarding the formation and characteristics of gamma rhythms with sparsely firing excitatory neurons.

  6. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, C.H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  7. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation. (United States)

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K


    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation.

  8. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zong; Ping Chen; Guang-Yao Wang; Qun-Shan Zhu


    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body,but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare.We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum.Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm x 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach.Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin.Microscopically,its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei,which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles.Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117,CD99,CD68,cytokeratin,calretinin,desmin,epithelial membrane antigen,F8 and S-100,but positive for CD34,bcl-2,α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin.The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers,especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  9. On Bounded Posets Arising from Quantum Mechanical Measurements (United States)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut


    Let S be a set of states of a physical system. The probabilities p( s) of the occurrence of an event when the system is in different states s ∈ S define a function from S to [0, 1] called a numerical event or, more precisely, an S- probability. If one orders a set P of S-probabilities in respect to the order of functions, further includes the constant functions 0 and 1 and defines p' = 1 - p for every p ∈ P, then one obtains a bounded poset of S-probabilities with an antitone involution. We study these posets in respect to various conditions about the existence of the sum of certain functions within the posets and derive properties from these conditions. In particular, questions of relations between different classes of S-probabilities arising this way are settled, algebraic representations are provided and the property that two S-probabilities commute is characterized which is essential for recognizing a classical physical system.

  10. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man. (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M


    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  11. Applicability of the “Gallet equation” to the vegetation clearances of NERC Reliability Standard FAC-003-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold


    NERC has proposed a standard to use to specify clearances between vegetation and power lines. The purpose of the rule is to reduce the probability of flashover to a calculably low level. This report was commissioned by FERC’s Office of Electrical Reliability. The scope of the study was analysis of the mathematics and documentation of the technical justification behind the application of the Gallet equation and the assumptions used in the technical reference paper

  12. /sup 133/Xe clearance of the knee joint of patients suffering from arthritis and osteoarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, G.; Reviczky, L.A.; Lendvay, J.; Boehm, U.; Kucsera, K.; Genti, Gy. (Orszagos Reuma es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))


    65 inflammed and 13 non-inflammed knee joints of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis were examined by the Xe/sup 133/ clearance method. The control group consisted of 27 patients with exsudative arthritis of the knee. The counts of 80 /sup 133/Xe given intraarticcularly were measured above the knee joint by NK 350 energy selective counter. The time needed to halve the count rate measured in the 4th minute after administration (biological half life (T1/2)) was significantly different in the three groups. It was the longest in the non-inflammed arthrosis, the shortest in the exsudative arthritis group. Significant differences were apparent regarding joint pain and tenderness in all the three groups. Though the synovial protein level and the C/sub 3/ complement level were significantly different, in the three groups no relationship was found between the T1/2 and synovial/serum protein ratio or between the synovial/serum C/sub 3/ ratio. The authors concluded that /sup 133/Xe clearance, which measures the perfusion of the synovial membrane, can be used for measuring the inflammatory activity of knee joint synovitis.

  13. PRKAA1/AMPKα1 is required for autophagy-dependent mitochondrial clearance during erythrocyte maturation. (United States)

    Zhu, Huaiping; Foretz, Marc; Xie, Zhonglin; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Zhiren; Xing, Junjie; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Gaudry, Murielle; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-Hui


    AMP-activated protein kinase α1 knockout (prkaa1(-/-)) mice manifest splenomegaly and anemia. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain to be established. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that defective autophagy-dependent mitochondrial clearance in prkaa1(-/-) mice exacerbates oxidative stress, thereby enhancing erythrocyte destruction. The levels of ULK1 phosphorylation, autophagical flux, mitochondrial contents, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined in human erythroleukemia cell line, K562 cells, as well as prkaa1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and erythrocytes. Deletion of Prkaa1 resulted in the inhibition of ULK1 phosphorylation at Ser555, prevented the formation of ULK1 and BECN1- PtdIns3K complexes, and reduced autophagy capacity. The suppression of autophagy was associated with enhanced damaged mitochondrial accumulation and ROS production. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, prkaa1(-/-) mice exhibited a shortened erythrocyte life span, hemolytic destruction of erythrocytes, splenomegaly, and anemia, all of which were alleviated by the administration of either rapamycin to activate autophagy or Mito-tempol, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, to scavenge mitochondrial ROS. Furthermore, transplantation of WT bone marrow into prkaa1(-/-) mice restored mitochondrial removal, reduced intracellular ROS levels, and normalized hematologic parameters and spleen size. Conversely, transplantation of prkaa1 (-/-) bone marrow into WT mice recapitulated the prkaa1(-/-) mouse phenotypes. We conclude that PRKAA1-dependent autophagy-mediated clearance of damaged mitochondria is required for erythrocyte maturation and homeostasis.

  14. Augmented renal clearance in septic patients and implications for vancomycin optimisation. (United States)

    Baptista, João Pedro; Sousa, Eduardo; Martins, Paulo J; Pimentel, Jorge M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of augmented renal clearance (ARC) on vancomycin serum concentrations in critically ill patients. This prospective, single-centre, observational, cohort study included 93 consecutive, critically ill septic patients who started treatment that included vancomycin by continuous infusion, admitted over a 2-year period (March 2006 to February 2008). ARC was defined as 24-h creatinine clearance (CL(Cr))>130 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Two groups were analysed: Group A, 56 patients with a CL(Cr)≤130 mL/min/1.73 m(2); and Group B, 37 patients with a CL(Cr)>130 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Vancomycin therapeutic levels were assessed on the first 3 days of treatment (D(1), D(2) and D(3)). Serum vancomycin levels on D(1), D(2) and D(3), respectively, were 13.1, 16.6 and 18.6 μmol/L for Group A and 9.7, 11.7 and 13.8 μmol/L for Group B (P<0.05 per day). The correlation between CL(Cr) and serum vancomycin on D(1) was -0.57 (P<0.001). ARC was strongly associated with subtherapeutic vancomycin serum concentrations on the first 3 days of treatment.

  15. Enhanced clearance of Abeta in brain by sustaining the plasmin proteolysis cascade. (United States)

    Jacobsen, J Steven; Comery, Thomas A; Martone, Robert L; Elokdah, Hassan; Crandall, David L; Oganesian, Aram; Aschmies, Suzan; Kirksey, Yolanda; Gonzales, Cathleen; Xu, Jane; Zhou, Hua; Atchison, Kevin; Wagner, Erik; Zaleska, Margaret M; Das, Indranil; Arias, Robert L; Bard, Jonathan; Riddell, David; Gardell, Stephen J; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Robichaud, Albert; Magolda, Ronald; Vlasuk, George P; Bjornsson, Thorir; Reinhart, Peter H; Pangalos, Menelas N


    The amyloid hypothesis states that a variety of neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) species contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, a key determinant of disease onset and progression is the appropriate balance between Abeta production and clearance. Enzymes responsible for the degradation of Abeta are not well understood, and, thus far, it has not been possible to enhance Abeta catabolism by pharmacological manipulation. We provide evidence that Abeta catabolism is increased after inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and may constitute a viable therapeutic approach for lowering brain Abeta levels. PAI-1 inhibits the activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an enzyme that cleaves plasminogen to generate plasmin, a protease that degrades Abeta oligomers and monomers. Because tPA, plasminogen and PAI-1 are expressed in the brain, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of PAI-1 will enhance the proteolytic clearance of brain Abeta. Our data demonstrate that PAI-1 inhibitors augment the activity of tPA and plasmin in hippocampus, significantly lower plasma and brain Abeta levels, restore long-term potentiation deficits in hippocampal slices from transgenic Abeta-producing mice, and reverse cognitive deficits in these mice.

  16. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. (United States)

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y


    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy.

  17. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report. (United States)

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya


    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA.

  18. Obesity, the endocannabinoid system, and bias arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M McPartland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME; analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed.

  19. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik


    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  20. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012 (United States)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu


    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference

  1. Qualia could arise from information processing in local cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Orpwood


    Full Text Available Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied, and the information message (what the information is about. It focuses on the network’s ability to recognise information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behaviour proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed.

  2. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui


    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of jointed beam with clearance (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Hong-Wei; Liu, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Kou, Zi-Ming; Deng, Zong-Quan


    The impact and elasticity of discontinuous beams with clearance frequently affect the dynamic response of structures used in space missions. This study investigates the dynamic response of jointed beams which are the periodic units of deployable structures. The vibration process of jointed beams includes free-play and impact stages. A method for the dynamic analysis of jointed beams with clearance is proposed based on mode superposition and instantaneous static deformation. Transfer matrix, which expresses the relationship of the responses before and after the impact of jointed beams, is derived to calculate the response of the jointed beams after a critical position. The dynamic responses of jointed beams are then simulated. The effects of various parameters on the displacement and velocity of beams are investigated.

  4. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J


    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  5. Guangzhou Customs Guide to "Local Declaration & Port Clearance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Ⅰ.Characteristic of the supervision mode of "Local Declaration & Port Clearance" This new mode means that the consignor,consignee or agent (hereafter referred to as "declarant") could choose any competent customs under the jurisdiction of Guangzhou Customs to make declaration and go through the formalities of document-checking and duty-paying,and then finish the cargo-examination and cargo-release at the customs office of entry or exit.

  6. Dextran fractional clearance studies in acute dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nguyen-Pouplin


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although increased capillary permeability is the major clinical feature associated with severe dengue infections the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Dextran clearance methodology has been used to investigate the molecular sieving properties of the microvasculature in clinical situations associated with altered permeability, including during pregnancy and in various renal disorders. In order to better understand the characteristics of the vascular leak associated with dengue we undertook formal dextran clearance studies in Vietnamese dengue patients and healthy volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out serial clearance studies in 15 young adult males with acute dengue and evidence of vascular leakage a during the phase of maximal leakage and b one and three months later, as well as in 16 healthy control subjects. Interestingly we found no difference in the clearance profiles of neutral dextran solutions among the dengue patients at any time-point or in comparison to the healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The surface glycocalyx layer, a fibre-matrix of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, forms a complex with the underlying endothelial cells to regulate plasma volume within circumscribed limits. It is likely that during dengue infections loss of plasma proteins from this layer alters the permeability characteristics of the complex; physical and/or electrostatic interactions between the dextran molecules and the glycocalyx structure may temporarily restore normal function, rendering the technique unsuitable for assessing permeability in these patients. The implications for resuscitation of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS are potentially important. It is possible that continuous low-dose infusions of dextran may help to stabilize the permeability barrier in patients with profound or refractory shock, reducing the need for repeated boluses, limiting the total

  7. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.


    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  8. Peripheral elevation of IGF-1 fails to alter Abeta clearance in multiple in vivo models. (United States)

    Lanz, Thomas A; Salatto, Christopher T; Semproni, Anthony R; Marconi, Michael; Brown, Tracy M; Richter, Karl E G; Schmidt, Kari; Nelson, Frederick R; Schachter, Joel B


    Increasing beta-amyloid (Abeta) clearance may alter the course of Alzheimer's disease progression and attenuate amyloid plaque pathology. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) augmentation has been suggested to increase Abeta clearance by facilitating transport of Abeta out of the brain. The availability of safe agents that increase IGF-1 levels therefore makes IGF-1 elevation an attractive target for disease modifying therapy in AD. The present series of studies sought to replicate published paradigms in which peripheral IGF-1 administration lowered brain Abeta acutely, with reduction in plaque pathology after chronic treatment. Thus Abeta levels were measured in several animal models following treatments that elevated IGF-1. Administration of IGF-1 to young or old rats for up to 3 days had no effect on Abeta levels in brain, CSF, or plasma. In adult beagles, 4 days of dosing with the growth hormone secretagogue, CP-424391, doubled baseline plasma IGF-1 levels, yet failed to alter CSF or plasma Abeta. 5-day treatment of young Tg2576 mice with IGF-1 produced robust elevations of IGF-1 levels in plasma, but no effects on Abeta were detected in brain, CSF, or plasma. Finally, 11-month-old Tg2576 mice were implanted with subcutaneous minipumps delivering IGF-1 for 1 month. No significant changes in Abeta (by ELISA or Western blot), plaque pathology, or phospho-tau epitopes were detected. These results do not demonstrate acute or chronic actions of peripherally administered IGF-1 on Abeta levels or the phosphorylation state of tau and therefore do not suggest any disease-modifying benefits of IGF-1 restorative therapy for AD through these mechanisms.

  9. Comparison of Two Alternate Methods for Tracking Toe Clearance (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.


    Analyses of toe clearance during the swing phase of locomotion has often been utilized in determining a subject s propensity to trip while either walking or stepping over an obstacle. In the literature, toe clearance has been studied using a marker on the superior aspect of the second toe (rtoe), a marker on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head (mth5), or a virtual marker positioned at the anterior tip of the toe (vtoe). The purpose of this study was to compute toe clearance and associated parameters using a fifth metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare the results with those of the standard toe marker. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at five different speeds while performing a visual acuity task at two separate target distances (ten 60-second trials). The minimum vertical height (TCl) was determined for each stride, along with its point of occurence in the gait cycle, and the angles of the foot and ankle at that time. A regression analysis was performed on the vtoe and mth5 results versus rtoe individually. For all TCl parameters, the mth5 marker did not correlate well with rtoe; the vtoe marker showed better agreement. Most importantly, the mth5 marker predicted a later occurence of TCl than rtoe and vtoe - thereby missing the most dangerous point in swing phase for a trip. From this analysis, the vtoe marker proved to be a better analog to rtoe than mth5, especially for determining a subject s propensity to trip.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  11. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A


    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  12. Coupling Effect of Double Lungs on a VCV Ventilator with Automatic Secretion Clearance Function. (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing


    For patients with mechanical ventilation, secretions in airway are harmful and sometimes even mortal, it's of great significance to clear secretion timely and efficiently. In this paper, a new secretion clearance method for VCV (volume-controlled ventilation) ventilator is put forward, and a secretion clearance system with a VCV ventilator and double lungs is designed. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the secretion clearance system is built and verified via experimental study. Finally, to illustrate the influence of key parameters of respiratory system and secretion clearance system on the secretion clearance characteristics, coupling effects of two lungs on VCV secretion clearance system are studied by an orthogonal experiment, it can be obtained that rise of tidal volume adds to efficiency of secretion clearance while effect of area, compliance and suction pressure on efficiency of secretion clearance needs further study. Rise of compliance improves bottom pressure of secretion clearance while rise of area, tidal volume and suction pressure decreases bottom pressure of secretion clearance. This paper can be referred to in researches of secretion clearance for VCV.

  13. Increased hepatic insulin clearance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils B;


    Context:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glucose tolerance and ameliorates fasting hyperinsulinemia within days after surgery. Improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance could contribute importantly to these effects.Objective:The objective of the investigation...... was to study changes in insulin clearance after RYGB.Design:This was a prospective study of fasting hepatic insulin clearance and, in a subgroup of patients, postprandial insulin clearance after a meal test before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB.Setting:The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital......:Fasting hepatic insulin clearance (fasting C-peptide/fasting insulin). Postprandial insulin clearance (incremental areas under the curve of insulin secretion rates/incremental areas under the curve of insulin).Results:Fasting hepatic insulin clearance increased after 1 week (P

  14. Analysis of friction effects on satellite antenna driving mechanism with clearance joints (United States)

    Bai, Z. F.; Chen, J.; Bian, S.; Shi, X.


    The existence of clearance in joints of mechanism is inevitable. In this paper, the friction effects in clearance joints on dynamic responses of driving mechanism of satellite antenna are studied. Considering clearances in joints, the contact force model in clearance joints is established using a nonlinear continuous contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. Then the dual-axis driving mechanism of satellite antenna with clearance joints is used as the application example. The numerical simulation of dual-axis driving mechanism with clearance joints is presented. The friction effects of clearance joint on dynamic responses of the dual-axis driving mechanism are discussed and analyzed quantitatively for four cases with different friction coefficients. The investigation results show that the increase of friction coefficient will decrease the vibration amplitude of the driving mechanism system.

  15. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller (United States)

    Yongle, Ding; Baowei, Song; Peng, Wang


    Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  16. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants. (United States)

    Ramsey, G


    RBC antibodies arising from transplanted organs and directed against recipient RBCs represent a well-established immunohematologic complication of solid organ transplantation. In ABO-unmatched organs, the frequency and severity of graft antibodies and hemolysis generally increase with the size (lymphoid content) of the organ, from kidney to liver to heart-lung transplants. In the cases reviewed here, the frequency of hemolysis increased in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients and O-to-A liver transplant recipients and decreased in group AB liver transplant recipients and kidney transplant recipients receiving azathioprine or low-dose postoperative graft irradiation. Available data cannot otherwise distinguish which cyclosporine-treated recipients of ABO-unmatched kidneys and livers (30-40% of total) will develop graft antibody. There has been no conclusive effect to date of the age, race, or gender of the donor or the recipient, of cadaver versus living kidney donors, or of patients' A2 or secretor status. In a few cases of living-donor kidney grafts, the donor was the patient's mother or wife who had been exposed to the recipient's RBC antigens via pregnancy. The ABO antibodies are typically IgG, appear 7 to 10 days after transplantation, and last for about a month. If immediate-spin crossmatching is done routinely, DATs are recommended in compatibility testing after ABO-unmatched transplants. Changes in the immunosuppressive regimen, such as a change from cyclosporine therapy, have not affected the duration of these antibodies. Most patients require only transfusions for this self-limited process, but six cases of hemolysis-induced acute renal failure have been reported, and one death was attributed to complications of hemolysis. RBC or plasma exchange has been performed in a few fulminant cases. RBCs of the donor's blood type are given when antibody appears. Some workers recommend such transfusion as prophylaxis at the time of surgery, although in

  17. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  18. Glucagonoma, chronic recurrent peptic ulcer disease, and enhanced amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. Report of a case with review of the literature. (United States)

    Pitchumoni, C S; Thelmo, W; Ahmed, K S; Kumar, A; Davidian, M; Einhorn, R; Adler, J; McCarthy, J


    A 53-year-old white woman developed diabetes mellitus, migratory erythema, and anemia, clinical features suggesting the presence of a "glucagonoma." Ten years earlier, after laparotomy and pancreatic biopsy, she had been told that she had an inoperable pancreatic carcinoma. Review of that biopsy together with current hormonal assay now confirms the diagnosis of glucagonoma. The recurrent peptic ulcer in this patient despite high levels of glucagon, a gastric inhibitory agent, is noted but not explained. An enhanced amylase-creatinine clearance ratio supports the notion that glucagon increases the clearances of amylase.

  19. Contributions of the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, NKCC1, and Kir4.1 to hippocampal K⁺ clearance and volume responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Assentoft, Mette; Cotrina, Maria L;


    (+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Their individual contribution to [K(+)]o management has been of extended controversy. This study aimed, by several complementary approaches, to delineate the transport characteristics of Kir4.1, NKCC1, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and to resolve their involvement in clearance of extracellular K......(+) transients. Primary cultures of rat astrocytes displayed robust NKCC1 activity with [K(+)]o increases above basal levels. Increased [K(+)]o produced NKCC1-mediated swelling of cultured astrocytes and NKCC1 could thereby potentially act as a mechanism of K(+) clearance while concomitantly mediate......(+)/K(+)-ATPase reduced post-stimulus clearance of K(+) transients. The astrocyte-characteristic α2β2 subunit composition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, displayed a K(+) affinity and voltage-sensitivity that would render this subunit composition specifically geared for controlling [K(+)]o during...

  20. Amyloid beta and Alzheimer’s Disease: The role of neprilysin-2 in amyloid-beta clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eMarr


    Full Text Available Accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Ab peptide is a central factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis as supported by continuing evidence. This review concisely summarizes this evidence supporting a critical role for Ab in AD before discussing the clearance of this peptide. Mechanisms of clearance of Ab are critical for preventing pathological elevations in Ab concentration. Direct degradation of Ab by endopeptidases has emerged as one important pathway for clearance. Of particular interest are endopeptidases that are sensitive to the neprilysin (NEP inhibitors thiorphan and phosphoramidon (i.e. are NEP-like as these inhibitors induce a dramatic increase in Ab levels in rodents. This review will focus on Neprilysin-2 (NEP2, a NEP-like endopeptidase which cooperates with NEP to control Ab levels in the brain. The evidence for the involvement of NEP2 in AD is discussed as well as the therapeutic relevance with regards to gene therapy and the development of molecular markers for the disease.

  1. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  2. Circulatory Support with Venoarterial ECMO Unsuccessful in Aiding Endogenous Diltiazem Clearance after Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N. Frazee


    Full Text Available Introduction. In cardiovascular collapse from diltiazem poisoning, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO may offer circulatory support sufficient to preserve endogenous hepatic drug clearance. Little is known about patient outcomes and diltiazem toxicokinetics in this setting. Case Report. A 36-year-old woman with a history of myocardial bridging syndrome presented with chest pain for which she self-medicated with 2.4 g of sustained release diltiazem over the course of 8 hours. Hemodynamics and mentation were satisfactory on presentation, but precipitously deteriorated after ICU transfer. She was given fluids, calcium, vasopressors, glucagon, high-dose insulin, and lipid emulsion. Due to circulatory collapse and multiorgan failure including ischemic hepatopathy, she underwent transvenous pacing and emergent initiation of venoarterial ECMO. The peak diltiazem level was 13150 ng/mL (normal 100–200 ng/mL and it remained elevated at 6340 ng/mL at hour 90. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple complications which resulted in her death on ICU day 9. Conclusion. This case describes the unsuccessful use of ECMO for diltiazem intoxication. Although past reports suggest that support with ECMO may facilitate endogenous diltiazem clearance, it may be dependent on preserved hepatic function at the time of cannulation, a factor not present in this case.

  3. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  4. Conceptual framework and technical basis for clearance of materials with residual radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.Y.


    The primary impediment to the release of materials containing residual radioactivity from a controlled environment is the lack of a suitable framework within which release standards can be developed. Recently, the `risk-based` approach has been proposed as an appropriate means of setting standards. The term `clearance` has been introduced by the International Atomic Energy Commission as a regulatory process for releasing radioactive materials posing trivial risks. A `trivial` risk level has been determined to be on the order of 10[sup -6] to 10[sup -7] annual risk to an exposed individual, and a population risk of no more than 0.1 annually. Under these strict constraints, exposure scenarios may account for processing, disposal, and product end-use of materials. This paper discusses these scenarios and also describes the technical basis for deriving release levels under the suggested risk (or dose) constraints.

  5. Dosing related effects of zoledronic acid on bone markers and creatinine clearance in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Jakobsen, Erik H;


    phase II clinical trial we investigated the effect of Zol treatment on the serum levels of the bone markers collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) as well as on creatinine clearance (kidney function) in response to dosing and duration of treatment...

  6. A clinical pilot study: high frequency chest wall oscillation airway clearance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Chaisson, Kathleen Marya; Walsh, Susan; Simmons, Zachary; Vender, Robert L


    Respiratory complications are common in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with respiratory failure representing the most common cause of death. Ineffective airway clearance resultant from deficient cough frequently contributes to these abnormalities. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) administered through the Vest Airway Clearance System when added to standard care in preventing pulmonary complications and prolonging the time to death in patients with ALS. This is a single center study performed at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center (HMC). Nine patients with a diagnosis of ALS and concurrently receiving non-invasive ventilatory support with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) were recruited from the outpatient clinic at HMC. Four patients were randomized to receive standard care and five patients to receive standard care plus the addition of HFCWO administered twice-daily for 15 min duration. Longitudinal assessments of oxyhemoglobin saturation, forced vital capacity (FVC), and adverse events were obtained until time of death. Pulmonary complications of atelectasis, pneumonia, hospitalization for a respiratory-related abnormality, and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation were monitored throughout the study duration. No differences were observed between treatment groups in relation to the rate of decline in FVC. The addition of HFCWO airway clearance failed to improve time to death compared to standard treatment alone (340 days +/- 247 vs. 470 days +/- 241; p = 0.26). The random allocation of HFCWO airway clearance to patients with ALS concomitantly receiving BiPAP failed to attain any significant clinical benefits in relation to either loss of lung function or mortality. This study does not exclude the potential benefit of HFCWO in select patients with ALS who have coexistent pulmonary diseases, pre-existent mucus-related pulmonary complications, or less severe levels of

  7. Early lactate clearance is associated with biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, apoptosis, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez Arturo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactate clearance, a surrogate for the magnitude and duration of global tissue hypoxia, is used diagnostically, therapeutically and prognostically. This study examined the association of early lactate clearance with selected inflammatory, coagulation, apoptosis response biomarkers and organ dysfunction scores in severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods Measurements of serum arterial lactate, biomarkers (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, high mobility group box-1, D-Dimer and caspase-3, and organ dysfunction scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment were obtained in conjunction with a prospective, randomized study examining early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock patients presenting to the emergency department (ED. Lactate clearance was defined as the percent change in lactate levels after six hours from a baseline measurement in the ED. Results Two-hundred and twenty patients, age 65.0 +/- 17.1 years, were examined, with an overall lactate clearance of 35.5 +/- 43.1% and in-hospital mortality rate of 35.0%. Patients were divided into four quartiles of lactate clearance, -24.3 +/- 42.3, 30.1 +/- 7.5, 53.4 +/- 6.6, and 75.1 +/- 7.1%, respectively (p p p Conclusions Early lactate clearance as a surrogate for the resolution of global tissue hypoxia is significantly associated with decreased levels of biomarkers, improvement in organ dysfunction and outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock.

  8. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  9. Effects of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer. (United States)

    Çelebioğlu, Ayda; Gürol, Ayşe; Yildirim, Zuhal Keskin; Büyükavci, Mustafa


    Cancer and its treatment are stressful and reduce the quality of life in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer. We conducted a controlled pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study at a paediatric oncology unit in Turkey. Twenty-five children were enrolled in this study. Their pain and anxiety were determined using a visual analogue scale. When the pretest and posttest pain and anxiety levels of the groups were compared, no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). It was determined that pain and anxiety levels in the experimental group decreased significantly. This study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness in children of massage in reducing pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration.

  10. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms. (United States)

    Pareja, Maria Eugenia Mansilla; Colombo, Maria I


    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.

  11. Upregulation of Phagocytic Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Autoimmune Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亮; 胡丽华; 李一荣


    To investigate the effect of autoimmune regulator(AIRE) on phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells,a recombinant expression vector containing full-length human AIRE cDNA was transfected into 16HBE cells.After incubation with transfected 16HBE cells,engulfment of apoptotic HL-60 cells induced by camptothecin was detected by myeloperoxidase(MPO) staining.The change in the expression of Rac 1 in transfected 16HBE cells was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting.The results showed that the phagocytosis perce...

  12. [Cardiovascular clearance for competitive sport in aging people]. (United States)

    Carré, François


    The regular sport practice slows the physiological deleterious effects of aging. However, during intense exercise, the hazard of acute cardiovascular event is significantly increased. Whatever their cardiovascular risk factors are, aging people are more prone to coronary acute event during intense exertion than a young one. Cardiovascular exam, with resting ECG and maximal exercise test, is needed to give clearance for competitive sport in aging people (>65 y.o.). The limited value to evaluate the individual risk of acute cardiac event during intense exercise must be clearly explained to Master athletes. They must be aware to the necessity to consult their physician in case of abnormal symptom during exercise.

  13. Crosstalk between the proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of α-synuclein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang YANG; Ya-ping YANG; Cheng-jie MAO; Ling LIU; Hui-fen ZHENG; Li-fang HU; Chun-feng LIU


    A growing body of evidence suggests that α-synuclein accumulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the proteasome and autophagy pathways in the clearance of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein in PC12 cells.Methods:PC12 cells overexpressing either wild-type or A30P mutant α-synuclein were treated with the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin,the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the macroautophagy activator rapamycin alone or in combination.The cell viability was assessed using MTT assay.Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were used to detect the level of α-synuclein,LAMP-2A,E1 activase,and E2 ligase in the cells.Chymotrypsin-like proteasomal activity was measured using a commercial kit.Results:When the proteasome and macroautophagy in the wild-type and mutant cells were inhibited with epoxomicin and 3-MA,respectively,the cell viability was significantly decreased,and the α-synuclein level was increased.Both epoxomicin and 3-MA activated the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) by increasing the level of the CMA-limiting enzyme LAMP-2A.Furthermore,3-MA or epoxomicin significantly decreased chymotrypsin-like proteasomal activity.3-MA or epoxomicin did not change E1 activase expression in either mutant or wild-type cells,but increased E2 ligase expression,especially when used together.Macroautophagy inducer rapamycin increased the cell viability and reduced epoxomicin-induced α-synuclein accumulation.Interestingly,CMA was also activated by rapamycin.Conclusion:Our results demonstrate the existence of complex crosstalk between different forms of autophagy and between autophagy and the proteasome pathway in the clearance of α-synuclein in PC12 cells.

  14. Confronting the Care Delivery Challenges Arising from Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Percy Ivy


    Full Text Available Understanding the biology of cancer at the cellular and molecular levels, and the application of such knowledge to the patient, has opened new opportunities and uncovered new obstacles to quality cancer care delivery. Benefits include our ability to now understand that many, if not, most cancers are not one-size-fits-all. Cancers are a variety of diseases for which intervention may be very different. This approach is beginning to bear fruit in gynecologic cancers where we are investigating therapeutic optimization at a more focused level, that while not yet precision care, is perhaps much improved. Obstacles to quality care for patients come from many directions. These include incomplete understanding of the role of the mutant proteins in the cancers, the narrow spectrum of agents, and broader mutational profiles in solid tumors, and the sometimes overzealous application of the findings of genetic testing. This has been further compromised by the unbridled use of social media by all stakeholders in cancer care often without scientific qualification, where anecdote sometimes masquerades as fact. The only current remedy is to wave the flag of caution, encourage all patients who undergo genetic testing, either germline or somatic, to do so with the oversight of genetic counselors and physician scientists knowledgeable in the pathways involved. This aspiration is accomplished with well designed clinical trials that inform next steps in this complex and ever evolving process.

  15. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT. (United States)

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P


    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (PAlbendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical identifier - NCT02005653).

  16. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau


    Full Text Available Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9. Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level.

  17. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.


    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  18. Modeling the impact of hepatitis C viral clearance on end-stage liver disease in an HIV co-infected cohort with targeted maximum likelihood estimation. (United States)

    Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica E M; van der Laan, Mark J; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B


    Despite modern effective HIV treatment, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) which has emerged as the primary cause of death in this population. Clinical interest lies in determining the impact of clearance of HCV on risk for ESLD. In this case study, we examine whether HCV clearance affects risk of ESLD using data from the multicenter Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study. Complications in this survival analysis arise from the time-dependent nature of the data, the presence of baseline confounders, loss to follow-up, and confounders that change over time, all of which can obscure the causal effect of interest. Additional challenges included non-censoring variable missingness and event sparsity. In order to efficiently estimate the ESLD-free survival probabilities under a specific history of HCV clearance, we demonstrate the double-robust and semiparametric efficient method of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TMLE). Marginal structural models (MSM) can be used to model the effect of viral clearance (expressed as a hazard ratio) on ESLD-free survival and we demonstrate a way to estimate the parameters of a logistic model for the hazard function with TMLE. We show the theoretical derivation of the efficient influence curves for the parameters of two different MSMs and how they can be used to produce variance approximations for parameter estimates. Finally, the data analysis evaluating the impact of HCV on ESLD was undertaken using multiple imputations to account for the non-monotone missing data.

  19. Tramadol and o-desmethyl tramadol clearance maturation and disposition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegaert, Karel; Holford, Nick; Anderson, Brian J;


    activity. A sigmoid maturation model was used to describe age-related changes in tramadol clearance (CLPO), M1 formation clearance (CLPM) and M1 elimination clearance (CLMO). A phenotype-based mixture model was used to identify CLPM polymorphism. RESULTS: Differences in clearances were largely accounted...... for by maturation and size. The time to reach 50 % of adult clearance (TM50) values was used to describe maturation. CLPM (TM50 39.8 weeks) and CLPO (TM50 39.1 weeks) displayed fast maturation, while CLMO matured slower, similar to glomerular filtration rate (TM50 47 weeks). The phenotype-based mixture model...... group. CONCLUSIONS: Maturation and size are key predictors of variability. A two-group polymorphism was identified based on phenotypic M1 formation clearance. Maturation of tramadol elimination occurs early (50 % of adult value at term gestation)....

  20. Understanding of the Interaction between Clearance Leakage Flow and Main Passage Flow in a VGT Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Zhao


    Full Text Available The clearance flow between the nozzle and endwall in a variable geometry turbine (VGT has been numerically investigated to understand the clearance effect on the VGT performance and internal flow. It was found that the flow rate through turbine increases but the turbine efficiency decreases with height of clearance. Detailed flow field analyses indicated that most of the efficiency loss resulting from the leakage flow occurs at the upstream of the rotor area, that is, in the nozzle endwall clearance and between the nozzle vanes. There are two main mechanisms associated with this efficiency loss. One is due to the formation of the local vortex flow structure between the clearance flow and the main flow. The other is due to the impact of the clearance flow on the main flow after the nozzle throat. This impact reduces the span of shockwave with increased shockwave magnitude by changing the trajectory of the main flow.

  1. Spontaneous viral clearance after 6-21 years of hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection in high HBV endemic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lei Fan; Lai Wei; Dong Jiang; Hong-Song Chen; Yan Gao; Ruo-Bing Li; Yu Wang


    AIM: To investigate the clinical and virological course of coinfection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in China.METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients with chronic HBV and HCV coinfection (Group BC), 16 patients with chronic HBV infection (Group B) and 31 patients with chronic HCV infection (Group C). They infected HBV and/or HCV during 1982 to 1989.Sera of all the 87 patients were collected in 1994 and 2002respectively. We detected biochemical and virologic markers and serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels of all the patients. Btype ultrasound detection was performed in some patients.RESULTS: In Group BC, 67.5% of the patients cleared HBsAg,and 92.5% of the patients cleared HBeAg. The clearance rate of HBV DNA was 87.5%. There was no significant difference of HBV clearance between Group BC and Group B. In Group BC, 85.7% of males and 47.4% of females cleared HBV, and males were easier to clear HBV (x2=6.686, P=0.010). Such a tendency was also found in Group B. The clearance rate of HCV RNA in Group BC was 87.5%, significantly higher than that in Group C (x2=22.963, P<0.001). Less than 40% of the patients in all groups had elevated liver enzyme values. The highest value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 218 u/L (normal range for ALT is 0-40 u/L). In most patients the ultrasonogram presentations changed mildly.CONCLUSION: The clinical manifestations of patients with HBV/HCV coinfection are mild and occult. High clearance rate of HBV and easy to clear HBV in male patients are the characteristics of HBV infection in adults in China. HBV can inhibit HCV replication, but no evidence has been found in our data that HCV suppresses HBV replication.

  2. 75 FR 25037 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (United States)


    .... The Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your..., using heat guns, using chemical paint removers, and wet scraping/sanding) and preparing surfaces by sanding or scraping significantly increased the risk of elevated blood lead levels. Three studies from...

  3. Relation between pulmonary clearance and particle burden: a Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic model.


    Yu, R. C.; Rappaport, S.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To test the validity of a Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic model of pulmonary clearance of insoluble dusts. METHODS: Data were investigated from studies of pulmonary clearance in F344 rats exposed to antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), photocopy test toner, polyvinyl chloride powder (PVC), and diesel exhaust particles. The Michaelis-Menten-like model was used to develop a relation in which the pulmonary clearance half time was a linear function of lung burden. After combining all data, linear...

  4. Measurement and analysis of tip clearance unsteady flow spectrum in axial-flow fan rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LIU; Weimin HOU; Changyou MA; Yangang WANG; Qiang ZHOU


    The dynamic pressure measurement device and test technology are described in this study. The tip clear-ance unsteady flow development from the inlet to the out-let of an axial-flow rotor was revealed by analyzing pressure frequency spectrum acquired from measuring the unsteady pressure field of the tip endwall. The experi-ment provides test basis for thoroughly understanding the tip clearance unsteady flow and building interaction mod-els of tip clearance flow and main flow.

  5. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N


    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium......, increase baseline values of sodium clearance and effective renal plasma flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  6. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI



    The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes t...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J; Bench, G; Myers, O; Tinner, B; Staines, W; Barr, E; Divine, K K; Barrington, W; Karlsson, J


    Inhaled manganese (Mn) can enter the olfactory bulbs via the olfactory epithelium, and can then be further transported trans-synaptically to deeper brain structures. In addition to olfactory neurons, the nasal cavity is innervated by the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve that projects to the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Direct uptake and transport of inhaled metal particles in the trigeminal system has not been investigated previously. We studied the uptake, deposition, and clearance of soluble Mn in the trigeminal system following nose-only inhalation of environmentally relevant concentrations. Rats and mice were exposed for 10 days (6 hours/day, 5 days/week) to air or MnCl2 aerosols containing 2.3 {+-} 1.3mg Mn/m{sup 3} with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 {micro}m for rats and 2.0 {+-} 0.09 mg Mn/m{sup 3} MnCl{sup 2} with MMAD of 1.98 {+-} 0.12 {micro}m for mice. Mn concentrations in the trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus were measured 2 hours (0 day), 7, 14, or 30 days post-exposure using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Manganese-exposed rats and mice showed statistically elevated levels of Mn in trigeminal ganglia 0, 7 and 14 days after the 10 day exposure period when compared to control animals. The Mn concentration gradually decreased over time with a clearance rate (t{sub 1/2}) of 7-8 days. Rats and mice were similar in both average accumulated Mn levels in trigeminal ganglia and in rates of clearance. We also found a small but significant elevation of Mn in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of mice 7 days post-exposure and in rats 0 and 7 days post-exposure. Our data demonstrate that the trigeminal nerve can serve as a pathway for entry of inhaled Mn to the brain in rodents following nose-only exposure and raise the question of whether entry of toxicants via this pathway may contribute to development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Sulforaphane enhances progerin clearance in Hutchinson–Gilford progeria fibroblasts (United States)

    Gabriel, Diana; Roedl, Daniela; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima


    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare multisystem childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. The most common HGPS mutation is found at position G608G within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. This mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal tail of prelamin A, and the truncated protein is called progerin. Progerin only undergoes a subset of the normal post-translational modifications and remains permanently farnesylated. Several attempts to rescue the normal cellular phenotype with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) and other compounds have resulted in partial cellular recovery. Using proteomics, we report here that progerin induces changes in the composition of the HGPS nuclear proteome, including alterations to several components of the protein degradation pathways. Consequently, proteasome activity and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. To restore protein clearance in HGPS cells, we treated HGPS cultures with sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from cruciferous vegetables. We determined that SFN stimulates proteasome activity and autophagy in normal and HGPS fibroblast cultures. Specifically, SFN enhances progerin clearance by autophagy and reverses the phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS. Therefore, SFN is a promising therapeutic avenue for children with HGPS. PMID:25510262

  9. Necroptosis Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Clearance by Inhibiting Excessive Inflammatory Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyegon Kitur


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus triggers inflammation through inflammasome activation and recruitment of neutrophils, responses that are critical for pathogen clearance but are associated with substantial tissue damage. We postulated that necroptosis, cell death mediated by the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, would function to limit pathological inflammation. In models of skin infection or sepsis, Mlkl−/− mice had high bacterial loads, an inability to limit interleukin-1b (IL-1b production, and excessive inflammation. Similarly, mice treated with RIPK1 or RIPK3 inhibitors had increased bacterial loads in a model of sepsis. Ripk3−/− mice exhibited increased staphylococcal clearance and decreased inflammation in skin and systemic infection, due to direct effects of RIPK3 on IL-1b activation and apoptosis. In contrast to Casp1/4−/− mice with defective S. aureus killing, the poor outcomes of Mlkl−/− mice could not be attributed to impaired phagocytic function. We conclude that necroptotic cell death limits the pathological inflammation induced by S. aureus.

  10. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C


    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis.

  11. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.


    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality.

  12. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui


    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  13. Sulforaphane enhances progerin clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria fibroblasts. (United States)

    Gabriel, Diana; Roedl, Daniela; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima


    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare multisystem childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. The most common HGPS mutation is found at position G608G within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. This mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal tail of prelamin A, and the truncated protein is called progerin. Progerin only undergoes a subset of the normal post-translational modifications and remains permanently farnesylated. Several attempts to rescue the normal cellular phenotype with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) and other compounds have resulted in partial cellular recovery. Using proteomics, we report here that progerin induces changes in the composition of the HGPS nuclear proteome, including alterations to several components of the protein degradation pathways. Consequently, proteasome activity and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. To restore protein clearance in HGPS cells, we treated HGPS cultures with sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from cruciferous vegetables. We determined that SFN stimulates proteasome activity and autophagy in normal and HGPS fibroblast cultures. Specifically, SFN enhances progerin clearance by autophagy and reverses the phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS. Therefore, SFN is a promising therapeutic avenue for children with HGPS.

  14. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.


    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guojun; CHENG Qiang; SHAO Xinyu; LI Peigen


    Clearance at turning pair has a strong impact on the kinetic accuracy of linkage, but there is short of a generic model to analyze it so far. Clearance error, input error, and manufacturing tolerance of links are taken into consideration as the random variables synthetically. The kinematics and dynamics accuracy analysis models for planar linkages with multiple clearances at joints are built up as well. At last a typical planar linkage is selected for numerical illustration. These models stated in matrix resolve the relativity of output parameter errors of mechanism and therefore are of vital significance for the reliability analysis and synthesis of mechanism with clearances.

  16. Visualization of Tear Clearance Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Polymethylmethacrylate Particles. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Sakane, Yuri; Goto, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi


    We previously reported 2 new methods, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and polymethylmethacrylate particles suspended in fluorescein solution (PPF), for the evaluation of tear clearance and rapid tear flow after blinking (tear Krehbiel flow). Here, we investigated age-related OCT tear clearance and tear film thickness (TFT) and the potential correlation of OCT tear clearance and PPF velocity indicative of tear Krehbiel flow. Normal subjects separated into young and older groups received 5 μL of saline solution into the lower conjunctival sac, and an image of the central lower eyelid tear meniscus was captured by AS-OCT immediately and 30 seconds after natural blinking. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured, and their percentage decrease was defined as OCT clearance rate. A Spectralis OCT Anterior Segment Module captured the central corneal tear film layer for TFT measurements. OCT clearance rates were significantly higher in young versus older subjects (P = 0.0002). When all subjects were analyzed, age was significantly and negatively correlated with TMH clearance rate (r = -0.4928, P = 0.0003) and TMA clearance rate (r = -0.4596, P = 0.0008). TFT values were significantly and negatively correlated with age (r = -0.6662, P clearance rates and PPF velocity (TMH rate: r = 0.2926, P = 0.0392; TMA rate: r = 0.3274, P = 0.0205). AS-OCT and PPF might be novel techniques for quantitative evaluation of tear clearance and Krehbiel flow.

  17. Influence of Tip Clearance on Pressure Fluctuation in Low Specific Speed Mixed-Flow Pump Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu Zhang


    Full Text Available To explore the influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuation in a low specific speed mixed-flow pump, tip clearances δ of 0.25 mm, 0.75 mm and 1.00 mm, along with no tip clearance, were selected. The reliability of the simulation was verified by comparison with the experimental data of external characteristics and fluctuation in the guide vane passage. Through ANSYS-CFX, MATLAB code and fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, pressure fluctuation characteristics in this pump were obtained. The results show that pressure fluctuation exists in all conditions due to the rotor-stator interaction. Under the no tip clearance and tip clearance conditions, the maximum fluctuation value was located near the guide inlet and impeller outlet, respectively. Clearance leakage had less influence on pressure fluctuation at the impeller inlet and central regions within a certain range of the clearance; beyond this range, fluctuations in the whole flow passage increased significantly, while the clearance variation had less effect on fluctuation in the guide vane. When the tip clearance value was 1.00 mm, pressure fluctuation of the shroud at the impeller inlet section suddenly increases, which was closely related to the obvious leakage vortexes and a larger low pressure area.

  18. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N


    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium.......05) and 10% (P sodium clearance were significantly diminished after 450mg (P ... values of sodium clearance and effective renal plasma flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  19. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads;


    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...

  20. Renal clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. (United States)

    Keogh, J B; McGeeney, K F; Drury, M I; Counihan, T B; O'Donnell, M D


    Pancreatic and salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were compared with those obtained for control subjects. In chronic renal insufficiency (mean GFR 30 ml/min +/- 15 SD; n = 13) the clearance ratios for pancreatic (mean 3.5 +/- 1.85 SD) and salivary (mean 2.3 +/- 1.3 SD) amylase were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in controls. Corresponding control values (n = 26) were 2.64 +/- 0.86 (pancreatic) and 1.64 +/- 0.95 (salivary). Three patients showed values above the normal limit. In the diabetic group (mean GFR 41 ml/min +/- 22 SD; n = 10) salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios (mean 2.36 +/- 1.55 SD) were significantly higher than in controls (P less than 0.05). Three patients showed raised values. Pancreatic amylase clearance was raised in only one of these patients. Three patients with terminal disease (mean GFR 10 ml/min) showed markedly raised (two- to threefold) clearance ratios for both salivary and pancreatic amylase. Of a total of 26 patients, eight had increased total amylase/creatinine clearance ratios. Pancreatic amylase/creatinine clearance was increased in seven patients, while nine patients showed raised salivary amylase/creatinine ratios. Patients with raised clearance ratios did not have clinical evidence of pancreatitis. We suggest that, in the presence of impaired renal function, a high amylase/creatinine clearance ratio need not be indicative of pancreatic disease.

  1. 77 FR 28853 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Usability Data Collections (United States)


    ... Clearance for Usability Data Collections AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST... data collections will be designed to determine requirement and evaluate the usability and utility...

  2. Multiple benefits arising from novel management of agricultural ditches (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Barber, Nick; Quinn, Paul


    The opportunity to modify the function and dynamics of farm ditches is very high. There are many kilometres of ditch that could offer multiple benefits to pollution control and lowering flood risk. However, there is first a perception problem to overcome, in that most farmers wish to remove water from the land quickly and are irritated by the accumulation of sediment. Hence, we have built a series of demonstration ditches where the new operation of the ditch can be shown to trap substantial amounts of sediment and nutrients and also not cause any local flooding or water logging problems. The ditch itself is radically changed in shape and is widened as much as possible and usually has a flat bottom. The ditch will also contain a series of leaky barriers that will retain flow during storm events. In very large events an overflow structure is required. These features do have to be engineered to a good level of safety to avoid failure. Sediment must also be recovered from the ditch frequently (at least annually) which again could be a role fulfilled by the farmer. We will show a number of example ditch designs and the data captured in experiments. One feature typically captures 50% of the suspended sediment, 30% of total phosphorus and 20% of the nitrate in a single storm.

  3. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology. (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang


    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  4. 1H NMR metabonomics indicates continued metabolic changes and sexual dimorphism post-parasite clearance in self-limiting murine malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sengupta

    Full Text Available Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance autophagy and increase β-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer disease models. (United States)

    Shin, Jin Young; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ha Na; Oh, Se Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Ha, Hee-Jin; Lee, Phil Hyu


    Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in Alzheimer disease (AD), and dysfunction in the autophagic system may lead to amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. Using in vitro and in vivo AD models, the present study investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance autophagy and thus exert a neuroprotective effect through modulation of Aβ clearance In Aβ-treated neuronal cells, MSCs increased cellular viability and enhanced LC3-II expression compared with cells treated with Aβ only. Immunofluorescence revealed that MSC coculture in Aβ-treated neuronal cells increased the number of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes that were colocalized with a lysosomal marker. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that most autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in Aβ-treated cells were not fused with lysosomes, whereas a large portion of autophagosomes were conjoined with lysosomes in MSCs cocultured with Aβ-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, MSC coculture markedly increased Aβ immunoreactivity colocalized within lysosomes and decreased intracellular Aβ levels compared with Aβ-treated cells. In Aβ-treated animals, MSC administration significantly increased autophagosome induction, final maturation of late AVs, and fusion with lysosomes. Moreover, MSC administration significantly reduced the level of Aβ in the hippocampus, which was elevated in Aβ-treated mice, concomitant with increased survival of hippocampal neurons. Finally, MSC coculture upregulated BECN1/Beclin 1 expression in AD models. These results suggest that MSCs significantly enhance autolysosome formation and clearance of Aβ in AD models, which may lead to increased neuronal survival against Aβ toxicity. Modulation of the autophagy pathway to repair the damaged AD brain using MSCs would have a significant impact on future strategies for AD treatment.

  6. Analysis of Ineffectiveness Arising in “Investor-government” Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro B. Sokolovskyi


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article deals with the problem of forming Pareto non-optimal norms of mutual behavior of investors and government in the process of decision-making related to financing designed to reduce risks in investment activity. Methodology: Considering the interdependent type (nature of interactions between related parties, game theory tools were used to model such interactions. Much attention was directed to search for  parameters of interaction leading to certain Nash equilibriums in pure strategies. The formal results obtained with the model were verified by statistical analysis. Findings: Analysis showed that the rational behavior of related parties can lead to unexpected results. Powerful investors will aim to work in socially-oriented economies, whereas primarily small investors will operate in most liberal economies with a minimum tax burden but with a higher level of risk. As for governments’ behaviors, the images are the same: small economies tend to liberalize their tax systems and to secure investment faster than powerful ones. Empirical verification based on statistical data of groups of countries generally confirmed the conclusions. These formal and logical conclusions were from statistical analysis of 124 countries divided into 5 groups: OECD countries, post-socialist countries, Latin American countries, APAC countries and ACP countries. Provided that the more powerful ones are covered economies, there was stronger interdependence between the size of economies and tax burden and also between total investment and tax burden, where this dependence is positive. Originality: The results obtained used Nash equilibriums in pure strategies as models of behavioral norms to define behaviors of related parties and also to explain assumptions concerning the behaviors of investors and government.

  7. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B;


    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation ...

  8. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann


    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  9. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C


    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...... parasites, SP could theoretical be slow in parasite clearance. We therefore assessed the antipyretic effects of CQ in therapeutic combination with SP, and the speed of parasite clearance by SP in an open-labelled, randomized trial of CQ alone (n=39), SP alone (n=39), SP plus CQ (n=37) and SP plus...... paracetamol (PCM) (n=38) in children with uncomplicated malaria. Over 72 h, there were eight (20.5%) treatment failures in the CQ group but none in the other groups. Although not significant (P > 0.1), irrespective of resistance CQ alone had a shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (54...

  10. Low-calcium diets increase both production and clearance of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.; Bunker, J.E.; Kamimura, M.; Wong, P.F. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))


    Administration of large doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) to animals induces 1,25(OH)2D3 side-chain oxidative pathways. This study determined if the elevated plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 seen in rats fed low-Ca diets is associated not only with an increased production rate (PR) but also with an increased metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of the hormone. In vitamin D-replete rats fed a Ca-deficient diet for 3-4 wk, the PR increased 21-fold, plasma levels 15-fold, and the MCR by 37%. The increased MCR in Ca-deficient rats was associated with a 48% increase in hepatic microsomal UDP glucuronyl transferase enzyme activity, whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 catabolism by homogenates of liver and small intestinal mucosa was unchanged. In contrast to the effects of low-Ca diets, acute (7 h) pharmacological elevation of plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 to 1.5 ng/ml in normal rats did not influence the MCR. Thus chronically elevated 1,25(OH)2D3 levels are necessary to stimulate clearance. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)2D3 clearance in rats can be stimulated not only by chronic pharmacological doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 but also by the physiological stimulus of a low-Ca diet. Hence, plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 levels can be regulated by changes in both PR and MCR.

  11. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  12. Clinical use of amylase clearance and isoamylase measurements. (United States)

    Levitt, M D


    Isoamylase determinations and measurements of the ratio of the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine (CAm/CCr) were employed in an attempt to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the standard amylase measurement. An elevated CAm/CCr reflects defective proximal tubular reabsorption of amylase which occurs in virtually all patients with clear-cut acute pancreatitis. However, other conditions that apparently are associated with acute defective tubular function, such as burns and diabetic acidosis, may cause an elevated ratio. Thus, elevations of CAm/CCr cannot be considered to be specific for acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic isoamylase represents, on the average, about 33% of the normal serum amylase activity, whereas about 66% is salivary-type isoamylase. Isoamylase measurements are useful in determining whether an elevated value for serum amylase activity is of pancreatic origin. However, this measurement is not useful for determining whether patients with normal serum amylase activity have pancreatitis.

  13. Container scanning to reduce time of customs clearance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira,


    Full Text Available One way to increase customs clearance efficiency and to assure supply chain security is the use of non-intrusive inspection equipment, such as scanners. In Brazil, scanners are new, but their use at port terminals is growing rapidly. Considering the possibility of Brazilian Customs requesting 100% scanning of loads, this study aims to assess the operational impacts of this possible request at a specific port terminal. This is the originality of this research. To do so, this study uses applied simulation methods in a case study. Results show that for the current scenario, scanners do not appear to be an operational bottleneck at this port, but the scanning capacity will be exceeded with the planned port expansion. Hence, scheduling rules for single machines were applied to optimize scanning performance. These heuristics provided good performance, suggesting that scanners can provide benefits to priority cargo handling, and could eventually increase the performance of port terminals throughout the country.

  14. Dynamic analysis for planar beam with clearance joint (United States)

    Yao, XiaoGuang; Guo, XiaoSong; Feng, YongBao; Yu, ChuanQiang; Ma, Changlin


    An analytical model was presented in this study to describe the dynamic characteristics of a planar rotation beam with clearance joint. The spherical contact model was introduced to calculate the collision forces for the planar revolute joint. Unlike previous research, to acquire an accurate and convergent solution, the second-order coupling term of the beam axial deformation is taken into account. Then, the flexible beam was divided into discrete elements via the finite element method. The dynamic equations of the model were deduced via the Hamilton's principle. Further, the dynamic responses were obtained and analyzed in the non-inertial and inertial coordinates. To prove the validity of the presented methodology, a virtual prototype model with identical conditions was created in ADAMS. A numerical example was simultaneously calculated by the two different approaches. Comparison of the results shows that the two approaches match quite well. Finally, some valuable conclusions describing the inner-joint collision process are extracted and summarized.

  15. [Modeling 5-FU clearance during a chronomodulated infusion]. (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, F; Chevalier, V; Chevrier, R; Richard, D; Cure, H; Chollet, P


    Drugs pharmacokinetic control is a usual practice in case of flat continuous infusions. It enables among others, to modulate delivered doses when drug concentrations in blood appear too high. With chronotherapy, this possibility becomes more difficult because of sinusoidal outflows of infusion. We propose here a method that enables this follow-up, established through the study of 21 metastatic colorectal cancer patients, treated with a chronomodulated infusion of high dose 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) and folinic acid. This pharmacokinetic follow-up permitted the modelisation of 5-FU clearance and the calculation of an index, which was, in our study, correlated to the treatment response and also to main encountered toxicities.

  16. The interplay of lung surfactant proteins and lipids assimilates the macrophage clearance of nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Ruge

    Full Text Available The peripheral lungs are a potential entrance portal for nanoparticles into the human body due to their large surface area. The fact that nanoparticles can be deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs is of interest for pulmonary drug delivery strategies and is of equal importance for toxicological considerations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of nanoparticle interaction with the structures of this largest and most sensitive part of the lungs is important for both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Astonishingly, there is still little known about the bio-nano interactions that occur after nanoparticle deposition in the alveoli. In this study, we compared the effects of surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A and D (SP-D on the clearance of magnetite nanoparticles (mNP with either more hydrophilic (starch or hydrophobic (phosphatidylcholine surface modification by an alveolar macrophage (AM cell line (MH-S using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both proteins enhanced the AM uptake of mNP compared with pristine nanoparticles; for the hydrophilic ST-mNP, this effect was strongest with SP-D, whereas for the hydrophobic PL-mNP it was most pronounced with SP-A. Using gel electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering methods, we were able to demonstrate that the observed cellular effects were related to protein adsorption and to protein-mediated interference with the colloidal stability. Next, we investigated the influence of various surfactant lipids on nanoparticle uptake by AM because lipids are the major surfactant component. Synthetic surfactant lipid and isolated native surfactant preparations significantly modulated the effects exerted by SP-A and SP-D, respectively, resulting in comparable levels of macrophage interaction for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. Our findings suggest that because of the interplay of both surfactant lipids and proteins, the AM clearance of nanoparticles is essentially the same, regardless

  17. The interplay of lung surfactant proteins and lipids assimilates the macrophage clearance of nanoparticles. (United States)

    Ruge, Christian A; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Herrmann, Jennifer; Kirch, Julian; Cañadas, Olga; Echaide, Mercedes; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Casals, Cristina; Müller, Rolf; Lehr, Claus-Michael


    The peripheral lungs are a potential entrance portal for nanoparticles into the human body due to their large surface area. The fact that nanoparticles can be deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs is of interest for pulmonary drug delivery strategies and is of equal importance for toxicological considerations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of nanoparticle interaction with the structures of this largest and most sensitive part of the lungs is important for both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Astonishingly, there is still little known about the bio-nano interactions that occur after nanoparticle deposition in the alveoli. In this study, we compared the effects of surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) on the clearance of magnetite nanoparticles (mNP) with either more hydrophilic (starch) or hydrophobic (phosphatidylcholine) surface modification by an alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line (MH-S) using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both proteins enhanced the AM uptake of mNP compared with pristine nanoparticles; for the hydrophilic ST-mNP, this effect was strongest with SP-D, whereas for the hydrophobic PL-mNP it was most pronounced with SP-A. Using gel electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering methods, we were able to demonstrate that the observed cellular effects were related to protein adsorption and to protein-mediated interference with the colloidal stability. Next, we investigated the influence of various surfactant lipids on nanoparticle uptake by AM because lipids are the major surfactant component. Synthetic surfactant lipid and isolated native surfactant preparations significantly modulated the effects exerted by SP-A and SP-D, respectively, resulting in comparable levels of macrophage interaction for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. Our findings suggest that because of the interplay of both surfactant lipids and proteins, the AM clearance of nanoparticles is essentially the same, regardless of different

  18. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.


    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  19. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless...

  20. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran. 535.335 Section 535.335 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim...

  1. Factors Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Kong


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15–45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.

  2. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage powerlines; clearances above... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  3. Creatinine clearance as predictor of tobramycin elimination in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D.J.; Vinks, A.A.T.M.M.; Jacobs, F.; Heijerman, H.G.M.; Bakker, Wim


    Assessment of renal function and relating this parameter to aminoglycoside clearance is important for an appropriate individualization of dosage regimens in patients with impaired renal function. However, it has been suggested that in cystic fibrosis (CF), creatinine clearance (CrCl) is not a good p

  4. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow Pattern in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor with Micro Tip Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojuan Geng; Hongwu Zhang; Jingyi Chen; Weiguang Huang


    A numerical study of the effect of discrete micro tip injection on unsteady tip clearance flow pattern in an isolated axial compressor rotor is presented, intending to better understand the flow mechanism behind stall control measures that act on tip clearance flow. Under the influence of injection the unsteadiness of self-induced tip clearance flow could be weakened. Also the radial migration of tip clearance vortex is confined to a smaller radial extent near the rotor tip and the trajectory of tip clearance flow is pushed more downstream. So the injection is beneficial to improve compressor stability and increase static pressure rise near rotor tip region. The results of injection with different injected mass flow rates show that for the special type of injector adopted in the paper the effect of injection on tip clearance flow may be different according to the relative strength between these two streams of flow. For a fixed injected mass flow rate, reducing the injector area to increase injection velocity can improve the effect of injection on tip clearance flow and thus the compressor stability. A comparison of calculations between single blade passage and multiple blade passages validates the utility of single passage computations to investigate the tip clearance flow for the case without injection and its interaction with injected flow for the case with tip injection.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-28B are associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the association between interleukin(IL)-28B variation and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods A total of 280 HCV infected patients including 200 chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients and 80 spontaneous clearance patients of

  6. CD8+ T cells mediate antibody-independent platelet clearance in mice. (United States)

    Arthur, Connie M; Patel, Seema R; Sullivan, H Cliff; Winkler, Annie M; Tormey, Chris A; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Stowell, Sean R


    Platelet transfusion provides an important therapeutic intervention in the treatment and prevention of bleeding. However, some patients rapidly clear transfused platelets, preventing the desired therapeutic outcome. Although platelet clearance can occur through a variety of mechanisms, immune-mediated platelet removal often plays a significant role. Numerous studies demonstrate that anti-platelet alloantibodies can induce significant platelet clearance following transfusion. In fact, for nearly 50 years, anti-platelet alloantibodies were considered to be the sole mediator of immune-mediated platelet clearance in platelet-refractory individuals. Although nonimmune mechanisms of platelet clearance can often explain platelet removal in the absence of anti-platelet alloantibodies, many patients experience platelet clearance following transfusion in the absence of a clear mechanism. These results suggest that other processes of antibody-independent platelet clearance may occur. Our studies demonstrate that CD8(+)T cells possess the unique ability to induce platelet clearance in the complete absence of anti-platelet alloantibodies. These results suggest a previously unrecognized form of immune-mediated platelet clearance with significant implications in the appropriate management of platelet-refractory individuals.

  7. 77 FR 28625 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance... (United States)


    ...: Agricultural employers, SWAs, agricultural workers. Form(s): ETA 790 and ETA 795. Total Annual Respondents: 9... Food Processing Clearance Order, ETA Form 790, Extension With Revisions, and the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Memorandum, ETA Form 795, Extension Without Revisions AGENCY: Employment and...

  8. Nuclear methods in pulmonary medicine. Methodologic considerations in mucociliary clearance and lung epithelial absorption measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolovich, M.B.; Jordana, M.; Newhouse, M.


    Measurements of mucociliary clearance and lung epithelial permeability are relatively simple to perform, with minimum discomfort to the subjects. Awareness of the factors influencing the outcome of these procedures will help to avoid errors and yield useful information about these two clearance mechanisms from both a physiological and a pathological point of view.

  9. 78 FR 69643 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction... (United States)


    ... extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research which may be in the form of... customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed for content, utility, and user... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for...

  10. 75 FR 38775 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction... (United States)


    ...; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Bureau is requesting an extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research... on feedback from its various customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is...

  11. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S


    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity....

  12. Active generalized predictive control of turbine tip clearance for aero-engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kai; Fan Ding; Yang Fan; Fu Qiang; Li Yong


    Active control of turbine blade tip clearance continues to be a concern in design and con-trol of gas turbines. Ever increasing demands for improved efficiency and higher operating temper-atures require more stringent tolerances on turbine tip clearance. In this paper, a turbine tip clearance control apparatus and a model of turbine tip clearance are proposed;an implicit active generalized predictive control (GPC), with auto-regressive (AR) error modification and fuzzy adjustment on control horizon, is presented, as well as a quantitative analysis method of robust per-turbation radius of the system. The active clearance control (ACC) of aero-engine turbine tip clear-ance is evaluated in a lapse-rate take-off transient, along with the comparative and quantitative analysis of the stability and robustness of the active tip clearance control system. The results show that the resultant active tip clearance control system with the improved GPC has favorable steady-state and dynamic performance and benefits of increased efficiency, reduced specific fuel consump-tion, and additional service life.

  13. Visual Confirmation of Voice Takeoff Clearance (VICON) Operational Evaluation. Volume I. (United States)


    opinions, sug- gestions , and recommendations are valu- 4. If no VICON light was observed by able inputs. the flight crew, request confirmation of the...clearance t Ln - proceso is 99.993%. Hence, it can be expected that one failure will 50 occur in every 50,000 clearances. The Bradley installation contains

  14. Renal Clearance: Using an Interactive Activity to Visualize a Tricky Concept (United States)

    Hull, Kerry


    Renal clearance, the volume of blood cleared of a substance in a particular time period, is commonly recognized as one of the most difficult concepts in physiology. This difficulty may in part reflect the quantitative nature of renal clearance since many life sciences majors perceive that mathematics is irrelevant to their discipline. Students may…

  15. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis (United States)


    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  16. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  17. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  18. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance or permission to depart denied. 122.66 Section 122.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  19. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs. (United States)


    ... be provided when relocating existing or constructing new power and communication lines over waters of... section). (e) Required clearances. Minimum vertical clearances for power and communication lines over... communication lines over reservoirs. 222.3 Section 222.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  20. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice. (United States)

    Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Sandra M; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Araujo, Hygor N; Santos, Gustavo J; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Rezende, Luiz F; Costa-Júnior, José M


    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe.

  1. Study on leakage flow characteristics of radial inflow turbines at rotor tip clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tip clearance leakage flow in a radial inflow turbine rotor for microturbines under the stage environment is investigated using a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation. The results indicate that the scraping flow caused by relative motion between casing and rotor tip, and the pressure difference between pressure side and suction side at rotor tip, play important roles in tip clearance leakage flow. The more the rotor tip speed increases and tip clearance height decreases, the more the scraping effect acts. Though the leakage velocity of tip clearance at midsection and exducer regions changes less when the rotor rotational speed is changing, the distance between passage vortex and rotor suction side varies in evidence. Main leakage flow rate of tip clearance takes place at region of exducer tip and some seal configurations will be quite effective for cutting leakage flow if these configurations are arranged over midsection and exducer of the radial inflow rotor.

  2. Study on leakage flow characteristics of radial inflow turbines at rotor tip clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG QingHua; NIU JiuFang; FENG ZhenPing


    Tip clearance leakage flow in a radial inflow turbine rotor for microturbines under the stage environment is investigated using a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation. The results indicate that the scraping flow caused by relative motion between casing and rotor tip, and the pressure difference between pressure side and suction side at rotor tip, play important roles in tip clearance leakage flow. The more the rotor tip speed increases and tip clearance height decreases, the more the scraping effect acta. Though the leakage velocity of tip clearance at midsection and exducer regions changes less when the rotor rotational speed is changing, the distance between passage vortex and rotor suction side varies in evidence. Main leakage flow rate of tip clearance takes place at region of exducer tip and some seal configurations will be quite effective for cutting leakage flow if these configurations are arranged over midsection and exducer of the radial inflow rotor.

  3. Influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuations in an axial flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jianjun; Luo, Xingqi; Guo, Pengcheng; Wu, Guangkuan [Xi' an University, Xi' an (China)


    Rotor-stator interaction in axial pumps can produce pressure fluctuations and further vibrations even damage to the pump system in some extreme case. In this paper, the influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuations in an axial flow water pump has been investigated by numerical method. Three-dimensional unsteady flow in the axial flow water pump has been simulated with different tip clearances between the impeller blade tip and the casing wall. In addition to monitoring pressure fluctuations at some typical points, a new method based on pressure statistics was proposed to determine pressure fluctuations at all grid nodes inside the whole pump. The comparison shows that the existence of impeller tip clearance magnifies the pressure fluctuations in the impeller region, from the hub to shroud. However, the effect on pressure fluctuation in the diffuser region is not evident. Furthermore, the tip clearance vortex has also been examined under different tip clearances.

  4. Measurement of Rotating Blade Tip Clearance with Fibre-Optic Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, S Z; Duan, F J; Zhang, Y G [State Key Laboratory of Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tianjin, University. Tianjin, 300072 (China)


    This paper described a tip clearance measuring system with fibre-optic probe. The system is based on a novel tip clearance sensor of optical fibre-bundle mounted on the casing, rotating speed synchronization sensor mounted on the rotating shaft, the tip clearance preamplification processing circuit followed by high speed data-acquisition unit. A novel tip clearance sensor of trifurcated optical fibre bundle was proposed and demonstrated. It is independent of material of measured surface but capacitive probe demands target conductive. Measurements can be taken under severe conditions such as ionization. Sensor circuitry and data acquisition circuit were successfully designed. With the help of Rotation synchronized sensor, all the blades can be detected in real-time. Because of fibre-optic sensor, the measuring system has commendably frequency response, which can work well in high rotating speed from 0-15000rpm.The measurement range of tip clearance is 0-3mm with 25um precision.

  5. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident. (United States)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu


    health effects are properly interpreted; the limitations of epidemiological studies for attributing radiation effects following low exposures are understood; any confusion on protection quantities and units is resolved; the potential hazard from the intake of radionuclides into the body is elucidated; rescuers and volunteers are protected with an ad hoc system; clear recommendations on crisis management and medical care and on recovery and rehabilitation are available; recommendations on public protection levels (including infant, children and pregnant women and their expected offspring) and associated issues are consistent and understandable; updated recommendations on public monitoring policy are available; acceptable (or tolerable) 'contamination' levels are clearly stated and defined; strategies for mitigating the serious psychological consequences arising from radiological accidents are sought; and, last but not least, failures in fostering information sharing on radiological protection policy after an accident need to be addressed with recommendations to minimise such lapses in communication.

  6. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Use of clearance rate in Choromytilus chorus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a non-destructive biomarker of aquatic pollution El uso de la tasa de aclaramiento en Choromytilus chorus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) como biomarcador no destructivo de la polución acuática




    Reduction in clearance rate was observed in the mussel Choromytilus chorus in relation to the degree of environmental pollution. Three sampling sites included the polluted San Vicente Bay, middling polluted Corral Bay, and weakly polluted Yaldad Bay in southern Chile. Pollution levels were estimated by quantitative analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussel tissue from the three sites. Mussels from San Vicente showed lowest clearance rates and highest PAHs levels in both s...

  8. Beta-cell dysfunction and low insulin clearance in insulin-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Vølund, Aage;


    with insulin sensitivity) and insulin clearance rate were reduced in lipodystrophic patients (-55%, P clearance rate correlated strongly with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.82, P ... and diabetes mellitus (63%vs. 20%, P clearance....

  9. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitran, Sorin, E-mail:


    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  10. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. (United States)

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I


    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury.

  11. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope. (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A


    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  12. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Arising in Colorectal Endometriosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wang


    Full Text Available Extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS arising in endometriosis is extremely rare, particularly in the colorectum. It should always be included in the differential diagnosis of primary tumors originating from gastrointestinal tract in females, given that preoperative endoscopical biopsy may reveal no specific changes. We reported a case of ESS arising in colorectal endometriosis and reviewed the previous 7 cases reported in the English literature. Our patient, who was unavailable for tumor resection and refused further adjuvant therapy, played a role in representing the natural history of low-grade extragenital ESS. This case was the only death from ESS arising in colorectal endometriosis.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst in the thumb (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akio; Shiba, Eisuke; Hisaoka, Masanori


    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst is rare, and the most frequently affected region is the head and neck. Presentation of case A 41-year-old man noticed swelling and a small ulceration in the thumb pulp. A lesion with a 2-cm diameter was simply resected based on a diagnosis of infected epidermal cyst. Pathological diagnosis of the resected material was squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst. Consequent amputation was performed. Discussion and conclusion The clinical symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst can mimic those of an infected epidermal cyst. The current report facilitates awareness of such disease. PMID:25912006

  14. Toll-like receptors are critical for clearance of Brucella and play different roles in development of adaptive immunity following aerosol challenge in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu ePei


    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause undulant fever in humans and brucellosis in variety of other animals. Both innate and adaptive immunity have been shown to be important in controlling Brucella infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs represent a group of pattern recognition receptors that play critical roles in the host innate immune response, as well as development of adaptive immunity. In the current report, we investigated the role of TLR signaling in the clearance of Brucella and development of adaptive immunity in TLR2-/-, TLR4-/- or MyD88-/- mice following aerosol exposure to B. melitensis 16M. Consistent with previous reports, MyD88 is required for efficient clearance of Brucella from all three organs (lung, spleen and liver. The results reveal Th2-skewed immune responses in TLR2 / mice late in infection and support a TLR2 requirement for efficient clearance of Brucella from the lungs, but not from the spleen or liver. Similarly, TLR4 is required for efficient clearance of Brucella from the lung, but exhibits a minor contribution to clearance from the spleen and no demonstrable contribution to clearance from the liver. Lymphocyte proliferation assays suggest that the TLRs are not involved in the development of cell-mediated memory response to Brucella antigen. Antibody detection reveals that TLR2 and 4 are required to generate early antigen-specific IgG, but not during the late stages of infection. TLR2 and 4 are only transiently required for IgM production and not at all for IgA production. In contrast, MyD88 is essential for antigen specific IgG production late in infection, but is not required for IgM generation over the course of infection. Surprisingly, despite the prominent role for MyD88 in clearance from all tissues, MyD88-knockout mice express significantly higher levels of serum IgA. These results confirm the important role of MyD88 in controlling infection in the spleen while providing evidence of a prominent contribution to protection in other

  15. The clearance concept with special reference to determination of glomerular filtration rate in patients with fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik L; Henriksen, Jens H


    between the total plasma clearance and the urinary plasma clearance. This is owing to delayed indicator distribution to smaller or larger parts of the interstitial space, which in patients with ascites may simulate a peritoneal dialysator. In patients with fluid retention, urinary plasma clearance should...

  16. Relationship between pressure wave amplitude and esophageal bolus clearance assessed by combined manometry and multichannel intraluminal impedance measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Tippett, Marcus; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Holloway, Richard H.


    OBJECTIVES: Esophageal wave amplitude is an important determinant of esophageal clearance. A threshold of 30 mmHg is widely accepted as the threshold for effective clearance in the distal esophagus. However, the precise relationship between wave amplitude and clearance has received relatively little

  17. Noscapine recirculates enterohepatically and induces self-clearance. (United States)

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu


    Noscapine (Nos), an antitussive benzylisoquinoline opium alkaloid, is a non-toxic tubulin-binding agent currently in Phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. While preclinical studies have established its tumor-inhibitory properties in various cancers, poor absorptivity and rapid first-pass metabolism producing several uncharacterized metabolites for efficacy, present an impediment in translating its efficacy in humans. Here we report novel formulations of Nos in combination with dietary agents like capsaicin (Cap), piperine (Pip), eugenol (Eu) and curcumin (Cur) known for modulating Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), organ toxicity evaluation of combinations, microsomal stability and in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition effects of Nos, Cap and Pip using human liver microsomes were performed. Single-dose PK screening of combinations revealed that the relative exposure of Nos (2 μg h/mL) was enhanced by 2-fold (4 μg h/mL) by Cap and Pip and their plasma concentration-time profiles showed multiple peaking phenomena for Nos indicating enterohepatic recirculation or differential absorption from intestine. CYP inhibition studies confirmed that Nos, Cap and Pip are not potent CYP inhibitors (IC50>1 μM). Repeated oral dosing of Nos, Nos+Cap and Nos+Pip showed lower exposure (Cmax and AUClast) of Nos on day 7 compared to day 1. Nos Cmax decreased from 3087 ng/mL to 684 ng/mL and AUClast from 1024 ng h/mL to 508 ng h/mL. In presence of Cap and Pip, the decrease in Cmax and AUClast of Nos was similar. This may be due to potential enzyme induction leading to rapid clearance of Nos as the trend was observed in Nos alone group also. The lack of effect on intrinsic clearance of Nos suggests that the potential drug biotransformation modulators employed in this study did not contribute toward increased exposure of Nos on repeated dosing. We envision that Nos-induced enzyme induction could alter the therapeutic efficacy of co

  18. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats. (United States)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads; Fels, Johannes Josef; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Agersø, Henrik


    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rhGH in non-anesthetized rats, anesthetized rats and in nephrectomized anesthetized rats. Clearance in non-anesthetized rats was 290 ml/h/kg. This was reduced to 185 ml/h/kg by anesthesia and further reduced to 18 ml/h/kg by nephrectomy. As nephrectomy was able to reduce clearance with 90%, we conclude that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats.

  19. Influence of liquid in clearances on the operational behaviour of twin screw expanders (United States)

    Gräßer, Melanie; Brümmer, Andreas


    A lot of effort has been expended on understanding the influences of an injected auxiliary liquid on a twin screw expander's performance. Sealed clearances improve performance on the one hand, but involve considerable frictional losses on the other hand. This paper contributes to an evaluation of these opposing effects with regard to the efficiency of screw expanders. First, thermodynamic analyses using the multi-chamber model-based simulation tool KaSim, developed at the Chair of Fluidics, are presented for a test screw expander in order to show the maximum potential of clearance sealing. This analysis involves thermodynamic simulations for sealed and unsealed clearances and leads to an order of priorities for different clearance types. Second, hydraulic losses within front and housing clearances are calculated, applying an analytical model of incompressible one-phase clearance flow. Subsequently dry and wet screw expanders are evaluated while both clearance sealing and frictional losses are considered for the simulation of a liquid-injected machine.

  20. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance? (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K


    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics in a Centrifugal Pump with Variable Axial Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao


    Full Text Available Clearance flows in the sidewall gaps of centrifugal pumps are unsteady as well as main flows in the volute casing and impeller, which may cause vibration and noise, and the corresponding pressure fluctuations are related to the axial clearance size. In this paper, unsteady numerical simulations were conducted to predict the unsteady flows within the entire flow passage of a centrifugal pump operating in the design condition. Pressure fluctuation characteristics in the volute casing, impeller, and sidewall gaps were investigated with three axial clearance sizes. Results show that an axial clearance variation affects the pressure fluctuation characteristics in each flow domain by different degree. The greatest pressure fluctuation occurs at the blade pressure surface and is almost not influenced by the axial clearance variation which has a certainly effect on the pressure fluctuation characteristics around the tongue. The maximum pressure fluctuation amplitude in the sidewall gaps is larger than that in the volute casing, and different spectrum characteristics show up in the three models due to the interaction between the clearance flow and the main flow as well as the rotor-stator interaction. Therefore, clearance flow should be taken into consideration in the hydraulic design of centrifugal pumps.

  2. A pair of Fibonacci-like polynomials arising from a special mapping (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin; Griffiths, Jonny


    We study here a pair of sequences of polynomials that arise from a particular iterated mapping on the plane. We show how these sequences come about, and give some of their interesting mathematical properties.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst in the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Sakamoto


    Discussion and conclusion: The clinical symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst can mimic those of an infected epidermal cyst. The current report facilitates awareness of such disease.

  4. A Classical Realizability Model arising from a Stable Model of Untyped Lambda Calculus


    Streicher, Thomas


    We study a classical realizability model (in the sense of J.-L. Krivine) arising from a model of untyped lambda calculus in coherence spaces. We show that this model validates countable choice using bar recursion and bar induction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢福鼎; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆


    Four families of similarity reductions are obtained for the nonlinear evolution equation arising in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem via using both the direct method due to Clarkson and Kruskal and the improved direct method due to Lou.

  6. Right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum* (United States)

    Faistauer, Ângela; Torres, Felipe Soares; Faccin, Carlo Sasso


    We report a case of an uncommon thoracic aorta anomaly-right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum-that went undiagnosed until adulthood. PMID:27777481

  7. Dietary aluminosilicate supplement enhances immune activity in mice and reinforces clearance of porcine circovirus type 2 in experimentally infected pigs. (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Toan, Nguyen Tat; Cho, Sun-Ju; Ko, Jae-hyung; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Lee, Bong-Joo


    Aluminosilicate is the major component of clay minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and clinoptilolite. The minerals possess a number of beneficial activities, especially in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate immune enhancing effects of dietary aluminosilicate supplement (DAS) in mice, and to demonstrate clearance effects of DAS against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of an antibiotic substitute for use in pigs. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phagocytic activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, serum antibody production level and spleen B cell ratio were significantly increased in the DAS groups of mice compared with the control group (each feeding group had three replications with 5 mice each). The results indicated that general immune activity including cellular and humoral immunity could be enhanced by DAS in mice. In experimentally PCV2-infected pigs, the load of viral genome in nasal swab, serum and lung of the DAS group of pigs was significantly decreased compared with the control group at 28 days post-infection (each group three pigs). Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that pigs in the DAS group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with the control group, indicating that DAS reinforces clearance of PCV2 in experimentally infected pigs. This may relate to general immune enhancing effects of DAS in mice. Therefore DAS will help the health of animal, especially in swine.

  8. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice. (United States)

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y


    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in wounds of PPARγ-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-α reversed the healing deficit in PPARγ-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-α in PPARγ-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-α by PPARγ-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPARγ-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPARγ agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-α expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPARγ-KO mice. Therefore, PPARγ has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The dynamic responses of roller gear indexing cam mechanism are investigated .With applying Lagarange equation and Gear method,motion equations of this mechanism including clearance,motor characteristic,torsion flexibility are developed and solved.The results show that clearance affects primarily the response on turret,and has little effects on the responses on rotary table.At the same time,the velocity fluctuation of motor shaft is not serious for the existence of inertia of reducer,and the high frequency of velocity fluctuation of camshaft is related with the torsion stiffness of shaft and the clearance between pairs.

  10. Lymphatic clearance of synovial fluid in conscious pigs: the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, H P;


    investigated the transport of PIIINP from the knee cavity into the circulation after intra-articular injection of radiolabelled PIIINP followed by sequential sampling of thoracic duct lymph, serum and urine. Clearance from the joint space was evaluated by external detection of 131I-HSA, used as co......-life of the joint clearance of HSA by bulk flow was assessed to be 8.3 h. The clearance of PIIINP from the joint was estimated to be equal to that of HSA, which indicates that PIIINP leaves the joint space by bulk flow as has been proposed for HSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  11. Experimental Study of Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Sensitivity to Tip Clearance (United States)

    Williams, Robert W.; Zoladz, Thomas; Storey, Anne K.; Skelley, Stephen E.


    This viewgraph presentation provides information on an experiment. Its objective is to experimentally determine unshrouded impeller performance sensitivity to tip clearance. The experiment included: Determining impeller efficiency at scaled operating conditions in water at MSFC's Pump Test Equipment (PTE) Facility; Testing unshrouded impeller at three different tip clearances; Testing each tip clearance configuration at on- and off-design conditions, and collecting unsteady- and steady-state data in each configuration; Determining impeller efficiency directly using drive line torquemeter and pump inlet and exit total pressure measurements.

  12. Bearing misalignment effects on the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic behaviour of gears in fixed clearance end plates (United States)

    Koc, E.


    Lubrication and sealing mechanisms of fixed clearance end plates in high-pressure pumps have been analysed theoretically and experimentally. Bearing misalignment was found to be the main lubrication mechanism, and it was effective in determining the gear position between two end plates. The minimum film thickness between the gear end and end plate has been found to depend on the magnitude of the relative tilt of the surfaces and the position of the maximum clearance. The theory developed can predict the film thickness between the end plate and gear end face, and this corresponds very closely to the clearances measured experimentally under a variety of operating conditions.

  13. The Use of Denoising and Analysis of the Acoustic Signal Entropy in Diagnosing Engine Valve Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Figlus


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for processing acoustic signals which allows the extraction, from a very noisy signal, of components which contain diagnostically useful information on the increased valve clearance of a combustion engine. This method used two-stage denoising of the acoustic signal performed by means of a discrete wavelet transform. Afterwards, based on the signal cleaned-up in this manner, its entropy was calculated as a quantitative measure of qualitative changes caused by the excessive clearance. The testing and processing of the actual acoustic signal of a combustion engine enabled clear extraction of components which contain information on the valve clearance being diagnosed.

  14. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;


    INTRODUCTION: Previous distribution and histological studies have indicated that the kidneys and renal proximal tubular cells play a role in clearance of rFVIIa. However, the relative importance of the kidneys in clearance of rFVIIa has not previously been addressed. The objective of the present...... study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...

  15. Limitation of amylase creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic test for postoperative pancreatitis. (United States)

    Wapnick, S; Evans, M I; Hadas, N; Grosberg, S J


    The mean +/- S.E.M. ratio of amylase to creatinine clearance significantly increased at 24 hours after operations on the stomach and gallbladder but not after operations at sites remote from the abdominal cavity. Clinically, the elevated amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was not accompanied by pancreatitis. In dogs, surgical handling of the pancreas alone caused a significant increase in this measurement. The amylase to creatinine clearance ratio is not likely to be helpful in predicting the rare, but serious, postoperative complication of pancreatitis.

  16. Establishment and use of surgical rat models for assessment of organ specific in vivo clearance. (United States)

    Vestergaard, Bill


    Knowledge of clearance plays a key role in the development of new drug entities, especially in the development of improved analogues for treatment of chronic conditions. Improved pharmacokinetic properties can be used to increase dosing interval and thereby improve patient compliance. This will lead to improved treatment outcome or decreased risk of treatment failure when treating chronic conditions. Therefore, animal models for assessment of organ-specific clearance are of great value in preclinical drug development. These models can be used to obtain insights into the relative importance of a clearance organ and thereby guide drug design of new analogues in early drug discovery. The current PhD project was undertaken to explore surgical in vivo models, which could be used in the assessment of the relative importance of major clearance organs. It was the aim of the PhD project to establish and validate both a nephrectomy model and a hepatectomy model as tools to investigate relative importance of renal and hepatic clearance. Furthermore, the project aim was to investigate renal clearance of rFVIIa and rhGH using a nephrectomy model in rats. The thesis is composed of a short theoretical background, a literature review, two papers based on experimental work as well as experimental work not included in the papers. Chapter one is an introduction with the specific aims and hypotheses. The chapters from two to five contain theoretical background of the clearance concept, anatomical and physiological description of clearance organs and a brief overview of potential clearance models including in vivo models. Chapters six through nine highlight the experimental work with the results obtained during the PhD project. Lastly, the chapters from ten to twelve contain a general discussion, conclusion and perspectives of the current thesis. Paper I "Nephrectomized and hepatectomized animal models as tools in preclinical pharmacokinetics" provides a literature review of animal

  17. Inhaled adrenergics and anticholinergics in obstructive lung disease: do they enhance mucociliary clearance? (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D


    Pulmonary mucociliary clearance is an essential defense mechanism against bacteria and particulate matter. Mucociliary dysfunction is an important feature of obstructive lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. This dysfunction in airway clearance is associated with accelerated loss of lung function in patients with obstructive lung disease. The involvement of the cholinergic and adrenergic neural pathways in the pathophysiology of mucus hypersecretion suggests the potential therapeutic role of bronchodilators as mucoactive agents. Although anticholinergics and adrenergic agonist bronchodilators have been routinely used, alone or in combination, to enhance mucociliary clearance in patients with obstructive lung disease, the existing evidence does not consistently show clinical effectiveness.

  18. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian


    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation. In vivo preclinical studies showed that the surviving fraction of MoS2-treated mice can appreciably increase to up to 79 % when they were exposed to high-energy ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MoS2 dots can contribute in cleaning up the accumulated free radicals within the body, repairing DNA damages and recovering all vital chemical and biochemical indicators, suggesting their unique role as free radical...

  19. A Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensor for Propulsion Health Monitoring (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bencic, Timothy J.


    Microwave sensor technology is being investigated by the NASA Glenn Research Center as a means of making non-contact structural health measurements in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. This type of sensor technology is beneficial in that it is accurate, it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures, and is unaffected by contaminants that are present in turbine engines. It is specifically being targeted for use in the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) and High Pressure Compressor (HPC) sections to monitor the structural health of the rotating components. It is intended to use blade tip clearance to monitor blade growth and wear and blade tip timing to monitor blade vibration and deflection. The use of microwave sensors for this application is an emerging concept. Techniques on their use and calibration needed to be developed. As a means of better understanding the issues associated with the microwave sensors, a series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate their performance for aero engine applications. This paper presents the results of these experiments.

  20. Rate of clearance of intrathecal iopamidol in the dog. (United States)

    Wilcox, J; Evill, C A; Sage, M R


    The incidence of post-myelographic side-effects has been significantly reduced since the advent of the new generation of water-soluble, non-ionic, contrast media (CM). One of these CM, iopamidol, has recently been released for clinical intrathecal use in Australia. Clinical evaluations have shown iopamidol to give excellent diagnostic results. However, many adverse side-effects have been cited in the literature. Reactions to iopamidol following myelography are thought to be due to the lack of a physiologic barrier between the extracellular fluid of the brain parenchyma and the CSF, thereby allowing CM to penetrate the brain parenchyma tissue, following subarachnoid injection. This study investigates the rate of clearance of intrathecal iopamidol from the brain in dogs by performing coronal CT scans at intervals over a 48 h, post-injection period. Analysis of similar regions of interest (ROI) for each time period indicate that iopamidol can be detected in canine brains for at least 48 h following intrathecal injection (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the disappearance of iopamidol from the brain parenchyma is approximately logarithmic in form, with a half-life of approximately 22 h.

  1. Mechanism of hard-nanomaterial clearance by the liver (United States)

    Tsoi, Kim M.; Macparland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Spetzler, Vinzent N.; Echeverri, Juan; Ouyang, Ben; Fadel, Saleh M.; Sykes, Edward A.; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Kaths, Johann M.; Conneely, John B.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Selzner, Markus; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Adeyi, Oyedele A.; Zilman, Anton; McGilvray, Ian D.; Chan, Warren C. W.


    The liver and spleen are major biological barriers to translating nanomedicines because they sequester the majority of administered nanomaterials and prevent delivery to diseased tissue. Here we examined the blood clearance mechanism of administered hard nanomaterials in relation to blood flow dynamics, organ microarchitecture and cellular phenotype. We found that nanomaterial velocity reduces 1,000-fold as they enter and traverse the liver, leading to 7.5 times more nanomaterial interaction with hepatic cells relative to peripheral cells. In the liver, Kupffer cells (84.8 +/- 6.4%), hepatic B cells (81.5 +/- 9.3%) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (64.6 +/- 13.7%) interacted with administered PEGylated quantum dots, but splenic macrophages took up less material (25.4 +/- 10.1%) due to differences in phenotype. The uptake patterns were similar for two other nanomaterial types and five different surface chemistries. Potential new strategies to overcome off-target nanomaterial accumulation may involve manipulating intra-organ flow dynamics and modulating the cellular phenotype to alter hepatic cell interactions.

  2. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass. (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M


    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  3. Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo (United States)

    Brooks, David G; Trifilo, Matthew J.; Edelmann, Kurt H.; Teyton, Luc; McGavern, Dorian B; Oldstone, Michael B A


    Persistent viral infections are a major health concern. One obstacle inhibiting the clearance of persistent infections is functional inactivation of antiviral T cells. Although such immunosuppression occurs rapidly after infection, the mechanisms that induce the loss of T-cell activity and promote viral persistence are unknown. Herein we document that persistent viral infection in mice results in a significant upregulation of interleukin (IL)-10 by antigen-presenting cells, leading to impaired T-cell responses. Genetic removal of Il10 resulted in the maintenance of robust effector T-cell responses, the rapid elimination of virus and the development of antiviral memory T-cell responses. Therapeutic administration of an antibody that blocks the IL-10 receptor restored T-cell function and eliminated viral infection. Thus, we identify a single molecule that directly induces immunosuppression leading to viral persistence and demonstrate that a therapy to neutralize IL-10 results in T-cell recovery and the prevention of viral persistence. PMID:17041596

  4. Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias Arising from the Distal Great Cardiac Vein. (United States)

    Letsas, Konstantinos P; Efremidis, Michael; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Georgopoulos, Stamatis; Xydonas, Sotirios; Valkanas, Kosmas; Sideris, Antonios


    Catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias arising from the distal great cardiac vein represents a great challenge. We report data regarding the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics in two patients with ventricular arrhythmias arising from the distal great cardiac vein. The technical difficulties to advance and navigate the ablation catheter within the coronary venous system as well as the close proximity to the major coronary vessels are discussed.

  5. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: A case report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Anuj


    Full Text Available Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor. Malignant change arising in this lesion is infrequent and only a few cases have been reported. We discuss a case of a 56-year-old female presenting with a firm breast mass, which was interpreted as myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a background of adenomyoepithelioma, based on morphological and immunohistochemical studies. This case is being highlighted for its rarity and distinct morphological spectrum.

  6. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Arising from Renal Allograft Parenchyma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Kwon, Ghee Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare but serious complication that occurs in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. PTLD usually manifests as a renal hilar mass comprised of histologically B-lymphocytes. We report our experience of managing a patient with PTLD arising from renal parenchyma. Ultrasonographic and MR imaging features of this unusual PTLD suggested differentiated renal cell carcinoma arising from the renal allograft

  7. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor.

  8. Variational iteration method for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning. (United States)

    He, Ji-Huan; Kong, Hai-Yan; Chen, Rou-Xi; Hu, Ming-sheng; Chen, Qiao-ling


    This paper points out that the so called enhanced variational iteration method (Colantoni & Boubaker, 2014) for a nonlinear equation arising in electrospinning and vibration-electrospinning process is the standard variational iteration method. An effective algorithm using the variational iteration algorithm-II is suggested for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning. A suitable choice of initial guess results in a relatively accurate solution by one or few iteration.

  9. Nitric oxide hinders antibody clearance from the surface of Trypanoplasma borreli and increases susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. (United States)

    Forlenza, Maria; Nakao, Miki; Wibowo, Indra; Joerink, Maaike; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F


    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular blood parasite of carp belonging to the same Order (Kinetoplastida) as African trypanosomes. These mammalian parasites have developed different strategies to evade the host immune system including antigenic variation, immunosuppression and clearance of surface-bound antibodies. The latter mechanism allows trypanosomes to use their swimming movement to cause surface-bound antibodies to 'sail' and accumulate at the posterior end of the parasite, to be internalized via the flagellar pocket and be degraded. There is no evidence that T. borreli shows antigenic variation, but during the late phases of infection NO-mediated immunosuppression is observed. High levels of nitric oxide (NO) lead to extensive tissue nitration whereas the parasite itself is not affected. Therefore, the induction of NO has thus far been considered a parasite-driven response with immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, we show that the induction of NO, particularly during the early phase of T. borreli infections, should be re-considered an effective part of the host immune response. We show that T. borreli rapidly removes surface-bound IgM. In addition, moderate concentrations of NO, by hindering surface antibody clearance, maintain high the concentrations of membrane-bound IgM, thereby favoring antibody-dependent complement-mediated parasite lysis. We performed a comprehensive quantitative gene expression analysis of in total seven different complement factors involved in all three activation pathways, differentiating between 1 and 4 isoforms for each complement gene. Our gene expression analysis supports an important role for antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of T. borreliin vivo. To our knowledge, NO-dependent inhibition of antibody clearance from the surface of kinetoplastid parasites has not been investigated. Our data support a role for NO as an important player in host-parasite interactions, not only as immune suppressor (late

  10. Indocyanine green clearance varies as a function of N-acetylcysteine treatment in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity. (United States)

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Brown, Aliza; McCullough, Sandra S; Letzig, Lynda; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P


    Standard assays to assess acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in animal models include determination of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and examination of histopathology of liver sections. However, these assays do not reflect the functional capacity of the injured liver. To examine a functional marker of liver injury, the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were examined in mice treated with APAP, saline, or APAP followed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment.Male B6C3F1 mice were administered APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline. Two additional groups of mice received APAP followed by NAC at 1 or 4 h after APAP. At 24 h, mice were injected with ICG (10 mg/kg IV) and serial blood samples (0, 2, 10, 30, 50 and 75 min) were obtained for determination of serum ICG concentrations and ALT. Mouse livers were removed for measurement of APAP protein adducts and examination of histopathology. Toxicity (ALT values and histology) was significantly increased above saline treated mice in the APAP and APAP/NAC 4 h mice. Mice treated with APAP/NAC 1 h had complete protection from toxicity. APAP protein adducts were increased in all APAP treated groups and were highest in the APAP/NAC 1 h group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ICG demonstrated that the total body clearance (Cl(T)) of ICG was significantly decreased and the mean residence time (MRT) was significantly increased in the APAP mice compared to the saline mice. Mice treated with NAC at 1 h had Cl(T) and MRT values similar to those of saline treated mice. Conversely, mice that received NAC at 4 h had a similar ICG pharmacokinetic profile to that of the APAP only mice. Prompt treatment with NAC prevented loss of functional activity while late treatment with NAC offered no improvement in ICG clearance at 24 h. ICG clearance in mice with APAP toxicity can be utilized in future studies testing the effects of novel treatments for APAP toxicity.

  11. Self-clearance mechanism of mitochondrial E3 ligase MARCH5 contributes to mitochondria quality control. (United States)

    Kim, Song-Hee; Park, Yong-Yea; Yoo, Young-Suk; Cho, Hyeseong


    MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial dynamics proteins and misfolded proteins, and has been proposed to play a role in mitochondria quality control. However, it remains unclear how mutant MARCH5 found in cancer tissues is removed from cells. Here, we show that mutation in the MARCH5 ligase domain increased its half-life fourfold, resulting in a drastic increase in its protein level. Abnormal accumulation of the E3 ligase-defective MARCH5 mutants MARCH5(H43W) and MARCH5(C65/68S) was diminished by overexpression of active MARCH5(WT) ; the mutant proteins were degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that MARCH5 forms homodimers, and that substitution of Gly to Leu at the first putative GxxxG dimerization motif, but not the second, resulted in a loss of dimeric interaction. Moreover, overexpression of the dimerization-defective mutant MARCH5(4GL) could not decrease the level of accumulated MARCH5(H43W) , suggesting that dimerization of MARCH5 is necessary for self-clearance. Abnormal accumulation of MARCH5(H43W) and mitochondrial hyperfusion led to NF-ĸB activation, which was suppressed by overexpression of MARCH5(WT) . Together, the data reveal a self-protective mechanism involving MARCH5, which can target its own dysfunctional mutant for degradation in order to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis.

  12. Gamma-variate plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Stefan; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hansen, Hanne Boskov


    In patients with fluid retention, the plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA (Clexp obtained by multiexponential fit) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was undertaken to compare a gamma-variate plasma clearance (Clgv) with the urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr......-EDTA (Clu ) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. A total of 81 patients with cirrhosis (22 without fluid retention, 59 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51) Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 h. Clgv was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, obtained by a gamma-variate iterative fit. Clexp and Clu were determined by standard technique. In patients without fluid retention, Clgv , Clexp and Clu were closely similar. The difference between Clgv and Clu (Clgv - Clu = ΔCl) was mean -0...

  13. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Kupffer cell phagosomal motility, bacterial clearance, and liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson CY


    Full Text Available Christa Y Watson, Ramon M Molina, Andressa Louzada, Kimberly M Murdaugh, Thomas C Donaghey, Joseph D BrainCenter for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USABackground: Zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO ENPs have potential as nanomedicines due to their inherent properties. Studies have described their pulmonary impact, but less is known about the consequences of ZnO ENP interactions with the liver. This study was designed to describe the effects of ZnO ENPs on the liver and Kupffer cells after intravenous (IV administration.Materials and methods: First, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine the tissue distribution of neutron-activated 65ZnO ENPs post-IV injection in Wistar Han rats. Then, a noninvasive in vivo method to assess Kupffer cell phagosomal motility was employed using ferromagnetic iron particles and magnetometry. We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serum and liver tissues were collected to assess liver-injury biomarkers and histological changes, respectively.Results: We found that the liver was the major site of initial uptake of 65ZnO ENPs. There was a time-dependent decrease in tissue levels of 65Zn in all organs examined, reflecting particle dissolution. In vivo magnetometry showed a time-dependent and transient reduction in Kupffer cell phagosomal motility. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa 24 hours post-ZnO ENP injection showed an initial (30 minutes delay in vascular bacterial clearance. However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ENP injection, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum were significantly increased. Histological evidence of

  14. Investigation on the influence of leakage clearance on the flow field and performance of scroll hydraulic pump (United States)

    Sun, Shuaihui; Huang, Yi; Guo, Pengcheng; Zuo, Juanli; Luo, Xingqi


    In the present paper, the computer fluid dynamics(CFD) with dynamic mesh model had been applied in scroll hydraulic pump to obtain its flow field at different leakage clearance. The fluid force on the orbiting scroll, the mass flow rate and the hydraulic efficiency at different leakage clearance were calculated based on the flow field data. The results indicated that when the leakage clearance increased from 0.5mm to 1.5mm, the average pressure, maximum of pressure fluctuation, leakage jet flow velocity, shaft power, cavitation degree decreased and the leakage flow rate increased. If the leakage clearance was 2.0mm, the high pressure discharge fluid flowed through the clearance and led to the increase of the average pressure and fluid force. When the leakage clearance is 1.0mm, the average pressure is far lower than that at the 0.5mm clearance, and the hydraulic efficiency is the highest.

  15. Esophageal Acid Clearance Is Faster in Patients with Barrett's Esophagus Than in Healthy Controls During Random Swallowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Christian; Krarup, Anne Petas Swane; Gregersen, Hans;


    Background/Aims: Impaired esophageal acid clearance may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus. However, few studies have measured acid clearance as such in these patients. In this explorative, cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare esophageal acid clearance...... and swallowing rate in patients with Barrett's esophagus to that in healthy controls. Methods: A total of 26 patients with histology-confirmed Barrett's esophagus and 12 healthy controls underwent (1) upper endoscopy, (2) an acid clearance test using a pH-impedance probe under controlled conditions including...... clearance test were not correlated (all P > 0.3). Conclusions: More frequent swallowing and thus faster acid clearance in Barrett's esophagus may constitute a protective reflex due to impaired mucosal integrity and possibly acid hypersensitivity. Despite these reinforced mechanisms, acid clearance ability...

  16. Dynamics Research of rigid-flexible model of crank-rocker mechanism with Multi Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shao Jun


    Full Text Available This paper takes the crank-rocker mechanism as the research object, purposed for the simulation of the motion pair with clearance utilizing the contact force model and the coulomb friction model, we build the virtual prototype of four-bar mechanism with clearance joints in the ADAMS. The article mainly contrasts the influence dynamics characteristics towards the mechanism multi-joint clearance between the rigid rocker and the flexible rocker. Considering the jointed arm’s flexibility, the four, five and six order modal of the rocker, generated by ANSYS as a neutral document, were imported into ADAMS for simulation. The result shows that Mechanism with four joint clearance increased the impact on the speed and the acceleration appeared greater fluctuation, the flexible rod has a buffer effect to the contact-impact forces, and the dynamic characteristics of fluctuations are improved.

  17. Impact of CYP2C8*3 on paclitaxel clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, T K; Brasch-Andersen, C; Gréen, H;


    , the individual clearance of unbound paclitaxel was estimated from total plasma paclitaxel and Cremophor EL. The geometric mean of clearance was 385 l h(-1) (range 176-726 l h(-1)). Carriers of CYP2C8*3 had 11% lower clearance than non-carriers, P=0.03. This has not been shown before in similar studies......; the explanation is probably the advantage of using both unbound paclitaxel clearance and a population of patients of same gender. No significant association was found for the ABCB1 variants C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T. Secondarily, other candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms were explored with possible...

  18. Influence of Clearance and Punch Velocity on the Quality of Pure Thin Copper Sheets Blanked Parts (United States)

    Zakariya Lubis, Didin; Mahardika, Muslim


    Research on the influence of clearance and punch velocity to determine the quality of the punched edge were conducted. This study uses pure copper sheet material with the clearance variation of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. Punch velocity is based on the ability of about Micro Punch CNC machine which is 100 and 2600 mm/min. At highest speed with a clearance of 2.5%, sheared zone is of about 395 pm or 79% of the material thickness. It can be concluded that the punch velocity gives positive influence on the sheared zone in copper. Basically the ideal outcome of the sheared edge of punching result is having rollover and small burr and contain at least 75% of the shear zone. This can be achieved with a clearance of 2.5%.

  19. Accuracy of indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry clearance test for liver function prediction in transplanted patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Bao Hsieh; Chung-Jueng Chen; Teng-Wei Chen; Jyh-Cherng Yu; Kuo-Liang Shen; Tzu-Ming Chang; Yao-Chi Liu


    AIM: To investigate whether the non-invasive real-time Indocynine green (ICG) clearance is a sensitive index of liver viability in patients before, during, and after liver transplantation.METHODS: Thirteen patients were studied, two before,three during, and eight following liver transplantation, with two patients suffering acute rejection. The conventional invasive ICG clearance test and ICG pulse spectrophotometry non-invasive real-time ICG clearance test were performed simultaneously. Using linear regression analysis we tested the correlation between these two methods. The transplantation condition of these patients and serum total bilirubin (T. Bil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and platelet count were also evaluated.RESULTS: The correlation between these two methods was excellent (r2=0.977).CONCLUSION: ICG pulse spectrophotometry clearance is a quick, non-invasive, and reliable liver function test in transplantation patients.

  20. 76 FR 79752 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... of Actual Construction or Alteration, Project Status Report AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... the progress of actual construction. ] DATES: Written comments should be submitted by February...

  1. Intra-operative colloid administration increases the clearance of a post-operative fluid load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Tine; Hahn, Robert; Holte, K;


    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an intra-operative colloid infusion alters the dynamics of a crystalloid load administered post-operatively. METHODS: Ten patients received 12.5 ml/kg of Ringer's lactate over 30 min 1-3 days before and 4 h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, during which 10 ml....../kg of a colloid solution, hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4), was infused. The total body clearance of the pre- and post-operative test infusions was taken as the ratio between the urinary excretion and the Hb-derived dilution of venous plasma over 150 min. The plasma clearance of the infused fluid was calculated...... using volume kinetics based on the plasma dilution alone. The pre-operative plasma clearance was compared with the post-operative plasma clearance and patients served as their own control. RESULTS: The urinary excretion averaged 350 ml for the pre-operative infusion and 612 ml post-operatively, which...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE


    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm based on [1] [2] are numerical simulations, achieving generalized coordinates of motion, positions, speeds of a rigid rotating kinematic coupling with big clearance in joint, case without friction


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chang-qing; XU Qing-yu; ZHANG Xiao-long


    Stability and dynamic characteristics of a ball bearing-rotor system are investigated under the effect of the clearance in the ball bearing. Different clearance values are assumed to calculate the nonlinear stability of periodic solution with the aid of the Floquet theory. Bifurcation and chaos behavior are analyzed with variation of the clearance and rotational speed. It is found that there are three routes to unstable periodic solution.The period-doubling bifurcation and the secondary Hopf bifurcation are two usual routes to instability. The third route is the boundary crisis, a chaotic attractor occurs suddenly as the speed passes through its critical value. At last, the instable ranges for different internal clearance values are described. It is useful to investigate the stability property of ball bearing rotor system.

  4. Traffic Incident Clearance Time and Arrival Time Prediction Based on Hazard Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang beibei Ji


    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of incident duration is not only important information of Traffic Incident Management System, but also an effective input for travel time prediction. In this paper, the hazard based prediction models are developed for both incident clearance time and arrival time. The data are obtained from the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ STREAMS Incident Management System (SIMS for one year ending in November 2010. The best fitting distributions are drawn for both clearance and arrival time for 3 types of incident: crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard. The results show that Gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull are the best fit for crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard incident, respectively. The obvious impact factors are given for crash clearance time and arrival time. The quantitative influences for crash and hazard incident are presented for both clearance and arrival. The model accuracy is analyzed at the end.

  5. Sensitivity of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Farrar, W H; Calkins, G


    An elevated amylase-creatinine clearance ratio has been established as being highly specific for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the sensitivity of this test was compared to that of the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase test in 29 patients with acute pancreatitis. Abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio were found less frequently than abnormal elevations of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. Moreover, abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio showed less deviation from normal and values returned to normal sooner than those of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. When compared to the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase tests, the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio is a relatively insensitive test in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  6. 77 FR 31584 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Program Evaluation Data... (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Program Evaluation Data Collection AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology... take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required...

  7. Optical Method for Real-Time Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Measurement Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring and controlling blade tip clearance of high pressure turbines are important for maintaining the integrity of the engine during its operating points and...

  8. Hybrid incompatibility arises in a sequence-based bioenergetic model of transcription factor binding. (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Alexander Y; Johnson, Norman A; Watt, Ward B; Porter, Adam H


    Postzygotic isolation between incipient species results from the accumulation of incompatibilities that arise as a consequence of genetic divergence. When phenotypes are determined by regulatory interactions, hybrid incompatibility can evolve even as a consequence of parallel adaptation in parental populations because interacting genes can produce the same phenotype through incompatible allelic combinations. We explore the evolutionary conditions that promote and constrain hybrid incompatibility in regulatory networks using a bioenergetic model (combining thermodynamics and kinetics) of transcriptional regulation, considering the bioenergetic basis of molecular interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites. The bioenergetic parameters consider the free energy of formation of the bond between the TF and its binding site and the availability of TFs in the intracellular environment. Together these determine fractional occupancy of the TF on the promoter site, the degree of subsequent gene expression and in diploids, and the degree of dominance among allelic interactions. This results in a sigmoid genotype-phenotype map and fitness landscape, with the details of the shape determining the degree of bioenergetic evolutionary constraint on hybrid incompatibility. Using individual-based simulations, we subjected two allopatric populations to parallel directional or stabilizing selection. Misregulation of hybrid gene expression occurred under either type of selection, although it evolved faster under directional selection. Under directional selection, the extent of hybrid incompatibility increased with the slope of the genotype-phenotype map near the derived parental expression level. Under stabilizing selection, hybrid incompatibility arose from compensatory mutations and was greater when the bioenergetic properties of the interaction caused the space of nearly neutral genotypes around the stable expression level to be wide. F2's showed higher

  9. Effects of Floating Ring Bearing Manufacturing Tolerance Clearances on the Dynamic Characteristics for Turbocharger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Longkai; BIN Guangfu; LI Xuejun; ZHANG Xuefeng


    The inner and outer oil film dynamic characteristic coefficients of floating ring bearings(FRBs) change due to the manufacturing tolerance of the floating ring, journal and intermediate, which leads to high-speed turbocharger’s vibration too large and even causes nonlinear vibration accident. However, the investigation of floating ring bearing manufacturing tolerance clearance on the rotordynamic characteristics is less at present. In order to study the influence law of inner and outer clearance on turbocharger vibration, the rotor dynamic motion equations of turbocharger supported in FRBs are derived by analyzing the size relations between floating ring, journal and intermediate for the inner and outer oil film clearances, the time transient response analysis for combination of FRBs clearance are developed. A realistic turbocharger is taken as a research object, the FE model of the turbocharger with FRBs is modeled. Under the conditions of four kinds of limit state bearing clearances for inner and outer oil film, the nonlinear transient analyses are performed based on the established FE dynamic models of the nonlinear rotor-FRBs system applied incentive combinations of gravity and unbalance force, respectively. From the waterfall, the simulation results show that the speed for the appearance of fractional frequency is not identical and the amplitude magnitude is different under the four kinds of bearing manufacturing tolerance limit clearances, and fractional frequency does not appear in the turbocharger and the amplitude is minimum under the ODMin/IDMax bearing manufacturing tolerance clearances. The turbocharger vibration is reduced by controlling the manufacturing tolerance clearance combinations of FRBs, which is helpful for the dynamic design and production-manufacturing of high-speed turbocharger.

  10. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.


    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R


    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  11. IgM promotes the clearance of small particles and apoptotic microparticles by macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Litvack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies are often involved in enhancing particle clearance by macrophages. Although the mechanisms of antibody-dependent phagocytosis have been studied for IgG in greater detail, very little is known about IgM-mediated clearance. It has been generally considered that IgM does not support phagocytosis. Recent studies indicate that natural IgM is important to clear microbes and other bioparticles, and that shape is critical to particle uptake by macrophages; however, the relevance of IgM and particle size in their clearance remains unclear. Here we show that IgM has a size-dependent effect on clearance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used antibody-opsonized sheep red blood cells, different size beads and apoptotic cells to determine the effect of human and mouse IgM on phagocytosis by mouse alveolar macrophages. Our microscopy (light, epifluorescence, confocal and flow cytometry data show that IgM greatly enhances the clearance of small particles (about 1-2 micron by these macrophages. There is an inverse relationship between IgM-mediated clearance by macrophages and the particle size; however, macrophages bind and internalize many different size particles coated with IgG. We also show that IgM avidly binds to small size late apoptotic cells or bodies (2-5 micron and apoptotic microparticles (<2 µm released from dying cells. IgM also promotes the binding and uptake of microparticle-coated beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, while the shape of the particles is important for non-opsonized particle uptake, the particle size matters for antibody-mediated clearance by macrophages. IgM particularly promotes the clearance of small size particles. This finding may have wider implications in IgM-mediated clearing of antigens, microbial pathogens and dying cells by the host.

  12. Flutter clearance of the horizontal tail of the Bellanca Skyrocket II airplane (United States)

    Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Farmer, M. G.


    The Skyrocket II is an all composite constructed experimental prototype airplane. A flutter clearance program was conducted on the horizontal tail so that the airplane could be safely flown to acquire natural laminar flow aerodynamic data. Ground vibration test data were used in a lifting surface flutter analysis to predict symmetric and antisymmetric flutter boundaries. Subcritical response data which were acquired during flight tests are compared with the analytical results. The final flutter clearance placard speed was based on flight test data.

  13. Lung clearance of {sup 99m} Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Medicina Interna; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail:


    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  14. Error modelling and experimental validation of a planar 3-PPR parallel manipulator with joint clearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl;


    This paper deals with the error modelling and analysis of a 3-PPR planar parallel manipulator with joint clearances. The kinematics and the Cartesian workspace of the manipulator are analyzed. An error model is established with considerations of both configuration errors and joint clearances. Using...... this model, the upper bounds and distributions of the pose errors for this manipulator are established. The results are compared with experimental measurements and show the effectiveness of the error prediction model....

  15. The value of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Solomon, A R


    Acute pancreatitis usually confronts the clinician with a difficult diagnostic task. For years, the primary laboratory diagnostic tests were the serum and urine amylase and the serum lipase determinations. Recent studies have introduced the concept of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio as a means of increasing the specificity of the laboratory diagnosis. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluation of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on the rationale, derivation, and specificity of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  16. Effects of semi-floating ring bearing outer clearance on the subsynchronous oscillation of turbocharger rotor (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong


    Semi-floating ring bearing(SFRB) is developed to control the vibration of turbocharger rotor. The outer clearance of SFRB affects the magnitude and frequency of nonlinear whirl motion, which is significant for the design of turbocharger. In order to explore the effects of outer clearance, a transient finite element analysis program for rotor and oil film bearing is built and validated by a published experimental case. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of rotor-SFRB system are simulated. According to the simulation results, two representative subsynchronous oscillations excited by the two bearings respectively are discovered. As the outer clearance of SFRB increases from 24 μm to 60 μm, the low-frequency subsynchronous oscillation experiences three steps, including a strong start, a gradual recession and a combination with the other one. At the same time, the high-frequency subsynchronous oscillation starts to appear gradually, then strengthens, and finally combines. If gravity and unbalance are neglected, the combination will start starts from high rotor speed and extents to low rotor speed, just like a "zipper". It is found from the quantitative analysis that when the outer clearance increases, the vibration amplitude experiences large value firstly, then reduction, and suddenly increasing after combination. A useful design principle of SFRB outer clearance for minimum vibration amplitude is proposed: the outer clearance value should be chosen to keep the frequency of two subsynchronous oscillations clearly separated and their amplitudes close.

  17. The mechanism of increased renal clearance of amylase in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Warshaw, A L; Lee, K H


    Amylase isoenzymes, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were measures in 25 normal persons (mean amylase to creatinine clearance ratio 3.0%), 15 patients with acute pancreatitis (mean clearance ratio 9.5%, P less than 0.0001), and 6 patients with hyperamylasemia due to common duct stones (mean clearance ratio 4.1%). Two isoamylases (P1, P2) resembling pancreatic isoenzymes and three isoamylases (S1, S2, S3) resembling salivary isoenzymes appeared regularly in normal serum and urine. Salivary amylases predominated in serum, but pancreatic amylases predominated in urine. This finding is consistent with renal clearance of pancreatic amylases exceeding that of salivary amylases under normal conditions. In patients with pancreatitis or common duct stones, essentially all of the increased amylase activity in serum and urine was due to pancreatic isoamylases (P1 and P2) in their normal proportions. No new or altered amylase isoenzymes were detected. The fraction of pancreatic amylases in the serum or urine was identical for the two diseases. Whereas the difference in amylase to creatinine clearance ratios observed between the two groups of patients is not a function of different amylase isoenzymes presented to the kidney, we conclude that the increased amylase clearance in acute pancreatitis is caused by an alteration of renal transfer of amylase, either at the glomerulus or tubule.

  18. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu


    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  19. Fault Diagnosis of Valve Clearance in Diesel Engine Based on BP Neural Network and Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕凤荣; 刘以萍


    Based on wavelet packet transformation(WPT), genetic algorithm(GA), back propagation neural net-work(BPNN)and support vector machine(SVM), a fault diagnosis method of diesel engine valve clearance is pre-sented. With power spectral density analysis, the characteristic frequency related to the engine running conditions can be extracted from vibration signals. The biggest singular values(BSV)of wavelet coefficients and root mean square(RMS)values of vibration in characteristic frequency sub-bands are extracted at the end of third level de-composition of vibration signals, and they are used as input vectors of BPNN or SVM. To avoid being trapped in local minima, GA is adopted. The normal and fault vibration signals measured in different valve clearance condi-tions are analyzed. BPNN, GA back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN), SVM and GA-SVM are applied to the training and testing for the extraction of different features, and the classification accuracies and training time are compared to determine the optimum fault classifier and feature selection. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed features and classification algorithms give classification accuracy of 100%.

  20. Factors influencing a low rate of hepatitis C viral RNA clearance in heroin users from Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShengHan Lai; Jin-Bing Zhang; Wei Liu; Jie Chen; Xiao-Fang Yu


    AIM: To study the virological and host factors influencing hepatitis C infection outcomes in heroin users in southern China.METHODS: HCV RNA and associated factors were analyzed among 347 heroin users from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China who were hepatitis C virus (HCV) EIA positive for two or more consecutive visits.RESULTS: Using the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV TEST, a remarkably low HCV RNA negative rate of 8.6% was detected. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, HCV RNA clearance was significantly associated with the presence of HBsAg (OR = 8.436, P < 0.0001), the lack of HIV-1 infection (OR = 0.256, P = 0.038) and age younger than 25 (OR = 0.400, P = 0.029).CONCLUSION: Our study suggests HCV infection among Chinese heroin users results in high levels of viral persistence even amidst factors previously found to enhance viral clearance. Prospective studies of a possible genetic component within the Chinese population and the pathogenicity of non-genotype 1 HCV infections are needed.