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Sample records for cleansers

  1. Cleansers and their role in various dermatological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of cleansing has progressed immensely over several thousand years from simply scraping the skin to an exercise in relaxation and improvement in the skin′s health and appearance in the present day. Soaps - the basic cleansing agent has also undergone a sea change in its evolution with many variants and newer constituents being incorporated into it. In dermatological disorders like acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, photoaging, ′sensitive skin′, occupational dermatosis cleansers may have a beneficial role along with other therapeutic measures. With the advent of aesthetic dermatology, the act of cleansing and the use of various cleansing agents prior to aesthetic procedures has also assumed significance.

  2. Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.

    2009-01-01

    In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.

  3. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  4. Comparison of the Effect of two Denture Cleansers on Tensile bond Strength of a Denture Liner

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    Farzin M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most clinical challenging issues in prosthodontics is debonding of soft liners from the denture base. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare tensile bond strength between soft liner and heat-cured acrylic resin when immersed in two different types of denture cleanser and distilled water, at different period of times. Materials and Method: In this experimental in vivo study, 238 heat-cured acrylic blocks were made. A soft liner was embedded between the acrylic blocks. Samples were divided into four groups: 17 samples were in the control group and were not soaked in any solution .The remaining samples were divided into 3 groups (Distilled water, Calgon and Fittydent. Each group was then subdivided into two subcategories, regarding the immersion time variable; 15 and 45 minutes. All samples were placed in tension force and tensile bond strength was recorded with the testing machine. One- way ANOVA and Tucky HSD post-hoc test were adopted to analyze the yielded data (α> 0.05. Results: Specimens which were immersed in two denture cleansers (Fittydent and Calgon and in distilled water showed significant difference (p= 0.001 in bonding strength when compared to the control group. The subjects immersed in denture cleanser solutions and distilled water did not reveal any significant difference (p= 0.90. For all groups; most of the bonding failures (72% were cohesive type. Conclusion: The effect of the denture cleansers and distilled water on the bond strength was not statistically different; however, the difference was significant between the immersed groups with the non-immersed group. Moreover, type of the denture cleanser did not show any effect on the tensile strength. The tensile strength increases with time of immersion.

  5. Comparative effects of denture cleansers on physical properties of polyamide and polymethyl methacrylate base polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Ayaz, Elif Aydoğan; Bagis, Bora; Gurbuz, Ayhan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of denture cleansers on the surface roughness, hardness and color stability of two polyamides (Valpast, Deflex), a butadiene styrene copolymer PMMA (Rodex), and PMMA polymer as a control group (Paladent). Each material was divided into 5 sub-groups (n=7) as two control and three test groups. Three test groups were immersed for 20 days in commercially available three denture cleansers (CO-Corega, PR-Protefix, VA-Valclean). Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc HSD test were used to evaluate surface roughness and hardness data (α=0.05). ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*and Δb* mean values were used for ANOVA, Tamhane test was used as post hoc. Polyamides showed low hardness and high roughness before and after immersion. A significant decrease in hardness was observed for all resins except Rodex after immersion (pdenture cleansers changed the roughness, hardness and color of some resins.

  6. Correlations of fatty acid supplementation, aeroallergens, shampoo, and ear cleanser with multiple parameters in pruritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Gene H; Freeman, Lisa M; Hannah, Steven S

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two pruritic dogs were fed one of four diets controlled for n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and total dietary intake of fatty acids. Multiple parameters were evaluated, including clinical and cytological findings, aeroallergen testing, microbial sampling techniques, and effects of an anti-fungal/antibacterial shampoo and ear cleanser. Significant correlations were observed between many clinical parameters, anatomical sampling sites, and microbial counts when data from the diet groups was combined. There were no statistically significant differences between individual diets for any of the clinical parameters. The importance of total clinical management in the control of pruritus was demonstrated.

  7. Correlations of fatty acid supplementation, aeroallergens, shampoo, and ear cleanser with multiple parameters in pruritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Gene H; Freeman, Lisa M; Hannah, Steven S

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two pruritic dogs were fed one of four diets controlled for n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and total dietary intake of fatty acids. Multiple parameters were evaluated, including clinical and cytological findings, aeroallergen testing, microbial sampling techniques, and effects of an anti-fungal/antibacterial shampoo and ear cleanser. Significant correlations were observed between many clinical parameters, anatomical sampling sites, and microbial counts when data from the diet groups was combined. There were no statistically significant differences between individual diets for any of the clinical parameters. The importance of total clinical management in the control of pruritus was demonstrated. PMID:15238557

  8. Effectiveness of denture cleanser associated with microwave disinfection and brushing of complete dentures: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesma, Newton; Rocha, Alessandra Lima; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Costa, Bruno; Morimoto, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Complete dentures acts as a reservoir for microbial colonization, which may lead to systemic infections. Microwave irradiation has been used as an efficient method of denture disinfection. Even though current methods eliminate denture-base microorganisms, a recurrence rate of denture stomatitis (DS) is still observed among denture-wearing patients. It was hypothesized that microwave disinfection kills microorganisms but do not remove dead bacteria from the denture surface. To test this hypothesis, the biofilm found in the dentures of 10 patients with DS was evaluated. In addition, the effects of microwave irradiation plus brushing (MW+B) on the denture biofilm and the combination of denture cleanser with microwave irradiation and brushing (MW+DC+B) for the removal of denture-accumulating microorganisms were investigated. Microbiological data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric analysis (Friedman/Wilcoxon, α=0.05). MW+B and MW+DC+B were effective in reducing the rate of microorganisms (99.2% and 99.5% respectively), but without significant difference between them (p=0.553). However, it was observed that the complete removal of microorganisms from denture surface was only possible when all regimens were combined (MW+DC+B). Microwave irradiation in combination with soaking in denture cleanser and brushing effectively disinfected the dentures and removed denture biofilm.

  9. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  10. A 6% Benzoyl Peroxide Foaming Cloth Cleanser Used in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: Aesthetic Characteristics, Patient Preference Considerations, and Impact on Compliance with Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the product attributes of a new benzoyl peroxide-containing foaming cloth cleanser and to compare the overall patient satisfaction of this product with two currently available benzoyl peroxide acne products (6% benzoyl peroxide cleanser and 4% benzoyl peroxide wash). Design: This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting: Two clinical trial sites. Participants: Male and female subjects (N=193) aged 17 to 30 years with a history of acne vulgar...

  11. Contemporary methods and mobile denture cleansers and theirs significance for older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A dramatic increase in the number of people living in their seventies, eighties and nineties is associated with a loss of teeth and the use of mobile dentures. The aim of this paper was to highlight the consequences of poor denture hygiene on oral and general health in vulnerable elderly people, in long-term hospitalized elderly patients and in long-term institutionalized elderly in nursing homes. Denture deposits and consequences of poor denture hygiene. The number of bacteria living in the mouth is getting larger after putting denture on. Namely, a small ”space” develops between jaw and denture, creating perfect conditions for bacterial growth. Denture becomes a ”reservoir” of micro-organisms. Denture deposits such as bacterial plaque, fungi, tartar and remnants could be responsible for: stomatitis prothetica, cheilitis angularis, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, halitosis (bad breath, dental caries in mobile denture carriers, mucositis and periimplantitis in mobile implant over-dentures carriers, accelerated destruction of denture materials for underlying, such as denture base soft liners, respiratory airways diseases, bacterial endocarditis and gastrointestinal infections. Removal of denture deposits. It is recommendable to combine mechanical and chemical denture cleaning. Denture submersion into a commercial cleansing solution for less than one hour is an effective cleaning method. Commercial cleansers specifically intended for dentures with metal parts should be used for those dentures. Commercial cleansers with a new component of silicon polymer, whose thin layer surrounds all denture surfaces and disables oral bacteria to agglomerate, are effective and useful. Preventive hygienic treatments are very important in hospitals and homes for the aged, bearing in mind that old and ill persons reside here. Those institutions are recommended to get equipped with ultrasound denture cleaners. Importance of written brochure on

  12. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino Garcia; Peter E. Murray; Franklin Garcia-Godoy; Kenneth N. Namerow

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC) when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The ...

  13. A microbiological evaluation of the use of denture cleansers in combination with an oral rinse in complete denture patients

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    Srinivasan Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Patients with complete dentures more occasionally neglect their denture and oral health by improper maintenance of dentures, resulting in bad oral and denture hygiene. This may lead to a host of multiple local and systemic problems such as stomatitis, bacterial and fungal infections, reservoirs for distant infections, denture stains and bad breath. Most denture wearers maintain their dentures with simple manual cleansing methods, which are not adequate to effectively sanitize the reservoir of microorganisms inhabiting the denture surfaces. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the use of a denture cleanser and compare it with an adjunct use of chlorhexidine mouth rinse along with the denture cleanser and possibly suggest it as a suitable protocol. Materials and Methods : Two groups of complete denture patients were selected for the study. The total number of patients in each group was 12 and the total period of the study was 21 days. Three sets of microbiological samples were collected from each patient: before the start of the study, on day 8 and on day 21 of the study. The first sample was collected after an initial washover period (7 days with plain water before the start of the study and the second set after 1 week of study initiation, where group-1 followed protocol-I (denture cleanser only and group-2 followed protocol-II (denture cleanser and mouth rinse. A second washout period of 7 days followed and a crossover of the protocol was performed for the groups and followed for 1 week. Then, a third set of samples were collected. The colony-forming units were calculated for each patient for each sample and statistically analyzed. Friedman test for non-parametric analysis was employed for the comparison within the groups and a Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical comparison between the groups. Results : There was a definite reduction in the bacterial numbers and a significant statistical difference

  14. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The present study tried to investigate, using a synthetic sweat at pH 4.5, whether metallic chromium can pass through the skin (in vitro) and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. A suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 was prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 1 ml of the freshly made suspension was applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The tests were performed without and with decontamination using the cleanser 30 min after the start of exposure. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. Chromium skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system, giving a permeation flux of 0.84+/-0.25 ng cm(-2)h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1+/-0.7h. The cleaning procedure stop Cr permeation but its concentration into the skin significantly increased (Mann-Whitney U test P<0.03). The results revealed that chromium applied as powder can pass through the skin and that decontamination, done after 30 min of exposure, prevent Cr skin permeation but increase Cr content into the skin.

  15. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  16. Effect of cleanser solutions on the color of acrylic resins associated with titanium and nickel-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Helena de; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz; Davi, Letícia Resende; Felipucci, Daniela Nair Borges; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cleanser solutions on the color of heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) and on the brightness of dental alloys with 180 immersion trials. Disk-shaped specimens were made with I) commercially pure titanium, II) nickel-chromium-molybdenum-titanium, III) nickel-chromium molybdenum, and IV) nickel-chromium-molybdenum beryllium. Each cast disk was invested in the flasks, incorporating the metal disk into the HPAR. The specimens (n=5) were then immersed in solutions containing: 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.500 mg cetylpyridinium chloride, a citric acid tablet, one of two different sodium perborate/enzyme tablets, and water. The color measurements (∆E) of the HPAR were determined by a colorimeter in accordance with the National Bureau of Standards. The surface brightness of the metal was visually examined for the presence of tarnish. The results (ANOVA; Tukey test-α=0.05) show that there was a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) but not among the solutions (p=0.273). The highest mean was obtained for group III (5.06), followed by group II (2.14). The lowest averages were obtained for groups I (1.33) and IV (1.35). The color changes in groups I, II and IV were slight but noticeable, and the color change was considerable for group III. The visual analysis showed that 0.05% sodium hypochlorite caused metallic brightness changes in groups II and IV. It can be concluded that the agents had the same effect on the color of the resin and that the metallic alloys are not resistant to the action of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite.

  17. Effect of cleanser solutions on the color of acrylic resins associated with titanium and nickel-chromium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of cleanser solutions on the color of heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR and on the brightness of dental alloys with 180 immersion trials. Disk-shaped specimens were made with I commercially pure titanium, II nickel-chromium-molybdenum-titanium, III nickel-chromium molybdenum, and IV nickel-chromium-molybdenum beryllium. Each cast disk was invested in the flasks, incorporating the metal disk into the HPAR. The specimens (n = 5 were then immersed in solutions containing: 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.500 mg cetylpyridinium chloride, a citric acid tablet, one of two different sodium perborate/enzyme tablets, and water. The color measurements (∆E of the HPAR were determined by a colorimeter in accordance with the National Bureau of Standards. The surface brightness of the metal was visually examined for the presence of tarnish. The results (ANOVA; Tukey test-α = 0.05 show that there was a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.001 but not among the solutions (p = 0.273. The highest mean was obtained for group III (5.06, followed by group II (2.14. The lowest averages were obtained for groups I (1.33 and IV (1.35. The color changes in groups I, II and IV were slight but noticeable, and the color change was considerable for group III. The visual analysis showed that 0.05% sodium hypochlorite caused metallic brightness changes in groups II and IV. It can be concluded that the agents had the same effect on the color of the resin and that the metallic alloys are not resistant to the action of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite.

  18. Study of Hight Effective Enzyme Containing Denture Cleanser%高效酶型义齿清洁剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文钧; 程祥荣; 张国晴; 樊帆; 徐东选; 艾军; 袁军

    2001-01-01

    目的:研制一种高效酶型义齿清洁剂。方法:从临床上收集污垢(污斑,菌斑和结石)面积超过基托面积50%以上,使用年限4~30a的可摘局部义齿和全口义齿共37件(全口义齿20件,局部可摘义齿17件)为样本。以去污率为主要评价指标,通过正交设计完成酶型义齿清洁剂的配方筛选。结果:通过正交设计筛选出酶型义齿清洁剂的配方。结论:酶型义齿清洁剂的配方以:NaCO35%~10%,NaHCO310%~20%,Na2SO42%~5%,K2S2O310%~20%,植酸钠20%~30%,三聚磷酸钠10%~20%,EDTA10%~20%,碱性蛋白水解酶5%~10%为最佳,并按此配方制成了片剂。%Objective:The purpose of this study is related to an improvedwater-soluble denture cleanser containing enzymatic-cleansing agent. Methods:Thirty-seven samples,20 complete dentures and 17 removable partial dentures were chosen from clinic, whose deposit (stain, plaque and calculus) areas were over 50 percent of the base and the duration ranged from 4 to 30 years. Detergent rate was selected as its main evaluation index.It had made a prescription of quantitative study of the enzyme through the orthogonal design.Results:The results showed that a prescription of the enzyme containing denture cleanser was made by the orthogonal design.Conclusion:The project came to the results that the enzyme was formulated by:Na2CO3 5%~10%,NaHCO3 10%~20%,K2S2O3 10%~20%,Sodium phytic acid 20%~30%,sodium acid phosphate 10%~20%,EDTA 10%~20%,Proteolytic enzyme 5%~10%,according to this prescription,denture cleanser tablets were produced.

  19. Effects of Scrub Facial Cleanser on the Friction Properties of Human Skin%去角质化妆品对皮肤摩擦性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟正绘; 李炜; 庞强

    2012-01-01

    By using a UMT - II tribometer, the effects of scrub facial cleanser with different size, amount and hardness scrub particles on the tribological properties of human skin have been investigated under the simulated face washing conditions. The resuhs show that the aged corueous layers on the skin surface have been removed by the scrub facial cleanser under reciprocating sliding wear mode, which result in decrease in the skin surface roughness and increase in skin conductance, skin hydration, adhesion and friction coefficient. Seeing that the scrub facial cleanser B with two kinds of size and moderate volume and hardness scrub particles remove more aged corneous layer, the skin permeation to the moisturizing cosmetic is better than those removed by the other two scrub facial cleansers. Due to gender differences in skin surface structure, the effect of scrub facial cleanser on the skin surface of males is more significant than that of females.%采用UMT-Ⅱ多功能摩擦磨损试验机,模拟洗脸的摩擦条件,考察了微粒大小、数量和硬度不同的3种磨砂洗面奶介质对不同性别人体皮肤摩擦特性的影响.结果表明:由于在往复摩擦条件下磨砂洗面奶去除了皮肤表面老化角质层,皮肤的表面粗糙度下降,皮肤的电导、水合作用、黏着力及摩擦系数增加;含有2种微粒大小、数量和硬度适中的B组洗面奶介质摩擦去除老化角质较多,皮肤后续对保湿化妆品的渗透效果较好;由于不同性别皮肤表面结构的差异,磨砂洗面奶对男性皮肤表面结构的影响较女性大.

  20. Comoarison of the Effects of Five Denture Cleansers on Cleaning of Candida Albicans Biofilms.%5种义齿清洁剂对白色念珠菌生物膜清洁效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕萍; 吴凤鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of five denture cleansers on reducing the candida albicans biofilms activity and biomass. Methods: C. albicans strain SC5314 was grown as biofilms on a 96- well format and immersed in Polident,Victoria- C, Protefix, 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate and Y- Kelin denture cleansers according to the manufacturers'- instructions and overnight. The activity and biomass of the biofilms were then quantified. Results: Following the manufacturers' instructions,only Polident,protefix reduced the activity by greater than 80 %.Except 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (58.8%), all cleansers reduced theactivity by greater than 80% following overnight immersion. Following the manufacturers' instructions, all the five denture cleansers reduced the biomass by less than 50% ,and after overnight immersion, only Polident showed a reduction greater than 50%. Conclusion:Polident exhibited the best cleaning effect among the five denture cleansers. However, residual biofilms retention with a few living cells was still observed.%目的:比较5种义齿清洁剂在减少白色念珠菌生物膜活性及生物量方面的能力.方法:在96孔微量培养板中形成的白色念珠菌SC5314生物膜按照生产商推荐时间及过夜浸泡于保丽净,澳多-C,protefix,0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定和雅克菱义齿清洁剂中,进而定量生物膜的活性和生物量.结果:生产商推荐时间浸泡后,仅保丽净、protefix组的活性减少率达80%以上;过夜浸泡后,除0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定(58.8%)外,其余均达80%以上.在生物量减少上,5种义齿清洁剂生产商推荐时间浸泡后,生物量减少率均位于50%以下;过夜浸泡后,仅保丽净达50%以上.结论:5种义齿清洁剂中保丽净的清洁效果最佳,但仍存在残余少量活菌的生物膜.

  1. Current situation and development trend of vegetable & fruit cleanser%蔬果清洗剂的现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧昂; 于文

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent outbreak of epidemic situation and food safety affairs, people pay more attention to the health and safety. Because of the increasingly serious pesticide residue, the requirement for vegetable & fruit cleanser has been growing. The product benefits in the current market were mainly analyzed in this paper, and the article also indicated that products which including the characteristics of natural origin, high safety, antibacterial or baeteriostatic effect and high efficiency are the development trend of the market.%近来,由于疫情与食品安全事件频发,人们也越来越重视健康与安全。面对蔬果上的农药残留问题,人们对蔬果清洗剂的需求也日益提高。主要分析了当今市场上蔬果清洗剂的产品功效现状。指出天然、高安全性、抗(抑)菌及高效的蔬果清洗剂将会是市场的发展方向。

  2. In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Landry, T; Maibach, H I

    1999-03-01

    In the home and workplace, decontamination of a chemical from skin is traditionally done with a soap-and-water wash, although some workplaces may have emergency showers. It has been assumed that these procedures are effective, yet workplace illness and even death occur from chemical contamination. Water, or soap and water, may not be the most effective means of skin decontamination, particularly for fat-soluble materials. This study was undertaken to help determine whether there are more effective means of removing methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), a potent contact sensitizer, from the skin. MDI is an industrial chemical for which skin decontamination, using traditional soap and water and nontraditional polypropylene glycol, a polyglycol-based cleanser (PG-C), and corn oil were all tried in vivo on the rhesus monkey, over 8 h. Water, alone and with soap (5% and 50% soap), were partially effective in the first h after exposure, removing 51-69% of the applied dose. However, decontamination fell to 40-52% at 4 h and 29-46% by 8 h. Thus, the majority of MDI was not removed by the traditional soap-and-water wash; skin tape stripping after washing confirmed that MDI was still on the skin. In contrast, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil all removed 68-86% of the MDI in the first h, 74-79% at 4 h, and 72-86% at 8 h. Statistically, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil were all better (p soap and water at 4 and 8 h after dose application. These results indicate that a traditional soap-and-water wash and the emergency water shower are relatively ineffective at removing MDI from the skin. More effective decontamination procedures, as shown here, are available. These procedures are consistent with the partial miscibility of MDI in corn oil and polyglycols.

  3. Safety evaluation of Bon-santé cleanser® polyherbal in male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, O. E.; Awodele, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential harm of medicinal herbs has been recently observed following herbal toxicity studies after ingestion of polyherbal remedies. This was the rationale for the food and drug regulatory agency decision for thorough safety evaluation of herbal medicines. Androgenic, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials as well as chemical compositions of extracts of massularia acuminata, terminalia ivorensis, anogeissus leiocarpus and macuna pruriens respectively have bee...

  4. 个人清洁剂的配方基础%Formulation basics for personal cleansers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米其

    2010-01-01

    主要讨论和考察了个人清洁剂用的表面活性剂,如发用香波、身体清洗剂和洗手皂用的主表面活性剂、次表面活性剂、特殊添加剂和次要添加剂4类原料,并提供了用于个人清洁剂方面的基本配方及制备技巧等.

  5. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various exploratory or surgical procedures. Nevertheless, oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate provides a useful option in the preparation of the colon and rectum in adults, adolescents and children undergoing any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate acts locally in the colon as both a stimulant laxative, by increasing the frequency and the force of peristalsis (sodium picosulfate component), and an osmotic laxative, by retaining fluids in the colon (magnesium citrate component), to clear the colon and rectum of faecal contents. It is not absorbed in any detectable quantities. Sodium picosulfate is a prodrug: it is hydrolyzed by bacteria in the colon to the active metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-(2-pyridyl)methane. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate may be associated with a dehydrating effect, as evidenced by a reduction in bodyweight and increased haemoglobin levels; some at-risk patients may experience postural hypotension and older patients may require additional electrolytes. In three large (n >100), randomized, single-blind clinical studies, two sachets of oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g as a colorectal cleansing agent in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. In children and adolescents, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was significantly more effective as a colorectal cleansing agent than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in a randomized, single-blind study; dosages were adjusted for age in this study. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is generally well tolerated in adult patients undergoing various investigational colorectal procedures. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate in intensity and mainly gastrointestinal in nature (e.g. abdominal cramps/pain, nausea); other common treatment-emergent adverse events included disturbance of daily activity, headache and sleep disturbance. This combination is at least as well tolerated as oral sodium phosphate or oral polyethylene glycol, with moderate/severe nausea and vomiting occurring less frequently in sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate recipients than in those receiving oral sodium phosphate, and abdominal bloating/pain and nausea developing less often with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate than polyethylene glycol therapy. The incidence of abdominal pain and sleep disturbance in sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate versus oral magnesium citrate recipients was similar in one study, but significantly lower with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate in another. While the incidence of most adverse events was similar in recipients of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and a sodium phosphate enema preparation, more patients receiving sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate reported moderate/severe flatulence, incontinence and sleep disturbance, and more patients receiving the enema preparation reported rectal soreness. The tolerability profile of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate in patients aged >70 years is reportedly similar to that in patients aged sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate than with oral bisacodyl plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in children and adolescents.

  6. Efficacy of Organic Acids in Hand Cleansers for Prevention of Rhinovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B.; Biedermann, Kim A.; Morgan, Jeffery M.; Keswick, Bruce; Ertel, Keith D.; Barker, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    Direct hand-to-hand contact is an important mechanism of transmission of rhinovirus infection. The rhinoviruses are inactivated at a low pH. A survey of organic acids in vitro revealed that these compounds have antirhinoviral activity that persists for at least 3 h after application to the skin. In additional studies of salicylic acid (SA) and pyroglutamic acid (PGA), the hands of volunteers were contaminated with rhinovirus at defined times after application of the acid, and then volunteers attempted to inoculate the nasal mucosa with one hand and quantitative viral cultures were done on the other hand. In one study, 3.5% SA or 1% SA with 3.5% PGA was compared with controls 15 min after application to assess the efficacy of the inactivation of virus and prevention of infection. Virus was recovered from the hands of 28 out of 31 (90%) of the volunteers in the control group compared to 4 out of 27 (15%) and 0 out of 27 in the groups administered 3.5 and 1% SA, respectively (P < 0.05). Rhinovirus infection occurred in 10 out of 31 (32%) of the controls and 2 out of 27 (7%) of volunteers in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 compared with control). In a second study, the efficacy of 4% PGA was evaluated 15 min, 1 h, and 3 h after application. Significantly fewer volunteers had positive hand cultures at all time points compared with the control group, but the proportion that developed rhinovirus infection was not significantly reduced. These results suggest the feasibility of the prevention of rhinovirus transmission by hand treatments that are virucidal on contact and have activity that persists after application. PMID:15215114

  7. The effectiveness of chemical denture cleansers and ultrasonic device in biofilm removal from complete dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Costa Cruz; Ingrid Machado de Andrade; Amanda Peracini; Maria Cristina Monteiro de Souza-Gugelmin; Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato; Raphael Freitas de Souza; Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos

    2011-01-01

    Adequate denture hygiene can prevent and treat infection in edentulous patients. They are usually elderly and have difficulty for brushing their teeth. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of complete denture biofilm removal using chemical (alkaline peroxide-effervescent tablets), mechanical (ultrasonic) and combined (association of the effervescent and ultrasonic) methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty complete denture wearers participated in the experiment for 21 days. They were dist...

  8. The effectiveness of chemical denture cleansers and ultrasonic device in biofilm removal from complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Costa Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate denture hygiene can prevent and treat infection in edentulous patients. They are usually elderly and have difficulty for brushing their teeth. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of complete denture biofilm removal using chemical (alkaline peroxide-effervescent tablets, mechanical (ultrasonic and combined (association of the effervescent and ultrasonic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty complete denture wearers participated in the experiment for 21 days. They were distributed into 4 groups (n=20: (1 Brushing with water (Control; (2 Effervescent tablets (Corega Tabs; (3 Ultrasonic device (Ultrasonic Cleaner, model 2840 D; (4 Association of effervescent tablets and ultrasonic device. All groups brushed their dentures with a specific brush (Bitufo and water, 3 times a day, before applying their treatments. Denture biofilm was collected at baseline and after 21 days. To quantify the biofilm, the internal surfaces of the maxillary complete dentures were stained and photographed at 45º. The photographs were processed and the areas (total internal surface stained with biofilm quantified (Image Tool 2.02. The percentage of the biofilm was calculated by the ratio between the biofilm area multiplied by 100 and the total area of the internal surface of the maxillary complete denture. RESULTS: The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison among groups followed by the Dunn multiple-comparison test. All tests were performed respecting a significance level of 0.05. Significant difference was found among the treatments (KW=21.18; P<0.001, the mean ranks for the treatments and results for Dunn multiple comparison test were: Control (60.9; Chemical (37.2; Mechanical (35.2 and Combined (29.1. CONCLUSION: The experimental methods were equally effective regarding the ability to remove biofilm and were superior to the control method (brushing with water. Immersion in alkaline peroxide and ultrasonic vibration can be used as auxiliary agents for cleaning complete dentures.

  9. The Effect of Experimental Denture Cleanser Solution Ricinus communis on Acrylic Resin Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Xavier Pisani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated heat-polymerized (HPR and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins (MPR, after immersion in water, 1% hypochlorite and Ricinus communis solution (RC. Knoop hardness, color alteration, roughness and flexural strength tests were performed after obtaining the specimens and after time intervals of 15 (T15 and 183 (T183 days. Variations in data (Δ were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = 0.05. For ΔT15 HPR there was greater variation in hardness when immersed in water (P = 0.00 and for MPR, after immersion in RC (P = 0.00. RC caused the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.015. Color alteration was not significant (P = 24.46. Hypochlorite caused a decrease in flexural strength (P = 0.37. After ΔT183, hypochlorite and RC caused a decrease in HPR hardness value (P = 0.00. MPR showed the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.01. HPR presented the most color alteration after immersion in RC (P = 0.214. Hypochlorite and RC caused the lowest flexural strength values for MPR (P = 0.89. RC caused alterations in resin properties, and was not shown to be superior to hypochlorite.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida sp. PMID:26814466

  11. Causes and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ...

  12. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ...

  13. Warna Plat Resin Akrilik Setelah Direndam Dengan Ekstrak Bunga Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) Sebagai Pembersih Gigi Tiruan Acrylic Resin Plate Color After Soaking With Extract Rosella Flower (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) For Denture Cleanser

    OpenAIRE

    Thalib, Bahruddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rosella is known as an healthy drink and have variety of properties. One of the content contained in rosella flower is anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is a pigmen that causes purplish red color on rosella flower. One of rosella drink???s enjoyer is people who wear acrylic denture. Acrylic has porosity and ability to absorb liquid dye that can causes discoloration. Dye contained in rosella flower may be cause discoloration of the acrylic denture base. Purpose: To find out the effect of im...

  14. Blepharitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your health care provider might recommend using baby shampoo or special cleansers. Using an antibiotic ointment in ... solution of warm water and no-tears baby shampoo along your eyelid, where the lash meets the ...

  15. Is It Really FDA Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical devices. These color additives (except coal-tar hair dyes) are subject by law to approval by the ... Examples of cosmetics are perfumes, makeup, moisturizers, shampoos, hair dyes, face and body cleansers, and shaving preparations. Cosmetic ...

  16. 77 FR 69863 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... purposes in healthcare or home settings (e.g., wound care or maintenance care for indwelling catheters)? If..., healthcare personnel handwash, or skin wound and general skin cleanser. Despite their inherent...

  17. Systems and methods for data quality control and cleansing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Michael; Boettcher, Andrew; Drees, Kirk; Kummer, James

    2016-05-31

    A method for detecting and cleansing suspect building automation system data is shown and described. The method includes using processing electronics to automatically determine which of a plurality of error detectors and which of a plurality of data cleansers to use with building automation system data. The method further includes using processing electronics to automatically detect errors in the data and cleanse the data using a subset of the error detectors and a subset of the cleansers.

  18. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel M. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier.

  19. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  20. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tularat Sookto

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1030 - Bloodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... whose legally permitted scope of practice allows him or her to independently perform the activities... with 29 CFR 1910.20(e). (iv) The Exposure Control Plan shall be reviewed and updated at least annually... antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes....

  2. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  3. Perioral dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out if it is due to a bacterial infection. Treatment Self-care you may want to try include: Stop using all face creams, cosmetics, and sunscreen. Wash your face with warm water only. After the rash has cleared, ask your provider to recommend a non-soap bar or a liquid cleanser. DO NOT use ...

  4. Healthcare-Wide Hazards: Surgical Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soon as feasible. If there has been no occupational exposure to blood or OPIM, use of an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser is acceptable. Additional Information: FDA, NIOSH and OSHA Joint Safety Communication: Blunt-Tip Surgical Suture Needles Reduce Needlestick Injuries ...

  5. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  6. Air quality. How to give it back its original purity? The proliferation of air cleansers. Filters must be changed regularly. Measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. The air treatment plants on the way of certification. Essential oils in a high building; Qualite de l'air. Comment lui rendre sa purete originelle? La proliferation des purificateurs d'air. Il faut changer les filtres regulierement. Mesure de l'efficacite de filtration des systemes de traitement d'air. Les centrales de traitement d'air sur la voie de la certification. Des huiles essentielles dans un immeuble de grande hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumel, N.

    2000-07-01

    Outside air is polluted while the ambient indoor air is saturated with microorganisms. Inside buildings, the aeraulic networks are the link between both environments and the privileged place to clean the air using filtering systems. However, the notion of air quality is still badly perceived by owners, in particular in tertiary buildings. In France, efforts have to be made on the maintenance of aeraulic networks by hygiene specialists. Air quality inside buildings must be taken into consideration using communication and regulations. This dossier takes stock of the problem of air quality and of the available means to ensure a good air quality inside residential and tertiary buildings. The maintenance of air filters in one of the key points. It should be integrated in the general maintenance concept of buildings. The dossier includes a study of the in-situ measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. This method is described in the Eurovent recommendation 4/10 of 1996. It has been experimented by the French technical centre of aeraulic and thermal industries (Cetiat) and the results are reported in the study. The performances of air treatment plants are now certified by Eurovent. This European organization has defined a program of tests which is conformable with the European EN 1886 and EN 13053 European standards. Finally, a new protocol of air decontamination based on the micronizing of essential oils in the aeraulic network of a 29 floors building is presented. (J.S.)

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Three-Step Acne System Containing a Solubilized Benzoyl Peroxide Lotion versus a Benzoyl Peroxide/Clindamycin Combination Product: An Investigator-Blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lawrence J.; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2008-01-01

    A brand three-step acne treatment system containing a solubilized 5% benzoyl lotion and a designated cleanser and moisturizer was compared with a brand benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel in subjects with acne vulgaris. The single-center, four-week study was investigator-blinded and randomized. The three-step acne treatment system proved to be comparable in efficacy and tolerability.

  8. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-01-01

    Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hy...

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DENTURE CLEANSING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethan M D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was conducted to compare and evaluate the efficacy of four chemically different immersion types of commercially available denture cleansers on recently fabricated complete dentures in healthy patients, using microbiological quantification method. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects aged 60 – 70 year were selected. Chemical denture cleansers used were divided into four groups; Group I – Sodium hypochlorite solution 0.02% , Group II – Trisodium phosphate , Group III – Sodium perborate and Group IV – Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%. Posterior half of the tissue – bearing surface of the denture was swabbed using sterile cotton swabs at four different sites and cultured on blood agar .Net percentage reduction in the colony forming units before and after treatment with each of the above test agents on cultures from above four sites was calculated, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis Results For all the groups the difference of means were statistically significant. The percentage reduction in streptococcus species count in log units for Groups I, II, III, and IV was found to be 28%, 16%, 10%, and 9% respectively. Conclusion: Cleansing agents were found to be effective in the following order, Sodium hypochlorite solution (0.02%, Trisodium phosphate, Sodium perborate and Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%. Clinical Implications: Treatment of dentures with denture cleansers significantly decreases the amount of subsequently formed plaque. The significant reduction in the number of microorganisms observed in this study suggests that the use of chemical cleansers is suitable method for cleaning dentures in geriatric patients.

  10. Characteristics, seasonal distribution and surface degradation features of microplastic pellets along the Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Saha, M.; Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Rodrigues, A.C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Naik, B.G.

    existing: (i) primary microplastics which are made to carry out certain functions (e.g. toothpaste, skin cleansers and cosmetics) and microplastic pellets (MPPs) used for the manufacturing plastic material and (ii) secondary microplastics, which... factors. In particular, additives like phenolic antioxidants are discoloured and consequently the main reason for decolouration within these MPPs (Acosta-Coley and Olivero-Verbel, 2015). Generally, yellow colour appears as a result of photo- oxidative...

  11. Beskeden risiko for fosfatnefropati ved colonudrensning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Palle Nordblad; Hendel, Jakob W

    2010-01-01

    Acute phosphate nephropathy is a rare, but serious adverse event associated with the use of sodium phosphate for bowel cleansing. It may lead to permanent renal impairment and a need for dialysis. The aetiology is hyperphosphataemia caused by intestinal absorption of the cleanser. Risk factors in...... include: advanced age, existing kidney disease, decreased intravascular volume, and medications affecting renal perfusion or function such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs....

  12. A novel methodology based on contact angle hysteresis approach for surface changes monitoring in model PMMA-Corega Tabs system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Berezowski, Zdzisław; Rochowski, Paweł; Szurkowski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to propose a quantitative description of dental surface modifications, resulting from application of Corega and oral cavity liquids, with several surface parameters derived from liquid/solid contact angle measurements. In particular, to predict the long-term effectiveness of denture cleansers in prosthetics, it is necessary to determine surface wettability variations for model dental materials/probe liquid systems related to the contamination effect caused by substances found in the oral cavity. A novel simple low-cost methodology, based on liquid drop contact angle hysteresis CAH approach developed by Chibowski, was adopted to trace solid surface free energy changes in the model PMMA-Corega Tabs interfacial layer. Contact angle and its hysteresis were studied with a sessile drop-inclined plate method in contact with a cleanser (Corega Tabs) and model liquids found in the oral cavity. The apparent solid surface free energy, adsorptive film pressure, work of adhesion and spreading were derived from contact angle hysteresis data for both model solid surfaces (reference) and samples affected by different reactive liquids for a certain time. A time-dependent surface wettability changes of dentures were expressed quantitatively in terms of the corresponding variations of the surface energy parameters which turned out to be unequivocally related to the cleanser exposure time and polarity of the liquids applied to the dental material. The novel methodology appeared to be a useful tool for long term surface characterization of dental materials treated with surfactants-containing liquids capable of forming adhesive layers. The time of optimal use and effectiveness of cleansers are also reflected dynamically in the corresponding variations of the surface wettability parameters. Further studies on a large group of dental surface-probe liquid systems are required to specify the role played by other important factors (liquid polarity, pH and temperature).

  13. Meeting the challenges of acne treatment in Asian Patients: A review of the role of dermocosmetics as adjunctive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Leok Goh; Nopadon Noppakun; Giuseppe Micali; Noor Zalmy Azizan; Waranya Boonchai; Yung Chan; Wai Kwong Cheong; Pin Chi Chiu; Kristiana Etnawati; Zharlah Gulmatico-Flores; Henry Foong; Raj Kubba; Purita Paz-Lao; Yin Yin Lee; Steven Loo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional acne treatment presents several challenges such as intolerable side effects and antibiotic resistance. Dermocosmetic products may be used to reduce these unwanted effects. Dermocosmetics include skin cleansers, topical sebum-controllers, skin antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory agents, moisturizers, sunscreens, and camouflage products. Appropriate use of these products may help augment the benefit of acne treatment, minimize side effects, and reduce the need for topical antibiotics. ...

  14. Using a Hydroquinone/Tretinoin-based Skin Care System Before and After Electrodesiccation and Curettage of Superficial Truncal Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter, Randomized, Investigator-blind, Controlled Study of Short-term Healing

    OpenAIRE

    David, Pariser; James, Spencer; Brian, Berman; Suzanne, Bruce; Lisa, Parr; Kenneth, Gross

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of using a 4% hydroquinone/0.05% tretinoin skin care system compared with standard treatment of cleanser plus healing ointment to enhance aesthetic outcomes resulting from electrodesiccation and curettage treatment for superficial truncal basal cell carcinomas. Design: Multicenter, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients received either the hydroquinone/tretinoin system or the standard treatment twice daily for three...

  15. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Das, Samiran; Biswas, Shibendu; Ghati, Amit; Ghosh, Soumitra; Goel, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10). Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey's test and Dunnett's test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey's test and Dunnett's test) showed high significance (P Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface. PMID:27630498

  16. A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of face washing on acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joanna Mimi; Lew, Vincent K; Kimball, Alexa B

    2006-01-01

    Despite the common recommendation to wash the face twice daily with a mild cleanser, there is little published evidence to support the practice. Indeed, while the general public believes that cleaner skin will result in fewer blemishes, dermatologists often warn that overwashing and scrubbing can exacerbate the condition. To clarify the effect of frequency of face washing on acne vulgaris, we designed a single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial to be conducted on males with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Subjects washed their faces twice daily for 2 weeks with a standard mild cleanser before being randomized to one of three study arms, in which face washing was to be done once, twice, or four times a day for 6 weeks. At the end of the study no statistically significant differences were noted between groups. However, significant improvements in both open comedones and total noninflammatory lesions were observed in the group washing twice a day. Worsening of acne condition was observed in the study group washing once a day, with significant increases in erythema, papules, and total inflammatory lesions. We concluded that slight support exists, both in terms of efficacy and convenience, for the recommendation to wash the face twice daily with a mild cleanser. However, excessive face washing may not be as culpable as previously thought. PMID:17014635

  17. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Gantait

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10. Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test showed high significance (P < 0.0001. The group treated with adhesive showed high fungal growth compared to the control group, whereas chlorhexidine showed high potency to prevent C. albicans, whereas adhesive increased the adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic surface. Conclusions: Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface.

  18. Novo protocolo para as ações de saúde bucal coletiva: padronização no armazenamento, distribuição e uso do material de higiene bucal A new protocol for use and storage of tooth-brushing material for school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Vieira Vilhena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o material de higiene bucal usado em escolas para estabelecer um protocolo às ações de higiene bucal coletiva. O estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: 1ª- 20 responsáveis pelos procedimentos coletivos com escolares de Bauru e São José dos Campos - SP responderam a dois questionários sobre o uso de cinco kits de higiene bucal coletiva. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste Wilcoxon (p The aim of this study was to evaluate the storage and distribution of toothbrushing material for school children. Twenty individuals responsible for the collective oral hygiene of school children from Bauru - SP and São José dos Campos - SP participated in the first stage of the study, answering 2 questionnaires about five different kits for use by school children. The statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon (p<0,05. In the second stage, the amount of toothpaste or liquid cleanser applied to the toothbrush by 178 school children aged 4 to 8 years from 2 cities from the state of São Paulo (Bauru e Bariri was weighed using a portable balance. The statistical analysis was obtained by using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance (p <0,05. Kit 5 obtained levels of satisfaction and high satisfaction when compared with the others kits (1 - 4. The school children from Bauru (0,41g used smaller amounts of toothpaste than the school children from Bariri (0,48g. The average of the amount of liquid cleanser applied by the sample was 0,15g. The "drop technique" (liquid cleanser was considered practical for dispensing a small, standardized quantity of the product. Kit 5 was considered a good alternative for establishing a collective oral health protocol in the Brazilian health system.

  19. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids.

  20. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  1. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916

  2. Wound cleansing: a key player in the implementation of the TIME paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The concept of wound bed preparation can be implemented using the TIME paradigm. Chronic wounds are mostly characterised by prolonged inflammation and increased bioburden. Removal of wound biofilm and devitalised tissue, which is an ideal environment for bacterial growth, can help address the I in TIME. Wound cleansing aims to remove contaminants, debris, dressing remnants and superficial slough from the wound. Some wound cleansers contain surfactants, which reduce the surface tension of a liquid, enabling it to spread further over a surface. This article describes how these solutions can be used to debride the wound surface without damaging healthy cells. PMID:26949864

  3. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  4. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telofski, Lorena S.; Morello, A. Peter; Mack Correa, M. Catherine; Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema) is included. As infant skin continues to mature through the first years of life, it is important that skin care products (e.g., cleansers and emollients) are formulated appropriately. Ideally, products that are used on infants should not interfere with skin surface pH or perturb the skin barrier. For cleansers, this can be achieved by choosing the right type of surfactant, by blending surfactants, or by blending hydrophobically-modified polymers (HMPs) with surfactants to increase product mildness. Similarly, choosing the right type of oil for emollients is important. Unlike some vegetable oils, mineral oil is more stable and is not subject to oxidation and hydrolysis. Although emollients can improve the skin barrier, more studies are needed to determine the potential long-term benefits of using emollients on healthy, full-term neonates and infants. PMID:22988452

  5. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena S. Telofski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema is included. As infant skin continues to mature through the first years of life, it is important that skin care products (e.g., cleansers and emollients are formulated appropriately. Ideally, products that are used on infants should not interfere with skin surface pH or perturb the skin barrier. For cleansers, this can be achieved by choosing the right type of surfactant, by blending surfactants, or by blending hydrophobically-modified polymers (HMPs with surfactants to increase product mildness. Similarly, choosing the right type of oil for emollients is important. Unlike some vegetable oils, mineral oil is more stable and is not subject to oxidation and hydrolysis. Although emollients can improve the skin barrier, more studies are needed to determine the potential long-term benefits of using emollients on healthy, full-term neonates and infants.

  6. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  7. Influence of storage methods on the surface roughness of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guan; Li, YingAi; Maeda, Takeshi; Mizumachi, Wataru; Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hamada, Taizo; Murata, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of three kinds of storage methods on surface roughness of tissue conditioners. Four commercial tissue conditioners (GC Soft Liner, Softone, Fictioner, and Hydro-Cast) were used in this study. Five samples of each material were stored in distilled water, air, and a denture cleanser (Polident). Mean surface roughness (R(a)) values of dental stone casts made from the tissue conditioners were measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion using a profilometer. Significant differences in the R(a) values of the specimens were found among the three storage methods. The values of R(a) significantly increased with increase in immersion time for each storage method, except for the materials stored in air. It was found that the materials stored in air showed the most stable and lowest values of R(a). Results obtained suggested that a tissue conditioner exhibited smooth and minimal change in surface roughness with time when stored in air than in distilled water and denture cleanser. PMID:18540387

  8. A Comparative Clinical Study of the Effect of Denture Cleansing on the Surface Roughness and Hardness of Two Denture Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Amani Ramadan; Dehis, Wessam Mohamed; Elboraey, Asmaa Nabil; ElGabry, Hisham Samir

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to verify the influence of oral environment and denture cleansers on the surface roughness and hardness of two different denture base materials. METHODS: A total of sixteen identical removable disc specimens (RDS) were processed. Eight RDS were made from heat-cured acrylic resin (AR) and the other eight were fabricated from thermoplastic injection moulded resin (TR). Surface roughness and hardness of DRS were measured using ultrasonic profilometry and Universal testing machine respectively. Then the four RDS (two AR and two of TR) were fixed to each maxillary denture, after three months RDS were retrieved. Surface roughness and hardness of RDS have measured again. RESULTS: The surface roughness measurements revealed no significant difference (p >0.05) for both disc groups at baseline. However, both groups showed a significant increase in the surface roughness after three months with higher mean value for (TR) group. On the other hand, the (AR) group showed higher hardness mean value than (TR) group at baseline with no significant decrease in the hardness values (p >0.05) following three months follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Denture cleansers have an effect on the denture’s surface roughness and hardness concurrently with an oral condition which will consequently influence the complete dentures’ lifetime and patients’ satisfaction. PMID:27703578

  9. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  10. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid-leaching process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-09-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar cell panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  11. The Influence of Popular Detergents on Stability of Applied Perfumes%常用洗涤剂对香精稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方旗

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of soap,laundry powder,toilet cleaner,oil stain cleanser,liquid detergent etc.were analyzed. Their influence on the stability of applied perfumes were investigated,and the sequence of degree of the influence resulted by these products were obtained then.%阐述了肥皂、洗衣粉、洁厕剂、油污净、洗衣液等产品中的成分以及这些产品提供的环境对加入的香精稳定性的影响,并对以上种类的洗涤剂所提供的环境对大多数香精稳定性的影响程度做了一个大致排序。

  12. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  13. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, Dfirst90%red. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g

  14. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care, i.e. toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases, contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, Dfirst90%red. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10 g-1. (author)

  15. Successful treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris with Dr Michaels® (also branded as Zitinex®) topical products family: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Bayer, P; Coburn, M; Anderson, P; Donnelly, B; Kennedy, T; Gaibor, J; Arora, M; Clews, L; Walmsley, S; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of multi-factorial origin, frequently seen in adolescents and often persisting or occurring through to adulthood. Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79-95% of the adolescent population in westernized societies and is a significant cause of psychological morbidity in affected patients. Despite the various treatment options available for acne, there is still a need for a safe and effective option. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in the treatment of papulo-pustular acne. 25 patients (17 female/8 male), aged 15-22, with a mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne, localized on the face and on the trunk, were included in this study. None of the patients had used any other kind of treatment in the 3 months prior to commencing this study. All of the patients were treated with Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, a cream, PSC 200 and PSC 900 oral supplements. Application time of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) products was 12 weeks. The treatment was been evaluated clinically at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. All of the patients showed an improvement in all parameters of their acne (comedones, papules, pustules, hyperpigmentation and scars). The acne lesions and erythema had mostly resolved. The hyperpigmentation and pitted scarring had significantly reduced also, with the skin appearing smoother. The treatment was well tolerated and no side effects have been described. Our study demonstrates that the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, cream and oral supplements PSC 200 and PSC 900 are an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of moderately severe acne vulgaris. Moreover, it highlights the safety profile of the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in a case of acne compared to traditional first-line treatments. PMID:27498658

  16. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  17. Successful treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris with Dr Michaels® (also branded as Zitinex®) topical products family: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Bayer, P; Coburn, M; Anderson, P; Donnelly, B; Kennedy, T; Gaibor, J; Arora, M; Clews, L; Walmsley, S; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of multi-factorial origin, frequently seen in adolescents and often persisting or occurring through to adulthood. Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79-95% of the adolescent population in westernized societies and is a significant cause of psychological morbidity in affected patients. Despite the various treatment options available for acne, there is still a need for a safe and effective option. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in the treatment of papulo-pustular acne. 25 patients (17 female/8 male), aged 15-22, with a mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne, localized on the face and on the trunk, were included in this study. None of the patients had used any other kind of treatment in the 3 months prior to commencing this study. All of the patients were treated with Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, a cream, PSC 200 and PSC 900 oral supplements. Application time of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) products was 12 weeks. The treatment was been evaluated clinically at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. All of the patients showed an improvement in all parameters of their acne (comedones, papules, pustules, hyperpigmentation and scars). The acne lesions and erythema had mostly resolved. The hyperpigmentation and pitted scarring had significantly reduced also, with the skin appearing smoother. The treatment was well tolerated and no side effects have been described. Our study demonstrates that the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, cream and oral supplements PSC 200 and PSC 900 are an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of moderately severe acne vulgaris. Moreover, it highlights the safety profile of the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in a case of acne compared to traditional first-line treatments.

  18. Rapid treatment of mild acne with a novel skin care system containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid, and botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ashish C; Jimenez, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    The biggest hurdle in the treatment of acne vulgaris is patient non-compliance that is due in large part to poor tolerability to common acne medications. As such, new acne treatments must be developed that balance good anti-acne efficacy with excellent tolerability in order to ensure patient adherence and by extension ensure good clinical outcomes. The goal of the present study was to determine the tolerability and efficacy of a novel skin care system, composed of a cleanser, containing 1% salicylic acid and botanical ingredients, and a treatment gel, containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid and botanical ingredients for the treatment of mild acne. In this single-center, open-label clinical study, 25 male and female volunteers used the test cleanser and test gel twice daily over six weeks. Tolerability assessments showed that the skin care regimen was very well tolerated by all study volunteers. Acne severity was significantly reduced by two acne grades at six weeks. Inflammatory lesion counts were significantly reduced, on average, by 59.06% (P ≤ 0.0001), 91.62% (P ≤ 0.0001), 90.85% (P ≤ 0.0001) and by 98.55% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Non-inflammatory lesion counts were reduced, on average, by 13.54% (ns), 38.95% (P ≤ 0.0001), 44.48% (P ≤ 0.0001), and by 56.10% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Standardized photography also demonstrated a progressive reduction in acne lesions over time. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that the tested skin care regimen offers rapid acne clearance and excellent tolerability that together may help to improve patient adherence as well as treatment outcome.

  19. [The distribution of microorganisms in household kitchens. I. Problems, experiments, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneff, J; Hassinger, R; Wittig, J; Edenharder, R

    1988-03-01

    Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated that insufficient hygiene in households results in increasing health hazards. In order to be able to recommend ways to disrupt infection chains it was necessary to explore the most important pathways of cross-contamination. Housewives without special training were instructed to prepare a complete meal, in the kitchen of a modern, vacant apartment. Among the raw products provided was minced meat, contaminated with Sarcinae (unbeknown to the housewives) in a quantitative manner. When cooking and cleaning procedures were completed we analysed household utensils and surfaces by Rodac impressions and swabs. The test organisms could be detected on all inspected surfaces and on the dining-table with albeit different frequencies. The following locations showed an especially high degree of cross-contamination: a) working-surfaces, especially boards of wood and plastics. b) cutting-machines, c) kitchen-machines. These results agree with literature data. By careful disinfection, i.e. by application of a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite, the contaminations could be removed. We assessed this when arranging the kitchen for the next test. Since it is impossible to practise disinfection procedures in a household kitchen on the same scale as in an operating room, we tried to achieve at least a limited disinfection by household cleansers with germicidal properties. In our opinion a minimum reduction of five log stages, demanded in the medical area, can not be achieved in a household kitchen and indeed it is not necessary. A reduction of the microbial counts to 10% of the original value would already be useful, as toxic levels of microbial counts will be reached later especially when there is simultaneous refrigeration. Correct dosage proved to be one of the main practical problems because a discrepancy exists between the low concentration of tensids, necessary for cleaning, and the relatively high dose necessary for germ

  20. Nerolidol: A Sesquiterpene Alcohol with Multi-Faceted Pharmacological and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Keong Chan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers. In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  1. Nerolidol: A Sesquiterpene Alcohol with Multi-Faceted Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Weng-Keong; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E)-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes) and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers). In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine. PMID:27136520

  2. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hydrolyze 24-hour dentue plaque is 15.66 TU/mg enzyme activity for 10 minutes soaking. Soaking the denture in papain for 10 minutes makes all of the detected plaque protein bands remobe. In conclusion, efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque is papain activity of 15.66 TU/mg by soaking duration of 10 minutes. Further research is suggested to examine papain residue on the denture that may influence the denture wearer biocompatibility.

  3. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  4. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  6. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  7. Surface properties of water soluble surfactants, starch and their complexes by various methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface, interfacial tensions and reduced viscosities were measured for water soluble surfactant and starch solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilisers, emulsifiers or cleansers. The surface tension and reduced viscosity for an acid hydrolysed starch (potato) initially were declined with concentration and then reached an equilibrium value of 56 mN/m and 3.1 dm 3/mol, at 20-40 wt.%. Surface, interfacial tensions and reduced viscosity of starch with surfactant mixture using the ratio 40/60 decreased more rapidly with concentration reaching values of 41-44 mN/m, and 2.5 dm/sup 3//mol, respectively, at 40 wt.%. There was little dependence of surface or interfacial tensions on degree of substitution between 0.3-0.8 and amylose content of starch. Surface and interfacial tensions for starch /surfactants mixtures were lower than those for only starch, particularly at lower concentrations. Emulsions of soybean oil/water mixtures were successfully stabilised for >1 day by potato starch acetate/octenylsuccinate and acetate/ dodecenylsuccinate but not by starch and surfactants. Therefore, these starches may represent biodegradable, economically alternatives to some emulsifiers, soap or detergents filler with effective cleansing activity and coating polymers currently in use. (author)

  8. In vitro study to determine decontamination of 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trifluoropyridine (DCTFP) from human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Domoradzki, Jeanne Y; Maibach, Howard C

    2012-07-01

    This in vitro study determined the decontamination potential of soap and water, D-TAM skin cleanser, corn oil and the O'Dell reactive skin decontamination system to remove 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trifluoropyridine (DCTFP) from human skin after short exposure periods (10 and 30 min). The main result turned out to be the rapid volatility of DCTFP where half of the dose evaporated within 10 min and most of the dose was evaporated after 30 min. This rapid volatility was confirmed in an additional study where DCTFP rapidly evaporated from inert plastic disks (70% loss in 10 min). Despite rapid evaporation and short exposure periods, some DCTFP entered into the human skin epidermis, dermis and receptor fluid. Less DCTFP reached the receptor fluid with the 10 min decontamination (0.13%) than the 30 min decontamination (0.27%). Statistically, all tested decontamination systems performed the same (P>0.05). For human risk the volatility of DCTFP seems paramount. For skin decontamination any of the tested systems will work. An important point is that they should be used within minutes of skin exposure. This study exhibits the dynamics of evaporation, substantivity (skin binding), percutaneous absorption and decontamination of a volatile chemical. PMID:22504088

  9. Evaluation of a New Lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for Detergent Additive Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62% from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase.

  10. Titanium: A New Generation Material for Architectural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Acharya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Materials are defined as unique combinations of materials, process technologies, that together, help create and capture value by addressing large, global unmet wants and needs of building industry. There is a wide range of innovation enabled by technologies for processing materials and integrating currently available materials for creation of new generation buildings “Titaniun” is one of them. It is an incredibly durable and stunning material known for its wide-range of color, high-tensile strength. Titanium can be processed to achieve a variety of surface textures, from a soft matte to a near gleaming reflectivity suitable for architectural application. Titanium's corrosion immunity, strength and physical properties combine to allow reduced wall thickness, lowering its installed unit cost which is favourable as far as its application in densely populated urban areas is concerned. Many countries like United Sates of America, China, and Spain etc have also stared its use however its use in developing country like India is still limited. The paper attempts to analyze the chemical properties of Titanium as a futuristic building material. It also observes the variant of the material as option to make self-cleaning buildings in the future, reducing the amount of harmful cleansers used currently.

  11. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Nebus, Judith; Wallo, Warren; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2012-07-01

    Colloidal oatmeal has been used for decades to soothe and ameliorate atopic dermatitis and other pruritic and/or xerotic dermatoses. In-vitro and/or in-vivo studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, barrier repair, and moisturizing properties of this compound. A broad set of studies has been conducted in recent years to assess the effects of colloidal oatmeal as adjunct treatment in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). This paper will review these studies. In these investigations, patients in all age groups (3 months to 60 years) with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were included and allowed to continue their prescribed topical medications. These studies found that the daily use of moisturizers and/or cleansers containing colloidal oatmeal significantly improved many clinical outcomes of atopic dermatitis from baseline: investigator's assessment (IGA), eczema area and severity index (EASI), itch, dryness, and quality of life indices. Safety results showed that the formulations were well tolerated in babies, children, and adults with AD. PMID:22777219

  12. Preventing skin tears in a nursing and rehabilitation center: an interdisciplinary effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Dena; Nix, Denise

    2006-09-01

    Skin tears are painful, traumatic wounds that result from the separation of the epidermis from the dermis. To assess the clinical effectiveness of a preventive skin care protocol, 13-month retrospective pre-intervention data collection followed by 15-month post-intervention skin tear incidence data collection was conducted among all patients in a 209-bed urban nursing and rehabilitation center. The preventive skin care strategies implemented - staff education, skin sleeves and padded side rails for high-risk patients, gentle skin cleansers, and lotion - were selected by facility staff members and the multidisciplinary skin team. Nosocomial skin tear data were obtained by reviewing incident reports. Following implementation of the prevention protocols, the number of skin tears changed from a mean of 18.7 to a mean of 8.73 per month (P <0.001). The average monthly reduction in nosocomial skin tears was projected to reduce the dressing and labor costs of managing these wounds an average of 1,698 dollars per month (18,168.60 dollars annually). The results of this study confirm previously reported research suggesting that the effects of implementing a comprehensive skin care protocol can persist, reducing the incidence of nosocomial skin tears and their associated risks and costs. Prospective cost-effectiveness studies to confirm these findings are needed.

  13. endodôntica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Bertani Ottoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research purpose measure the surface tension’s substances used in endodontic therapy by means of creeping. The authors used a tube glass capillary with inside diameter 0,5 millimeter and length 20 centimeter. The tube propitiate the liquid’s ascension. Liquids were aspirated and after stabilization into the tube glass capillary was measured the capilar’s liquid column. The surface tension’s result were: sodium hypochlorite 1% (60,7 dynes/c, tricresol formalin (27,2 dynes/c, PMCC (25,5 dynes/c. Besides the authors testify the hypothesis the surface tension’s reduction of EDTA solutions when increased cleanser’s crescent doses. The findings were: EDTA 17%+0,1% tergentol (45,60 dynes/c; EDTA 17%+0,5% tergentol (45,69 dynes/ c; EDTA 17%+1% tergentol (28,34 dynes/c; EDTA 17%+5% tergentol (24,58% dynes/c e EDTA 17%+10% tergentol (17,68 dynes/c.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of "green" synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Michael C; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M; Varma, Rajender S

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel "green" synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems. PMID:20648322

  15. MANFAAT TANAMAN TERATAI (Nymphaea sp., Nymphaeaceae di DESA ADAT SUMAMPAN, KECAMATAN SUKAWATI, KABUPATEN GIANYAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Nyoman Budiwati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available his purpose of this research was to determine the benefits of the lotus plant inSumampan Village, District of Sukawati, Gianyar, Bali. The research was conductedfrom 4 to 16 February 2013. The method was used in this study is exploratory survey bydirect observation and interviews with one main informant and 15 KK from 3 banjar. Theresults showed there were 11 kinds of lotus : lotus sudamala ( Nymphoides indica (4.54%, yellow lotus (21.21 %, dark blue lotus ( Nymphaea stellata Wild (12.12 %, pinklotus (16.66 % , violet lotus (9.09 %, purple lotus (9.09 %, white lotus (Nymphaeanouchali Burm f. (18.18 %, light blue lotus (Nymphaea stellata Wild (3.03 %, lotustutur (1.51 %, lotus dedari (1.51 % and lotus brumbun (3.03 %. The lotus plant is usedas a upakara / banten 77.41 % , 16.12 % as ornamental plants, while 6.45 % as amedicine for breast cancer drug, arthritis, headaches, stress, fear, and cleanser the liverand pancreas. As a medicine, lotus plant was used in it’s from as tempel, solutions, pupukand boreh.Key word: exploratory survey, benefits lotus, tempel, pupuk, boreh

  16. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  17. Determination of Ethylene Oxide and Methyloxirane in Clean Cosmetics by Headspace Sampling-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%顶空进样-气相色谱-质谱法检测清洁类化妆品中环氧乙烷和环氧丙烷残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬轩; 李挥; 蔡立鹏; 范斌; 张岩

    2013-01-01

    A method based on headspace sampling-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GCMS) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of ethylene oxide and methyloxirane in clean cosmetics.About 1.0 g of sodium chloride and 5.0 mL of deionized water was added to the sample.After vortex mixed,the mixture above was placed in a headspace sampler,and then qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out by HS-GCMS with SIM model.The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-100.0 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.5-50.0 μg (methyloxirane) with R>0.995.The detection limits were 0.02 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.01 μg (methyloxirane),and the quantitative limit were 0.07 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.03 μg (methyloxirane).By determination to 15 batches cleanser,15 batches shampoo and 20 batches bath foam bought in the supermarket,we found that this method was suitable for the determination of ethylene oxide and propylene oxidein.

  18. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  19. Percutaneous absorption of triclocarban in rat and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, D; Black, J G

    1976-06-01

    The route and rate of excretion by rats of the germicide (1 4 C) Triclocarban formerly called trichlorocarbanilide, given by parenteral injection has been investigated. Blood levels based on radioactivity and by chemical determination after parenteral injection have been compared with those obtained after topical application of (1 4 C) Triclocarban in soaps and in dimethylformamide (DMF) through occluded rat skin has been studied. Other soaps and a hand cleanser containing (1 4 C) Triclocarban have been applied to rat skin without occlusion and the effects of duration of contact, concentration and the use of a solubilizer have been investigated. In humans, absorption of Triclocarban through skin after bathing daily for 28 days has been investigated by chemical analysis of blood and urine. The data show that elimination by the rat is rapid and complete principally via the faeces. Blood levels after parenteral injection are low and comparison of the radioactivity and chemical determinations suggest rapid metabolism of the Triclocarban. After application to the skin, blood levels based on 1 4 C are very low. Absorption of (1 4 C) Triclocarban through occluded rat skin was greater from DMF than from soaps. With non-occluded rat skin, absorption from soaps was less and was dependent on concentration but independent of duration of contact. The use of a solubilizer did not increase absorption through skin. No measurable Triclocarban (less than 25 ppb) was present in blood and urine samples of volunteers during or shortly after a 28-day intensive bathing regimen. PMID:941165

  20. An Unusually Severe Case of Dermatosis Neglecta: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Margarita Pérez-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dermatosis neglecta is a condition secondary to lack of cleanliness, characterized by the formation of hyperkeratotic plaques located in a particular region of the body, usually due to a disability, and it is considered a diagnostic challenge because it can mimic other entities. We present the case of an 18-year-old woman with a 2-month history of progressive brown verrucous plaque in her face. Our first impression was seborrheic dermatitis and she was treated with facial cleanser soap and topic hydrocortisone 1%. One month later, she arrived with new lesions. Because of this our diagnosis changed to Darier's disease versus seborrheic pemphigus versus foliaceus pemphigus. Histopathology and immunofluorescence studies were compatible with seborrheic dermatitis. The patient complained of depression and social withdrawal and denied facial cleansing. Facial cleansing was performed during consultation presenting resolution of the lesions, which confirmed the diagnosis of dermatosis neglecta. Dermatosis neglecta is a disease that can be frequently misdiagnosed, since it has many differential diagnoses, such as hyperkeratotic syndromes. It should be recognized early and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic methods should be avoided.

  1. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Nebus, Judith; Wallo, Warren; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2012-07-01

    Colloidal oatmeal has been used for decades to soothe and ameliorate atopic dermatitis and other pruritic and/or xerotic dermatoses. In-vitro and/or in-vivo studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, barrier repair, and moisturizing properties of this compound. A broad set of studies has been conducted in recent years to assess the effects of colloidal oatmeal as adjunct treatment in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). This paper will review these studies. In these investigations, patients in all age groups (3 months to 60 years) with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were included and allowed to continue their prescribed topical medications. These studies found that the daily use of moisturizers and/or cleansers containing colloidal oatmeal significantly improved many clinical outcomes of atopic dermatitis from baseline: investigator's assessment (IGA), eczema area and severity index (EASI), itch, dryness, and quality of life indices. Safety results showed that the formulations were well tolerated in babies, children, and adults with AD.

  2. Colloidal oatmeal: history, chemistry and clinical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ellen S; Wallo, Warren

    2007-02-01

    Oatmeal has been used for centuries as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation associated with various xerotic dermatoses. In 1945, a ready to use colloidal oatmeal, produced by finely grinding the oat and boiling it to extract the colloidal material, became available. Today, colloidal oatmeal is available in various dosage forms from powders for the bath to shampoos, shaving gels, and moisturizing creams. Currently, the use of colloidal oatmeal as a skin protectant is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to the Over-The-Counter Final Monograph for Skin Protectant Drug Products issued in June 2003. Its preparation is also standardized by the United States Pharmacopeia. The many clinical properties of colloidal oatmeal derive from its chemical polymorphism. The high concentration in starches and beta-glucan is responsible for the protective and water-holding functions of oat. The presence of different types of phenols confers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Some of the oat phenols are also strong ultraviolet absorbers. The cleansing activity of oat is mostly due to saponins. Its many functional properties make colloidal oatmeal a cleanser, moisturizer, buffer, as well as a soothing and protective anti-inflammatory agent.

  3. Avaliação in vitro da influência do polimento superficial de resina acrílica para aparelhos ortodônticos na adesão e remoção de Streptococcus mutans In vitro evaluation of the influence of resin acrylic surface polishing for orthodontic appliances on adhesion and removal of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Sano Suga

    2005-02-01

    mechanical polishing and the microbilogical adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. The chemical and mechanical cleasing of the appliances was also checked. Forty eight appliances were prepared and divided into 3 groups. Each group was subdivided in 2 groups, concerning the different types of polishing. Group 1 control; Group 2 mechanical brushing of the acrylic resin plates with Denture Brush, Kolynos; Group 3 hygiene (chemical cleansing of the appliances by immersing them in sodiun perborate solution for 30 minutes (Fizzy Cleanser of Prosthetic and Orthodontic Appliances, " Fórmula & Ação" Pharmacy. By the statistical results, obtained from the described analysis, it was concluded that the polishing type performed in the internal surface of acrylic resin did not influence the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. The inferential analysis, implemented by comparing the assessed groups, determined that there was a reduction in the removal of biofilm formed by the contamination of Streptococcus mutans in the groups. The chemical cleanser was more efficient than the mechanical brushing. However there was no difference between the subgroups, confirming that polishing type (chemical or mechanical did not influence the adhesion and removal of Streptococcus mutans.

  4. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

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    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  5. Toxicity of chlorhexidine on odontoblast-like cells

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    Fernanda Campos Rosetti Lessa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX is recommended for a number of clinical procedures and it has been pointed out as a potential cavity cleanser to be applied before adhesive restoration of dental cavities. OBJECTIVE: As CHX may diffuse through the dentinal tubules to reach a monolayer of odontoblasts that underlies the dentin substrate, this study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of CHX on cultured odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells were cultured and exposed to CHX solutions at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.2%, 1% and 2%. Pure culture medium (α-MEM and 3% hydrogen peroxide were used as negative and positive control, respectively. After exposing the cultured cells to the controls and CHX solutions for 60 s, 2 h or 60 s with a 24-h recovery period, cell metabolism (MTT assay and total protein concentration were evaluated. Cell morphology was assessed under scanning electron microscopy. CHX had a dose-dependent toxic effect on the MDPC-23 cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed when the cells were exposed to CHX in all periods (p<0.05. Significant difference was also determined for all CHX concentrations (p<0.05. The 60-s exposure time was the least cytotoxic (p<0.05, while exposure to CHX for 60 s with a 24-h recovery period was the most toxic to the cells (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the exposure time, all CHX concentrations had a high direct cytotoxic effect to cultured MDPC-23 cells.

  6. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

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    Tran D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Tran, Joshua P Townley, Tanya M Barnes, Kerryn A Greive Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, Victoria, Australia Background: The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods: Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry and skin roughness (Ra were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity, R5 (net elasticity, R6 (viscoelastic portion, and R7 (recovery after deformation were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001 and 42.9% (P<0.0001, respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001 and 12.5% (P=0.0449, respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001 after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion: An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. Keywords: alpha hydroxy acids, antiaging, nicotinamide, vitamin C, vitamin E, profilometry, cutometer

  7. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  8. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (Phyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling. The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  9. 医务人员手卫生三种处置方法的效果观察%Observation the effect medical of three hand hygiene disposal methods for medical staff.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the disposal of hospital effects of three different hand hygiene,to select the better hand hygiene products. Methods:Apply cotton swab bacterial detection methods of sampling and hand hygiene in hospial three products: ordinary soap, fast hand disinfectants, antibacterial hand sanitizers effects of contrast. Results: The plain soap, antibacterial hand cleanser, disinfectant hand -wash your hands quickly pass rate was 88. 51% ,96. 59% ,97.22%. Plain soap and antibacterial hand sanitizer,hand disinfectant effects offast and there was significant difference( P<0.05 ). Conclusion:The use of antimicrobial hand soap and hand disinfectant effect of significantly faster than ordinary soap,it is worth to promote the use in the hospital.%目的:监测医务人员三种不同手卫生处置效果,以选择更好的手卫生产品.方法:采用棉拭子涂抹采样和细菌检测方法对医院三种手卫生产品:普通肥皂、快速手消毒剂、抗菌洗手液的洗手效果进行对比.结果:普通肥皂、抗菌洗手液、快速手消毒剂洗手合格率分别为88.51%,96.59%,97.22%.普通肥皂与抗菌洗手液、快速手消毒剂效果比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:使用抗菌洗手液和快速手消毒剂效果明显高于普通肥皂,值得推广使用.

  10. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract for mouthwash and denture cleaning solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract for assessing whether Dendropanax morbifera Léveille can be used for the development of natural mouthwash and denture cleaning solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS The extract was obtained from branches of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille. The solvent fractions were acquired by fractionating Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol solvent. Paper disc test was used to evaluate the antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract and solvent fractions against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. The analysis of antioxidant activity was carried out through DPPH radical scavenging assay. The cytotoxicity of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract was analyzed through MTT assay using normal human oral keratinocytes. RESULTS Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and especially Candida albicans. The solvent fractions of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille showed strong antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in n-hexane and butanol solvent fraction, respectively. Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract also showed outstanding antioxidant activity. Butanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent fraction of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille tended to have increased antioxidant activity as the concentration increased. Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract showed high cell survival rate in cytotoxicity test. CONCLUSION Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract turned out to have antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and cytophilicity. Based on these results, it is expected that Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is applicable as an ingredient for natural mouthwash and denture cleanser. PMID:27350850

  11. An alkylphenol mix promotes seminoma derived cell proliferation through an ERalpha36-mediated mechanism.

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    Hussein Ajj

    Full Text Available Long chain alkylphenols are man-made compounds still present in industrial and agricultural processes. Their main use is domestic and they are widespread in household products, cleansers and cosmetics, leading to a global environmental and human contamination. These molecules are known to exert estrogen-like activities through binding to classical estrogen receptors. In vitro, they can also interact with the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor. Testicular germ cell tumor etiology and progression are proposed to be stimulated by lifelong estrogeno-mimetic exposure. We studied the transduction signaling pathways through which an alkyphenol mixture triggers testicular cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation assays were monitored after exposure to a realistic mixture of 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol of either TCam-2 seminoma derived cells, NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cells or testis tumor in xenografted nude mice. Specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing strategies were used in TCam-2 cells in order to demonstrate that the alkylphenol mix triggers CREB-phosphorylation through a rapid, ERα36-PI3kinase non genomic pathway. Microarray analysis of the mixture target genes revealed that this pathway can modulate the expression of the DNA-methyltransferase-3 (Dnmt3 gene family which is involved in DNA methylation control. Our results highlight a key role for ERα36 in alkylphenol non genomic signaling in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, ERα36-dependent control of the epigenetic status opens the way for the understanding of the link between endocrine disruptor exposure and the burden of hormone sensitive cancers.

  12. Demographic Features, Beliefs And Socio–Psychological Impact Of Acne Vulgaris Among Its Sufferers In Two Towns In Nigeria

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    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of reports in the demographic knowledge, belief and socio-psychological impact of acne vulgaris sufferers towards the disorder in a black population. This is the first study from Nigeria designed to address this issue. A total of 174 facial acne sufferers completed a self-administered questionnaire, which contained several items mentioning different areas in their belief, knowledge, perception, severity, socio-psychological impact and medication attention. The findings were discussed and compared to those of the Caucasians. The occurrence of the disorder was higher in females (65.0% compared to the males (35.0%. About 54.0% of the female subjects indicated increase in severity of the disorder during their pre-menstrual period. Also 64.9% of acne sufferers indicated increase in severity during the rainy season, while 93.1% of the population implicated stress to perpetuate the severity of the disorder. Most (75.7% of the acne sufferers believed that it is caused by oily diet, 40.8% thought that it is hereditary, while barely 5.2% had at sometime sought doctor's attention. Non- prescription products used by acne sufferers were cleansers and cream/lotions. Psychological abnormalities experienced by the sufferers included social inhibition, depression and anxiety. Pain and discomfort are the psychosomatic symptoms. No major differences were found in the beliefs, misconception and socio-psychological impact of acne sufferers in a black population (Nigeria compared to the Caucasians. There is need to improve the understanding of the disorder in Nigeria through health education programmes

  13. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

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    Criquet M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maryline Criquet,1 Romain Roure,1 Liliane Dayan,2 Virginie Nollent,1 Christiane Bertin11Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy les Moulineaux, 2Independent consultant dermatologist, Paris, FranceBackground: Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized.Methods: In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin.Results: We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period.Keywords: Avena sativa, colloids, protective agents, atopic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, allergenic dermatitis, skin

  14. 化妆品抗粉刺(祛痘)的抑菌效果评价%Evaluation on Bacteriostatic Effect of Anti Acne Cosmetics (Acne)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇华

    2015-01-01

    Vitro antibacterial activity on acne pathogens with 10 kinds of acne cosmetics was studied.Randomly choose two classes with a total of 10 kinds of acne cosmetics, antibacterial activity of acne propionic acid bacillus and staphylococcus aureus were quantitative tested by suspension method and bacteriostatic ring.Results showed that with 3 kinds of acne removing cleanser in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic rates were greater than 50%, had good bacteriostatic action.With 3 kinds of acne cream in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic ring diameter were greater than 7 mm, had good antibacterial effect.These two products had the pass rate with 60%.%研究了10种祛痘类化妆品对痤疮致病菌的体外抑菌活性。随机选用两类共10种祛痘类化妆品,根据使用方法选用悬液法定量和抑菌环法定性检测化妆品对金黄色葡萄球菌和痤疮丙酸杆菌的抑菌活性。结果表明:5种祛痘洁面乳中有3种洁面乳的抑菌率大于50%,有较好的抑菌作用;5种祛痘膏霜中有3种的抑菌环直径大于7 mm,有较好的抑菌效果,两类产品的合格率均为60%。

  15. A randomized, controlled study to evaluate the steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevik, Bente K; Bergvall, Kerstin; Holm, Birgit R; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena E; Hedhammar, Ake; Larsen, Stig; Kristensen, Flemming

    2004-06-01

    A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial of 12 weeks' duration was undertaken in 60 dogs with atopic dermatitis to evaluate the steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation. The dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a combination of borage seed oil and fish oil or a placebo, in addition to prednisolone tablets. All dogs received a standardized basal diet. Owners of the dogs recorded pruritus daily using a 10 cm visual analog scale and the dosage of prednisolone was established based on the pruritus score, according to written instructions. The dosage of prednisolone and the use of any concurrent treatment (shampoo and/or ear-cleanser) were recorded by the owner on a daily basis. The investigators graded the skin lesions at days 0, 42 and 84. The use of prednisolone during the test period was lower in the active group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.32). The test period was sequentially divided into 43-84, 50-84, 57-84, 64-84, 71-84 and 78-84 days. On day 64, the difference between the active group and the placebo group reached statistical significance (P = 0.04) with an increasing difference towards the end of the study. A statistically significant reduction in the pruritus scores and the total clinical scores from day 0 to day 84 was apparent in both groups (P < 0.0001). At the end of the study, both the pruritus score and the total clinical score were lower in the active group. Our findings indicate a steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis and, furthermore, that there is a time lag before the effect is attained.

  16. A randomized, controlled study to evaluate the steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevik, Bente K; Bergvall, Kerstin; Holm, Birgit R; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena E; Hedhammar, Ake; Larsen, Stig; Kristensen, Flemming

    2004-06-01

    A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial of 12 weeks' duration was undertaken in 60 dogs with atopic dermatitis to evaluate the steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation. The dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a combination of borage seed oil and fish oil or a placebo, in addition to prednisolone tablets. All dogs received a standardized basal diet. Owners of the dogs recorded pruritus daily using a 10 cm visual analog scale and the dosage of prednisolone was established based on the pruritus score, according to written instructions. The dosage of prednisolone and the use of any concurrent treatment (shampoo and/or ear-cleanser) were recorded by the owner on a daily basis. The investigators graded the skin lesions at days 0, 42 and 84. The use of prednisolone during the test period was lower in the active group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.32). The test period was sequentially divided into 43-84, 50-84, 57-84, 64-84, 71-84 and 78-84 days. On day 64, the difference between the active group and the placebo group reached statistical significance (P = 0.04) with an increasing difference towards the end of the study. A statistically significant reduction in the pruritus scores and the total clinical scores from day 0 to day 84 was apparent in both groups (P < 0.0001). At the end of the study, both the pruritus score and the total clinical score were lower in the active group. Our findings indicate a steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis and, furthermore, that there is a time lag before the effect is attained. PMID:15214949

  17. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  18. Peroxide alkaline for cleansing the baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection affecting the oral mucosa. A number of predisposing factors have the capacity to convert Candida from the normal commensal flora to a pathogenic organism. Oral candidiasis is divided into primary and secondary infection. The primary infections are restricted to the oral and perioral sites, where as secondary infections are accompanied by sistemic mucocutaneous manifestation. Oral thrush is one of the candidiasis primary infection. Some presdiposing factors of oral thrush are neonatal, old people, or where oral microflora is disturbed by the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Final diagnosis is determined by fungal culture examination, although through clinical examination oral thrush can be determined by swabbing the white pseudomembran. Purpose: This case report presents about the importance of using the antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps and shows about peroxide alkaline as the alternatif of antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple that can substitute chlorhexidine gluconat 0.2%. Case: A baby girl, 15 months old, when she was suffering influenza the pediatry gave amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for ten days. Then the white plaque appeared on her dorsum of tongue. The therapy was Gentian Violet 1% four times a day for ten days was applied on dorsum of the tongue. The patient was suspected to suffer alergy reaction after using nistatin oral suspension four times a day had applied for 1 day. The instruction was doing sterilization for the baby bottle nipple in boiling water. Three days after the baby was cured, the white plaque was appeared on upper n lower lips mucous. Case management: The diagnosis was Oral thrush. The therapy was Gentian violet 1% four times a day for ten days that applied on upper and lower lips mucous. The instruction was doing the sterilization for baby bottle nipple in denture cleanser contain

  19. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  20. A clinical study on influencing factors of removable denture malodor%可摘义齿异味的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴治国; 杨彦伟; 张宏晨; 张雅丽; 吉兆华; 张少锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解可摘义齿的异味状况并探讨其影响因素,为可摘义齿的异味控制提供指导.方法:以226例可摘义齿佩戴者为对象,进行问卷调查和义齿临床检查,对调查结果进行单因素分析和Logistic回归分析.结果:可摘义齿异味率为76.5%;单因素分析显示,不同年龄组、文化程度、月收入、是否吸烟、是否喝咖啡、不同清洁方式、义齿夜间是否浸泡水中均对可摘义齿的异味发生有影响,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析显示,年龄和清洁方式是义齿异味发生的主要影响因素,OR值分别为5.092,29.451.结论:可摘义齿的异味发生率较高,高年龄人群的义齿较易产生异味,使用高效的清洁方式(如义齿清洁剂)可有效减少义齿异味的发生.%AIM: To investigate the malodor status of removable dentures and explore its influencing factors in order to provide a guide for malodor control. METHODS: A questionnaire survey and clinical examination of 226 patients with removable dentures were carried out, and multifactorial logistic regression analysis followed by monofacto-rial analysis was applied to analyze the survey results. RESULTS: The prevalence of denture malodor was 76. 5%. According to monofactorial analysis, age, education level, monthly income, smoking, drinking coffee, cleaning methods and immersing denture in water overnight all had significant effects on denture malodor( P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR =5.092) and cleaning methods (OR =29.451) were the main influencing factors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of denture malodor is high. Malodor of denture is more prevalent in the elderly and efficient cleaning method such as denture cleanser is more efficient in reducing denture malodor.

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  2. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating an Oral Anti-aging Skin Care Supplement for Treating Photodamaged Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Monya L.; Hino, Peter D.; Moigne, Anne Le; Dispensa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate an anti-aging skin care supplement on the appearance of photodamaged skin. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Following a one-month washout period, subjects received two anti-aging skin care formula tablets (total daily dose: marine complex 210mg, vitamin C 54mg, zinc 4mg) or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Subjects were restricted from products/procedures that may affect the condition/appearance of skin, including direct facial sun or tanning bed exposure. Participants utilized a standardized facial cleanser and SPF15 moisturizer. Setting: Single study center (Texas, United States; June-November 2007). Participants: Healthy women aged 35 to 60 years (mean, 50 years), Fitzpatrick skin type I-IV, modified Glogau type II—III. Measurements: Subjects were assessed at Weeks 6, 12, and 16 on clinical grading (0-10 VAS), bioinstrumentation, digital photography, and self-assessments. Analysis of variance with treatment in the model was used for between-group comparisons (alpha P≤0.05). Results: Eighty-two anti-aging skin care formula subjects and 70 placebo subjects completed the study. Significant differences in change from baseline to Week 16 scores were observed for clinical grading of overall facial appearance (0.26; P<0.0001), radiant complexion (0.59; P<0.0001), periocular wrinkles (0.08; P<0.05), visual (0.56; P<0.0001) and tactile (0.48; P<0.0001) roughness, and mottled hyperpigmentation (0.15; P<0.001) favoring the subjects in the anti-aging skin care supplement group. Ultrasound skin density (Week 16) was significantly reduced for placebo versus anti-aging skin care supplement group (-1.4% vs. 0%; P<0.01). Other outcomes were not significant. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms possibly related to the anti-aging skin care supplement (n=1) and placebo (n=2) were observed. Conclusion: Women with photodamaged skin receiving anti-aging skin care supplement showed significant improvements in the appearance of facial

  3. Quality and Safety Control for Student Nutrimeal in the Large- Scale Production and Distribution%学生营养餐规模化生产和配送质量与安全控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施永清; 励建荣; 罗晓玲

    2012-01-01

    忽视学生营养餐的管理,容易发生食物中毒重大事件,严重危害学生身体健康.研究阐述了规模化生产学生营养餐新建工程的规范设计和生产技术管理.按照学生营养餐生产企业有关卫生规范进行工厂设计,执行清洗消毒和卫生保持标准操作程序(SSOP),根据HACCP原理对生产和配送过程中可能造成食品污染的各种危害因素进行系统和全面的分析,明确关键控制点、关键限值、纠偏措施和验证程序.加强教育培训,提高从业人员的食品卫生意识.通过HACCP管理系统的实施,确保学生营养餐的质量与安全.%If the safety management of nutrimeal for students is ignored, the events of serious food poisoning would happen,which is seriously harmful to the student health. This paper expounds the standard design and technical management for the new engineering project of nutrimeal for students. According to related hygienic specifications of production enterprises supplying nutrimeal for students,the new factory was designed. The Cleanser & Disinfection and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure( SSOP) were implemented. HACCP was employed in the production and distribution to conduct systematic and comprehensive analysis of various harmful factors that may lead to food contamination. Meanwhile the critical control points, critical limit, corrective actions, and verification procedure were established. Educational training is very important to improve staff awareness of food hygiene. The application of HACCP management system is an effective measure to ensure the quality and safety of nutrimeal for students.

  4. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  5. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  6. Análise dos métodos de contagem de pontos e planímetro na quantificação do biofilme da dentadura: um estudo de validação metodológica Analysis of the point-counting and planimetric methods in the quantification of the biofilm of dentures: a study of methodological validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseana Aparecida Gomes FERNANDES

    2002-03-01

    scoring method. The results revealed an agreement rate of 82% between the paper-weighing method and the point-counting method, and an agreement rate of 95% between the former and the planimetric method, which was confirmed by high coefficients of correlation (0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The comparison with the Prosthesis Hygiene Index resulted in 55% of agreement with the point-counting method and in 37% of agreement with the planimetric method. The experimental methods can be useful in clinical studies involving the evaluation of the performance of denture cleansers.

  7. 消散石英晶体微天平对木瓜蛋白酶水解唾液膜的动力学研究%Kinetic Study of Papain Hydrolysis of Salivary Film by the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水根; 林志明; 姚江武

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamics of papain hydrolysis at various of pH values, ionic strengths,and temperatures when using the human whole saliva as a model films.Methods: QCM-D technique was used to observe the changes in frequency of salivary films in enzymatic hydrolysis at various conditions.Results: The WS film was partially removed after treated by enzyme at various conditions.The character of the interactions of papain with salivary proteins was sensitive to various conditions i.e.pH value, ionic strength, and temperature which should be considered during the choice and application of enzyme source.In general, with decreasing pH value and increasing ionic strength (from I to 5 mM) and temperature, catalytic rate of papain significantly increased.Conclusion: Enzymatic kinetics show that the process of papain hydrolysis of WS film was pH-, ionic strength- and temperature-dependent.This behavior of papain can be used in the formulation of toothpaste, mouthrinse and denture cleanser and helps to achieve the desired antimicrobial compounds.The optimization of enzymes will require a more detailed understanding of regulative system and multiple factors generated in the processes.%目的:本实验以人全唾作为唾液获得性膜的体外实验模型,研究不同pH值、离子强度和温度条件下木瓜蛋白酶水解的动力学.方法:通过消散石英晶体微天平在各种条件下观察酶水解唾液膜的频率变化.结果:在各种条件下唾液膜被木瓜蛋白酶部分水解.木瓜蛋白酶与唾液蛋白质的相互作用对pH值、离子强度和温度的改变敏感.在选择和应用酶时,该特性应加以考虑.降低pH值,提高离子强度(1~5 mmol/L范围内)和温度,木瓜蛋白酶的催化效率增强.结论:酶动力学显示木瓜蛋白酶水解唾液膜的过程具有pH值、离子强度和温度的依赖性特点.在牙膏、漱口水、义齿清洁剂的配方中利用木瓜蛋白酶的这一特点,有助于获得理

  8. Significância dos argilominerais em produtos cosméticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gomes Daré

    2015-09-01

     exchange capacities, pleasant sensation when applied to skin, and plastic and thixotropic characteristics. Because of this they are suitable to be used in topical products. In fact, their properties were already known and exploited since prehistoric times with reports of its use in the treatment of wounds and as for cleaning the skin. This review paper emphasizes the importance of these minerals in use in cosmetics, which can perform various functions, both as an excipient or as an active component, and have been included in numerous products, such as skin care emulsions, facial masks, sunscreens, cleansers skin, shampoos and makeup products. The increase over recent years in the use of natural products, associated with a greater awareness of the need to preserve the environment, it has attracted increasing interest in clay minerals. Brazil, as a holder of one of the world’s largest reserves from clay has the third biggest depository of patents in this area. Considering the wide potential use of clay minerals, it can be stated they are great opportunities for research and development of new cosmetic products.Keywords: Clay minerals. Phyllosilicates. Cosmetic products.

  9. Composição química do óleo essencial e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil Chemical composition of the essential oil and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Chaibub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil (manacá é utilizada popularmente como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas (chá das folhas para dores musculares, de estômago, de cabeça, e disfunções hepáticas (chá das raízes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial e a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das folhas de S. odoratissima contra bactérias Gram positivas e negativas, e Candida albicans. O extrato bruto das folhas foi obtido por maceração seguido de concentração em rotaevaporador e as frações por partição em coluna filtrante. O pó das folhas foi submetido à hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e o óleo essencial obtido foi analisado por CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método da diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram β-cariofileno (20,64%, γ-muuroleno (17,70%, biciclogermacreno (14,73%, e δ-cadineno (13,40%. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana de S. odoratissima, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus epidermidis (extrato etanólico bruto, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, C. albicans (fração hexano, CIM de 0,049 mg/mL, Bacillus cereus (diclorometano, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, Micrococcus roseus (fração acetato de etila, CIM 0,049 mg/mL, e M. roseus, Micrococus luteus, B. cereus e C. albicans (fração metanol, CIM de 0,391 mg/mL.Spiranthera odoratissima ("manacá" has been popularly used as a blood cleanser, for liver and kidney diseases (tea from the leaves, as well as for muscle and stomach pains, headache and liver disorders (tea from the roots. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of S. odoratissima leaves against Gram-positive and negative

  10. The role of impurities, LIF, and processing on the sintering, microstructure, and optical properties of transparent polycrystalline magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubat du Merac, Marc

    Transparent polycrystalline magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel has an exceptional combination of properties that is well-suited to fulfill demanding optical applications that few other materials can satisfy. However, spinel is inherently difficult to densify due to high defect formation energies, variable stoichiometry, and extreme sensitivity to powder and processing parameters. In addition, the LiF sintering additive typically required to impart transparency degrades optical and mechanical properties, precluding wider application. Furthermore, there remains a fundamental lack of understanding of the processing-structure-property relationships required to obtain high transparency and good mechanical properties. In this work, hot-press experiments were designed to determine the role of impurities and LiF and the key variables required to obtain transparent spinel. Hot-pressed compacts were characterized with electron microscopy, chemical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry, and impurities present in parts-per-million in starting powders were found to cause restricted grain size and opacity. LiF addition was found to reduce the content of some impurities by one order of magnitude, counteract absorption, and impart transparency, but also to cause grain coarsening, grain-boundary embrittlement, and scatter. Thermal analysis and residual gas analysis of prepared powders in combination with thermodynamic modeling demonstrated for the first time the specific mechanism by which LiF acts as a cleanser. LiF reacts with impurities to form volatile fluorides, and the temperature at which pressure is applied during hot-pressing determines the extent to which compact-scale differential sintering either traps LiF and volatile fluorides or allows their removal, the latter enabling transparency. The main cause of absorption in hot-pressed spinel compacts was found to be carbon contamination from graphitic hot-press components and it could be completely eliminated with proper

  11. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    detected at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L, with the seven most frequently detected VOCs found in only 1 to 5 percent of samples. Mixtures (two or more compounds) were a common mode of occurrence for VOCs when no assessment level was applied, and mixtures occurred in one-half of all samples that contained at least one VOC. Only 1.4 percent of samples (27 samples) had one or more VOC concentrations that exceeded a federally established drinking-water standard or health criterion. Only 0.1 percent of samples (2 samples) had one or more VOC concentrations that exceeded a taste/odor threshold. Potential point sources of VOCs near domestic wells are numerous. Leaks from under-ground storage tanks and aboveground storage tanks that hold gasoline, diesel fuel, or heating oil have the potential to be major point sources of contaminants to domestic wells. Shock chlorination may be a source of trichloromethane and other trihalomethanes in some domestic wells. Septic systems are believed to be an important source of contaminants to domestic wells, but extensive research on this subject does not exist. VOCs frequently are ingredients in household products such as cleansers and insecticides, and some VOCs have been found in septic systems.

  12. HPLC-MS/MS测定城市废水中的10种药物与个人护理用品%Determination of 10 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waste water by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红选; 刘卫国

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) represent a variety of chemical, widely used by consumers on a daily basis which include prescription and non-prescription drugs, cosmetics, cleansers, detergents and fragrance produces. PPCPs are considered potentially hazardous compounds because some are ubiquitous, persistent, and biologically active compounds with recognized endocrine disrupting functions (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). These compounds have been widely detected in various environmental matrices throughout the world including rivers (Glen et al, 2003; Tixier et al, 2003; Yu and Chu, 2009; Zhang et al, 2011; Wu et al, 2014), lakes (Buser and Theobald, 1998; Glen et al, 2003; Tixier et al, 2003; Blair et al, 2013; Ferguson et al, 2013; Zhu et al, 2013), oceans (Weigel et al, 2002; Del Rosario et al, 2014), groundwater (Barnes et al, 2008), waste and drinking water (Carmona et al, 2014) and food (Wu et al, 2012; Baron et al, 2014). Detection methods of PPCP include spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and electrophoresis. The recent advances in analytical instrumentation have allowed the unequivocal identiifcation and conifrmation of the presence of any compound at very low levels using LC-MS2. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) allows monitoring two transitions between precursor and product ions. It is possible to quantify and conifrm the presence of PPCPs at very low concentration levels. However, due to the absence of ofifcial monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the environments. Therefore, we proposed here a method for the determination of ten pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including acetaminophen, naproxen, diclofenac