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Sample records for cleansers

  1. 21 CFR 872.3520 - OTC denture cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3520 OTC denture cleanser. (a) Identification. An OTC denture cleanser is a device that consists of material in the form of a powder, tablet, or paste that is intended to remove debris from removable prosthetic dental appliances, such as bridges...

  2. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters RM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Russel M Walters, Emmanuel Anim-Danso, Stephanie M Amato, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Lorena S Telofski, David A Mays Skin Care Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA Background: Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema. We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed.Methods: Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+ before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years.Results: At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes.Conclusion: Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. Keywords: bath, cleanser, hard water, infant, neonate, surfactant

  3. A study on the pH of commonly used soaps/cleansers available in the Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyebkhan, G

    2001-01-01

    Cleansers, commonly referred to as soaps (though all soaps are cleansers, all cleansers are not soaps), are an important adjuvant in the treatment of any dermatological condition. In order to recommend a cleanser, many aspect should be taken into consideration one important being its pH. pH of a cleanser tends to have an impact on the skin in several ways viz. alteration of bacterial flora and pH, moisture content and irritation. A study was conducted to evaluate the pH of various commonly available soaps/cleansers available in the Indian market. Most of the commonly used soaps have an alkaline pH.

  4. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  5. A study on the pH of commonly used soaps/cleansers available in the Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Tyebkhan Gulrez

    2001-01-01

    Cleansers, commonly referred to as soaps (though all soaps are cleansers, all cleansers are not soaps), are an important adjuvant in the treatment of any dermatological condition. In order to recommend a cleanser, many aspect should be taken into consideration one important being its pH. pH of a cleanser tends to have an impact on the skin in several ways viz. alteration of bacterial flora and pH, moisture content and irritation. A study was conducted to evaluate the pH of various commonly av...

  6. CLEANSERS AND THEIR ROLE IN VARIOUS DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2011-01-01

    The art of cleansing has progressed immensely over several thousand years from simply scraping the skin to an exercise in relaxation and improvement in the skin's health and appearance in the present day. Soaps – the basic cleansing agent has also undergone a sea change in its evolution with many variants and newer constituents being incorporated into it. In dermatological disorders like acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, photoaging, ‘sensitive skin’, occupational dermatosis cleansers may have a beneficial role along with other therapeutic measures. With the advent of aesthetic dermatology, the act of cleansing and the use of various cleansing agents prior to aesthetic procedures has also assumed significance. PMID:21572782

  7. Cleansers and their role in various dermatological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of cleansing has progressed immensely over several thousand years from simply scraping the skin to an exercise in relaxation and improvement in the skin′s health and appearance in the present day. Soaps - the basic cleansing agent has also undergone a sea change in its evolution with many variants and newer constituents being incorporated into it. In dermatological disorders like acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, photoaging, ′sensitive skin′, occupational dermatosis cleansers may have a beneficial role along with other therapeutic measures. With the advent of aesthetic dermatology, the act of cleansing and the use of various cleansing agents prior to aesthetic procedures has also assumed significance.

  8. Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.

    2009-01-01

    In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.

  9. A study on the pH of commonly used soaps/cleansers available in the Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyebkhan Gulrez

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleansers, commonly referred to as soaps (though all soaps are cleansers, all cleansers are not soaps, are an important adjuvant in the treatment of any dermatological condition. In order to recommend a cleanser, many aspect should be taken into consideration one important being its pH. pH of a cleanser tends to have an impact on the skin in several ways viz. alteration of bacterial flora and pH, moisture content and irritation. A study was conducted to evaluate the pH of various commonly available soaps/cleansers available in the Indian market. Most of the commonly used soaps have an alkaline pH.

  10. Effect of different denture cleansers on surface roughness and microhardness of artificial denture teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzugullu, Bulem; Cetinsahin, Cem; Celik, Cigdem

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different denture cleansers on the surface roughness and microhardness of various types of posterior denture teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS 168 artificial tooth specimens were divided into the following four subgroups (n=42): SR Orthotyp PE (polymethylmethacrylate); SR Orthosit PE (Isosit); SR Postaris DCL (double cross-linked); and SR Phonares II (nanohybrid composite). The specimens were further divided according to the type of the denture cleanser (Corega Tabs (sodium perborate), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and distilled water (control) (n=14)) and immersed in the cleanser to simulate a 180-day immersion period, after which the surface roughness and microhardness were tested. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Conover's nonparametric multiple comparison test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis (P<.05). RESULTS A comparison among the denture cleanser groups showed that NaOCl caused significantly higher roughness values on SR Orthotyp PE specimens when compared with the other artificial teeth (P<.001). Furthermore, Corega Tabs resulted in higher microhardness values in SR Orthotyp PE specimens than distilled water and NaOCl (P<.005). The microhardness values decreased significantly from distilled water, NaOCl, to Corega Tabs for SR Orthosit PE specimens (P<.001). SR Postaris DLC specimens showed increased microhardness when immersed in distilled water or NaOCl when compared with immersion in Corega Tabs (P<.003). No correlation was found between surface roughness and microhardness (r=0.104, P=.178). CONCLUSION NaOCl and Corega Tabs affected the surface roughness and microhardness of all artificial denture teeth except for the new generation nanohybrid composite teeth. PMID:27826382

  11. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  12. Comparative effects of denture cleansers on physical properties of polyamide and polymethyl methacrylate base polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Ayaz, Elif Aydoğan; Bagis, Bora; Gurbuz, Ayhan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of denture cleansers on the surface roughness, hardness and color stability of two polyamides (Valpast, Deflex), a butadiene styrene copolymer PMMA (Rodex), and PMMA polymer as a control group (Paladent). Each material was divided into 5 sub-groups (n=7) as two control and three test groups. Three test groups were immersed for 20 days in commercially available three denture cleansers (CO-Corega, PR-Protefix, VA-Valclean). Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc HSD test were used to evaluate surface roughness and hardness data (α=0.05). ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*and Δb* mean values were used for ANOVA, Tamhane test was used as post hoc. Polyamides showed low hardness and high roughness before and after immersion. A significant decrease in hardness was observed for all resins except Rodex after immersion (pdenture cleansers changed the roughness, hardness and color of some resins.

  13. Evaluate the Effect of Commercially Available Denture Cleansers on Surface Hardness and Roughness of Denture Liners at Various Time Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hilal S.; Singh, Sumeet; Hari, Prasad A.; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Pasha, Naveed; Anand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Chemical cleansing by denture cleansers is first choice for denture plaque control. The most common problems while using denture cleansers are hardening, porosity, odor sorption, water sorption, solubility, and colour change, bacterial and fungal growth. Chemical cleansing procedures have been found to have an effect on the physical and mechanical properties of denture liners. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available denture cleansers on surface hardness and roughness of acrylic and silicon based denture liners at various time interval. Method: Two autopolymerising denture liners Kooliner (acrylic) and GC reline soft (silicon) were tested with two commercially available denture cleansers, polident and efferdent plus. Total of 120 specimens were prepared and all the specimens were divided into six groups based on the relining materials and denture cleansers used. Surface hardness and surface roughness was tested using Shore A durometer and profilometer respectively at the end of day 1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Cleanser solution was prepared daily by adding Polident and Efferdent plus denture cleanser tablet into 250ml of enough very warm (not hot) water. Acrylic and silicon liner groups were cleansed in a solution of denture cleanser and water for 15 minutes daily, rinsed with water and stored in artificial saliva at room temperature. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent t-test. Result: The acrylic soft lining showed gradual hardening and increase in surface roughness after immersion in denture cleanser and also with time. Acrylic liner material showed maximum hardness and roughness with Polident followed by Efferdent plus and water (control group). Silicone lining material showed a slight difference in hardness and roughness between the test group and control group. There was a slight increase in hardness in

  14. Time Dependent Effect of a Denture Cleanser on the Sorption and Solubility of Four Soft Liners-An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhapalli, Sruthikeerthi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Soft liner materials, when used with ill fitting dentures, are constantly kept in a wet environment of either saliva or denture cleanser that affects their sorption and solubility. These inturn have detrimental effect on other properties. Aim To evaluate the influence of different exposure times of a commonly used denture cleanser on sorption and solubility of four soft liners. Materials and Methods Metal disc was fabricated to make the mould space for soft liner samples. Four materials were used, long term and short term acrylic liners; long term and short term silicone liners. Each of these were divided into four groups: first control group– all liners were kept in artificial saliva for entire period of study. Second group- liners were immersed daily in cleanser for 1 hour and then transferred to artificial saliva for rest of the day. Similarly samples of third and fourth groups were immersed in cleanser for 4 and 8 hours respectively and transferred to artificial saliva. Sorption and solubility tests were conducted and statistical analysis done. Statistical Analysis One-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test for pair wise comparisons was done. Significance was set at the probability level of p silicones performed better than acrylics. Long term silicone was most stable. Short term acrylic was most unstable. The 8 hour immersion in denture cleanser caused significantly high sorption and solubility. PMID:27190940

  15. Effectiveness of denture cleanser associated with microwave disinfection and brushing of complete dentures: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesma, Newton; Rocha, Alessandra Lima; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Costa, Bruno; Morimoto, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Complete dentures acts as a reservoir for microbial colonization, which may lead to systemic infections. Microwave irradiation has been used as an efficient method of denture disinfection. Even though current methods eliminate denture-base microorganisms, a recurrence rate of denture stomatitis (DS) is still observed among denture-wearing patients. It was hypothesized that microwave disinfection kills microorganisms but do not remove dead bacteria from the denture surface. To test this hypothesis, the biofilm found in the dentures of 10 patients with DS was evaluated. In addition, the effects of microwave irradiation plus brushing (MW+B) on the denture biofilm and the combination of denture cleanser with microwave irradiation and brushing (MW+DC+B) for the removal of denture-accumulating microorganisms were investigated. Microbiological data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric analysis (Friedman/Wilcoxon, α=0.05). MW+B and MW+DC+B were effective in reducing the rate of microorganisms (99.2% and 99.5% respectively), but without significant difference between them (p=0.553). However, it was observed that the complete removal of microorganisms from denture surface was only possible when all regimens were combined (MW+DC+B). Microwave irradiation in combination with soaking in denture cleanser and brushing effectively disinfected the dentures and removed denture biofilm.

  16. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  17. Contemporary methods and mobile denture cleansers and theirs significance for older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A dramatic increase in the number of people living in their seventies, eighties and nineties is associated with a loss of teeth and the use of mobile dentures. The aim of this paper was to highlight the consequences of poor denture hygiene on oral and general health in vulnerable elderly people, in long-term hospitalized elderly patients and in long-term institutionalized elderly in nursing homes. Denture deposits and consequences of poor denture hygiene. The number of bacteria living in the mouth is getting larger after putting denture on. Namely, a small ”space” develops between jaw and denture, creating perfect conditions for bacterial growth. Denture becomes a ”reservoir” of micro-organisms. Denture deposits such as bacterial plaque, fungi, tartar and remnants could be responsible for: stomatitis prothetica, cheilitis angularis, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, halitosis (bad breath, dental caries in mobile denture carriers, mucositis and periimplantitis in mobile implant over-dentures carriers, accelerated destruction of denture materials for underlying, such as denture base soft liners, respiratory airways diseases, bacterial endocarditis and gastrointestinal infections. Removal of denture deposits. It is recommendable to combine mechanical and chemical denture cleaning. Denture submersion into a commercial cleansing solution for less than one hour is an effective cleaning method. Commercial cleansers specifically intended for dentures with metal parts should be used for those dentures. Commercial cleansers with a new component of silicon polymer, whose thin layer surrounds all denture surfaces and disables oral bacteria to agglomerate, are effective and useful. Preventive hygienic treatments are very important in hospitals and homes for the aged, bearing in mind that old and ill persons reside here. Those institutions are recommended to get equipped with ultrasound denture cleaners. Importance of written brochure on

  18. A microbiological evaluation of the use of denture cleansers in combination with an oral rinse in complete denture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Patients with complete dentures more occasionally neglect their denture and oral health by improper maintenance of dentures, resulting in bad oral and denture hygiene. This may lead to a host of multiple local and systemic problems such as stomatitis, bacterial and fungal infections, reservoirs for distant infections, denture stains and bad breath. Most denture wearers maintain their dentures with simple manual cleansing methods, which are not adequate to effectively sanitize the reservoir of microorganisms inhabiting the denture surfaces. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the use of a denture cleanser and compare it with an adjunct use of chlorhexidine mouth rinse along with the denture cleanser and possibly suggest it as a suitable protocol. Materials and Methods : Two groups of complete denture patients were selected for the study. The total number of patients in each group was 12 and the total period of the study was 21 days. Three sets of microbiological samples were collected from each patient: before the start of the study, on day 8 and on day 21 of the study. The first sample was collected after an initial washover period (7 days with plain water before the start of the study and the second set after 1 week of study initiation, where group-1 followed protocol-I (denture cleanser only and group-2 followed protocol-II (denture cleanser and mouth rinse. A second washout period of 7 days followed and a crossover of the protocol was performed for the groups and followed for 1 week. Then, a third set of samples were collected. The colony-forming units were calculated for each patient for each sample and statistically analyzed. Friedman test for non-parametric analysis was employed for the comparison within the groups and a Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical comparison between the groups. Results : There was a definite reduction in the bacterial numbers and a significant statistical difference

  19. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The present study tried to investigate, using a synthetic sweat at pH 4.5, whether metallic chromium can pass through the skin (in vitro) and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. A suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 was prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 1 ml of the freshly made suspension was applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The tests were performed without and with decontamination using the cleanser 30 min after the start of exposure. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. Chromium skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system, giving a permeation flux of 0.84+/-0.25 ng cm(-2)h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1+/-0.7h. The cleaning procedure stop Cr permeation but its concentration into the skin significantly increased (Mann-Whitney U test P<0.03). The results revealed that chromium applied as powder can pass through the skin and that decontamination, done after 30 min of exposure, prevent Cr skin permeation but increase Cr content into the skin.

  20. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  1. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

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    Faustino Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The teeth were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and the root canal cleanliness and removal of smear layer were examined. RESULTS: The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with Aquatine EC and NaOCl, both with a rinse of EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Aquatine EC appears to be the first hypochlorous acid approved by the FDA to be a possible alternative to the use of NaOCl as an intracanal irrigant. Further research is needed to identify safer and more effective alternatives to the use of NaOCl irrigation in endodontics.

  2. Effect of cleanser solutions on the color of acrylic resins associated with titanium and nickel-chromium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of cleanser solutions on the color of heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR and on the brightness of dental alloys with 180 immersion trials. Disk-shaped specimens were made with I commercially pure titanium, II nickel-chromium-molybdenum-titanium, III nickel-chromium molybdenum, and IV nickel-chromium-molybdenum beryllium. Each cast disk was invested in the flasks, incorporating the metal disk into the HPAR. The specimens (n = 5 were then immersed in solutions containing: 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.500 mg cetylpyridinium chloride, a citric acid tablet, one of two different sodium perborate/enzyme tablets, and water. The color measurements (∆E of the HPAR were determined by a colorimeter in accordance with the National Bureau of Standards. The surface brightness of the metal was visually examined for the presence of tarnish. The results (ANOVA; Tukey test-α = 0.05 show that there was a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.001 but not among the solutions (p = 0.273. The highest mean was obtained for group III (5.06, followed by group II (2.14. The lowest averages were obtained for groups I (1.33 and IV (1.35. The color changes in groups I, II and IV were slight but noticeable, and the color change was considerable for group III. The visual analysis showed that 0.05% sodium hypochlorite caused metallic brightness changes in groups II and IV. It can be concluded that the agents had the same effect on the color of the resin and that the metallic alloys are not resistant to the action of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite.

  3. Effect of cleanser solutions on the color of acrylic resins associated with titanium and nickel-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Helena de; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz; Davi, Letícia Resende; Felipucci, Daniela Nair Borges; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cleanser solutions on the color of heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) and on the brightness of dental alloys with 180 immersion trials. Disk-shaped specimens were made with I) commercially pure titanium, II) nickel-chromium-molybdenum-titanium, III) nickel-chromium molybdenum, and IV) nickel-chromium-molybdenum beryllium. Each cast disk was invested in the flasks, incorporating the metal disk into the HPAR. The specimens (n=5) were then immersed in solutions containing: 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.500 mg cetylpyridinium chloride, a citric acid tablet, one of two different sodium perborate/enzyme tablets, and water. The color measurements (∆E) of the HPAR were determined by a colorimeter in accordance with the National Bureau of Standards. The surface brightness of the metal was visually examined for the presence of tarnish. The results (ANOVA; Tukey test-α=0.05) show that there was a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) but not among the solutions (p=0.273). The highest mean was obtained for group III (5.06), followed by group II (2.14). The lowest averages were obtained for groups I (1.33) and IV (1.35). The color changes in groups I, II and IV were slight but noticeable, and the color change was considerable for group III. The visual analysis showed that 0.05% sodium hypochlorite caused metallic brightness changes in groups II and IV. It can be concluded that the agents had the same effect on the color of the resin and that the metallic alloys are not resistant to the action of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite.

  4. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin.

  5. Comoarison of the Effects of Five Denture Cleansers on Cleaning of Candida Albicans Biofilms.%5种义齿清洁剂对白色念珠菌生物膜清洁效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕萍; 吴凤鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of five denture cleansers on reducing the candida albicans biofilms activity and biomass. Methods: C. albicans strain SC5314 was grown as biofilms on a 96- well format and immersed in Polident,Victoria- C, Protefix, 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate and Y- Kelin denture cleansers according to the manufacturers'- instructions and overnight. The activity and biomass of the biofilms were then quantified. Results: Following the manufacturers' instructions,only Polident,protefix reduced the activity by greater than 80 %.Except 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (58.8%), all cleansers reduced theactivity by greater than 80% following overnight immersion. Following the manufacturers' instructions, all the five denture cleansers reduced the biomass by less than 50% ,and after overnight immersion, only Polident showed a reduction greater than 50%. Conclusion:Polident exhibited the best cleaning effect among the five denture cleansers. However, residual biofilms retention with a few living cells was still observed.%目的:比较5种义齿清洁剂在减少白色念珠菌生物膜活性及生物量方面的能力.方法:在96孔微量培养板中形成的白色念珠菌SC5314生物膜按照生产商推荐时间及过夜浸泡于保丽净,澳多-C,protefix,0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定和雅克菱义齿清洁剂中,进而定量生物膜的活性和生物量.结果:生产商推荐时间浸泡后,仅保丽净、protefix组的活性减少率达80%以上;过夜浸泡后,除0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定(58.8%)外,其余均达80%以上.在生物量减少上,5种义齿清洁剂生产商推荐时间浸泡后,生物量减少率均位于50%以下;过夜浸泡后,仅保丽净达50%以上.结论:5种义齿清洁剂中保丽净的清洁效果最佳,但仍存在残余少量活菌的生物膜.

  6. In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Landry, T; Maibach, H I

    1999-03-01

    In the home and workplace, decontamination of a chemical from skin is traditionally done with a soap-and-water wash, although some workplaces may have emergency showers. It has been assumed that these procedures are effective, yet workplace illness and even death occur from chemical contamination. Water, or soap and water, may not be the most effective means of skin decontamination, particularly for fat-soluble materials. This study was undertaken to help determine whether there are more effective means of removing methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), a potent contact sensitizer, from the skin. MDI is an industrial chemical for which skin decontamination, using traditional soap and water and nontraditional polypropylene glycol, a polyglycol-based cleanser (PG-C), and corn oil were all tried in vivo on the rhesus monkey, over 8 h. Water, alone and with soap (5% and 50% soap), were partially effective in the first h after exposure, removing 51-69% of the applied dose. However, decontamination fell to 40-52% at 4 h and 29-46% by 8 h. Thus, the majority of MDI was not removed by the traditional soap-and-water wash; skin tape stripping after washing confirmed that MDI was still on the skin. In contrast, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil all removed 68-86% of the MDI in the first h, 74-79% at 4 h, and 72-86% at 8 h. Statistically, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil were all better (p soap and water at 4 and 8 h after dose application. These results indicate that a traditional soap-and-water wash and the emergency water shower are relatively ineffective at removing MDI from the skin. More effective decontamination procedures, as shown here, are available. These procedures are consistent with the partial miscibility of MDI in corn oil and polyglycols.

  7. The compatibility of denture cleansers and resilient liners Influência dos agentes químicos de limpeza sobre reembasadores resilientes de próteses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Valadares Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Difficulty in cleaning resilient denture liners remains a material disadvantage. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of denture cleansers on hardness of resilient liner materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three resilient liners, Luci Sof® (Dentsply, Molloplast-B® (Dentax, and Sofreliner® (Tokuyama, and two denture cleansers, Efferdent® (Warner-Lamber, and 0.5% alkaline hypochlorite preparation were used. Twenty specimens of each material were prepared, measuring 25X15X3mm. Two denture cleansing approaches were used: 1 alkaline hypochlorite, for 20 minutes; 2 alkaline peroxide, for 30 minutes. This procedure was repeated 8 times a day, during 90 days. The specimens were evaluated before and after 360 and 720 cycles, to simulate 1 and 2 years of clinical cleaning procedures, respectively. The Shore A hardness was evaluated in a durometer (Teclock GS-709A, with a penetrating load of 10N for 1 second. Any macroscopic changes, such as loss of color or alteration in surface texture were recorded by one observer. All numeric data were subject to ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05. RESULTS: All materials were significantly different, independently to time and treatment. Initially, Luci Sof® and Sofreliner® immersed in either hypochlorite or peroxide increased the hardness mean values significantly. These hardness mean values decreased significantly after 720 cycles. Molloplast-B® showed no significant difference after the treatments, in any time. CONCLUSIONS: Denture cleansers had no effect on hardness of the resilient denture liners evaluated after 2 years of in vivo simulated conditions of hygiene. Sofreliner® was the smoothest material before and after all treatments.PROPOSIÇÃO: A maior desvantagem dos materiais reembasadores resilientes é a dificuldade em mantê-los limpos. Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de agentes de limpeza sobre a dureza de reembasadores resilientes

  8. 义齿清洁剂对热固化型基托树脂物理及机械性能的影响%Influence of denture cleansers on physical and mechanical properties of heat-curing denture base resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕萍; 周培刚; 吴凤鸣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the colour stability,surface roughness and flexural strength of heat-curing denture base resin after using five denture cleansers.Methods Samples were prepared from heat-curing denture base resin and immersed in Polident,Victoria-C,Protefix,0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate ,Y-Kelin denture cleansers and distilled water.The color changes(ΔE),the roughness and the flexural strength were then measured.Results The color changes were significantly greater in the 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Y-Kelin denture cleansers than in the control group.The ΔE values quantified by the NBS(National Bureau of Standards)were classi-fied as slight in all groups.When comparing the surface roughness and flexural strength,no statistically significant difference was found among the different immersion procedures.Conclusions Immersion in 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and Y-Kelin denture cleansers influenced the color stability of heat-curing denture base resin after a 180-day use,but it was clinically acceptable.Polident,Victoria-C, Protefix did not influence the properties.%目的:评价5种义齿清洁剂对热固化型基托树脂颜色稳定性、表面粗糙度、弯曲强度的影响。方法热固化型基托树脂试样浸泡于保丽净、澳多-C、Protefix、0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定、雅克菱义齿清洁剂以及蒸馏水中一段时间后测量试样颜色的改变(ΔE)、粗糙度值、弯曲强度。结果0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定、雅克菱义齿清洁剂对颜色改变较对照组显著较大;将ΔE值用 NBS(美国国家标准局)单位来表示,所有组对应的人色差感觉程度均为感觉轻微。对于表面粗糙度和弯曲强度,不同浸泡处理组间无统计学差异。结论热固化型基托树脂使用义齿清洁剂180 d 后,0.2%葡萄糖酸氯己定、雅克菱浸泡后颜色稳定性较差,但为临床可接受。保丽净、澳多-C、Protefix 对材料均无影响。

  9. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various exploratory or surgical procedures. Nevertheless, oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate provides a useful option in the preparation of the colon and rectum in adults, adolescents and children undergoing any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate acts locally in the colon as both a stimulant laxative, by increasing the frequency and the force of peristalsis (sodium picosulfate component), and an osmotic laxative, by retaining fluids in the colon (magnesium citrate component), to clear the colon and rectum of faecal contents. It is not absorbed in any detectable quantities. Sodium picosulfate is a prodrug: it is hydrolyzed by bacteria in the colon to the active metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-(2-pyridyl)methane. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate may be associated with a dehydrating effect, as evidenced by a reduction in bodyweight and increased haemoglobin levels; some at-risk patients may experience postural hypotension and older patients may require additional electrolytes. In three large (n >100), randomized, single-blind clinical studies, two sachets of oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g as a colorectal cleansing agent in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. In children and adolescents, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was significantly more effective as a colorectal cleansing agent than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in a randomized, single-blind study; dosages were adjusted for age in this study. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is generally well tolerated in adult patients undergoing various investigational colorectal procedures. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate in intensity and mainly gastrointestinal in nature (e.g. abdominal cramps/pain, nausea); other common treatment-emergent adverse events included disturbance of daily activity, headache and sleep disturbance. This combination is at least as well tolerated as oral sodium phosphate or oral polyethylene glycol, with moderate/severe nausea and vomiting occurring less frequently in sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate recipients than in those receiving oral sodium phosphate, and abdominal bloating/pain and nausea developing less often with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate than polyethylene glycol therapy. The incidence of abdominal pain and sleep disturbance in sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate versus oral magnesium citrate recipients was similar in one study, but significantly lower with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate in another. While the incidence of most adverse events was similar in recipients of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and a sodium phosphate enema preparation, more patients receiving sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate reported moderate/severe flatulence, incontinence and sleep disturbance, and more patients receiving the enema preparation reported rectal soreness. The tolerability profile of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate in patients aged >70 years is reportedly similar to that in patients aged sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate than with oral bisacodyl plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in children and adolescents.

  10. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  11. Efficacy of Organic Acids in Hand Cleansers for Prevention of Rhinovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B.; Biedermann, Kim A.; Morgan, Jeffery M.; Keswick, Bruce; Ertel, Keith D.; Barker, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    Direct hand-to-hand contact is an important mechanism of transmission of rhinovirus infection. The rhinoviruses are inactivated at a low pH. A survey of organic acids in vitro revealed that these compounds have antirhinoviral activity that persists for at least 3 h after application to the skin. In additional studies of salicylic acid (SA) and pyroglutamic acid (PGA), the hands of volunteers were contaminated with rhinovirus at defined times after application of the acid, and then volunteers attempted to inoculate the nasal mucosa with one hand and quantitative viral cultures were done on the other hand. In one study, 3.5% SA or 1% SA with 3.5% PGA was compared with controls 15 min after application to assess the efficacy of the inactivation of virus and prevention of infection. Virus was recovered from the hands of 28 out of 31 (90%) of the volunteers in the control group compared to 4 out of 27 (15%) and 0 out of 27 in the groups administered 3.5 and 1% SA, respectively (P < 0.05). Rhinovirus infection occurred in 10 out of 31 (32%) of the controls and 2 out of 27 (7%) of volunteers in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 compared with control). In a second study, the efficacy of 4% PGA was evaluated 15 min, 1 h, and 3 h after application. Significantly fewer volunteers had positive hand cultures at all time points compared with the control group, but the proportion that developed rhinovirus infection was not significantly reduced. These results suggest the feasibility of the prevention of rhinovirus transmission by hand treatments that are virucidal on contact and have activity that persists after application. PMID:15215114

  12. The Effect of Experimental Denture Cleanser Solution Ricinus communis on Acrylic Resin Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Xavier Pisani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated heat-polymerized (HPR and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins (MPR, after immersion in water, 1% hypochlorite and Ricinus communis solution (RC. Knoop hardness, color alteration, roughness and flexural strength tests were performed after obtaining the specimens and after time intervals of 15 (T15 and 183 (T183 days. Variations in data (Δ were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = 0.05. For ΔT15 HPR there was greater variation in hardness when immersed in water (P = 0.00 and for MPR, after immersion in RC (P = 0.00. RC caused the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.015. Color alteration was not significant (P = 24.46. Hypochlorite caused a decrease in flexural strength (P = 0.37. After ΔT183, hypochlorite and RC caused a decrease in HPR hardness value (P = 0.00. MPR showed the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.01. HPR presented the most color alteration after immersion in RC (P = 0.214. Hypochlorite and RC caused the lowest flexural strength values for MPR (P = 0.89. RC caused alterations in resin properties, and was not shown to be superior to hypochlorite.

  13. The effectiveness of chemical denture cleansers and ultrasonic device in biofilm removal from complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Costa Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate denture hygiene can prevent and treat infection in edentulous patients. They are usually elderly and have difficulty for brushing their teeth. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of complete denture biofilm removal using chemical (alkaline peroxide-effervescent tablets, mechanical (ultrasonic and combined (association of the effervescent and ultrasonic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty complete denture wearers participated in the experiment for 21 days. They were distributed into 4 groups (n=20: (1 Brushing with water (Control; (2 Effervescent tablets (Corega Tabs; (3 Ultrasonic device (Ultrasonic Cleaner, model 2840 D; (4 Association of effervescent tablets and ultrasonic device. All groups brushed their dentures with a specific brush (Bitufo and water, 3 times a day, before applying their treatments. Denture biofilm was collected at baseline and after 21 days. To quantify the biofilm, the internal surfaces of the maxillary complete dentures were stained and photographed at 45º. The photographs were processed and the areas (total internal surface stained with biofilm quantified (Image Tool 2.02. The percentage of the biofilm was calculated by the ratio between the biofilm area multiplied by 100 and the total area of the internal surface of the maxillary complete denture. RESULTS: The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison among groups followed by the Dunn multiple-comparison test. All tests were performed respecting a significance level of 0.05. Significant difference was found among the treatments (KW=21.18; P<0.001, the mean ranks for the treatments and results for Dunn multiple comparison test were: Control (60.9; Chemical (37.2; Mechanical (35.2 and Combined (29.1. CONCLUSION: The experimental methods were equally effective regarding the ability to remove biofilm and were superior to the control method (brushing with water. Immersion in alkaline peroxide and ultrasonic vibration can be used as auxiliary agents for cleaning complete dentures.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida sp. PMID:26814466

  15. Formula design of neutral bathtub cleanser%中性浴缸清洗剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁如

    2014-01-01

    探讨了浴缸清洗剂的去污机理及清洗剂的酸碱性对浴缸表面的安全性.设计正交实验进行配方研究,并采用测试清洗效率的分析手段对配方进行比较.通过研究表明,实验配方中3种主要成分相互配合作用,对浴缸表面的特殊污垢去污强,清洗效率高.该清洗剂为中性,对浴缸表面无损伤,安全性高.产品采用使用方便的喷枪泵形式,使用时,人体感受到的刺激性小.

  16. Test of Surfactant-Based Dermal Wound Cleansers on Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Keratinocytes in an In Vitro Wound Healing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    hydroxide, NF added for pH adjustment. Ten and 20% Pluronic F-68 solutions in water were also tested in the model. Two-minute treatments were...Mumford JH, Carnes DL, Cochran DL. Characterization of proliferation and cellular wound fill in periodontal cells using an in vitro wound model. J

  17. AN HPLC METHOD WITH UVDETECTION, PH CONTROL, AND REDUCTIVE ASCORBIC ACID FOR CYANURIC ACID ANALYSIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year over 250 million pounds of cyanuric acid (CA) and chlorinated isocyanurates are produced industrially. These compounds are standard ingredients in formulations for household bleaches, industrial cleansers, dishwasher compounds, general sanitizers, and chlorine stabiliz...

  18. Systems and methods for data quality control and cleansing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Boettcher, Andrew; Drees, Kirk; Kummer, James

    2016-05-31

    A method for detecting and cleansing suspect building automation system data is shown and described. The method includes using processing electronics to automatically determine which of a plurality of error detectors and which of a plurality of data cleansers to use with building automation system data. The method further includes using processing electronics to automatically detect errors in the data and cleanse the data using a subset of the error detectors and a subset of the cleansers.

  19. Effects of 4 different cleansers on the physical properties of the fluorine silicone soft denture liner materials%四种清洁剂对氟硅橡胶义齿软衬材料物理性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娟; 程祥荣; 王金东

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察长效氟硅橡胶义齿软衬材料浸入4种不同类型清洁剂后物理性能的变化情况.方法 将热固化氟硅橡胶软衬材料浸泡于实验型清洁剂、托牙洁美片、0.2%洗必泰和0.5%次氯酸钠等4种不同清洁剂中,用蒸馏水作对照.连续观察2个月,检测材料的吸水率、溶解率、邵氏硬度和黏结强度的变化.结果 相同浸泡时间内,在不同溶液中,软衬材料的溶解率和邵氏硬度无明显改变;吸水率和黏结强度的变化有显著差异(P<0.05),吸水率变化在0.2%洗必泰中最小,在0.5%次氯酸钠中最大;在实验型清洁剂中材料黏结强度下降最多.在同一溶液中,不同浸泡时间对软衬材料物理性能的影响均有显著性差异(P<0.05),随浸泡时间延长,吸水率和黏结强度减小,溶解率和邵氏硬度增大.在各组清洁剂中,软衬材料的颜色、表面形貌及多孔性均未见明显变化.结论 不同清洁剂对软衬材料的一些物理性能有影响.浸泡时间越长,材料物理性能劣化越明显.

  20. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel M. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier.

  1. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  2. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  3. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tularat Sookto

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  4. The effect of benzoyl peroxide 9.8% emollient foam on reduction of Propionibacterium acnes on the back using a short contact therapy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Del Rosso, James Q

    2012-07-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BP) exerts its therapeutic effect for acne vulgaris through reduction of Propionibacterium acnes. A 1.0 to 2.0 log reduction in P acnes has been demonstrated primarily on the face with use of "leave-on" BP formulations, but also with some BP cleansers. In addition to use for facial acne vulgaris, cleanser formulations of BP are commonly used for truncal acne vulgaris due to ease of use on a large body-surface area and to avoid bleaching of fabric. To date, evaluation of P acnes reduction on the trunk has not been well studied with BP formulations, especially with the use of recognized and standardized methods to accurately determine P acnes colony counts. A previous study demonstrated that a BP 8% cleanser did not reduce counts of P acnes on the back when subjects were instructed to apply the cleanser in the shower, allow it to dry for 20 seconds on the skin, and then rinse off the cleanser. Evaluation of specified time intervals between application on the back and rinsing with BP formulations would help to better define the necessary skin contact time associated with high reductions of P acnes (>90%), recognizing also the potential roles of BP concentration and vehicle. This 2 week study using quantitative bacteriologic cultures evaluates the effectiveness of BP 9.8% emollient foam in reducing P acnes levels on the back with 2 minutes of skin contact time and compares results with a BP 5.3% "leave-on" emollient foam formulation. Short contact therapy utilizing a 2 minute skin contact time with BP 9.8% emollient foam used once daily over a 2 week duration was highly effective in reducing the quantity of P acnes organisms on the back and provided comparable colony count reduction to "leave on" therapy using BP 5.3% emollient foam.

  5. Air quality. How to give it back its original purity? The proliferation of air cleansers. Filters must be changed regularly. Measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. The air treatment plants on the way of certification. Essential oils in a high building; Qualite de l'air. Comment lui rendre sa purete originelle? La proliferation des purificateurs d'air. Il faut changer les filtres regulierement. Mesure de l'efficacite de filtration des systemes de traitement d'air. Les centrales de traitement d'air sur la voie de la certification. Des huiles essentielles dans un immeuble de grande hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumel, N.

    2000-07-01

    Outside air is polluted while the ambient indoor air is saturated with microorganisms. Inside buildings, the aeraulic networks are the link between both environments and the privileged place to clean the air using filtering systems. However, the notion of air quality is still badly perceived by owners, in particular in tertiary buildings. In France, efforts have to be made on the maintenance of aeraulic networks by hygiene specialists. Air quality inside buildings must be taken into consideration using communication and regulations. This dossier takes stock of the problem of air quality and of the available means to ensure a good air quality inside residential and tertiary buildings. The maintenance of air filters in one of the key points. It should be integrated in the general maintenance concept of buildings. The dossier includes a study of the in-situ measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. This method is described in the Eurovent recommendation 4/10 of 1996. It has been experimented by the French technical centre of aeraulic and thermal industries (Cetiat) and the results are reported in the study. The performances of air treatment plants are now certified by Eurovent. This European organization has defined a program of tests which is conformable with the European EN 1886 and EN 13053 European standards. Finally, a new protocol of air decontamination based on the micronizing of essential oils in the aeraulic network of a 29 floors building is presented. (J.S.)

  6. Beskeden risiko for fosfatnefropati ved colonudrensning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Palle Nordblad; Hendel, Jakob W

    2010-01-01

    Acute phosphate nephropathy is a rare, but serious adverse event associated with the use of sodium phosphate for bowel cleansing. It may lead to permanent renal impairment and a need for dialysis. The aetiology is hyperphosphataemia caused by intestinal absorption of the cleanser. Risk factors in...... include: advanced age, existing kidney disease, decreased intravascular volume, and medications affecting renal perfusion or function such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs....

  7. A novel methodology based on contact angle hysteresis approach for surface changes monitoring in model PMMA-Corega Tabs system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Berezowski, Zdzisław; Rochowski, Paweł; Szurkowski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to propose a quantitative description of dental surface modifications, resulting from application of Corega and oral cavity liquids, with several surface parameters derived from liquid/solid contact angle measurements. In particular, to predict the long-term effectiveness of denture cleansers in prosthetics, it is necessary to determine surface wettability variations for model dental materials/probe liquid systems related to the contamination effect caused by substances found in the oral cavity. A novel simple low-cost methodology, based on liquid drop contact angle hysteresis CAH approach developed by Chibowski, was adopted to trace solid surface free energy changes in the model PMMA-Corega Tabs interfacial layer. Contact angle and its hysteresis were studied with a sessile drop-inclined plate method in contact with a cleanser (Corega Tabs) and model liquids found in the oral cavity. The apparent solid surface free energy, adsorptive film pressure, work of adhesion and spreading were derived from contact angle hysteresis data for both model solid surfaces (reference) and samples affected by different reactive liquids for a certain time. A time-dependent surface wettability changes of dentures were expressed quantitatively in terms of the corresponding variations of the surface energy parameters which turned out to be unequivocally related to the cleanser exposure time and polarity of the liquids applied to the dental material. The novel methodology appeared to be a useful tool for long term surface characterization of dental materials treated with surfactants-containing liquids capable of forming adhesive layers. The time of optimal use and effectiveness of cleansers are also reflected dynamically in the corresponding variations of the surface wettability parameters. Further studies on a large group of dental surface-probe liquid systems are required to specify the role played by other important factors (liquid polarity, pH and temperature).

  8. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ethan E.; Manna, Dipankar; Mettetal, Michael R; May, Rhea M.; Dannemiller, Elisa M; Chung, Kenneth K.; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additiv...

  9. Enhanced Efficacy of a Facial Hydrating Serum in Subjects with Normal or Self-Perceived Dry Skin

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a facial hydrating serum when added to a moisturizer regimen compared to a moisturizer regimen alone. Design: Evaluator-blinded, single-center, clinical study with investigator assessments at Baseline and Week 2. Treatment: After washing with a facial cleanser in the morning and evening, subjects either applied the hydrating serum to their face followed by application of the moisturizer or applied only a moisturizer. Participants: Thirty-tw...

  10. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Das, Samiran; Biswas, Shibendu; Ghati, Amit; Ghosh, Soumitra; Goel, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10). Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey's test and Dunnett's test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey's test and Dunnett's test) showed high significance (P Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface. PMID:27630498

  11. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids.

  12. Novo protocolo para as ações de saúde bucal coletiva: padronização no armazenamento, distribuição e uso do material de higiene bucal A new protocol for use and storage of tooth-brushing material for school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Vieira Vilhena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o material de higiene bucal usado em escolas para estabelecer um protocolo às ações de higiene bucal coletiva. O estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: 1ª- 20 responsáveis pelos procedimentos coletivos com escolares de Bauru e São José dos Campos - SP responderam a dois questionários sobre o uso de cinco kits de higiene bucal coletiva. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste Wilcoxon (p The aim of this study was to evaluate the storage and distribution of toothbrushing material for school children. Twenty individuals responsible for the collective oral hygiene of school children from Bauru - SP and São José dos Campos - SP participated in the first stage of the study, answering 2 questionnaires about five different kits for use by school children. The statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon (p<0,05. In the second stage, the amount of toothpaste or liquid cleanser applied to the toothbrush by 178 school children aged 4 to 8 years from 2 cities from the state of São Paulo (Bauru e Bariri was weighed using a portable balance. The statistical analysis was obtained by using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance (p <0,05. Kit 5 obtained levels of satisfaction and high satisfaction when compared with the others kits (1 - 4. The school children from Bauru (0,41g used smaller amounts of toothpaste than the school children from Bariri (0,48g. The average of the amount of liquid cleanser applied by the sample was 0,15g. The "drop technique" (liquid cleanser was considered practical for dispensing a small, standardized quantity of the product. Kit 5 was considered a good alternative for establishing a collective oral health protocol in the Brazilian health system.

  13. Impact of a Probiotic-Based Cleaning Intervention on the Microbiota Ecosystem of the Hospital Surfaces: Focus on the Resistome Remodulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Caselli

    Full Text Available Contamination of hospital surfaces by clinically-relevant pathogens represents a major concern in healthcare facilities, due to its impact on transmission of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and to the growing drug resistance of HAI-associated pathogens. Routinely used chemical disinfectants show limitations in controlling pathogen contamination, due to their inefficacy in preventing recontamination and selection of resistant strains. Recently we observed that an innovative approach, based on a cleanser added with spores of non-pathogenic probiotic Bacilli, was effective in stably counteracting the growth of several pathogens contaminating hospital surfaces.Here, we wanted to study the impact of the Bacillus-based cleanser on the drug-resistance features of the healthcare pathogens population. In parallel, the ability of cleanser-derived Bacilli to infect hospitalized patients was also investigated.Collected data showed that Bacilli spores can germinate on dry inanimate surfaces, generating the bacterial vegetative forms which counteract the growth of pathogens and effectively substitute for them on treated surfaces. Strikingly, this procedure did not select resistant species, but conversely induced an evident decrease of antibiotic resistance genes in the contaminating microbial population. Also importantly, all the six HAI-positive patients hosted in the treated areas resulted negative for probiotic Bacilli, thus adding evidences to their safety-to-use.These results indicate that this probiotic-based procedure is active not only in controlling surface microbial contamination but also in lowering drug-resistant species, suggesting that it may have relevant clinical and therapeutical implications for the management of HAIs.

  14. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Gantait

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10. Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test showed high significance (P < 0.0001. The group treated with adhesive showed high fungal growth compared to the control group, whereas chlorhexidine showed high potency to prevent C. albicans, whereas adhesive increased the adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic surface. Conclusions: Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface.

  15. Treating epidermal melasma with a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Pearl; Watson, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of treating melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system, including a proprietary cleanser, toner, 4% hydroquinone, exfoliation enhancer, and sunscreen, plus tretinoin cream 0.025%. Together these products offer not only treatment of melasma but also a complete skin care regimen. Twenty participants with mild or moderate epidermal melasma with Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI were instructed to use the hydroquinone skin care system and tretinoin cream for 12 weeks. Melasma severity, melasma pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score were significantly reduced from week 4 onward relative to baseline (P melasma.

  16. Tolerance of skin care regimen in healthy, full-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iarkowski LE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ellen Iarkowski,1 Neena K Tierney,1 Paul Horowitz21Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA; 2Discovery Pediatrics, Valencia, CA, USAPurpose: To assess the tolerance of a baby cleanser and lotion (both lightly fragranced on healthy, full-term neonates.Materials and methods: Twenty-six infant–mother pairs were enrolled in a 6-week, nonrandomized, controlled-use study that took place in the routine setting of a pediatric clinic and mothers’ homes. During study weeks 1 to 6, neonates were bathed by their mother with water and a test cleanser (JOHNSON'S® HEAD-TO-TOE® Baby Wash. During study weeks 1 to 3, mothers also applied test lotion (JOHNSON'S® Baby Lotion to the babies’ skin immediately after bathing and one to three times/day on bathing and non-bathing days. During study weeks 4 to 6, no lotion was applied. At baseline and weeks 3 and 6, the infants’ pediatrician or mother or both performed visual skin assessments.Results: Twenty-three infant–mother pairs completed the study. The mean age of neonates at enrolment was 17.4 days (range, 13–28 days. Pediatrician observations found no clinical signs of irritation, erythema, or dryness with any significant difference in scores of these parameters compared with baseline throughout the study. Assessment of skin softness, smoothness, dryness, and overall skin condition was very good at baseline and remained so with minimal changes throughout the study. Mothers reported improvements versus baseline (P ≤ 0.05 in overall skin appearance, moisturization, softness, and smoothness on the arms and legs at weeks 3 and 6. A total of four (15.4% subjects experienced adverse events. For three of the subjects, the investigator suspected that the adverse events were unrelated to either of the test products. In one participant, the cause of the adverse event could not be determined.Conclusion: The use of a lightly fragranced nonstinging baby cleanser, with or without a

  17. Reduction of “Ashiness” in Skin of Color with a Lipid-rich Moisturizing Body Wash

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In people with darkly pigmented skin, classified as Fitzpatrick type IV, V, or VI skin, xerosis or dry skin can be associated with a whitish coloring and a reduction in skin shininess known as “ashiness.” The authors investigated whether mild and moisturizing cleansers can repair dry skin in people with type IV, V, or VI skin by improving barrier function and reducing ashiness. Design: This study has a balanced, randomized, double-blind monadic design comprising two cells of appro...

  18. Marine Corps CASEVAC: Determining Medical Supply Needs for Long- and Short-Range Airborne Casualty Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-17

    control Long range Gatifloxacin* Infection control Long range Diazepam Sedate agitated patients Both Dexamethasone Head injuries Long range...Vial 10s 0.50 PG 4.625 0.1825 $896.07 6505015053476 Diazepam Inj 5mg/Ml 2 Ml Cartridge Unit 10s 0.02 PG 0.011 0.0024 $0.47 6505001487177...0.0612 0.02448 $0.86 8520013535671 Skin Cleanser 60pct Alcohol No Rinsing 0.08 PG 0.72 0.04 $3.07 6515015096866 Sling, Pelvic Fracture Stabilizer 1s

  19. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  20. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  1. Open-label evaluation of a novel skin brightening system containing 0.01% decapeptide-12 in combination with 20% buffered glycolic acid for the treatment of mild to moderate facial melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Sandra P; Carvajal, Alfonso C; Salazar, Juan C; Arroyave, Gladys; Flórez, Ana M; Echeverry, Hector F

    2013-06-01

    Melasma is a cutaneous disorder that primarily affects females of Hispanic and Asian descent. Previous studies have shown that use of a brightening system comprised of 0.01% decapeptide-12 cream, an antioxidant cleanser, a 20% buffered glycolic acid lotion, and a broad spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen yields good clearance of mild-to-moderate melasma in Caucasian and Asian volunteers. The present open-label, prospective, and multicenter study sought to determine the tolerability and efficacy of the above-mentioned brightening system on mild-to-moderate melasma in 33 Hispanic females over 16 weeks. Clinical measures included self-assessment of tolerability, clinical grading, determination of Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, and standardized clinical photography. Results showed that the system was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. Mean decreases of 36%, 46%, 54%, and 60% in MASI scores were observed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, respectively, which were further corroborated by standardized photography showing visible reduction in the appearance of melasma. Results suggest that the brightening system consisting of 0.01% decapeptide-12 cream, an antioxidant cleanser, 20% buffered glycolic acid lotion, and broad spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen is safe and efficacious for the treatment of mild-to-moderate melasma in Hispanic females.

  2. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telofski, Lorena S.; Morello, A. Peter; Mack Correa, M. Catherine; Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema) is included. As infant skin continues to mature through the first years of life, it is important that skin care products (e.g., cleansers and emollients) are formulated appropriately. Ideally, products that are used on infants should not interfere with skin surface pH or perturb the skin barrier. For cleansers, this can be achieved by choosing the right type of surfactant, by blending surfactants, or by blending hydrophobically-modified polymers (HMPs) with surfactants to increase product mildness. Similarly, choosing the right type of oil for emollients is important. Unlike some vegetable oils, mineral oil is more stable and is not subject to oxidation and hydrolysis. Although emollients can improve the skin barrier, more studies are needed to determine the potential long-term benefits of using emollients on healthy, full-term neonates and infants. PMID:22988452

  3. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena S. Telofski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema is included. As infant skin continues to mature through the first years of life, it is important that skin care products (e.g., cleansers and emollients are formulated appropriately. Ideally, products that are used on infants should not interfere with skin surface pH or perturb the skin barrier. For cleansers, this can be achieved by choosing the right type of surfactant, by blending surfactants, or by blending hydrophobically-modified polymers (HMPs with surfactants to increase product mildness. Similarly, choosing the right type of oil for emollients is important. Unlike some vegetable oils, mineral oil is more stable and is not subject to oxidation and hydrolysis. Although emollients can improve the skin barrier, more studies are needed to determine the potential long-term benefits of using emollients on healthy, full-term neonates and infants.

  4. A Comparative Clinical Study of the Effect of Denture Cleansing on the Surface Roughness and Hardness of Two Denture Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Amani Ramadan; Dehis, Wessam Mohamed; Elboraey, Asmaa Nabil; ElGabry, Hisham Samir

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to verify the influence of oral environment and denture cleansers on the surface roughness and hardness of two different denture base materials. METHODS: A total of sixteen identical removable disc specimens (RDS) were processed. Eight RDS were made from heat-cured acrylic resin (AR) and the other eight were fabricated from thermoplastic injection moulded resin (TR). Surface roughness and hardness of DRS were measured using ultrasonic profilometry and Universal testing machine respectively. Then the four RDS (two AR and two of TR) were fixed to each maxillary denture, after three months RDS were retrieved. Surface roughness and hardness of RDS have measured again. RESULTS: The surface roughness measurements revealed no significant difference (p >0.05) for both disc groups at baseline. However, both groups showed a significant increase in the surface roughness after three months with higher mean value for (TR) group. On the other hand, the (AR) group showed higher hardness mean value than (TR) group at baseline with no significant decrease in the hardness values (p >0.05) following three months follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Denture cleansers have an effect on the denture’s surface roughness and hardness concurrently with an oral condition which will consequently influence the complete dentures’ lifetime and patients’ satisfaction. PMID:27703578

  5. Effect of specialized bathing systems on resident cleanliness and water quality in nursing homes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Williams, Christianna S; Munn, Jean; Preisser, John S; Sobsey, Mark D; Wait, Douglas A; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2007-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different methods of water agitation on clinical and microbiological outcomes in 31 nursing home residents. Four conditions were tested: a) whirlpool tub, jets on, using standard soap products; b) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using the standard soap products; c) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using specialized soap and skin conditioner; and d) either tub (randomized), water circulation off, using standard soap products (the control condition). Outcomes of interest included skin microbial flora, water microbial flora, skin condition, time spent bathing, and staff satisfaction. Resident skin condition and skin microbial flora did not differ between the four treatments. The tubs also did not differ in terms of bacterial colonization; however, there was a non-statistically significant trend for the highest counts to occur in whirlpool tubs after being idle overnight. The ultrasound and whirlpool tubs were preferred by staff over the control treatment (still water) in terms of sound and overall suitability. In addition, staff reported that the ultrasound tub using enhanced skin cleansers made bathing residents easier and faster than the same tub using standard cleansers.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  7. The Influence of Popular Detergents on Stability of Applied Perfumes%常用洗涤剂对香精稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方旗

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of soap,laundry powder,toilet cleaner,oil stain cleanser,liquid detergent etc.were analyzed. Their influence on the stability of applied perfumes were investigated,and the sequence of degree of the influence resulted by these products were obtained then.%阐述了肥皂、洗衣粉、洁厕剂、油污净、洗衣液等产品中的成分以及这些产品提供的环境对加入的香精稳定性的影响,并对以上种类的洗涤剂所提供的环境对大多数香精稳定性的影响程度做了一个大致排序。

  8. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka; Mihaljevic, Branka; Razem, D. E-mail: razem@rudjer.irb.hr

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D{sub first{sub 90%}{sub red}}. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  9. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid-leaching process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-09-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar cell panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  10. 清洗槽碱液循环利用%The Recycling Utilization of the Cleaning Tank Lye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓东

    2013-01-01

    In process of cleaning of strip steel surface with cleanser, the oil waste and iron cutting continuously gather in the cleaning tank through chemical treatment of NaOH cleaning liquor, using ceramic membrance filtrating out the waste cleaning liquor to attain the aim of the recycling utilization of cleaning liquor.%对清洗槽用清洗剂对带钢表面进行清洗的过程中,带钢表面的油污和铁屑杂质等通过NaOH清洗液化学处理后会不断的积聚在碱洗槽内,使用陶瓷膜超滤对清洗废液的回收再利用,达到对清洗槽碱液循环利用的目的.

  11. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  12. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  14. Rapid treatment of mild acne with a novel skin care system containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid, and botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ashish C; Jimenez, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    The biggest hurdle in the treatment of acne vulgaris is patient non-compliance that is due in large part to poor tolerability to common acne medications. As such, new acne treatments must be developed that balance good anti-acne efficacy with excellent tolerability in order to ensure patient adherence and by extension ensure good clinical outcomes. The goal of the present study was to determine the tolerability and efficacy of a novel skin care system, composed of a cleanser, containing 1% salicylic acid and botanical ingredients, and a treatment gel, containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid and botanical ingredients for the treatment of mild acne. In this single-center, open-label clinical study, 25 male and female volunteers used the test cleanser and test gel twice daily over six weeks. Tolerability assessments showed that the skin care regimen was very well tolerated by all study volunteers. Acne severity was significantly reduced by two acne grades at six weeks. Inflammatory lesion counts were significantly reduced, on average, by 59.06% (P ≤ 0.0001), 91.62% (P ≤ 0.0001), 90.85% (P ≤ 0.0001) and by 98.55% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Non-inflammatory lesion counts were reduced, on average, by 13.54% (ns), 38.95% (P ≤ 0.0001), 44.48% (P ≤ 0.0001), and by 56.10% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Standardized photography also demonstrated a progressive reduction in acne lesions over time. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that the tested skin care regimen offers rapid acne clearance and excellent tolerability that together may help to improve patient adherence as well as treatment outcome.

  15. Successful treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris with Dr Michaels® (also branded as Zitinex®) topical products family: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Bayer, P; Coburn, M; Anderson, P; Donnelly, B; Kennedy, T; Gaibor, J; Arora, M; Clews, L; Walmsley, S; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of multi-factorial origin, frequently seen in adolescents and often persisting or occurring through to adulthood. Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79-95% of the adolescent population in westernized societies and is a significant cause of psychological morbidity in affected patients. Despite the various treatment options available for acne, there is still a need for a safe and effective option. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in the treatment of papulo-pustular acne. 25 patients (17 female/8 male), aged 15-22, with a mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne, localized on the face and on the trunk, were included in this study. None of the patients had used any other kind of treatment in the 3 months prior to commencing this study. All of the patients were treated with Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, a cream, PSC 200 and PSC 900 oral supplements. Application time of Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) products was 12 weeks. The treatment was been evaluated clinically at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. All of the patients showed an improvement in all parameters of their acne (comedones, papules, pustules, hyperpigmentation and scars). The acne lesions and erythema had mostly resolved. The hyperpigmentation and pitted scarring had significantly reduced also, with the skin appearing smoother. The treatment was well tolerated and no side effects have been described. Our study demonstrates that the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) facial exfoliating cleanser, activator formula, cream and oral supplements PSC 200 and PSC 900 are an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of moderately severe acne vulgaris. Moreover, it highlights the safety profile of the Dr Michaels® (Zitinex®) product family in a case of acne compared to traditional first-line treatments.

  16. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  17. Nerolidol: A Sesquiterpene Alcohol with Multi-Faceted Pharmacological and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Keong Chan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers. In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  18. MANFAAT TANAMAN TERATAI (Nymphaea sp., Nymphaeaceae di DESA ADAT SUMAMPAN, KECAMATAN SUKAWATI, KABUPATEN GIANYAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Nyoman Budiwati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available his purpose of this research was to determine the benefits of the lotus plant inSumampan Village, District of Sukawati, Gianyar, Bali. The research was conductedfrom 4 to 16 February 2013. The method was used in this study is exploratory survey bydirect observation and interviews with one main informant and 15 KK from 3 banjar. Theresults showed there were 11 kinds of lotus : lotus sudamala ( Nymphoides indica (4.54%, yellow lotus (21.21 %, dark blue lotus ( Nymphaea stellata Wild (12.12 %, pinklotus (16.66 % , violet lotus (9.09 %, purple lotus (9.09 %, white lotus (Nymphaeanouchali Burm f. (18.18 %, light blue lotus (Nymphaea stellata Wild (3.03 %, lotustutur (1.51 %, lotus dedari (1.51 % and lotus brumbun (3.03 %. The lotus plant is usedas a upakara / banten 77.41 % , 16.12 % as ornamental plants, while 6.45 % as amedicine for breast cancer drug, arthritis, headaches, stress, fear, and cleanser the liverand pancreas. As a medicine, lotus plant was used in it’s from as tempel, solutions, pupukand boreh.Key word: exploratory survey, benefits lotus, tempel, pupuk, boreh

  19. Determination of Ethylene Oxide and Methyloxirane in Clean Cosmetics by Headspace Sampling-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%顶空进样-气相色谱-质谱法检测清洁类化妆品中环氧乙烷和环氧丙烷残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬轩; 李挥; 蔡立鹏; 范斌; 张岩

    2013-01-01

    A method based on headspace sampling-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GCMS) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of ethylene oxide and methyloxirane in clean cosmetics.About 1.0 g of sodium chloride and 5.0 mL of deionized water was added to the sample.After vortex mixed,the mixture above was placed in a headspace sampler,and then qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out by HS-GCMS with SIM model.The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-100.0 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.5-50.0 μg (methyloxirane) with R>0.995.The detection limits were 0.02 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.01 μg (methyloxirane),and the quantitative limit were 0.07 μg (ethylene oxide) and 0.03 μg (methyloxirane).By determination to 15 batches cleanser,15 batches shampoo and 20 batches bath foam bought in the supermarket,we found that this method was suitable for the determination of ethylene oxide and propylene oxidein.

  20. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed.

  1. endodôntica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Bertani Ottoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research purpose measure the surface tension’s substances used in endodontic therapy by means of creeping. The authors used a tube glass capillary with inside diameter 0,5 millimeter and length 20 centimeter. The tube propitiate the liquid’s ascension. Liquids were aspirated and after stabilization into the tube glass capillary was measured the capilar’s liquid column. The surface tension’s result were: sodium hypochlorite 1% (60,7 dynes/c, tricresol formalin (27,2 dynes/c, PMCC (25,5 dynes/c. Besides the authors testify the hypothesis the surface tension’s reduction of EDTA solutions when increased cleanser’s crescent doses. The findings were: EDTA 17%+0,1% tergentol (45,60 dynes/c; EDTA 17%+0,5% tergentol (45,69 dynes/ c; EDTA 17%+1% tergentol (28,34 dynes/c; EDTA 17%+5% tergentol (24,58% dynes/c e EDTA 17%+10% tergentol (17,68 dynes/c.

  2. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hydrolyze 24-hour dentue plaque is 15.66 TU/mg enzyme activity for 10 minutes soaking. Soaking the denture in papain for 10 minutes makes all of the detected plaque protein bands remobe. In conclusion, efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque is papain activity of 15.66 TU/mg by soaking duration of 10 minutes. Further research is suggested to examine papain residue on the denture that may influence the denture wearer biocompatibility.

  3. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  4. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  5. The use of sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.(1) By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.(1) A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.(2,3) Sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% has been used for the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, and rosacea since the mid-1950s and is available in a variety of formulations, including lotions, creams, cleansers, and emollient foams.(4) Recently, an emollient foam sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% formulation indicated for topical therapy of acne vulgaris, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis has become available.(5) This article provides an overview of the sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam and reports the results of a case report series of patients with acne vulgaris treated with sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam as monotherapy or in combination with other topical acne products.

  6. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  7. Pre-treatment effects of trichloroethylene on the dermal absorption of the biocide, triazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E; Yeatts, James L; Brooks, James D; Riviere, Jim E

    2005-12-15

    Triazine is often added to cutting-fluid formulations in the metal-machining industry as a preservative. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent used for cleaning the cutting fluid or oil from the metal product. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TCE on the dermal absorption of triazine in an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell system. Skin sections were dosed topically with aqueous mixtures containing mineral oil or polyethylene glycol (PEG) spiked with (14)C-triazine. Some skin sections were simultaneously exposed to TCE while other skin sections were pre-treated with TCE daily for 4 days in vivo and then exposed to these mixtures in vitro. TCE pre-treatment almost doubled triazine permeability, but this pre-treatment had no effect on triazine diffusivity. The pre-treatment effects of TCE on triazine permeability appear to be more important in PEG-based mixtures than in the mineral oil-based mixtures. Simultaneous single exposure to TCE had little or no effect on triazine absorption. TCE absorption was significantly less than triazine absorption; however, cutting fluid additives had a more significant effect on TCE absorption than on triazine absorption. In summary, this study demonstrated that TCE pre-treatment can significantly alter the dermal permeability to triazine, and workers who are chronically exposed to this or similar cleansers may be at increased risk of absorbing related skin irritants.

  8. Preventing skin tears in a nursing and rehabilitation center: an interdisciplinary effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Dena; Nix, Denise

    2006-09-01

    Skin tears are painful, traumatic wounds that result from the separation of the epidermis from the dermis. To assess the clinical effectiveness of a preventive skin care protocol, 13-month retrospective pre-intervention data collection followed by 15-month post-intervention skin tear incidence data collection was conducted among all patients in a 209-bed urban nursing and rehabilitation center. The preventive skin care strategies implemented - staff education, skin sleeves and padded side rails for high-risk patients, gentle skin cleansers, and lotion - were selected by facility staff members and the multidisciplinary skin team. Nosocomial skin tear data were obtained by reviewing incident reports. Following implementation of the prevention protocols, the number of skin tears changed from a mean of 18.7 to a mean of 8.73 per month (P <0.001). The average monthly reduction in nosocomial skin tears was projected to reduce the dressing and labor costs of managing these wounds an average of 1,698 dollars per month (18,168.60 dollars annually). The results of this study confirm previously reported research suggesting that the effects of implementing a comprehensive skin care protocol can persist, reducing the incidence of nosocomial skin tears and their associated risks and costs. Prospective cost-effectiveness studies to confirm these findings are needed.

  9. Titanium: A New Generation Material for Architectural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Acharya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Materials are defined as unique combinations of materials, process technologies, that together, help create and capture value by addressing large, global unmet wants and needs of building industry. There is a wide range of innovation enabled by technologies for processing materials and integrating currently available materials for creation of new generation buildings “Titaniun” is one of them. It is an incredibly durable and stunning material known for its wide-range of color, high-tensile strength. Titanium can be processed to achieve a variety of surface textures, from a soft matte to a near gleaming reflectivity suitable for architectural application. Titanium's corrosion immunity, strength and physical properties combine to allow reduced wall thickness, lowering its installed unit cost which is favourable as far as its application in densely populated urban areas is concerned. Many countries like United Sates of America, China, and Spain etc have also stared its use however its use in developing country like India is still limited. The paper attempts to analyze the chemical properties of Titanium as a futuristic building material. It also observes the variant of the material as option to make self-cleaning buildings in the future, reducing the amount of harmful cleansers used currently.

  10. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  11. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Nebus, Judith; Wallo, Warren; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2012-07-01

    Colloidal oatmeal has been used for decades to soothe and ameliorate atopic dermatitis and other pruritic and/or xerotic dermatoses. In-vitro and/or in-vivo studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, barrier repair, and moisturizing properties of this compound. A broad set of studies has been conducted in recent years to assess the effects of colloidal oatmeal as adjunct treatment in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). This paper will review these studies. In these investigations, patients in all age groups (3 months to 60 years) with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were included and allowed to continue their prescribed topical medications. These studies found that the daily use of moisturizers and/or cleansers containing colloidal oatmeal significantly improved many clinical outcomes of atopic dermatitis from baseline: investigator's assessment (IGA), eczema area and severity index (EASI), itch, dryness, and quality of life indices. Safety results showed that the formulations were well tolerated in babies, children, and adults with AD.

  12. Colloidal oatmeal: history, chemistry and clinical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ellen S; Wallo, Warren

    2007-02-01

    Oatmeal has been used for centuries as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation associated with various xerotic dermatoses. In 1945, a ready to use colloidal oatmeal, produced by finely grinding the oat and boiling it to extract the colloidal material, became available. Today, colloidal oatmeal is available in various dosage forms from powders for the bath to shampoos, shaving gels, and moisturizing creams. Currently, the use of colloidal oatmeal as a skin protectant is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to the Over-The-Counter Final Monograph for Skin Protectant Drug Products issued in June 2003. Its preparation is also standardized by the United States Pharmacopeia. The many clinical properties of colloidal oatmeal derive from its chemical polymorphism. The high concentration in starches and beta-glucan is responsible for the protective and water-holding functions of oat. The presence of different types of phenols confers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Some of the oat phenols are also strong ultraviolet absorbers. The cleansing activity of oat is mostly due to saponins. Its many functional properties make colloidal oatmeal a cleanser, moisturizer, buffer, as well as a soothing and protective anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Avaliação in vitro da influência do polimento superficial de resina acrílica para aparelhos ortodônticos na adesão e remoção de Streptococcus mutans In vitro evaluation of the influence of resin acrylic surface polishing for orthodontic appliances on adhesion and removal of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Sano Suga

    2005-02-01

    mechanical polishing and the microbilogical adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. The chemical and mechanical cleasing of the appliances was also checked. Forty eight appliances were prepared and divided into 3 groups. Each group was subdivided in 2 groups, concerning the different types of polishing. Group 1 control; Group 2 mechanical brushing of the acrylic resin plates with Denture Brush, Kolynos; Group 3 hygiene (chemical cleansing of the appliances by immersing them in sodiun perborate solution for 30 minutes (Fizzy Cleanser of Prosthetic and Orthodontic Appliances, " Fórmula & Ação" Pharmacy. By the statistical results, obtained from the described analysis, it was concluded that the polishing type performed in the internal surface of acrylic resin did not influence the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. The inferential analysis, implemented by comparing the assessed groups, determined that there was a reduction in the removal of biofilm formed by the contamination of Streptococcus mutans in the groups. The chemical cleanser was more efficient than the mechanical brushing. However there was no difference between the subgroups, confirming that polishing type (chemical or mechanical did not influence the adhesion and removal of Streptococcus mutans.

  14. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Christine A.; Shui, Xiaoping; Chung, D. D. L.

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments' processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm 3 of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon™ binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 405 less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder.

  15. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

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    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  16. 医务人员手卫生三种处置方法的效果观察%Observation the effect medical of three hand hygiene disposal methods for medical staff.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the disposal of hospital effects of three different hand hygiene,to select the better hand hygiene products. Methods:Apply cotton swab bacterial detection methods of sampling and hand hygiene in hospial three products: ordinary soap, fast hand disinfectants, antibacterial hand sanitizers effects of contrast. Results: The plain soap, antibacterial hand cleanser, disinfectant hand -wash your hands quickly pass rate was 88. 51% ,96. 59% ,97.22%. Plain soap and antibacterial hand sanitizer,hand disinfectant effects offast and there was significant difference( P<0.05 ). Conclusion:The use of antimicrobial hand soap and hand disinfectant effect of significantly faster than ordinary soap,it is worth to promote the use in the hospital.%目的:监测医务人员三种不同手卫生处置效果,以选择更好的手卫生产品.方法:采用棉拭子涂抹采样和细菌检测方法对医院三种手卫生产品:普通肥皂、快速手消毒剂、抗菌洗手液的洗手效果进行对比.结果:普通肥皂、抗菌洗手液、快速手消毒剂洗手合格率分别为88.51%,96.59%,97.22%.普通肥皂与抗菌洗手液、快速手消毒剂效果比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:使用抗菌洗手液和快速手消毒剂效果明显高于普通肥皂,值得推广使用.

  17. 化妆品抗粉刺(祛痘)的抑菌效果评价%Evaluation on Bacteriostatic Effect of Anti Acne Cosmetics (Acne)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇华

    2015-01-01

    Vitro antibacterial activity on acne pathogens with 10 kinds of acne cosmetics was studied.Randomly choose two classes with a total of 10 kinds of acne cosmetics, antibacterial activity of acne propionic acid bacillus and staphylococcus aureus were quantitative tested by suspension method and bacteriostatic ring.Results showed that with 3 kinds of acne removing cleanser in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic rates were greater than 50%, had good bacteriostatic action.With 3 kinds of acne cream in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic ring diameter were greater than 7 mm, had good antibacterial effect.These two products had the pass rate with 60%.%研究了10种祛痘类化妆品对痤疮致病菌的体外抑菌活性。随机选用两类共10种祛痘类化妆品,根据使用方法选用悬液法定量和抑菌环法定性检测化妆品对金黄色葡萄球菌和痤疮丙酸杆菌的抑菌活性。结果表明:5种祛痘洁面乳中有3种洁面乳的抑菌率大于50%,有较好的抑菌作用;5种祛痘膏霜中有3种的抑菌环直径大于7 mm,有较好的抑菌效果,两类产品的合格率均为60%。

  18. Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91μg/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces.

  19. Toxicity of chlorhexidine on odontoblast-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Rosetti Lessa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX is recommended for a number of clinical procedures and it has been pointed out as a potential cavity cleanser to be applied before adhesive restoration of dental cavities. OBJECTIVE: As CHX may diffuse through the dentinal tubules to reach a monolayer of odontoblasts that underlies the dentin substrate, this study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of CHX on cultured odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells were cultured and exposed to CHX solutions at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.2%, 1% and 2%. Pure culture medium (α-MEM and 3% hydrogen peroxide were used as negative and positive control, respectively. After exposing the cultured cells to the controls and CHX solutions for 60 s, 2 h or 60 s with a 24-h recovery period, cell metabolism (MTT assay and total protein concentration were evaluated. Cell morphology was assessed under scanning electron microscopy. CHX had a dose-dependent toxic effect on the MDPC-23 cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed when the cells were exposed to CHX in all periods (p<0.05. Significant difference was also determined for all CHX concentrations (p<0.05. The 60-s exposure time was the least cytotoxic (p<0.05, while exposure to CHX for 60 s with a 24-h recovery period was the most toxic to the cells (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the exposure time, all CHX concentrations had a high direct cytotoxic effect to cultured MDPC-23 cells.

  20. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Tran, Joshua P Townley, Tanya M Barnes, Kerryn A Greive Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, Victoria, Australia Background: The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods: Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry and skin roughness (Ra were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity, R5 (net elasticity, R6 (viscoelastic portion, and R7 (recovery after deformation were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001 and 42.9% (P<0.0001, respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001 and 12.5% (P=0.0449, respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001 after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion: An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. Keywords: alpha hydroxy acids, antiaging, nicotinamide, vitamin C, vitamin E, profilometry, cutometer

  1. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

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    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  2. An alkylphenol mix promotes seminoma derived cell proliferation through an ERalpha36-mediated mechanism.

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    Hussein Ajj

    Full Text Available Long chain alkylphenols are man-made compounds still present in industrial and agricultural processes. Their main use is domestic and they are widespread in household products, cleansers and cosmetics, leading to a global environmental and human contamination. These molecules are known to exert estrogen-like activities through binding to classical estrogen receptors. In vitro, they can also interact with the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor. Testicular germ cell tumor etiology and progression are proposed to be stimulated by lifelong estrogeno-mimetic exposure. We studied the transduction signaling pathways through which an alkyphenol mixture triggers testicular cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation assays were monitored after exposure to a realistic mixture of 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol of either TCam-2 seminoma derived cells, NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cells or testis tumor in xenografted nude mice. Specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing strategies were used in TCam-2 cells in order to demonstrate that the alkylphenol mix triggers CREB-phosphorylation through a rapid, ERα36-PI3kinase non genomic pathway. Microarray analysis of the mixture target genes revealed that this pathway can modulate the expression of the DNA-methyltransferase-3 (Dnmt3 gene family which is involved in DNA methylation control. Our results highlight a key role for ERα36 in alkylphenol non genomic signaling in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, ERα36-dependent control of the epigenetic status opens the way for the understanding of the link between endocrine disruptor exposure and the burden of hormone sensitive cancers.

  3. Analysis of neutral nitromusks in incenses by capillary electrophoresis in organic solvents and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Roberto; Fiori, Jessica; Mancini, Francesca; Cavrini, Vanni

    2005-09-01

    Nitromusks used as fragrances in a variety of personal-care products, cleansers, and domestic deodorants, including incense sticks, are neutral nitro aromatic compounds; some of these have been reported as photosensitizers. In this work, their analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in a methanol-based background electrolyte (BGE). In particular, a 10 mM solution of citric acid in methanol was used; under these conditions the strong suppression of the electroosmotic flow favored the use of negatively charged surfactants as additives for the anodic migration of the studied analytes. To this end, sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC) was supplemented at high concentration (190 mM) to the organic background electrolyte (BGE), showing strong indication of the ability to give micelle-like aggregates. Since nitromusks are characterized by the presence of a nitroaromatic ring with low charge density, their association with TDC aggregates can be ascribed to donor-acceptor interactions. Separation of musk xylene, musk ketone, and the banned musk moskene and musk ambrette was obtained under full nonaqueous BGE; the addition of relatively small water percentages (15% v/v) was found to be useful in improving the separation of pairs of adjacent peaks. Under optimized conditions (190 mM sodium TDC in methanol-water, 85-15 v/v containing citric acid 10 mM) the system was applied to the analysis of nitromusks in incense sticks extracted with methanol. The results were compared with those obtained by the analysis of the same samples using gas chromatography with mass detector. The expected different selectivity of separation obtained using the two techniques can be useful in the unambiguous determination of the analytes; furthermore, a substantial accord of the preliminary quantitative results achieved with the two methods was assumed as the confirmation of the potential reliability of CE performed with high percentage of organic solvent.

  4. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-12-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, PDemodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  5. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

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    Criquet M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maryline Criquet,1 Romain Roure,1 Liliane Dayan,2 Virginie Nollent,1 Christiane Bertin11Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy les Moulineaux, 2Independent consultant dermatologist, Paris, FranceBackground: Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized.Methods: In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin.Results: We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period.Keywords: Avena sativa, colloids, protective agents, atopic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, allergenic dermatitis, skin

  6. Efficacy of a twice-daily, 3-step, over-the-counter skincare regimen for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatment products. Objective This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin. Methods This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe) and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe). Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system) of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions. Results Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females) were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years). This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (Pacne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority of subjects who had mild-to-moderate acne. PMID:28115862

  7. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  8. Peroxide alkaline for cleansing the baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection affecting the oral mucosa. A number of predisposing factors have the capacity to convert Candida from the normal commensal flora to a pathogenic organism. Oral candidiasis is divided into primary and secondary infection. The primary infections are restricted to the oral and perioral sites, where as secondary infections are accompanied by sistemic mucocutaneous manifestation. Oral thrush is one of the candidiasis primary infection. Some presdiposing factors of oral thrush are neonatal, old people, or where oral microflora is disturbed by the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Final diagnosis is determined by fungal culture examination, although through clinical examination oral thrush can be determined by swabbing the white pseudomembran. Purpose: This case report presents about the importance of using the antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps and shows about peroxide alkaline as the alternatif of antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple that can substitute chlorhexidine gluconat 0.2%. Case: A baby girl, 15 months old, when she was suffering influenza the pediatry gave amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for ten days. Then the white plaque appeared on her dorsum of tongue. The therapy was Gentian Violet 1% four times a day for ten days was applied on dorsum of the tongue. The patient was suspected to suffer alergy reaction after using nistatin oral suspension four times a day had applied for 1 day. The instruction was doing sterilization for the baby bottle nipple in boiling water. Three days after the baby was cured, the white plaque was appeared on upper n lower lips mucous. Case management: The diagnosis was Oral thrush. The therapy was Gentian violet 1% four times a day for ten days that applied on upper and lower lips mucous. The instruction was doing the sterilization for baby bottle nipple in denture cleanser contain

  9. 日常去污产品中特征污染物的检测%Detection of Characteristic Pollutants of Daily Decontamination Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煜; 谭发; 张歆; 王迪雅; 杜品煕; 张琴; 张文杰

    2015-01-01

    世界各国都面临水污染问题,尤其是水体富营养化、重金属含量超标等一系列水污染问题尚未得到很好的解决。同时,各类除污化学产品层出不穷,产品中磷、氨氮等含量也各不相同,很多人在购买去污产品时,不能对氨氮、磷等化学成分的含量做出直接的判断,仅凭借价格作为参考。针对上述问题,本研究对桂林市的部分生活去污产品展开调查,对A牌洗衣液、B牌洗面奶、C牌洗衣粉、D牌肥皂4种不同去污产品所产生废水的pH、化学需氧量、总氮、总磷、氨氮进行测定,分析各产品对环境污染程度的相对大小,为消费者及生产厂家提供指导。%Aseries of water pollution problems, especially eutrophication, heavy metal content and so on, had not been resolved well all round the world. Kinds of chemical contaminants emerge in an endless stream at the same time, and the content of phosphorus and ammonia in different detergents were different from each other. So lots of people could not determine the content of phosphorus and ammonia directly when they bought the products, and they bought these products with prices as reference only. Aiming at these problems, the partial life decontamination products of Guilin were investigated in this research. The COD, TN, TP, ammonia of laundry detergent A,facial cleanser B, washing powder C and soap D were determined in this research. And the environmental pollution degree of these products was analyzed and the guidance to consumers and manufacturers was provided.

  10. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  11. A clinical study on influencing factors of removable denture malodor%可摘义齿异味的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴治国; 杨彦伟; 张宏晨; 张雅丽; 吉兆华; 张少锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解可摘义齿的异味状况并探讨其影响因素,为可摘义齿的异味控制提供指导.方法:以226例可摘义齿佩戴者为对象,进行问卷调查和义齿临床检查,对调查结果进行单因素分析和Logistic回归分析.结果:可摘义齿异味率为76.5%;单因素分析显示,不同年龄组、文化程度、月收入、是否吸烟、是否喝咖啡、不同清洁方式、义齿夜间是否浸泡水中均对可摘义齿的异味发生有影响,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析显示,年龄和清洁方式是义齿异味发生的主要影响因素,OR值分别为5.092,29.451.结论:可摘义齿的异味发生率较高,高年龄人群的义齿较易产生异味,使用高效的清洁方式(如义齿清洁剂)可有效减少义齿异味的发生.%AIM: To investigate the malodor status of removable dentures and explore its influencing factors in order to provide a guide for malodor control. METHODS: A questionnaire survey and clinical examination of 226 patients with removable dentures were carried out, and multifactorial logistic regression analysis followed by monofacto-rial analysis was applied to analyze the survey results. RESULTS: The prevalence of denture malodor was 76. 5%. According to monofactorial analysis, age, education level, monthly income, smoking, drinking coffee, cleaning methods and immersing denture in water overnight all had significant effects on denture malodor( P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR =5.092) and cleaning methods (OR =29.451) were the main influencing factors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of denture malodor is high. Malodor of denture is more prevalent in the elderly and efficient cleaning method such as denture cleanser is more efficient in reducing denture malodor.

  12. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  13. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  14. Efficacy of a twice-daily, 3-step, over-the-counter skincare regimen for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodan K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Katie Rodan, Kathy Fields, Timothy J Falla Rodan + Fields, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Acne vulgaris (acne is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC acne treatment products.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin.Methods: This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe. Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions.Results: Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years. This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (P<0.001. Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines (P<0.05.Conclusion: This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority

  15. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  16. 消散石英晶体微天平对木瓜蛋白酶水解唾液膜的动力学研究%Kinetic Study of Papain Hydrolysis of Salivary Film by the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水根; 林志明; 姚江武

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamics of papain hydrolysis at various of pH values, ionic strengths,and temperatures when using the human whole saliva as a model films.Methods: QCM-D technique was used to observe the changes in frequency of salivary films in enzymatic hydrolysis at various conditions.Results: The WS film was partially removed after treated by enzyme at various conditions.The character of the interactions of papain with salivary proteins was sensitive to various conditions i.e.pH value, ionic strength, and temperature which should be considered during the choice and application of enzyme source.In general, with decreasing pH value and increasing ionic strength (from I to 5 mM) and temperature, catalytic rate of papain significantly increased.Conclusion: Enzymatic kinetics show that the process of papain hydrolysis of WS film was pH-, ionic strength- and temperature-dependent.This behavior of papain can be used in the formulation of toothpaste, mouthrinse and denture cleanser and helps to achieve the desired antimicrobial compounds.The optimization of enzymes will require a more detailed understanding of regulative system and multiple factors generated in the processes.%目的:本实验以人全唾作为唾液获得性膜的体外实验模型,研究不同pH值、离子强度和温度条件下木瓜蛋白酶水解的动力学.方法:通过消散石英晶体微天平在各种条件下观察酶水解唾液膜的频率变化.结果:在各种条件下唾液膜被木瓜蛋白酶部分水解.木瓜蛋白酶与唾液蛋白质的相互作用对pH值、离子强度和温度的改变敏感.在选择和应用酶时,该特性应加以考虑.降低pH值,提高离子强度(1~5 mmol/L范围内)和温度,木瓜蛋白酶的催化效率增强.结论:酶动力学显示木瓜蛋白酶水解唾液膜的过程具有pH值、离子强度和温度的依赖性特点.在牙膏、漱口水、义齿清洁剂的配方中利用木瓜蛋白酶的这一特点,有助于获得理

  17. Composição química do óleo essencial e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil Chemical composition of the essential oil and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Chaibub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil (manacá é utilizada popularmente como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas (chá das folhas para dores musculares, de estômago, de cabeça, e disfunções hepáticas (chá das raízes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial e a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das folhas de S. odoratissima contra bactérias Gram positivas e negativas, e Candida albicans. O extrato bruto das folhas foi obtido por maceração seguido de concentração em rotaevaporador e as frações por partição em coluna filtrante. O pó das folhas foi submetido à hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e o óleo essencial obtido foi analisado por CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método da diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram β-cariofileno (20,64%, γ-muuroleno (17,70%, biciclogermacreno (14,73%, e δ-cadineno (13,40%. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana de S. odoratissima, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus epidermidis (extrato etanólico bruto, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, C. albicans (fração hexano, CIM de 0,049 mg/mL, Bacillus cereus (diclorometano, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, Micrococcus roseus (fração acetato de etila, CIM 0,049 mg/mL, e M. roseus, Micrococus luteus, B. cereus e C. albicans (fração metanol, CIM de 0,391 mg/mL.Spiranthera odoratissima ("manacá" has been popularly used as a blood cleanser, for liver and kidney diseases (tea from the leaves, as well as for muscle and stomach pains, headache and liver disorders (tea from the roots. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of S. odoratissima leaves against Gram-positive and negative

  18. Análise dos métodos de contagem de pontos e planímetro na quantificação do biofilme da dentadura: um estudo de validação metodológica Analysis of the point-counting and planimetric methods in the quantification of the biofilm of dentures: a study of methodological validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseana Aparecida Gomes FERNANDES

    2002-03-01

    scoring method. The results revealed an agreement rate of 82% between the paper-weighing method and the point-counting method, and an agreement rate of 95% between the former and the planimetric method, which was confirmed by high coefficients of correlation (0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The comparison with the Prosthesis Hygiene Index resulted in 55% of agreement with the point-counting method and in 37% of agreement with the planimetric method. The experimental methods can be useful in clinical studies involving the evaluation of the performance of denture cleansers.

  19. Investigation on the Infection of Demodex in Middle School Students%中学生面部蠕形螨感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施阳; 黄广伟; 范艳萍; 刘志鹏; 石妹媛; 王来努; 丁戎武; 王瑞; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查大理州永平县龙门乡中学生面部蠕形螨的感染情况,并分析感染的原因。方法:采用透明胶带粘贴法对211名中学生面部蠕形螨的感染情况进行调查,并观察其面部皮肤状况。结果:蠕形螨总感染率为6.16%;男生感染率(7.34%)高于女生(4.9%);感染虫种多为毛囊蠕形螨,少数为皮脂蠕形螨,差异有统计学意义(x。=7.538,P〈0.05);采用清水、香皂、洗面奶、药皂四种洗脸方式间差异有统计学意义(x。=1.526,P〈0.05);学生住校与住家的感染率差异有统计学意义(x2=10.972,P〈0.05);面额部的检出率高于其他部位,且油性与中性皮肤较干性皮肤检出率高,差异有统计学意义(x:=1-314,P〈O.05)。结论:永平县龙门乡中学生面部存在蠕形螨感染的情况,应加强对学生面部蠕形螨的防治。%Objective: To investigate the infective status and reasons of Demodex in middle school students at Longmen Township of Yongping County in Dali Prefecture. Methods: Facial infection of Demodex of 211 middle school students were examined by cellophane tape method and the facial skin condition were also recorded. Results: The infection rate of Demodex was 6.16% in middle school student. The infection rate of male (7.34%) was higher than that of female (4.9%). The infection rate of Demodex folliculorum was higher than that of Demodex brevis (~2=7.538, P〈O.05). There were significant differences on the infection rates of the students washing with water, soap, cleanser and medicated soap. (X2=1.526, P〈0.05). and there was significant difference on infective rate of students living in school or at home (X2=10.972,/)〈0.05). The infection rate of Demodex at frontal was higher than the rates of other parts and the infection rate of students who were oily skin was higher than that of students who were normal skin or dry skin (X2

  20. Significância dos argilominerais em produtos cosméticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gomes Daré

    2015-09-01

     exchange capacities, pleasant sensation when applied to skin, and plastic and thixotropic characteristics. Because of this they are suitable to be used in topical products. In fact, their properties were already known and exploited since prehistoric times with reports of its use in the treatment of wounds and as for cleaning the skin. This review paper emphasizes the importance of these minerals in use in cosmetics, which can perform various functions, both as an excipient or as an active component, and have been included in numerous products, such as skin care emulsions, facial masks, sunscreens, cleansers skin, shampoos and makeup products. The increase over recent years in the use of natural products, associated with a greater awareness of the need to preserve the environment, it has attracted increasing interest in clay minerals. Brazil, as a holder of one of the world’s largest reserves from clay has the third biggest depository of patents in this area. Considering the wide potential use of clay minerals, it can be stated they are great opportunities for research and development of new cosmetic products.Keywords: Clay minerals. Phyllosilicates. Cosmetic products.

  1. Contamination Reasons and Preventing Measures Caused by Oxygen-driving Atomizer%氧驱动雾化器污染的原因及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建伟; 马学英; 宋淑霞; 袁桂敏; 王青青; 宋立霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索医院普通病房连续使用中的氧驱动雾化器污染的原因,并制定预防措施.方法 随机检测连续使用中的氧驱动雾化器的面罩、储药杯和通气管,并追查污染的原因.结果 在检测的50副雾化器中,面罩污染最严重,污染率为48.0%,其中14只检测出致病菌,主要有表皮葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌;储药杯的污染率为30.2%,其中7只检出白色念珠菌、甲型溶血性链球菌;通气管污染率为18.0%,其中2只检测出肺炎克雷伯菌、白色念珠菌.雾化器各部件用洗洁精刷洗干净后,经1 000 mg/L的含氯消毒剂浸泡30 min,清水冲洗15 min,晾干后,随机抽取30副雾化器各部件检测,其结果 全部符合医院Ⅱ类环境物品卫生标准要求.结论 清洁、消毒观念错误以及用后存放不当是引起雾化器污染的主要原因;严格消毒,正确存放,定期进行细菌检测,在规定的期限内使用是避免细菌污染的可靠措施.%Objective To explore contamination reasons of oxygen-driving atomizers used continuously in ordinary sickrooms of hospital, and formulate preventing measures. Methods Veils, medicine cups and air pipes of atomizers that used continuously were detected randomly, contamination reasons were further tracked down. Results Among 50 atomizers detected, veils were contaminated most severely with a rate of 48.0%, 14 of them showed pathogenic bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis, K.pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The contamination rate of medicine cups was 30.2%, 7 cups infected with Candida albicans and α-hemolytic streptococcus. Air pipes' contamination accounted for 18.0% ,2 pipes existed K. pneumoniae and Candida albicans. All parts of atomizers were scrubed with cleanser essence ,then were soaked in 1 000 mg/L chlorine-releasing disinfectant 30 minutes, and then were washed with water for 15 minutes. After dry,30 atomizers' parts were drawn at random, and their detect

  2. HPLC-MS/MS测定城市废水中的10种药物与个人护理用品%Determination of 10 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waste water by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红选; 刘卫国

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) represent a variety of chemical, widely used by consumers on a daily basis which include prescription and non-prescription drugs, cosmetics, cleansers, detergents and fragrance produces. PPCPs are considered potentially hazardous compounds because some are ubiquitous, persistent, and biologically active compounds with recognized endocrine disrupting functions (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). These compounds have been widely detected in various environmental matrices throughout the world including rivers (Glen et al, 2003; Tixier et al, 2003; Yu and Chu, 2009; Zhang et al, 2011; Wu et al, 2014), lakes (Buser and Theobald, 1998; Glen et al, 2003; Tixier et al, 2003; Blair et al, 2013; Ferguson et al, 2013; Zhu et al, 2013), oceans (Weigel et al, 2002; Del Rosario et al, 2014), groundwater (Barnes et al, 2008), waste and drinking water (Carmona et al, 2014) and food (Wu et al, 2012; Baron et al, 2014). Detection methods of PPCP include spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and electrophoresis. The recent advances in analytical instrumentation have allowed the unequivocal identiifcation and conifrmation of the presence of any compound at very low levels using LC-MS2. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) allows monitoring two transitions between precursor and product ions. It is possible to quantify and conifrm the presence of PPCPs at very low concentration levels. However, due to the absence of ofifcial monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the environments. Therefore, we proposed here a method for the determination of ten pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including acetaminophen, naproxen, diclofenac