WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaning

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  3. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  4. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  5. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  8. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  9. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  10. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    quite clean and had a refreshing scent . The medium soiled garments (30%) also looked reasonably clean after one wash. The heavily soiled garments...and Solvair® Cleaning in cleaning soiled Improved Outer Tactical Vests (IOTV). Computer-controlled Wet Cleaning coupled with the use of LANADOL...to clean soiled IOTVs. Soldier Product Support Integration Directorate, ILSC U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760

  11. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  12. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  13. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  14. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  15. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  16. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  17. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  18. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  19. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  2. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  3. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  4. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  5. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  6. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  7. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  8. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  9. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  10. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  11. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  12. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  13. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  14. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  15. Quick and clean cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Frank; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells.

  16. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  17. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  18. A Note on Clean Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wang; Jianlong Chen

    2007-01-01

    Let R be a ring and g(x) a polynomial in C[x],where C=C(R) denotes the center of R.Camillo and Sim6n called the ring g(x)-clean if every element of R can be written as the sum of a unit and a root of g(x).In this paper,we prove that for a,b (E) C,the ring R is clean and b - a is invertible in R if and only if R is g1(x)-clean,where gl(x) = (x - a)(x - b).This implies that in some sense the notion of g(x)-clean rings in the Nicholson-Zhou Theorem and in the Camillo-Sim6n Theorem is indeed equivalent to the notion of clean rings.

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  1. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  2. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  3. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  4. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  5. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  6. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  7. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  8. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  10. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  11. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  12. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  13. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  14. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  15. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery.

  16. Cleaning properties of dry adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.; P.; DíAZ; TéLLEZ; D.; SAMEOTO; C.; MENON

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study into the cleaning properties of synthetic dry adhesives. We have manufactured the adhesive micro-fibres through a low-cost, high yield fabrication method using Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. We deliberately contaminated the adhesive samples with different sized particles in the micro and macro scales and tested different cleaning methods for their efficacy with respect to each particle size. We investigated different cleaning methods, which included the use of wax moulding, vibration and pressure sensitive adhesives. For adhesion testing we used a custom system with a linear stage and a force sensor indenting a hemispherical probe into the adhesive surface and measuring the pull-off force. To characterize the cleaning efficacy we visually inspected each sample in a microscope and weighed the samples with a microgram-accuracy analytical balance. Results showed that the moulding method induced adhesion recovery in a greater percentage than the other cleaning methods and even helped with the recovery of collapsed posts in some cases. On the other hand pressure sensitive adhesives seem to have the upper hand with regards to certain particle sizes that can potentially pose problems with the moulding method.

  17. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  18. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  1. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  2. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  3. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  4. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  5. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  6. Pollute first, clean up later?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Verheijke, Gijs; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing concern with regard to sustainability in emerging economies like China. The Chinese growth is characterized by a strategy which is known as "pollute first, clean up later". Here we show that based on this strategy, the pollution alarm can often be postponed by a tremendous economi

  7. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  8. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  9. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  10. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  11. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Jen (Ryan); Gold, Michael; Miniclean Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquid) dark matter experiment will exploit a single-phase liquid argon detector instrumented with 92 photomultiplier tubes placed in the cryogen with 4- π coverage of a 500 kg (150 kg) target (fiducial) mass. The detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. It is designed also for a liquid neon target that allows for an independent verification of signal and background and a test of the expected dependence of the WIMP-nucleus interaction rate. For MiniCLEAN, PMT stability and calibration are essential. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based light injection system provide single photon for the calibration which can be performed in near real-time, providing a continuous monitor on the condition of the detector. This talk will summarize the status of detector and upcoming commissioning at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  18. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  6. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  3. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  4. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  5. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  6. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  7. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  8. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform...

  9. Clean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2005-01-01

    Core competitiveness is a notion familiar to most managers with an MBA degree, These days, this is what is taught at renowned business schools and colleges. And in the real world,large and small enterprises are increasingly following this course of action, To concentrate on one or two single lines of business in most cases makes sense and boosts profit, There are, however,

  10. Cleaning technics of cleaning robots%清洗机器人的清洗工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇强; 周利坤

    2012-01-01

    The cleaning works and cleaning methods of cleaning robots were systematically summarized. The cleaning robots' cleaning technics were illustrated and analyzed. It also specially proposed the idea of oil tank cleaning robot's cleaning technics and process.%对清洗机器人的清洗作业和清洗方法进行了系统分类概述,举例综合分析了清洗机器人的清洗工艺,特别提出了油罐清洗机器人的清洗工艺流程设想。

  11. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  12. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  13. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  14. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  15. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  16. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  17. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  18. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  19. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  20. An automated cleaning system for hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient hygienic practices in Irish hospitals coupled with one of the highest number of reported cases of MRSA in Europe have highlighted the need for solutions to aid in the task of cleaning. This automated cleaning system consisted of two robots: a core robot developed separately with navigational and task scheduling capabilities integrated. The cleaning task was carried out by making use of a commercially available Roomba vacuum cleaner which had been adapted to operate in conju...

  1. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  2. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  3. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  4. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  5. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  6. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  7. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  8. ActiveClean: Interactive Data Cleaning While Learning Convex Loss Models

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Data cleaning is often an important step to ensure that predictive models, such as regression and classification, are not affected by systematic errors such as inconsistent, out-of-date, or outlier data. Identifying dirty data is often a manual and iterative process, and can be challenging on large datasets. However, many data cleaning workflows can introduce subtle biases into the training processes due to violation of independence assumptions. We propose ActiveClean, a progressive cleaning ...

  9. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  10. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  11. Equivalent cleaning in a juvenile facultative and obligate cleaning wrasse: an insight into the evolution of cleaning in labrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, Alexandra S.; Feeney, William E.

    2016-09-01

    Species that exhibit ontogenetic variation in interspecific cleaning behaviours may offer insights into how interspecific cooperation evolves. We investigated the foraging ecology of the yellowtail tubelip wrasse ( Diproctacanthus xanthurus), a facultative cleaner as a juvenile and corallivore as an adult, and compared its juvenile ecology with that of juvenile blue-streak cleaner wrasse ( Labroides dimidiatus), a closely related and sympatric obligate cleaner. While juveniles of the two species differed in the amount of time they inspected clients, the number of client individuals and species that were cleaned and the proportion that posed did not differ, nor did the number of ectoparasitic isopods in their guts. In contrast, adult yellowtail tubelip wrasse had fewer isopods and more coral mucus in their guts than juveniles. These data support a hypothesized series of events in which juvenile cleaning acts as an evolutionary precursor to obligate cleaning and suggest that the yellowtail tubelip wrasse may present an intermediate between corallivory and cleaning.

  12. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  13. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  14. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  16. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  17. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Castro, R. G. (Richard G.); Smith, F. M. (Frank M.); Javernick, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  18. Coal can be a Clean Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

  19. A multistep approach for reticle cleaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, N.B.; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Stortelder, J.K.; Jong, A.J. de; Molkenboer, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of EUV Lithography for the next node has two major obstacles at the moment; the first is source power and reliability and the second is defect free reticles and damage free cleaning of reticles. We present our results on our investigation for damage free cleaning of EUV reticles wit

  20. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  3. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  4. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  5. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  6. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  7. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  8. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  13. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  14. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  15. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  16. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  17. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  18. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  19. Clean fuels from coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A M

    1974-04-19

    The quickest way to establish a visible new margin against energy demand is the historic producer serving small industry and gasifying Pennsylvania anthracite. In 2 years many producers could be in operation. The quickest way to obtain significant supplies of "new" gas or oil is to retrofit existing electricity and industrial boilers for power or industrial gas. Important results could be achieved in 6 years. Table 3 identifies development activities deserving high priority to speed the capture of gas and oil now burned in boilers, and to speed realization the advantages of combined-cycle equipment running on coal (8). Obviously, these activities are not enough. Many exciting and worthwhile concepts at various stages of development can furnish improved techniques for converting coal to pipeline gas and liquid fuels for the long run. Reviews of these concepts are available (6, 32, 35). I have neglected them in this article not to deny their importance but to stress the earlier opportunities from technology that is ready now, or nearly ready. The oil and gas industries might well consider the historical progression from Wells Fargo to Western Union to American Telephone and Telegraph to Radio Corporation of America. These industries will miss the boat if they regard themselves simply as purveyors of their historical fuels and not as purveyors of clean energy. The gas industry especially will be in trouble if it lets its major industrial customers, such as steel and electricity, provide their own supplies of power and industrial gas.

  20. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  1. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  2. 77 FR 44672 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts Notice is hereby given that on... resolve its violations of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The Allegheny County Health... the Clean Water Act, Plaintiffs allege that Shenango violated the effluent limitations in the...

  3. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  4. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  5. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  6. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  7. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  8. The Value of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  9. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  10. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  11. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  12. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  13. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  14. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  15. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  16. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  17. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  18. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Bate, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity $\\psi / c_h$ instead of $\\psi$. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, $c_h$, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving $\

  19. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2016-10-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity ψ /ch instead of ψ. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, ch, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the magnetic field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving ∇ ṡ B = 0 to machine precision.

  20. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  1. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  2. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  3. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  4. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  5. Chemical-free cleaning using excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; O'Keeffe, Terence R.

    1996-04-01

    A critical requirement in many industrial processes is the cleaning of oils and grease, oxides, solvent residues, particles, thin films and other contaminants from surfaces. There is a particularly acute need in the electronics industry for cleaning semiconductor wafers and computer chips and in the metals industry for removing oxides and other contaminants. Cleaning traditionally is done by various wet chemical processes, almost all consuming large amounts of water and producing large amounts of hazardous wastes. To further complicate this, some of these cleaning agents and vast water consumption are undergoing stringent restrictions. The Radiance ProcessSM is a novel, patented Excimer Laser approach to dry surface cleaning. The process has removed particles from 80 microns to submicron sizes, paints, inks, oxides, fingerprints, hazes, parts of molecules and metallic ions in fingerprints. The process does not ablate, melt or damage the underlying surface. Micro-roughening on some Silicon and Gallium Arsenide is on the order of 1A or less. This paper will discuss the various applications with this process and the latest results from a beta wafer cleaning prototype test bed system that is being built under an EPA grant and joint partnership between Radiance Services Company, Neuman Micro Technologies, Inc. and the Microelectronics Research Laboratory.

  6. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  7. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  8. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  10. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  11. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  12. Ultrasonic cleaning of 3D printed objects and Cleaning Challenge Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Zanderink, Thijs; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    We report our experiences in the evaluation of ultrasonic cleaning processes of objects made with additive manufacturing techniques, specifically three-dimensional (3D) printers. These objects need to be cleaned of support material added during the printing process. The support material can be remov

  13. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  15. Bayesian Data Cleaning for Web Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yuheng; Chen, Yi; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2012-01-01

    Data Cleaning is a long standing problem, which is growing in importance with the mass of uncurated web data. State of the art approaches for handling inconsistent data are systems that learn and use conditional functional dependencies (CFDs) to rectify data. These methods learn data patterns--CFDs--from a clean sample of the data and use them to rectify the dirty/inconsistent data. While getting a clean training sample is feasible in enterprise data scenarios, it is infeasible in web databases where there is no separate curated data. CFD based methods are unfortunately particularly sensitive to noise; we will empirically demonstrate that the number of CFDs learned falls quite drastically with even a small amount of noise. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose a fully probabilistic framework for cleaning data. Our approach involves learning both the generative and error (corruption) models of the data and using them to clean the data. For generative models, we learn Bayes networks from the data. Fo...

  16. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  17. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc... concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems,...

  18. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  19. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  20. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  1. Dynamic self-cleaning in gecko setae via digital hyperextension

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shihao; Lopez, Stephanie; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2012-01-01

    Gecko toe pads show strong adhesion on various surfaces yet remain remarkably clean around everyday contaminants. An understanding of how geckos clean their toe pads while being in motion is essential for the elucidation of animal behaviours as well as the design of biomimetic devices with optimal performance. Here, we test the self-cleaning of geckos during locomotion. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that geckos clean their feet through a unique dynamic self-cleaning mechani...

  2. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  3. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning

    2011-01-01

    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  4. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  5. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  6. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  7. The macroecology of marine cleaning mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, Sergio R; Vázquez, Diego P; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2007-01-01

    1. Marine cleaning mutualisms generally involve small fish or shrimps removing ectoparasites and other material from cooperating 'client' fish. We evaluate the role of fish abundance, body size and behaviour as determinants of interactions with cleaning mutualists. 2. Data come from eight reef locations in Brazil, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and Australia. 3. We conducted a meta-analysis of client-cleaner interactions involving 11 cleaner and 221 client species. 4. There was a strong, positive effect of client abundance on cleaning frequency, but only a weak, negative effect of client body size. These effects were modulated by client trophic group and social behaviour. 5. This study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting a central role of species abundance in structuring species interactions.

  8. Nonlinear temporal pulse cleaning techniques and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; Xu; Jianzhou; Wang; Yansui; Huang; Yanyan; Li; Xiaomin; Lu; Yuxin; Leng

    2013-01-01

    Two different pulse cleaning techniques for ultra-high contrast laser systems are comparably analysed in this work.The first pulse cleaning technique is based on noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplification(NOPA)and second-harmonic generation(SHG)processes.The other is based on cross-polarized wave(XPW)generation.With a double chirped pulse amplifier(double-CPA)scheme,although temporal contrast enhancement in a high-intensity femtosecond Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification(CPA)laser system can be achieved based on both of the techniques,the two different pulse cleaning techniques still have their own advantages and are suitable for different contrast enhancement requirements of different laser systems.

  9. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  10. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  12. China Leading in Clean Energy Spending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhenjun

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has taken the lead in investments in clean energy,spending nearly double what the US did in 2009,as it ramps up projects in both renewable and traditional energy.China's investment and financing for clean energy rose to US$34.6 billion in 2009,out of US$162 billion invested globally,according to the report by the nonprofit Pew Charitable Trusts.US spending ranked second,at US$18.6 billion,with European nations also recording strong growth.

  13. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  14. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  15. Measuring cavitation and its cleaning effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of techniques for measuring the presence and amount of cavitation, and for quantifying the removal of contaminants, are provided. After reviewing chemical, physical, and biological studies, a universal cause for the cleaning effects of bubbles cannot yet be concluded.

  16. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  17. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  18. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  19. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  20. Cleaning up the future of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS is making efforts to seek green solutions to address the pollution problem of the traditional forms of coal utilization. For instance, as SONG Jianlan reports, a research team from the Taiyuan-based CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry has developed clean, efficient ways to convert coal into liquefied fuels.

  1. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  2. Uus silt turul - clean label / Gunnel Koba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koba, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Suurbritanniast alguse saanud clean labeli toiduainete märgis annab tarbijale kindlustunde, et tegemist on võimalikult puhta lihtsa ja arusaadava koostisega tootega. Samas pole märgisel ametlikku definitsiooni ning pole välistatud, et toiduaine koostises ei ole ka mõni e-aine

  3. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  4. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  7. Construction robot force control in cleaning operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Skibniewski, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Basic surface treatment tasks on construction sites that can be performed by robots include the spraying, cleaning, and finishing of surfaces. In the present paper, a construction robot is proposed for accomplishing a variety of cleaning tasks in construction. Specifically, the force-control problem in cleaning a surface is studied. The paper shows that a force sensor can be used not only to monitor the force acting at the contact points, but also to identify the uncertainties of the unstructured construction environment. A different formulation for the external force is presented. With this formulation, the external force on the end-effector is presented as a function of the contact force, contact torque, and constraint conditions, but not the actuated torque in the joint space. Therefore, the force-control problem is simplified to compensate for the external force and to exert a desired force. One advantage fo this approach is that the original PID position control loop of an industrial robot is retained so that the time-consuming computed torque method is avoided. The proposed control scheme can be applied to numerous cleaning tasks with hard contact regardless of the different nature of the surface.

  8. Clean air Hamilton 2001 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This community initiative called Clean Air Hamilton was established to improve air quality in Hamilton, Ontario. It has been mandated to annually report on progress and provide advice with regard to current air quality issues. The quality of life of residents is improved as a result of the work performed by Clean Air Hamilton, and it also enhances Hamilton's image. Numerous inquiries have been received from City officials in several municipalities such as Toronto, Kitchener-Waterloo and Windsor as a testament to the success of the initiative. Financial support is received from all levels of government. The funding received from the Council has helped in attracting additional donations in support of this initiative. Clean Air Hamilton was involved in one capacity or another in research, emissions reduction projects and public awareness campaigns during 2001, and its contributions were valued at approximately 500,000 dollars. The City of Hamilton was awarded the United Nations for Human Settlements award as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. In addition, the City received the Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment. Clean Air Hamilton is ready to move to the next phase, which requires moving current structures that supplements voluntary commitments with committed funding from key stakeholders. Since June 1996, the advisory level of 32 on the Air Pollution Index has not been reached, and rarely goes over 20. Throughout the 1990s, levels of toxics have decreased significantly. A three-year self-sustaining program should be developed and funding sought for those initiatives, discussions should be facilitated among industrial stakeholders when they address air quality issues, and research should continue to be supported and advice on current air quality issues be provided to City Council. 1 fig.

  9. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before......, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  10. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  11. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean energy market creation is the focus of this dissertation. The dissertation contributes to several bodies of literature in the area of entrepreneurship, new industry creation, corporate venturing, and venture capital research. The dissertation uses a grounded theory approach. The study is guided by three data collection approaches with an emphasis on the first two. First, interviews with European and North American VC and CVC firms that have invested in the clean energy sector were carried out. Second, a clean energy venture financing survey that consisted of qualitative, essay-format questions and some quantitative questions was carried out. Third, interviews with clean energy stakeholders were carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the emerging sector. The research results consist of three main findings. First, the research results suggest that clean energy ventures face the following three main entrepreneurial challenges: financing, market education, and growth management. A further study of three clean energy industry categories revealed additional challenges that varied according to the industry development stage. Second, the results demonstrate that, from a venture capitalist perspective, clean energy venture risk characteristics can be divided into two groups: generally recognized risk characteristics and cognitive risk characteristics. The identified generally recognized risk characteristics were market demand and adaptation, incompatibility with the VC model

  12. Development of CO2 snow cleaning for in situ cleaning of µCMM stylus tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Kinnell, Peter K.; Lawes, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Contamination adhered to the surface of a µCMM stylus tip compromises the measurement accuracy of the µCMM system, potentially causing dimensional errors that are over ten times larger than the uncertainty of a modern µCMM. In prior work by the authors, the use of a high pressure CO2 gas stream was demonstrated to achieve significant cleaning rate for a range of contaminant without damage to the stylus tip surface. This paper explores the practical challenges of achieving effective stylus tip cleaning in situ on µCMM systems. Two types of snow cleaning approaches were evaluated for their coverage of cleaning, thermal impact and gas flow forces. This work then presents a novel multi-nozzle prototype system using pulsed snow streams to achieve cleaning coverage over the entire stylus tip, and balances forces from the snow streams reducing drag force imparted by the gas stream to levels comparable to the probing force of µCMMs, as well as allowing automated cleaning procedure integrated into a µCMM system.

  13. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 2013 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, J.; Tucker, E.; Thomas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air ducts in your home cleaned. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) urges you to read this document in it entirety as it provides important information on the subject. Duct cleaning has never ...

  16. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  17. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 15, No. 1, April 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on electric vehicle deployment, renewable natural gas, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  18. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. Rodent Control: Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rodent food sources and nesting sites... Diseases from rodents Diseases directly transmitted by rodents Diseases indirectly transmitted by rodents Cleaning up after rodents Take precautions before and during clean up of ...

  20. Kinetic comparisons during variations of the power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; Allen, Mark; Graham-Smith, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Comfort, P, Allen, M, and Graham-Smith, P. Kinetic comparisons during variations of the power clean. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3269-3273, 2011-The aim of this investigation was to determine the differences in peak power, peak vertical ground reaction forces, and rate of force development (RFD) during variations of the power clean. Elite rugby league players (n = 16; age 22 ± 1.58 years; height 182.25 ± 2.81 cm; body mass 98.65 ± 7.52 kg) performed 1 set of 3 repetitions of the power clean, hang power clean, midthigh power clean, or midthigh clean pull, using 60% of 1 repetition maximum power clean, in a randomized order, while standing on a force platform. One-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed a significantly (p clean (3,565.7 ± 410.6 W) and the midthigh clean pull (3,686.8 ± 386.5 W) compared with both the power clean (2,591.2 ± 645.5 W) and the hang power clean (3,183.6 ± 309.1 W), along with a significantly (p clean (2,813.8 ± 200.5 N) and the midthigh clean pull (2,901.3 ± 226.1 N) compared with both the power clean (2,264.1 ± 199.6 N) and the hang power clean (2,479.3 ± 267.6 N). The midthigh power clean (15,049.8 ± 4,415.7 N·s) and the midthigh clean pull (15,623.6 ± 3,114.4 N·s) also demonstrated significantly (p clean (8,657.9 ± 2,746.6 N·s) and the hang power clean (10,314.4 ± 4,238.2 N·s). From the findings of this study, when training to maximize power, Fz, and RFD, the midthigh power clean and midthigh clean pull appear to be the most advantageous variations of the power clean to perform.

  1. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  3. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  4. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  5. Clean Code - Why you should care

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    - Martin Fowler Writing code is communication, not solely with the computer that executes it, but also with other developers and with oneself. A developer spends a lot of his working time reading and understanding code that was written by other developers or by himself in the past. The readability of the code plays an important factor for the time to find a bug or add new functionality, which in turn has a big impact on the productivity. Code that is difficult to undestand, hard to maintain and refactor, and offers many spots for bugs to hide is not considered to be "clean code". But what could considered as "clean code" and what are the advantages of a strict application of its guidelines? In this presentation we will take a look on some typical "code smells" and proposed guidelines to improve your coding skills to write cleaner code that is less bug prone and better to maintain.

  6. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  7. Self-cleaning surfaces - virtual realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Ralf

    2003-05-01

    In the 19th century, Oscar Wilde stated ``We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfaces''. Today, we do so even more, and we do not regret it: key advances in the understanding and fabrication of surfaces with controlled wetting properties are about to make the dream of a contamination-free (or 'no-clean') surface come true. Two routes to self-cleaning are emerging, which work by the removal of dirt by either film or droplet flow. Although a detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the behaviour of liquids on such surfaces is still a basic research topic, the first commercial products in the household-commodity sector and for applications in biotechnology are coming within reach of the marketplace. This progress report describes the current status of understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the concepts for making such surfaces, and some of their first applications.

  8. Self-cleaning surfaces--virtual realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Ralf

    2003-05-01

    In the 19th century, Oscar Wilde stated "We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfaces". Today, we do so even more, and we do not regret it: key advances in the understanding and fabrication of surfaces with controlled wetting properties are about to make the dream of a contamination-free (or 'no-clean') surface come true. Two routes to self-cleaning are emerging, which work by the removal of dirt by either film or droplet flow. Although a detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the behaviour of liquids on such surfaces is still a basic research topic, the first commercial products in the household-commodity sector and for applications in biotechnology are coming within reach of the marketplace. This progress report describes the current status of understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the concepts for making such surfaces, and some of their first applications.

  9. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  10. Occupational hand dermatoses in hospital cleaning personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singgih, S I; Lantinga, H; Nater, J P; Woest, T E; Kruyt-Gaspersz, J A

    1986-01-01

    Hospital cleaning personnel were examined for occupational dermatoses. 356 persons were included in the study. The age ranged from 20 to 63 years with a mean of 40.1 years. The period prevalence rate of moderate and severe eczema was 12% (10% in men and 19% in women). In 88%, the eczema was of a duration longer than 2 years. Positive patch tests were found in 10% of men and 53% of women with eczema. The main allergens were nickel, cobalt, chromate and rubber chemicals. Positive tests to cleaning agents were rare. One case of contact allergy to sodium dichloro-iso-cyanurate and one to lysol were diagnosed. Irritant factors played a major rôle in most cases (92%). Fungus infection as a cause or complication in hand eczema should not be left out of consideration: in 2 persons, a mycosis of hands and/or fingernails was diagnosed.

  11. Bio-Inspired Polymer Membrane Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To generate polyethersulfone membranes with a biocatalytically active surface, pancreatin was covalently immobilized. Pancreatin is a mixture of digestive enzymes such as protease, lipase, and amylase. The resulting membranes exhibit self-cleaning properties after “switching on” the respective enzyme by adjusting pH and temperature. Thus, the membrane surface can actively degrade a fouling layer on its surface and regain initial permeability. Fouling tests with solutions of protein, oil, and mixtures of both, were performed, and the membrane’s ability to self-clean the fouled surface was characterized. Membrane characterization was conducted by investigation of the immobilized enzyme concentration, enzyme activity, water permeation flux, fouling tests, porosimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  13. 40 CFR 761.369 - Pre-cleaning the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-cleaning the surface. 761.369... PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.369 Pre-cleaning the surface. If visible PCB-containing liquid is present on the surface to be cleaned, thoroughly wipe or...

  14. BP Cooperates with Chinese Partners for Clean Energy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Tsinghua University held a seminar on clean energy at the Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Educational Center on November 12 to review the results achieved in the past year to implement the 10-year CAS-BP cooperative research project titled "Clean Energy for Future."

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  17. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  20. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final determination of clean yield. 151.75 Section 151.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Final determination of clean yield. The port director shall base his final determination of clean...

  1. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... Richardson at (215) 814-5675. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires...

  2. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean Water... INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) (hereinafter referred to as ``Section...

  3. 19 CFR 151.71 - Laboratory testing for clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory testing for clean yield. 151.71 Section... Laboratory testing for clean yield. (a) Test and report by Customs laboratory. The clean yield of all general samples taken in accordance with § 151.70 shall be determined by test in a Customs laboratory, unless...

  4. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  5. The Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Can; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-05-01

    The Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences conducts fundamental and applied research towards chemistry and chemical engineering, with strong competence in the development of new technologies. The research in this special issue, containing 19 papers, features some of the DICP's best work on sustainable energy, use of environmental resources, and advanced materials within the framework of the Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL).

  6. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davies, Lincoln [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  7. UV/Ozone Cleaning of Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    clean surfaces under UV radiation maintained the surface cleanliness indefinitely. Duting the period 1974-1976, Vig et al.( 3 - 5 ) described a series of...probably no other device of which the performance is so critically dependent upon surface cleanliness . For example, the aging requirement for one 5 MHz...such a device changes the frequency by about one part in 106. The surface cleanliness must therefore be such that the rate of contamination transfer

  8. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones.

  9. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  10. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  11. Research of the heliostat cleaning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Xiaobin [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang, Zhifeng [CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat is the core component of Solar Power Tower system. It can straightly affect the efficiency of whole system. Because the heliostats run outside, and are discovered in the air, dust and dirt accumulates gradually on the surface of reflector. Then, it will gradually decrease the reflectivity of mirror so that reduce the whole efficiency. The article analyzed environment factors, and researched selecting availably cleaning method of heliostat for different conditions. (orig.)

  12. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  13. Clean Energy Cooperation Steering in Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cooperation, it is a win-win choice for China and the US. Cooperation has almost become the hottest buzz word in the energy sector globally. During the US President Obama's visit to China recently, China and the US made agreement on the climate change, energy and environment sectors and put forward specific measures for jointly promoting development in these fields, further heating the cooperation between China and the US in the clean energy sector.

  14. Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  15. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  16. Cleaning Study of Genesis Sample 60487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kim R.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. Particles of Genesis wafers, brine from the Utah Testing Range and an organic film have deleterious effects on many of the high-resolution instruments that have been developed to analyze the implanted solar wind. We have conducted a correlative microscopic study of the efficacy of cleaning Genesis samples with megasonically activated ultrapure water and UV/ozone cleaning. Sample 60487, the study sample, is a piece of float-zone silicon from the B/C array approximately 4.995mm x 4.145 mm in size

  17. Laser cleaning of ITER's diagnostic mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We report on laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150 - 420 nm thick. A 1.06 μm Nd laser system provided 220 ns pulses at 8 kHz with typical power densities of 1-2 J/cm^2. The laser beam was fiber optically coupled to a scanner suitable for tokamak applications. The efficacy of mirror cleaning was assessed with a new technique that combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements [1]. The method is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber. Excellent restoration of reflectivity for the carbon coated Mo mirrors was observed after laser scanning under vacuum conditions. For the beryllium coated mirrors restoration of reflectivity has so far been incomplete and modeling indicates that a shorter duration laser pulse is needed. No damage of the molybdenum mirror substrates was observed.[4pt][1] C.H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. at press.

  18. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  1. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  2. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  3. The application of waterjets for cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D. A.; Fossey, Robert

    1994-06-01

    The last 25 years has seen a dramatic growth in the use of high pressure waterjets for cleaning purposes. Throughout recorded history and no doubt for a long time before that, the dual role of water as both a solvent and a lubricant has been one of the major ways of washing surfaces down regardless of what the surface was. Also, the power built into a waterjet stream has allowed it to be used in moving material. In ancient Egypt rivers were commonly diverted to erode valuable mineral deposits and it was not until 1852 that the modern innovation of hydraulic mining got its start in the hills around Sacramento. The power of the waterjets used in those mining operations were such that most of the gold in California and later in Idaho and many of the other western states was mined hydraulically. Subsequently, the technology has advanced considerably by the use of increasingly high pressures and smaller jets to the point where today abrasive laden waterjets at pressures above 35,000 psi are becoming the tool of choice for cutting glass, titanium, and composite materials. Applications of high pressure waterjets to cutting are usually however, governed by a different set of requirements to those of the cleaning operation. Specifically, while in a cutting or mining operation one is seeking to remove the most volume of material with the least amount of energy looking for deep cuts and applying a highly focused jet energy to the surface. Frequent cleaning requires the ability to remove only one or two surface coatings which may be very shallow. It is generally important that the underlying material or substrate is not damaged by the cleaning process, and thus, the energy of the jet must often be more diffuse. In contrast also with conventional cutting where the depth of the cut has great importance in cleaning it is the area which can be covered in a given time which better optimizes the process. An example of the types of requirement needed can be illustrated by the failure

  4. Handbook for cleaning for semiconductor manufacturing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive volume provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamentals of cleaning and surface conditioning of semiconductor applications such as high-k/metal gate cleaning, copper/low-k cleaning, high dose implant stripping, and silicon and SiGe passivation. The theory and fundamental physics associated with wet etching and wet cleaning is reviewed, plus the surface and colloidal aspects of wet processing. Formulation development practices and methodology are presented along with the applications for preventing copper corrosion, cleaning aluminum lines, and other sensitive layers. This

  5. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  6. Pengembangan Sistem Informasi Pemesanan Layanan Jasa Cleaning Service Berbasis Web Dan Mobile Di Liochita Cleaning Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulio Romadho Agung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liochita cleaning is a company engaged in the field of cleaning services which are located in the city of Semarang. Until now, the existing of information systems on Liochita Cleaning were not sufficiently able to manage the company and thus to make this company as a company that developed and developing its field and can compete with other companies is not possible. Start from recording customer data and order data, which is the became one as income data, so this companies are less aware in detail of the customer data. On the other hand, customers must make a call in advance to order the services that it requires no small cost. Lack of marketing facilities makes this company unable to include all of costumers in the city of Semarang. Data recording is still using paper, so this company were at risk of paper lost which is containing data that has been recorded . Development of an information system in this study using the method of the waterfall. Waterfall model consists of: requirements, design, implementation, testing and maintenance. For the start of the design, developer need to observations or interviews to determine the needs of the system that being developed. Applications developed using the framework CodeIgniter. The results of this final project is an information system that can meet the needs of Liochita Cleaning in the management of these services, customers and orders in accordance with the business processes that Liochita Cleaning have and allow customers to book services .

  7. On Strongly J 2-clean Rings 1%强J 12-clean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董李青

    2015-01-01

    定义了环R的一个子集,记做 J(R)={a∈ R|a2∈ J(R)}。称环R中的一个元素a是强J 12‐clean元,如果存在一个幂等元e ∈ R和一个元素w ∈ J(R)使得 a= e+ w且ew = we 。如果环R中每个元素都是强 J 12‐clean元,称环R是强J 12‐clean环。文章研究了强 J 12‐clean环的一些性质和局部环上矩阵环的强J 12‐clean性。%A subset of R is defined and marked as J(R)={a∈ R|a2 ∈ J(R)} .An element a∈ R is called strongly J12‐clean element ,provided that there exists an idempotent e∈ R and an element w∈ J(R) such that a= e+ w and ew= we .A ring R is strongly J12‐clean ring if every element in R is strongly J12‐clean element .This article studies the properties of strongly J12‐clean ring and the property of strongly J12‐clean of matrix rings on local rings .

  8. Methods for estimating cleaning effectiveness, dispersion, and toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents at oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stransky, B.C.; Clayton, J.R. Jr.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Reilly, T.J. [Ogden Environmental, San Diego, CA (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) are designed to enhance removal of stranded oil from shoreline surfaces. However, difficulties associated with estimating cleaning effectiveness and toxicity of SCAs for site-specific conditions make it desirable to perform measurements in the field with onsite oil, substrates, and resident or otherwise appropriate test organisms. Information for onsite testing should address the following questions: (1) does use of an SCA promote removal of oil from substate surfaces; (2) does use of an SCA increase the amount of dispersed oil in the water column; (3) does toxicity for resident organisms indicate a likelihood for adverse effects; (4) does toxicity with a portable test organism indicate a likelihood for adverse effects? Methodologies are described for use in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information for cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field. Toxicity methodologies for resident organisms include echinoderm fertilization, byssal thread attachment for mussels, and righting/water-escaping ability for periwinkle snails. Microtox{trademark} is used for toxicity measurements as a portable test organism/assay. Use of portable methodologies for assessing cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field can assist onsite evaluations for cleaning performance and relative risk to biological resources, which are important for supporting use-no use decisions for SCAs.

  9. Soiling and Cleaning of Polymer Film Solar Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sansom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the accelerated ageing of commercially available silvered polymer film by contact cleaning using brushes and water in the presence of soiling created by dust and sand particles. These conditions represent cleaning regimes in real concentrating solar power (CSP solar fields in arid environments, where contact cleaning using brushes and water is often required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of these established cleaning processes on the optical and visual characteristics of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. The experiments were repeated using different experimental equipment at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA in Spain and Cranfield University in the UK. The results highlight differences that are attributable to the experimental methods used. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection show that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water, used in a cleaning head with both linear and rotational motion, can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  10. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  11. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! CLEAN-2002: WORKING IN A CLEAN ROOM

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    CLEAN-2002 is a new, free of charge, half-day seminar in the context of Technical Training for the LHC. The course is designed for personnel working or managing activities in an assembly cleanroom, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory. CLEAN-2002 is aimed at raising awareness about good working practices in a cleanroom, and at providing practical examples, analysis tools, and documentation. Specific problems put forward beforehand by attendees will also be addressed. If you are interested in CLEAN-2002, please discuss with your supervisor or your DTO. More information and online registration by EDH are available from the Technical Training pages. The next session, in English, will be on 10 October (afternoon). Other sessions, in French and English, will be offered following demand: the first session in French will be organised in November. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-TD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch

  12. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  13. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  14. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  15. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  16. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  17. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  18. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  19. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  20. Going clean : new technology makes coal greener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.

    2007-09-15

    As a widely distributed and reliable resource, coal has played an important role in industrial development. At a cost of less than US $2.00 per GJ, coal will remain a valuable resource as the demand for energy increases. The science of clean coal technology is proven and applications are being formed, particularly in carbon dioxide sequestration. Examples of clean coal technology include oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing and coal gasification. All these approaches produce energy while emitting CO{sub 2} gas that is relatively pure and can be easily captured for storage, thereby preventing emissions to the atmosphere. The Canadian Clean Power Coalition has determined that coal gasification has considerable potential in Canada, particularly since Alberta sits above some of the largest coal and oil reserves in the world. Gasification involves heating up a coal feedstock at high temperatures and pressure, in the presence of water in the form of steam. Synthesis gas and hydrogen are produced in the process. The produced CO{sub 2} is concentrated in a way that makes it relatively easy to capture and sequester in the earth or used to enhance the recovery of oil from depleted oil wells. In addition to coal, there are numerous other carbon-based materials that can be gasified, including bitumens, bitumen residuals or petroleum coke. Studies have shown that Alberta's sub-bituminous coal is an ideal candidate for gasification. There are industries in Alberta that need hydrogen for feedstock, and the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provides a vast storage for pure CO{sub 2}. It was concluded that gasification is the only current technology that will have the ability to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels. The greatest challenge is the capital cost of building the coal gasification facilities. 4 figs.

  1. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Oliver

    Full Text Available Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  2. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-03-14

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  3. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  4. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  5. The MiniCLEAN Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hime, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The MiniCLEAN dark matter experiment will exploit a single-phase liquid-argon detector instrumented with photomultiplier tubes submerged in the cryogen with nearly 4pi coverage of a 500 kg (150 kg) target (fiducial) mass. The high light yield and unique properties of the scintillation time-profile provide effective defense against radioactive background through pulse-shape discrimination and event-position reconstruction. The detector is designed also for a liquid-neon target that allows for an independent verification of signal and background and a test of the expected dependence of the WIMP-nucleus interaction rate.

  6. Tool use for corpse cleaning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M

    2017-03-13

    For the first time, chimpanzees have been observed using tools to clean the corpse of a deceased group member. A female chimpanzee sat down at the dead body of a young male, selected a firm stem of grass, and started to intently remove debris from his teeth. This report contributes novel behaviour to the chimpanzee's ethogram, and highlights how crucial information for reconstructing the evolutionary origins of human mortuary practices may be missed by refraining from developing adequate observation techniques to capture non-human animals' death responses.

  7. Lavandería Clean & Fresh

    OpenAIRE

    Umba Arevalo, Luis Enrique; Sanjuán Forero, Yamile del Socorro

    2013-01-01

    Clean & Fresh, pretende ser una empresa sostenible e innovadora basada en la calidad del servicio para satisfacción de sus clientes y empleados. La idea de negocio cuenta con elementos diferenciadores como: uso de tecnología de punta, planeación logística para garantizar el cumplimiento a los clientes, ubicación estratégica, innovación en la entrega de las prendas, con el uso de tarjeta inteligente. El proyecto va dirigido en la implementación de un modelo de servicio y calidad aplicando herr...

  8. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  9. Tool use for corpse cleaning in chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Cronin, Katherine A.; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, chimpanzees have been observed using tools to clean the corpse of a deceased group member. A female chimpanzee sat down at the dead body of a young male, selected a firm stem of grass, and started to intently remove debris from his teeth. This report contributes novel behaviour to the chimpanzee’s ethogram, and highlights how crucial information for reconstructing the evolutionary origins of human mortuary practices may be missed by refraining from developing adequate observation techniques to capture non-human animals’ death responses.

  10. An evaluation of hospital cleaning regimes and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C J; Cooper, R A; Gilmore, J; Davies, C; Lewis, M

    2000-05-01

    A four-part study assessing cleanliness in up to 113 environmental surfaces in an operating theatre and a hospital ward is reported. Surfaces were assessed visually, using microbiological methods and ATP bioluminescence. Results from a preliminary random survey indicated variability in cleanliness. These results were then used to select sites for monitoring before and after routine cleaning, over a 14-day period. Using published microbiological and ATP specifications 70 and 76% of these sites were unacceptable after cleaning. Visual assessment was a poor indicator of cleaning efficacy with only 18% considered unacceptable. Sites most likely to fail in the ward were in the toilet and kitchen, areas which are frequently implicated in the spread of infectious intestinal disease. Operating theatre sites had lower ATP results but 61% of sites would be considered unacceptable. There was no significant difference in general microbiological or ATP results overall before and after routine cleaning. Although some important hand contact sites showed no significant difference, overall there was a significant decrease in staphylococcal and enterobacteria counts in the ward but not in the operating theatre after cleaning. The routine cleaning programmes used did not include a biocide and cleaning using a hypochlorite based sanitizer gave much lower values. The results are discussed in relation to infection control, cleaning audits and cleaning schedules: an integrated cleaning monitoring programme using ATP bioluminescence in conjunction with visual and microbiological assessments is recommended.

  11. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank.

  12. Object Oriented Intelligent Multi-Agent System Data Cleaning Architecture To Clean Email Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Arumugam,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Agents are software programs that perform tasks on behalf of others and they can be used to mine data with their characteristics. Agents are task oriented with the ability to learn by themselves and they react to the situation. Learning characteristics of an agent is done by verifying its previous experience from its knowledgebase. An agent concept is a complementary approach to the Object Oriented paradigm with respect to the design and implementation of autonomous entities driven by beliefs, goals and plans. Email is one of the common means for communication via text. Email cleaning problem is formalized as non-text filtering and text normalization in a two step process. Agents incorporated in the architectural design of an Email data cleaning process combines both the features of Multi-Agent System (MAS Framework and MAS with learning (MASL Framework. MAS framework reduces the development time and the complexity of implementing thesoftware agents. The MAS-L framework incorporates the intelligence and learning properties of software agents. MAS-L Framework makes use of the Decision Tree learning and an evaluation function to decide thenext best decision that applies to the machine learning technique. This paper proposes the design for Multi- Agent based Data Cleaning Architecture that incorporates the structural design of agents into object model. The design of an architectural model for Multi-Agent based Data Cleaning inherits the features of the MAS and uses the MAS-L framework to design the intelligence and learning characteristics.

  13. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  15. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  16. Wavelet Cleaning of Solar Dynamic Radio Spectrograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the state-of-the-art mathematical apparatus, the wavelet transformation, we explore the possibility of a dynamic cleaning of raw data obtained with the Chinese solar radio spectrographs over a wide wavelength range (from 0.7 to 7.6 GHz). We consider the problem of eliminating the interference caused by combination rates of data sampling (10-20ms), and the low-frequency interference (4-30 s) caused by the receiving equipment changing its characteristics with time. It is shown that the best choice to reconstruct a signal suffering from amplitude, frequency and phase instabilities, is by means of wavelet transformation at both high and low frequencies. We analysed observational data which contained interferences of nonsolar origin such as instrumental effects and other man-made signals. A subsequent comparison of the reference data obtained with the acoustooptical receiver of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) with the "cleaned"spectra confirms the correctness of this approach.

  17. Clean hydrogen and power from impure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Canan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 production system which is capable of providing clean energy and water, and multi-generation of H2, electricity, heat and industrial chemicals from a single clean, abundant and renewable source: sun. This novel system maximizes solar spectrum utilization and increases system efficiencies by generating more outputs from solar energy alone. The hybrid PEC-chloralkali system, coupled with PV/T (Photovoltaic Thermal), is capable of producing H2, Cl2, electricity, and heat simultaneously. Incoming solar light is split into high-energy photons (with wavelengths lower than 400 nm) and low-energy photons. The high-energy portion is used to generate photocurrent in the reactor, and the remaining part is sent to the PV/T. This PV/T supports the electricity needs of the system and also provides electricity output for the end user. Moreover, the heat recovered from PV/T is a system output. The findings suggest that this system is capable of producing H2 and Cl2 as well as heat and electricity with higher efficiencies than the reported PV electrolysis and PEC-based H2 production efficiencies in the literature.

  18. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  19. Self-cleaning antireflective optical coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldin, Stefan; Kohn, Peter; Stefik, Morgan; Song, Juho; Divitini, Giorgio; Ecarla, Fanny; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates.

  20. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  1. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products.

  2. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  3. Towards sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Christopher; Jadhav, Amit; Nawaz, Nazia; Kettlewell, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a compound commonly used as a solvent in dry cleaning, despite its severe health and environmental impacts. In recent times chemicals such as hydrocarbons, GreenEarth(®), acetal and liquid carbon dioxide have emerged as less damaging substitutes for PERC, and an even more sustainable water-based wet cleaning process has been developed. We employed a systematic review approach to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing research evidence in the area of sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods and care. Our review describes traditional professional dry cleaning methods, as well as those that utilise solvents other than PERC, and their ecological attributes. In addition, the new professional wet cleaning process is discussed. Finally, we address the health hazards of the various solvents used in dry cleaning and state-of-the-art solvent residue trace analysis techniques.

  4. High-voltage live cleaning robot design based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-peng; XIA Hong-wei; YANG Ru-qing

    2005-01-01

    High-Voltage Live Cleaning Robot works in a hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given regarding the control system of a model machine. The model machine of a high-voltage live cleaning robot can satisfy the needs of basic cleaning in common conditions. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease the amount of work, and guarantee security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  5. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing for Fractal Wand Prototypes;...

  6. Taguchi Experimental Design for Cleaning PWAs with Ball Grid Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. K.; Mehta, A.; Walton, S.

    1997-01-01

    Ball grid arrays (BGAs), and other area array packages, are becoming more prominent as a way to increase component pin count while avoiding the manufacturing difficulties inherent in processing quad flat packs (QFPs)...Cleaning printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) with BGA components mounted on the surface is problematic...Currently, a low flash point semi-aqueous material, in conjunction with a batch cleaning unit, is being used to clean PWAs. The approach taken at JPL was to investigate the use of (1) semi-aqueous materials having a high flash point and (2) aqueous cleaning involving a saponifier.

  7. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  8. Megasonic cleaning strategy for sub-10nm photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Wei; Samayoa, Martin; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe; Ma, Ai-Jay; Lin, Chia-Shih; Lai, Rick; Chang, Peter; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    One of the main challenges in photomask cleaning is balancing particle removal efficiency (PRE) with pattern damage control. To overcome this challenge, a high frequency megasonic cleaning strategy is implemented. Apart from megasonic frequency and power, photomask surface conditioning also influences cleaning performance. With improved wettability, cleanliness is enhanced while pattern damage risk is simultaneously reduced. Therefore, a particle removal process based on higher megasonic frequencies, combined with proper surface pre-treatment, provides improved cleanliness without the unintended side effects of pattern damage, thus supporting the extension of megasonic cleaning technology into 10nm half pitch (hp) device node and beyond.

  9. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  10. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  11. (Preoxidation cleaning optimization for crystalline silicon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments has been performed in Sandia's Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory to evaluate the effect of various chemical surface treatments on the recombination lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers subjected to a high-temperature dry oxidation. From this series of experiments we have deduced a relatively simple yet effective cleaning sequence. We have also evaluated the effect of different chemical damage-removal etches for improving the recombination lifetime and surface smoothness of mechanically lapped wafers. This paper presents the methodology used, the experimental results obtained, and our experience with using this process on a continuing basis over a period of many months. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Energy Servers Deliver Clean, Affordable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    K.R. Sridhar developed a fuel cell device for Ames Research Center, that could use solar power to split water into oxygen for breathing and hydrogen for fuel on Mars. Sridhar saw the potential of the technology, when reversed, to create clean energy on Earth. He founded Bloom Energy, of Sunnyvale, California, to advance the technology. Today, the Bloom Energy Server is providing cost-effective, environmentally friendly energy to a host of companies such as eBay, Google, and The Coca-Cola Company. Bloom's NASA-derived Energy Servers generate energy that is about 67-percent cleaner than a typical coal-fired power plant when using fossil fuels and 100-percent cleaner with renewable fuels.

  13. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  14. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... will yield unwanted coproducts, causing the need for additional separation techniques to extract pure dimethyl carbonate after synthesis. This in return increases the production cost of dimethyl carbonate. This thesis is another step in the collective effort to make today’s fuels and chemicals...... environmentally friendlier and creating new, efficient and clean technologies for chemical and fuel production....

  15. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  16. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  17. State Clean Energy Practices. Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  18. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  19. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-15

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  20. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  1. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  2. Economic Floating Waste Detectionfor Surface Cleaning Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumroengrit Jakkrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing waste out of water surface is a routine task and can be operated by using autonomous surface cleaning robots. This paper presents amethodoflaser-based floating waste detection for surface robot guidance when waste positions are unknown beforehand. Basing on concept of refraction and reflection of laser ray, the proposed laser-based technique is proven to be applicable on floating waste detection. The economic waste detector is constructed and mounted on the robot. Five DOF equations of motion are formulated for calculation of waste position incorporating distance measured by the laser and also the robot motion caused by external wind force as well as water surface tension. Experiments were conducted on a pond with calm water and results show that the presented economic waste detection successfully identify and locate position of plastic bottles floating on water surface within the range of 5 meters.

  3. Spatial methods for event reconstruction in CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    Coakley, K J; Coakley, Kevin J.; Kinsey, Daniel N. Mc

    2004-01-01

    In CLEAN (Cryogenic Low Energy Astrophysics with Noble gases), a proposed neutrino and dark matter detector, background discrimination is possible if one can determine the location of an ionizing radiation event with high accuracy. We simulate ionizing radiation events that produce multiple scintillation photons within a spherical detection volume filled with liquid neon. We estimate the radial location of a particular ionizing radiation event based on the observed count data corresponding to that event. The count data are collected by detectors mounted at the spherical boundary of the detection volume. We neglect absorption, but account for Rayleigh scattering. To account for wavelength-shifting of the scintillation light, we assume that photons are absorbed and re-emitted at the detectors. Here, we develop spatial Maximum Likelihood methods for event reconstruction, and study their performance in computer simulation experiments. We also study a method based on the centroid of the observed count data. We cal...

  4. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  5. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  6. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  7. Analysis of Inlfuencing Factors about Cleaning Effect of Automatic Cleaning Machine%全自动清洗机清洗效果影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金荣; 洪范宗; 苏秋玲

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨全自动清洗机清洗效果的影响因素。方法全自动清洗机清洗器械时,在清洗夹中放置STF清洗效果检测卡进行检测。结果清洗剂、清洗温度、清洗时间等参数会对最终清洗效果产生影响;喷淋臂、加酶泵、清洗泵、器械装载等故障也会对最终清洗效果产生影响。结论全自动清洗机清洗效果的影响因素主要为清洗参数和机械故障。%Objective To explore the influencing factors about cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine. Methods When the instruments are being cleaned by automatic cleaning machine, placing STF cleaning effect detection card in cleaning clamp to check the cleaning effect. Results Cleaning parameters such as cleaning agents, cleaning temperature and cleaning time have an impact on the ifnal cleaning effect. Mechanical failures such as pray arm failure, enzyme pump failure, cleaning pump failure and instrument loading failure also have an impact on the ifnal cleaning effect. Conclusion The main Inlfuencing factors about cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine includes cleaning parameters and mechanical failures.

  8. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  9. Cleaning Shoes(初二适用)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浩

    2004-01-01

    A boy who was cleaning shoes in the street said to a young man passing by, “Let me clean your shoes.” The young man said, “No, thank you.” “You may pay me only one pound, sir,” said the boy. But the young man refused(拒绝) again.

  10. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  11. Dynamic self-cleaning in gecko setae via digital hyperextension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Lopez, Stephanie; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Xia, Zhenhai

    2012-11-01

    Gecko toe pads show strong adhesion on various surfaces yet remain remarkably clean around everyday contaminants. An understanding of how geckos clean their toe pads while being in motion is essential for the elucidation of animal behaviours as well as the design of biomimetic devices with optimal performance. Here, we test the self-cleaning of geckos during locomotion. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that geckos clean their feet through a unique dynamic self-cleaning mechanism via digital hyperextension. When walking naturally with hyperextension, geckos shed dirt from their toes twice as fast as they would if walking without hyperextension, returning their feet to nearly 80 per cent of their original stickiness in only four steps. Our dynamic model predicts that when setae suddenly release from the attached substrate, they generate enough inertial force to dislodge dirt particles from the attached spatulae. The predicted cleaning force on dirt particles significantly increases when the dynamic effect is included. The extraordinary design of gecko toe pads perfectly combines dynamic self-cleaning with repeated attachment/detachment, making gecko feet sticky yet clean. This work thus provides a new mechanism to be considered for biomimetic design of highly reuseable and reliable dry adhesives and devices.

  12. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  13. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  14. News from Online: Cleaning Up--Soap, Detergent, and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Carolyn Sweeney

    2002-01-01

    Provides a guide to web resources on cleaning and hygiene. Answers the questions, What do you want to clean--your hair? your carpet? your rusty lawn furniture? Develops special products for different tasks. Focuses on products to use and the environmental impact of our choices. (MM)

  15. Strategies for development of clean energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Zhang Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    A development framework of clean energy in China is put forward based on core development strategy,technology support,and policy and laws support.In this framework,the priority development and strategic backup of clean energy are defined,and the technology support and policy and laws support are also presented.

  16. 30 CFR 56.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 56.14202 Section 56.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14202 Manual cleaning of conveyor...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 57.14202 Section 57.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14202 Manual cleaning of...

  18. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  19. Cleaning of solar cell arrays; Rausgeputzt fuer die Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2010-07-01

    The degree of soiling of solar cell arrays depends on the installation site, which may involve, e.g., animal shelter air, bird droppings or desert sand. Heavy rain has a cleaning effect, or else professional cleaning with osmotic water will be necessary. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of Teaching on Clean Energy with Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    塩沢, 臣城; 石田, 聡一; 干川, 圭吾

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of teaching material on clean energy with wind power generation is reported in this paper. A wind power generation system was developed as a teaching material in electric and electronics field in technology education of junior high school. It is shown that the teaching material was effective for students to understand the wind power generation and the clean energy.

  1. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  2. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  3. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  4. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  5. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires that...

  6. Hygienic Cleaning Products used in the kitchen; Exposure and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds contained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The products for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids, hygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products (abrasive, all purpose cleaner

  7. 40 CFR 262.213 - Laboratory clean-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laboratory clean-outs. 262.213 Section... Determination and Accumulation of Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.213 Laboratory clean-outs. (a) One time per 12 month period for each laboratory, an eligible...

  8. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  9. The design of underwater hull-cleaning robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fu-cai; GUO Li-bin; MENG Qing-xin; LIU Fu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The research on underwater ship-hull cleaning robot was conducted on the purpose of realizing the automation of cleaning underwater ship hull so that service life of ship will be prolonged and ship speed will raised. Moreover, fuel consumption and the work intensity of divers will be reduced. In this paper, the current situation and the latest technology in China and abroad were analyzed;meanwhile, the typical characteristics of the underwater cleaning robot were introduced. According to the work principle of the underwater cleaning robot, the emphasis was put on the analysis and study of permanent-magnetic absorption, magnetic wheel, airproof and anticorrosion, underwater cleaning equipment and control system. The robot is easy in rotation and simple in control.

  10. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Machine Engineering, J. Basanavičiaus str.28, 03224, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.

  11. Cleaning and disinfection practice in the meat industries of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Colin, P

    1995-06-01

    The application and efficacy of cleaning and disinfection methods are reviewed, together with the relevant European and French legislation. European Commission Hygiene Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 proposes the adoption of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) for the meat industry, and this includes cleaning and disinfection. It is necessary to organise a team for washing, cleaning, rinsing, disinfection and final rinsing; three different types of organisation are compared. Application of HACCP and its contribution to the shelf life of products and their contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is discussed in the light of practical experience with poultry meat and cured pork products. Various means of verifying the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection (turbidimetry, adenosine triphosphate assay and macroscopic observation) are compared with the techniques of conventional microbiology. The authors conclude that cleaning and disinfection are essential for application of HACCP to the meat industry.

  12. Cleaning procedure for improved photothermal background of toroidal optical microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Erik H.; Knapper, Kassandra A.; Heylman, Kevin D.; Goldsmith, Randall H.

    2016-09-01

    High Q-factors and small mode volumes have made toroidal optical microresonators exquisite sensors to small shifts in the effective refractive index of the WGM modes. Eliminating contaminants and improving quality factors is key for many different sensing techniques, and is particularly important for photothermal imaging as contaminants add photothermal background obscuring objects of interest. Several different cleaning procedures including wet- and dry-chemical procedures are tested for their effect on Q-factors and photothermal background. RCA cleaning was shown to be successful in contrast to previously described acid cleaning procedures, most likely due to the different surface reactivity of the acid reagents used. UV-ozone cleaning was shown to be vastly superior to O2 plasma cleaning procedures, significantly reducing the photothermal background of the resonator.

  13. Cleaning Robot for Solar Panels in Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Lu-Bin; Shen, Cheng-Wei; Bian, Huai-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The dust particles on solar panel surface have been a serious problem for the photovoltaic industry, a new monorail-tracked robot used for automatic cleaning of solar panel is presented in this paper. To meet the requirement of comprehensive and stable cleaning of PV array, the monorail-tracked pattern of robot is introduced based on the monorail structure technique. The running and striding mechanism are designed for mobility of robot on the solar panels. According to the carrying capacity and water circulation mechanism, a type of self-cleaning device with filtering system is developed. Combined with the computer software and communications technology, the control system is built in this robot, which can realize the functions of autonomous operation, positioning and monitoring. The application of this developed cleaning robot can actualize the Industrialization of automatic cleaning for PV components and have wide market prospect.

  14. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF TIRE MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern tire merges up to 300 different chemical elements, both organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic. During manufacturing, various processes are present such as mixing, calendering and extrusion, forming dozens of individual parts. Then, moulding and vulcanization inside special moulds provides the tire its final shape. Since the surface quality of moulds strongly affects the quality of tire, mould cleaning is a fundamental aspect of the whole tire production and cleaning techniques are in continuous development. This investigation proposes a global technology assessment of tire mould cleaning systems including uncommon solutions as multi-axis robots for cleaning on board by laser or dry ice, or ultrasonic cleaning which use cavitation. A specific attention is also focused on the industry adoption of spring-vents in moulds and how they are influencing the development the quality of final products.

  15. Directional self-cleaning superoleophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Law, Kock-Yee

    2012-08-14

    In this work, we report the creation of a grooved surface comprising 3 μm grooves (height ~4 μm) separated by 3 μm from each other on a silicon wafer by photolithography. The grooved surface was then modified chemically with a fluorosilane layer (FOTS). The surface property was studied by both static and dynamic contact angle measurements using water, hexadecane, and a polyethylene wax ink as the probing liquids. Results show that the grooved surface is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic. Its observed contact angles agree well with the calculated Cassie-Baxter angles. More importantly, we are able to make a replica of the composite wax ink-air interface and study it by SEM. Microscopy results not only show that the droplet of the wax ink "sits" on air in the composite interface but also further reveal that the ink drop actually pins underneath the re-entrant structure in the side wall of the grooved structure. Contact angle measurement results indicate that wetting on the grooved surface is anisotropic. Although liquid drops are found to have lower static and advancing contact angles in the parallel direction, the drops are found to be more mobile, showing smaller hysteresis and lower sliding angles (as compared to the FOTS wafer surface and a comparable 3-μm-diameter pillar array FOTS surface). The enhanced mobility is attributable to the lowering of the resistance against an advancing liquid because 50% of the advancing area is made of a solid strip where the liquid likes to wet. This also implies that the contact line for advancing is no longer smooth but rather is ragged, having the solid strip area leading the wetting and the air strip area trailing behind. This interpretation is supported by imaging the geometry of the contact lines using molten ink drops recovered from the sliding angle experiments in both the parallel and orthogonal directions. Because the grooved surface is mechanically stronger against mechanical abrasion, the self-cleaning

  16. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section 1.179A-1 Internal... for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. (a)...

  17. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were

  18. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  19. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  20. Cleaning device for inside of tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usuniwa, Yukio; Arai, Sanae; Koyama, Mayumi; Kuramata, Rumi

    1996-07-23

    A large number of small diameter tubes are disposed passing through a lower end plate of a main body of a reactor pressure vessel. The device of the present invention can wash the inside of the small diameter tube efficiently and forecast the completion time of the operation. Namely, purified water at a predetermined temperature is stored in a water reservoir of a purified water recycling unit. The purified water is introduced from a header to the inside of the tube by way of a short tube connected to the lower end of the tube. The purified water introduced into the tube is charged from an opening to an overflow tube and returned to the water reservoir passing through the over flowing tube. The inside of the tube is washed by such circulation of purified water. In the cleaning operation by using the device, (1) the completion time of the operation can be forecast and operationability is improved, and (2) since the operation can be performed rapidly, the period of time for performing the step can be shortened. (I.S.)

  1. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  2. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  3. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  4. Production of reagents for cleaning fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, I.V.; Korostyleva, R.N.; Pytel, S.P.; Spasskii, P.I.; Titarenko, N.K.; Trachtenberg, S.I.; Yushkevich, V.I.

    1980-10-25

    A method for producing reagents for cleaning fluids is proposed using polymerization of acrylonitril, metachrylate or a mixture of the two in water and saponification of the polymers with alakali. To reduce the consumption of monomers and increase the quality of the reagents, 0.4-1.0 parts humic substances, 0.2-1.0 parts hydrolizate from tanning waste products and 1.2-4.0 parts monomers are added to the reaction medium, followed by copolymerization in an acid medium. The proposed method ensures quality reagents which combine lower water yield with a moderate increase in viscosity when acting on clay solutions. Compared with the current method, this method lowers the consumption of an expensive and hard-to-find monomer 1.2-1.4X for one ton of reagent, which lowers the cost of raw material by 1.3-1.7X. This results in a savings of 195-385 rubles per ton of reagent, 600-1200 thousand at 3000 tons/yr.

  5. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  6. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  7. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Evidence for self-cleaning in gecko setae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W. R.; Autumn, K.

    2005-01-01

    A tokay gecko can cling to virtually any surface and support its body mass with a single toe by using the millions of keratinous setae on its toe pads. Each seta branches into hundreds of 200-nm spatulae that make intimate contact with a variety of surface profiles. We showed previously that the combined surface area of billions of spatulae maximizes van der Waals interactions to generate large adhesive and shear forces. Geckos are not known to groom their feet yet retain their stickiness for months between molts. How geckos manage to keep their feet clean while walking about with sticky toes has remained a puzzle until now. Although self-cleaning by water droplets occurs in plant and animal surfaces, no adhesive has been shown to self-clean. In the present study, we demonstrate that gecko setae are a self-cleaning adhesive. Geckos with dirty feet recovered their ability to cling to vertical surfaces after only a few steps. Self-cleaning occurred in arrays of setae isolated from the gecko. Contact mechanical models suggest that self-cleaning occurs by an energetic disequilibrium between the adhesive forces attracting a dirt particle to the substrate and those attracting the same particle to one or more spatulae. We propose that the property of self-cleaning is intrinsic to the setal nanostructure and therefore should be replicable in synthetic adhesive materials in the future. adhesion | contact mechanics | locomotion | reptilia | nanotechnology

  9. Cleaning must be well planned; Rengjoeringsopplegget maa planlegges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both detergents and water may damage painted and varnished surfaces in the long run. It is therefore important to choose the right cleaning method once the rooms are put to use. It is essential that a cleaning method be found that does not require great quantities of chemicals. Professional cleaning implies that a program is used that describes in detail the cleaning operation in each room. Materials used in walls often do not tolerate much moisture. If such components are cleaned by means of too much water to which is added detergents, they may swell. These walls are exposed above all the first time they are cleaned because those doing the cleaning are not aware of the situation. Some of the detergents in current use contain hazardous components. It is very important to know the individual detergent's contents of volatile components as these may cause damage. Some detergents may lead to deterioration of the surface if incorrectly used. Some contain perfume or dyes that may develop allergies. Thus, detergents must be selected with due consideration of both the subject and the personnel. Declaration and user instruction is necessary.

  10. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  11. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  12. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  13. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic

  14. Investigation of laser cleaning on bronze cultural relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiulan; Wang, Gao; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of laser cleaning on the corrosion layers of bronze cultural relics were studied using a pulsed fiber laser. The laser cleaning threshold value of the corrosion layers was obtained. It was found that the corrosion layer was removed successfully by employing a laser fluence value of 0.32 J cm-2 and scanning for three times. To obtain experimental evidence, laser con-focal scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the cleaning efficiency of corrosion layers on specimens.

  15. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  16. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  17. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C H; Gentile, C A; Doerner, R

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  18. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  19. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  20. The clean development mechanism and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a summary of the issues presented and discussed at the African Regional Workshop on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM was introduced in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The objectives of CDM are to assist non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC to promote sustainable development, and to assist Annex I Parties to achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention. Africa contributes a very small proportion of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time the continent is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change which may seriously impact on countries` development efforts. In order to set the background for the workshop and the deliberations of the participants, Chapter 2 presents a brief discussion of Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Africa. Chapter 3 further defines the context, aims and format of the workshop. This is followed in Chapter 4 by a summary of the papers presented during the four days. The papers covered activities in the energy, forestry, agriculture, industry and transport sectors, and addressed issues including: general perspectives on the CDM; institutions and governance of the CDM; baselines and additionality in the CDM; design of projects; project finance under the CDM. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the main issues discussed including modalities of the CDM, governance, equity, CDM projects, share of proceeds and capacity building. A number of areas of consensus emerged among workshop participants. These areas are described in Chapter 6. Finally a full list of participants is provided. (au)

  1. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  2. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  3. Flow pattern and cleaning performance of a stationary liquid jet operating at conditions relevant for industrial tank cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldung Damkjær, N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Jensen, B. B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning of processing tanks by impinging liquid jets is common practice in the food and biotechnology sectors. However, satisfactory prediction of the cleaning performance of such jets has so far only been achieved in small scale experiments. In the present work, cleaning with a horizontal water...... jet was studied using a 19m3 tank and settings applicable to industrial operations; nozzle internal diameters, dN, of 2–5.5mm, cleaning distances, L, of 80–2490mm, and flow rates, Q, of 0.05–3.0m3h−1. Experimental data and model predictions of the behaviour of the jet when striking an unsoiled surface...... showed reasonable agreement for a nozzle with dN=2mm at small cleaning distances (L 80 and 200mm). At greater dN and cleaning distances there was poorer agreement, which was attributed to jet break-up and splatter.Similar observations were made when cleaning a surface soiled with white petroleum jelly...

  4. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.

  6. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  7. Clean coal combustion: development of clean combustion technologies for residual fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, M.F. [Electric Research Institute, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Most of the large quantities of heavy fuel oil (about 4% sulphur-content) produced in Mexican refineries are burned in power plants. More natural gas is being used, and it is estimated that by 2010, about one-third of Mexico's electricity will be produced from natural gas. As petroleum and gas reserves are depleted, power plants will consume more imported coal. To continue combustion of dirty fuels, advanced clean combustion technologies must be developed. Two feasibility projects were conducted over the period 1989-1995 on combustion of Mexican fuels in a bubbling fluidized combustor and in IGCC power plants. More recent feasibility studies for cogeneration plants in refineries are outlined. Solid fuels for IGCC and CFB are among the most important developments. Over the period 2004-2008, projects to study clean combustion of Mexican fuels will be conducted in the following areas: operational problems in IGCC plants, construction of an entrained flow gasifier for synthesis gas production and for feeding of heavy fuels and coal emulsions, and development of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models.

  8. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  9. Cleaning Challenges of High-κ/Metal Gate Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-12-20

    High-κ/metal gates are used as transistors for advanced logic applications to improve speed and eliminate electrical issues associated with polySi and SiO2 gates. Various integration schemes are possible and will be discussed, such as dual gate, gate-first, and gate-last, both of which require specialized cleaning and etching steps. Specific areas of discussion will include cleaning and conditioning of the silicon surface, forming a high-quality chemical oxide, removal of the high-κ dielectric with selectivity to the SiO2 layer, cleaning and residue removal after etching, and prevention of galvanic corrosion during cleaning. © 2011 Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment used to convert pulp into paper, paperboard, or market pulp, including the stock storage and... definitions apply. (1) Clean condensate alternative affected source means the total of all HAP emission...

  11. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing of Fractal Wand...

  12. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  13. University of New Mexico Converts to Team Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes how team cleaning, which relies on specialists with specific responsibilities such as restrooms or vacuuming, has allowed administrators at the University of New Mexico to save on labor costs while improving cleanliness overall. (EV)

  14. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  15. Historical restoration recipes: the cleaning of paintings 1600-1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stols-Witlox, M.; Bridgland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about historical cleaning methods and materials is important since remnants may still be presentwithin the paint structure and should be taken into account when interpreting instrumental analyses and deciding about future conservation treatments. This paper provides analyses of historical

  16. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  17. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  18. Method and apparatus for a self-cleaning filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael

    2010-11-16

    A method and apparatus for removing fine particulate matter from a fluid stream without interrupting the overall process or flow. The flowing fluid inflates and expands the flexible filter, and particulate is deposited on the filter media while clean fluid is permitted to pass through the filter. This filter is cleaned when the fluid flow is stopped, the filter collapses, and a force is applied to distort the flexible filter media to dislodge the built-up filter cake. The dislodged filter cake falls to a location that allows undisrupted flow of the fluid after flow is restored. The shed particulate is removed to a bin for periodic collection. A plurality of filter cells can operate independently or in concert, in parallel, or in series to permit cleaning the filters without shutting off the overall fluid flow. The self-cleaning filter is low cost, has low power consumption, and exhibits low differential pressures.

  19. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryatel, J; Gourdin, W H

    2005-12-19

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them.

  20. Hawaii Clean Water Branch (CWB) Beach Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Exposure to sewage contaminated recreational waters may cause gastrointestinal illnesses in swimmers. The State of Hawaii Department of Health (HIDOH) Clean Water...

  1. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  2. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  3. Lithographic performance evaluation of a contaminated EUV mask after cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Holfeld, Christian; Wuest, Andrea

    2009-11-16

    The effect of surface contamination and subsequent mask surface cleaning on the lithographic performance of a EUV mask is investigated. SEMATECH's Berkeley micro-field exposure tool (MET) printed 40 nm and 50 nm line and space (L/S) patterns are evaluated to compare the performance of a contaminated and cleaned mask to an uncontaminated mask. Since the two EUV masks have distinct absorber architectures, optical imaging models and aerial image calculations were completed to determine any expected differences in performance. Measured and calculated Bossung curves, process windows, and exposure latitudes for the two sets of L/S patterns are compared to determine how the contamination and cleaning impacts the lithographic performance of EUV masks. The observed differences in mask performance are shown to be insignificant, indicating that the cleaning process did not appreciably affect mask performance.

  4. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: noble gas separation, damage control, aerosols, test methods, new air cleaning technology from Europe, open-end, and filtration. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  5. Clean and highly ordered graphene synthesized in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Albert; Lee, Zonghoon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Erni, Rolf; Radmilovic, Velimir; Richardson, Thomas J; Frenklach, Michael

    2009-10-28

    We report that the substrate-free gas-phase graphene synthesis method produces clean and highly ordered graphene sheets that are similar in quality to the graphene obtained through the mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  6. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... light fixtures in the official plant shall be kept clean. (c) All docks and rooms shall be kept...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Clean Air Metrics for Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Clean Air category in this...

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  9. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Nuclear Steam Generator by Micro Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Tae; Yoon, Sang Jung [Sae-An Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present ultrasonic cleaning technology for a nuclear steam generator using micro bubble. We could extend the boundary of ultrasonic cleaning by using micro bubbles in water. Ultrasonic energy measured was increased about 5 times after the generation of micro bubbles in water. Furthermore, ultrasound energy was measured to be strong enough to create cavitation even though the ultrasound sensor was about 2 meters away from the ultrasonic transducer

  10. Megasonic cleaning, cavitation, and substrate damage: an atomistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre A.; Shende, Hrishikesh; Pandit, Viraj; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence O.

    2006-05-01

    Megasonic cleaning has been a traditional approach for the cleaning of photomasks. Its feasibility as a damage free approach to sub 50 nm particulate removal is under investigation for the cleaning of optical and EUV photomasks. Two major mechanisms are active in a megasonic system, namely, acoustic streaming and acoustic cavitation. Acoustic streaming is instrumental in contaminant removal via application of drag force and rolling of particles, while cavitation may dislodge particles by the release of large energy during cavity implosion or by acting as a secondary source of microstreaming. Often times, the structures (substrates with or without patterns) subjected to megasonic cleaning show evidence of damage. This is one of the impediments in the implementation of megasonic technology for 45 nm and future technology nodes. Prior work suggests that acoustic streaming does not lead to sufficiently strong forces to cause damage to the substrates or patterns. However, current knowledge of the effects of cavitation on cleaning and damage can be described, at best, as speculative. Recent experiments suggest existence of a cavity size and energy distributions in megasonic systems that may be responsible for cleaning and damage. In the current work, we develop a two-dimensional atomistic model to study such multibubble cavitation phenomena. The model consists of a Lennard-Jones liquid which is subjected to sinusoidal pressure changes leading to the formation of cavitation bubbles. The current work reports on the effects of pressure amplitude (megasonic power) and frequency on cavity size distributions in vaporous and gaseous cavitation. The findings of the work highlight the role of multibubble cavitation as cleaning and damage mechanism in megasonic cleaning.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  12. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javad Abbasian

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate novel sorbents for the Siemens Westinghouse Power Company's (SWPC's) ''Ultra-Clean Gas Cleaning Process'' for reducing to near-zero levels the sulfur- and chlorine-containing gas emissions and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) caused by fuel bound constituents found in carbonaceous materials, which are processed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technologies.

  13. LHC abort gap cleaning studies during luminosity operation

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jeff, A; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Roncarolo, F; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  14. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiying, Tang; Yuling, Liu; Ming, Sun; Shiyan, Fan; Yan, Li

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308).

  15. Experimental and simulation investigations of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Krishna; Keswani, Manish; Shende, Hrishikesh; Deymier, Pierre; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence; Sengupta, Archita

    2007-03-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography has become the technique of choice to print the ever-shrinking nanoscale features on the silicon wafer. For successful transfer of patterns on to the wafer, the EUV photomask cannot contain defects greater than 30 nm. Megasonic cleaning is a very successful cleaning technique for removal of particles on photomasks, but also causes a relatively high amount of damage to the fragile EUV photomasks thin film structures. Though it is believed that acoustic cavitation is the primary phenomenon responsible for cleaning as well as pattern damage, a fundamental picture of the acoustic cavitation mechanisms in play during megasonic cleaning has not yet clearly emerged. In this study, we characterize the role of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning by examining the effects of acoustic power densities, cleaning solution properties, and dissolved gas content on cavitation via experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD is an atomistic computation technique capable of modeling atomic-level and nanoscale processes accurately making it well suited to study the effect of cavitation on nano-sized particles and patterns.

  16. Cleanliness is next to godliness: mechanisms for staying clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J; Hu, David L

    2015-10-01

    Getting dirty is a fundamental problem, and one for which there are few solutions, especially across the enormous range of animal size. How do both a honeybee and a squirrel get clean? In this Review, we discuss two broad types of cleaning, considered from the viewpoint of energetics. Non-renewable cleaning strategies rely upon the organism as an energy source. Examples include grooming motions, wet-dog shaking or the secretion of chemicals. Renewable cleaning strategies depend on environmental sources of energy, such as the use of eyelashes to redirect incoming wind and so reduce deposition onto the eye. Both strategies take advantage of body hair to facilitate cleaning, and honeybees and squirrels, for example, each have around 3 million hairs. This hair mat increases the area on which particles can land by a factor of 100, but also suspends particles above the body, reducing their adhesion and facilitating removal. We hope that the strategies outlined here will inspire energy-efficient cleaning strategies in synthetic systems.

  17. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Locklin, Ken [Impax Asset Management Group (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort is needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.

  18. Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  19. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  20. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  1. Biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces: synthesis, mechanism and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Quan; Zhang, Wenwen; Dong, Chenbo; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Xia, Zhenhai

    2016-09-01

    With millions of years of natural evolution, organisms have achieved sophisticated structures, patterns or textures with complex, spontaneous multifunctionality. Among all the fascinating characteristics observed in biosystems, self-cleaning ability is regarded as one of the most interesting topics in biomimicry because of its potential applications in various fields such as aerospace, energy conversion and biomedical and environmental protection. Recently, in-depth studies have been carried out on various compelling biostructures including lotus leaves, shark skins, butterfly wings and gecko feet. To understand and mimic their self-cleaning mechanisms in artificial structures, in this article, recent progress in self-cleaning techniques is discussed and summarized. Based on the underlying self-cleaning mechanisms, the methods are classified into two categories: self-cleaning with water and without water. The review gives a succinct account of the detailed mechanisms and biomimetic processes applied to create artificial self-cleaning materials and surfaces, and provides some examples of cutting-edge applications such as anti-reflection, water repellence, self-healing, anti-fogging and micro-manipulators. The prospectives and directions of future development are also briefly proposed.

  2. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  3. Cleaning Efficiencies of Three Cleaning Agents on Four Different Surfaces after Contamination by Gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Schierl, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented for decades showing widespread contamination in preparation and administration areas. Apart from preventive measures, efficient cleaning of surfaces is indispensable to minimize the exposure risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three cleaning agents after intentional contamination by gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracile (5-FU) on four different surface types usually installed in healthcare settings. Glass, stainless steel, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and laminated wood plates were contaminated with 20 ng/μl GEM and 2 ng/μl 5-FU solutions. Wipe samples were analyzed for drug residues after cleaning with a) distilled water, b) aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (10 mM) and 2-propanol (SDS-2P), and c) Incides N (pre-soaked) alcoholic wipes. Quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for GEM and gas chromato-graphy-tandem mass spectrometry (GCMS/MS) for 5-FU. Recovery was determined and cleaning efficiency was calculated for each scenario. Mean recoveries were 77-89% for GEM and 24-77% for 5-FU and calculated cleaning efficiencies ranged between 95 and 100% and 89 and 100%, respectively. Residual drug amounts were detected in the range nd (not detected) - 84 ng GEM/sample and nd - 6.6 ng 5-FU/sample depending on surface type and cleaning agent. Distilled water and SDS-2P had better decontamination outcomes than Incides N wipes on nearly all surface types, especially for GEM. Regarding 5-FU, the overall cleaning efficiency was lower with highest residues on laminated wood surfaces. The tested cleaning procedures are shown to clean glass, stainless steel, PVC, and laminated wood with an efficiency of 89-100% after contamination with GEM and 5-FU. Nevertheless, drug residues could be verified by wipe samples. Pure distilled water and SDS in an alcoholic-aqueous solution expressed an efficient cleaning performance, especially with

  4. Full factorial DOE to determine the influence of the process parameters in cleaning water jets used in sewer cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Medan Nicolae; Lobontiu Mircea; Banica Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Industrial cleaning is a classic application of water jets technology. In the late 1950s, when reliable high pressure pumps were built, the usage of water jets spread widely in the field of pipes and sewerage cleaning. In our particular case, water jets using pressure between 100 and 200 bars are being used. The operational behaviour of these systems is dependent on the process parameters, which can vary, causing variations in the impact force. The experiment consists in the research method u...

  5. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  6. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  7. 76 FR 5411 - Clean Energy and Power, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Clean Energy and Power, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading January 27, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Clean Energy and Power, Inc. (``Clean Energy'') because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2007. Clean Energy is quoted on the Pink Sheets operated by...

  8. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  9. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  10. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  11. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  12. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  13. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  14. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  15. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out.

  16. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  17. Optical cleaning owing to the bulk photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, B.; Kösters, M.; Haertle, D.; Becher, C.; Buse, K.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown within the conventional photovoltaic charge-transport model that photoexcitable electrons, localized at deep impurity levels, can be effectively removed by light from the exposed area at sufficiently high temperatures. This allows to modify strongly the absorption and photoelectric properties of the material and, in particular, to suppress “optical damage” in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals. This optical cleaning method is applicable to numerous pyro- and piezo-electric optical materials. It employs the photovoltaic drift of electrons and ionic charge compensation at elevated temperatures. The physics of the optical cleaning is very rich; it has strong links to nonlinear dynamics and offers important handles for improvement of the cleaning performance. The use of properly moving light beams leads, e.g., to a strong enhancement of the cleaning rate and allows to reduce the electron concentration by several orders of magnitude. The theoretical predictions are supported by the data of our cleaning experiments with LiNbO3 crystals. In particular, the intensity threshold of optical damage is increased by three orders of magnitude.

  18. Quantification of perchloroethylene residues in dry-cleaned fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlach, Katy S; Gorka, Alexander P; Dantzler, Alexa; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    We have used a novel gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based approach to quantify perchloroethylene (PCE) residues in dry-cleaned fabrics. Residual PCE was extracted from fabric samples with methanol and concentration was calculated by the gas chromatographic peak area, standardized using PCE calibration data. Extracts examined were from samples of 100% wool, polyester, cotton, or silk, which were dry cleaned from one to six times in seven different Northern Virginia dry-cleaning establishments. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of PCE release in the extraction solvent and to the open air. We found that polyester, cotton, and wool retained ≥ µM levels of PCE, that these levels increased in successive dry-cleaning cycles, and that PCE is slowly volatilized from these fabrics under ambient room air conditions. We found that silk does not retain appreciable PCE. Measured differences across dry-cleaning establishments and fabric type suggest more vigorous monitoring of PCE residues may be warranted. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2481-2487. © 2011 SETAC.

  19. [Physicochemical fundamentals on the cleaning of hard surfaces (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuger, M J; Kurzendörfer, C P

    1979-03-01

    The primary process in the cleaning of hard surfaces is the adsorption of the active substance of the detergent at the interfaces: liquid/gas, liquid/liquid, liquid/solid. This primary step in the cleaning process induces secondary processes which in turn are responsible for the soil removal from the surface of the substrate. The first requirement for a cleaning effect is that the dirt and the substrate be well wetted by the cleaning solution as a result of a reduction in surface tension and of the adsorption at the solid/liquid interface. The further secondary processes which effect the removal of dirt vary considerably, depending on the type of dirt (e.g. oils, pigments). In the case of oily and greasy dirt, rolling-up penetration, formation of mixed phases, emulsification and solubilization are of importance. For pigments, the surface pressure of the adsorption layer and the electrostatic repulsion are the determining factors. The processes of pigment dispersion, emulsification and solubilization are, in addition, extremely important for the stabilization of the dirty wash bath and the prevention of deposits on the substrate. The essential active substances of the detergents are surfactant and complexing agents, the first being unspecifically adsorbed by hydrophobic interactions, and the latter specifically by polar interactions. They influence one another mutually and are responsible for an optimal cleaning effect when they occur in suitable mixing ratios; the special constitutional characteristics of the individual surfactant and complexing agents, must also be considered.

  20. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  1. Behind the scenes of GS: keeping CERN clean

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    More than 350,000 square metres to be maintained, two different cleaning companies due to CERN’s sites being in two different countries, underground installations where cleanliness is a question of safety… the CERN team in charge of supervising cleaning services overcomes all these challenges to ensure that our workplace remains clean and pleasant every day.   Ensuring the cleanliness of sites containing a huge variety of buildings is an enormous challenge for the two experts in the GS Department in charge of cleaning services. Alain Bertrand has been at CERN for 29 years and knows all there is to know about the Organization’s buildings and what they are used for, the condition of their toilet facilities and, of course, the location of the border between France and Switzerland which, in terms of cleaning services, denotes the transition point between the two companies used. David Chameaux has been doing the same job as Alain for two years, working with him to ensu...

  2. Combined wet and dry cleaning of SiGe(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Wook; Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin; Kim, Hyonwoong [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES USA, Inc., 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Yoshida, Naomi; Brandt, Adam [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Combined wet and dry cleaning via hydrofluoric acid (HF) and atomic hydrogen on Si{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4}(001) surface was studied at the atomic level using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the chemical transformations of the surface. Aqueous HF removes native oxide, but residual carbon and oxygen are still observed on Si{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4}(001) due to hydrocarbon contamination from post HF exposure to ambient. The oxygen contamination can be eliminated by shielding the sample from ambient via covering the sample in the HF cleaning solution until the sample is introduced to the vacuum chamber or by transferring the sample in an inert environment; however, both processes still leave carbon contaminant. Dry in-situ atomic hydrogen cleaning above 330 °C removes the carbon contamination on the surface consistent with a thermally activated atomic hydrogen reaction with surface hydrocarbon. A postdeposition anneal at 550 °C induces formation of an atomically flat and ordered SiGe surface observed by STM. STS verifies that the wet and dry cleaned surface has an unpinned Fermi level with no states between the conduction and valence band edge comparable to sputter cleaned SiGe surfaces.

  3. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of 0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50ÀC will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  4. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  5. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  6. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, N., E-mail: carmona@fis.ucm.es [Materials Physics Department, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oujja, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Roemich, H. [Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 14 East 78th Street, 10075 New York (United States); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  7. I'm dreaming of a white clean room...

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    New HIE-ISOLDE cryomodules are now under construction in a state-of-the-art clean room facility in SM18.   The HIE-ISOLDE clean rooms in SM18. HIE-ISOLDE is set to be the world's leading nuclear physics site, ultimately accelerating radioactive nuclei to an impressive 10 MeV/u. Helping the facility reach this energy are new superconducting cryomodules, the first quarter-wave cavity module to be assembled at CERN and necessitating a custom clean-room in SM18. At a towering five metres tall, the new clean room houses a custom assembly frame and associated equipment, moving the components of the 6 tonne cryomodules both vertically and horizontally while they are being assembled. "Each cryomodule is made up of some 10,000 parts, which have come from across the continents to be assembled here," says CERN TE engineer Lloyd Williams, who is managing quality assurance for the project. "Each part is checked by the CERN team, catalogued and thoroughly cleaned, befor...

  8. On strongly J -clean rings associated with polynomial identity g ( x =0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haj seyyed javadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the new notion of strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$‎, ‎as a generalization of strongly $ J $-clean rings‎. ‎We denote strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$ by strongly $ g(x $-$J $-clean rings‎. ‎Next‎, ‎we investigate some properties of strongly $ g(x $-$ J $-clean.

  9. Fuzzy prediction and experimental verification of road surface cleaning rate by pure waterjets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning parameters affecting cleaning rate using pure waterjets to clean road surface was researched. A mathematical model for predicting cleaning rate was established using fuzzy mathematical method. A fuzzy rule base characterizing the relationship between input and output parameters was built through experiments. The prediction of cleaning rate was achieved under the condition of given input parameters by rule-based fuzzy reasoning. The prediction results were analyzed through experimental verification.

  10. Multi-turn losses and cleaning in 2011 and 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Bellodi, G; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Cauchi, M; Deboy, D; Jowett, J M; Lari, L; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    LHC beam collimation is based on a hierarchical multistage cleaning system. Maintaining the correct hierarchy ensures maximal cleaning efficiency and machine protection. The operational collimator positions are established from the beam centres and sizes at each collimator measured in beam-based alignments. These are verified periodically during the year. The improvements made to the collimator alignment algorithm in 2011 are described. The time spent on setup and qualification by loss maps is summarized in detail. The stability of the collimator setup and cleaning efficiency is presented. An outlook to 2012 is given, including detailed considerations on improved setup speed, required frequency of setup and qualification and other possible improvements overall reducing beam time consumption for collimation.

  11. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  12. Behavior-based cleaning for unreliable RFID data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations.

  13. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  14. Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Indrani B. Das

    2013-10-01

    Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

  15. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  16. Control System Design for a Surface Cleaning Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yuyi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a control system for a surface cleaning robot and the focus of the study is the surface cleaning robot controller design. The structural framework of the propulsion control system of the surface robot is designed based on the principle of PWM speed control. The function of each module in the control system is divided and described in detail. A kind of thinking based on an AVR microprocessor and its software and hardware design proposals are presented. Through RS485 and PC communication according to the agreed protocol, the control system achieves robot forward, backward, turn and work operations by the use of a DC motor or stepper motor, and it can therefore more successfully realize the work of a surface cleaning robot.

  17. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  18. Laser cleaning of varnishes and contaminants on brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, M.P.; Ctvrtnickova, T. [Universidad de A Coruna, Dpto. Ingenieria Industrial II, C/ Mendizabal s/n, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Fernandez, E.; Ramos, J.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Optica Color e Imagen, AIDO, Dpto. Laser, Valencia (Spain); Yanez, A. [Universidad de A Coruna, Dpto. Ingenieria Industrial II, C/ Mendizabal s/n, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Nicolas, G. [Universidad de A Coruna, Dpto. Ingenieria Industrial II, C/ Mendizabal s/n, 15403 Ferrol (Spain)], E-mail: gines@cdf.udc.es

    2009-03-01

    The capability of laser ablation to perform controlled cleaning of varnishes containing contaminants and paints used by restorers in artistic objects from brass samples while keeping unaltered the finish structure is demonstrated in this work. Adequate laser energy per pulse and number of laser shots required to perform a suitable cleaning by laser ablation have been optimized. The inspection of the samples before and after the cleaning process by optical microscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique demonstrated that the finish structure of the surface was intact while the coatings were completely eliminated. Furthermore, a laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS)-based detection system was applied during the irradiation process for the analysis of the material removal and also for its monitoring.

  19. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  20. Cleaning and retreatment protocol for a debonded ceramic restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Bruguera-Álvarez, August; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this article is to propose a resin cement cleaning protocol for use before recementing a debonded restoration. Study Design: Ceramic samples were fabricated from IPS d.sign® and IPS e.max Press® and were treated with hydrofluoric acid etching (HF), or HF+silane (S), or HF+S+adhesive or HF+S+A+resin cement. All samples were placed in a furnace at 650º for one minute in order to attempt to pyrolyze the composite. Each step was examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: When the cleaning protocol had been performed, it left a clean and retentive surface. Conclusions: If the restoration is placed in a furnace at 650º for one minute, the composite cement will burn or pyrolyze and disappear, allowing conventional retreatment of the ceramic before rebonding. Key words:Ceramic, debond, surface treatment. PMID:25810843

  1. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  2. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: tsubasa@oshima-k.ac.jp [Electronic-Mechanical Engineering Department, Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-Oshima, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan); Buttapeng, C. [School of Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, 126/1, Vibhavadee-Rungsit, Dindaeng, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Furuya, S. [Faculty of Education, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi (Japan); Harada, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  3. Hierarchical surfaces for enhanced self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariadna; Francone, Achille; Thamdrup, Lasse H.; Johansson, Alicia; Bilenberg, Brian; Nielsen, Theodor; Guttmann, Markus; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Kehagias, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    In this study we present a flexible and adaptable fabrication method to create complex hierarchical structures over inherently hydrophobic resist materials. We have tested these surfaces for their superhydrophobic behaviour and successfully verified their self-cleaning properties. The followed approach allow us to design and produce superhydrophobic surfaces in a reproducible manner. We have analysed different combination of hierarchical micro-nanostructures for their application to self-cleaning surfaces. A static contact angle value of 170° with a hysteresis of 4° was achieved without the need of any additional chemical treatment on the fabricated hierarchical structures. Dynamic effects were analysed on these surfaces, obtaining a remarkable self-cleaning effect as well as a good robustness over impacting droplets.

  4. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  5. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......:  The demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  6. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  7. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  8. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  9. Surfactant/Supercritical Fluid Cleaning of Contaminated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    CFC's and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents have been the solvents of choice to degrease and otherwise clean precision metal parts to allow proper function. Recent regulations have, however, rendered most of these solvents unacceptable for these purposes. New processes which are being used or which have been proposed to replace these solvents usually either fail to remove water soluble contaminants or produce significant aqueous wastes which must then be disposed of. In this work, a new method for cleaning surfaces will be investigated. Solubility of typical contaminants such as lubricating greases and phosphatizing bath residues will be studied in several surfactant/supercritical fluid solutions. The effect of temperature, pressure, and the composition of the cleaning mixture on the solubility of oily, polar, and ionic contaminants will be investigated. A reverse micellar solution in a supercritical light hydrocarbon solvent will be used to clean samples of industrial wastes. A reverse micellar solution is one where water is dissolved into a non-polar solvent with the aid of a surfactant. The solution will be capable of dissolving both water-soluble contaminants and oil soluble contaminants. Once the contaminants have been dissolved into the solution they will be separated from the light hydrocarbon and precipitated by a relatively small pressure drop and the supercritical solvent will be available for recycle for reuse. The process will be compared to the efficacy of supercritical CO2 cleaning by attempting to clean the same types of substrates and machining wastes with the same contaminants using supercritical CO2. It is anticipated that the supercritical CO2 process will not be capable of removing ionic residues.

  10. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  11. Classification of washery water at a coal-cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, I.N.; Preobrazhenskii, B.P.; Voznyi, G.F.; Tereshkin, L.M.; Berdichevskii, L.L.; Stel' makh, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The introduction of new water-slurry flowsheets at many coal-cleaning plants has greatly reduced the solids content of the water in circulation (to 70-100 g/liter). The lower size limit for effective jigging has also been reduced; at the Enakievo C and CW washery, for example, it is now 0.15 mm. This has made it worthwhile to remove all the greater than 0.15 mm cleaned coal particles along with the jig concentrate and only subject the less than 0.15 mm slurry to flotation.

  12. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  13. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  14. Cleaning By Blasting With Pellets Of Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Jody

    1993-01-01

    Dry process strips protective surface coats from parts to be cleaned, without manual scrubbing. Does not involve use of flammable or toxic solvents. Used to remove coats from variety of materials, including plastics, ceramics, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and composites. Adds no chemical-pollution problem to problem of disposal of residue of coating material. Process consists of blasting solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) pellets at surface to be cleaned. Pellets sublime on impact and pass into atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Size, harness, velocity, and quantity of pellets adjusted to suit coating material and substrate.

  15. Laser-assisted cleaning: Dominant role of surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Padma Nilaya; D J Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Pulsed laser-assisted removal of particulates from substrates has decided advantages over the conventional methods of cleaning. Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of transparent/semi-transparent particulates on a metal surface was found to result in an increased absorption of the incident radiation by the substrate. This effect, identified as field-enhanced surface absorption was found to increase with reduction in the average particulate size.

  16. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Full factorial DOE to determine the influence of the process parameters in cleaning water jets used in sewer cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medan Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial cleaning is a classic application of water jets technology. In the late 1950s, when reliable high pressure pumps were built, the usage of water jets spread widely in the field of pipes and sewerage cleaning. In our particular case, water jets using pressure between 100 and 200 bars are being used. The operational behaviour of these systems is dependent on the process parameters, which can vary, causing variations in the impact force. The experiment consists in the research method used in the study of the impact forces that occur in the sewerage cleaning head system. To determine the influence process parameters have on impact forces, the full factorial method was used. In order to measure the impact forces between the water jet and a flat and rigid surface, a stand was designed and built for generating pressure water jets, as well as a device to measure the impact forces.

  19. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  20. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.