WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaning tasks-a pilot

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Airborne Exposures Generated during Common Cleaning Tasks: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Melissa J; Quinn Margaret M; Bello Anila; Milton Donald K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between exposure to cleaning products with asthma and other respiratory disorders. Thus far, these studies have conducted only limited quantitative exposure assessments. Exposures from cleaning products are difficult to measure because they are complex mixtures of chemicals with a range of physicochemical properties, thus requiring multiple measurement techniques. We conducted a pilot exposure assessment stud...

  2. Characterization of Occupational Exposures to Cleaning Products Used for Common Cleaning Tasks-A Pilot Study of Hospital Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Melissa J; Quinn Margaret M; Bello Anila; Milton Donald K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there is a need for systematic evaluation of cleaning products ingred...

  3. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  4. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...

  5. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  6. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  7. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  8. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  9. Mobile pilot-plant for the production of environmentally clean steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment flow sheet has been developed for a mobile pilot-plant (MPP) to produce environmentally clean steam. The unit consists of a single-stage heat transformer (SSHT) coupled to a mechanical vapour recompression system (MVR) with a nominal output capacity of 260 kg/h of saturated steam at 3 bar absolute pressure for a liquid feed at a temperature of 80oC. It is proposed to have the unit on skids to be transported by a pickup truck or lorry to various industrial locations for demonstration and training purposes, in order to acquaint industrialists with an environmentally clean and energy-efficient technology. (author)

  10. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  11. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE 1) 1998 ANNUAL REPORT (EPA/600/R-98/065)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the first annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Cincinnati in March 1998. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, life cycle analysis, ecolabeling, and pollution prevention tools.

  12. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m3/h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m3, while the output of water gas is 2000 m3/h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m3, of which H2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  13. 2000 Annual report NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Molin, Christine; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2001-01-01

    several pilot projects being implemented by participating nations and continuing to build a program of collaborative endeavors. This meeting featured a special topical seminar titled, Product Oriented Environmental Measures, which focused participants’ attention on advances in product design and use. The...... meeting featured several guest lectures on significant developments in government programs, academic research and industrial applications. The report presents the ideas and views shared by the delegates and invited participants at the Copenhagen meeting. The full report can be viewed on the US EPA...

  14. A low-cost pyrogas cleaning system for power generation: Scaling up from lab to pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oil scrubber and char adsorber for tar removal has been installed to rotary kiln pyrolysis plant. • Used oil and char will be utilized again as fuel of IC engine and heat source for pyrolysis reactor. • The demonstrating test was successfully accomplished with 98.7% gravimetric tar removal. - Abstract: An effective pyrogas cleaning system is necessary for downstream application of biomass pyrolysis technology for power generation. Particularly, tar must be lowered to a satisfying level in order to avoid the problem of tar blockage for preventing damage to the engine and to prolong the engine lifetime. This research was carried out from previous successful research on oil scrubbers and char adsorption for tar removal. Further lab scale experimentation was done to find the appropriate quantity of oil to be used in the scrubber; the results were used for scaling up and showed that the optimum system needed for 0.045 m3/h pyrogas the quantity of 1 l, during a test lasted 30 min. The 1 l oil scrubber was combined with a 41 g char adsorption bed and 97.6% gravimetric tar removal efficiency was obtained. The combination of the oil scrubber and the char adsorption bed was scaled up and installed into the IPRP (Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant) at the University of Perugia, with chestnut wood (Castanea Sativa Miller) as feedstock, and connected to a 6 kWe Lombardini engine with a power generator and electric load. Pyrogas was sampled at 0.7 m3/h and connected to the cleaning system, consisting of a 15 l oil scrubber combined with a 922 g char adsorption bed. The demonstrating test was successfully accomplished with 98.7% gravimetric tar removal at the exit of the char adsorption bed. The engine ran smoothly and the electric load was constant

  15. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L. [and others

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  16. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  17. [Reduction of exposure to particulate matter in classrooms by improved cleaning: extent of exposure and results of a pilot study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardella, D; Fromme, H; Dietrich, S; Dietrich, W C

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the research project were (I) to describe the exposure to particulate matter in Bavarian schools and identify predictors of increased exposure and (II) to evaluate whether exposure can be reduced by improving the ventilation and/or cleaning routine. Air quality was measured in 46 schools, two classrooms each, in the City of Munich and Dachau county. Each classroom was measured on one school day in both winter 2004/2005 and summer 2005. The continuously generated data on particulate matter during the teaching hours were summarised to daily medians and the possible association of the median concentration with classroom characteristics was tested using non-parametric methods. In winter, the median PM (2.5) concentration was 18.8 microg/m (3), in summer 12.7 microg/m (3). The median PM (10) concentration was 91.5 microg/m (3) in winter and 64.9 microg/m (3) in summer. Determinants of a high particulate matter concentration were the winter period, an increased number of pupils or decreased room size, a high CO(2) concentration, and a low class level. Following this survey, a pilot study on the effects of improved cleaning and ventilation routines was conducted in autumn 2005. Three conditions were tested in two classrooms of one school: (a) standard, (b) improved airing (3 min during short and 20 min during long breaks), and (c) improved airing and improved cleaning (thorough cleaning once and vacuuming before wet wiping). Each condition was implemented for 2 weeks and particulate matter concentrations measured concurrently. In both rooms a reduction of both PM (2.5) and PM (10) concentration was found following improved airing and a further reduction occurred when improved cleaning was introduced in addition. However, in a linear regression accounting for other factors (room, physical activity of the pupils, outdoor concentration of particulate matter) the effect of improved airing was no longer significant, while the effect of improved cleaning remained at

  18. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  19. Critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place during the long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2011-01-01

    The critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) in a long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Steady filtration under high flux (30 L/(m2 h)) was successfully achieved due to effective membrane fouling control by sub-critical flux operation and chemical CIP with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in both trans-membrane pressure (TMP) controlling mode (cleaning with high concentration NaClO of 2000-3000 mg/L in terms of effective chorine was performed when TMP rose to 15 kPa) and time controlling mode (cleanings were performed weekly and monthly respectively with low concentration NaClO (500-1000 mg/L) and high concentration NaClO (3000 mg/L)). Microscopic analysis on membrane fibers before and after high concentration NaClO was also conducted. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that NaClO CIP could effectively remove gel layer, the dominant fouling under sub-critical flux operation. Porosity measurements indicated that NaClO CIP could partially remove pore blockage fouling. The analyses from fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) demonstrated that protein-like macromolecular organics and inorganics were the important components of the fouling layer. The analysis of effluent quality before and after NaClO CIP showed no obvious effect on effluent quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S

    2009-06-01

    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment. PMID:19400850

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier, Task A - Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Task B - Experimental Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John A.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gold, Michael S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This report summarize the work of Task A and B for the period 2013-2016. For Task A the work is for direct detection of dark matter with the single-phase liquid argon experiment Mini-CLEAN. For Task B the work is for the search for new physics in the analysis of fluorescence events with the Auger experiment and for the search for the indirect detection of dark matter with the HAWC experiment.

  3. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  4. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  5. A novel cleaning process for industrial production of xylose in pilot scale from corncob by using screw-steam-explosive extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Jia; Fan, Xiao-Guang; Qiu, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Ya; Li, Shuang-Xi; Deng, Li-Hong; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Wei, Dong-Sheng; Yuan, Qi-Peng

    2014-12-01

    Steam explosion is the most promising technology to replace conventional acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose for biomass pretreatment. In this paper, a new screw-steam-explosive extruder was designed and explored for xylose production and lignocellulose biorefinery at the pilot scale. We investigated the effect of different chemicals on xylose yield in the screw-steam-explosive extrusion process, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 3 h, corncob was treated at 1.55 MPa with 9 mg sulfuric acid/g dry corncob (DC) for 5.5 min, followed by countercurrent extraction (3 recycles), decoloration (activated carbon dosage 0.07 g/g sugar, 75 °C for 40 min), and ion exchange (2 batches). Using this process, 3.575 kg of crystal xylose was produced from 22 kg corncob, almost 90 % of hemicellulose was released as monomeric sugar, and only a small amount of by-products was released (formic acid, acetic acid, fural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenolic compounds were 0.17, 1.14, 0.53, 0.19, and 1.75 g/100 g DC, respectively). All results indicated that the screw-steam-explosive extrusion provides a more effective way to convert hemicellulose into xylose and could be an alternative method to traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery. PMID:24890135

  6. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  7. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  8. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  9. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  10. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  11. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress.

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress

  13. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  14. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;

    2012-01-01

    difficult to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  15. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;

    2012-01-01

    to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  16. Beach cleaning in Belgium: a social and biological study

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Tejo, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on beach cleaning in Belgium was conducted from a social and biological perspective, to confront the lack of information regarding the two methods used: manual and mechanical beach cleaning. Through direct participation in the pilot project on manual beach cleaning of the municipality of Koksijde, during summer 2004, around 42 kg of man-made waste/km/month were estimated during July and September, and 87 kg during August. An average 1.5h/km was needed for two persons to manually clean...

  17. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  18. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  19. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  20. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  1. Relationship of neuroimaging to typical sleep times during a clinical reasoning task: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Kelly, W.; Costanzo, M.E.; Artino, A.R.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Roy, M.J.H.M. van; Holmboe, E.S.; Wittich, C.M.; Schuwirth, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and fatigue have been associated with medical errors, clinical performance decrements, and reduced quality of life for both practicing physicians and medical students. Greater understanding of the impact of sleep quantity on clinical reasoning could improve patient care

  2. Alpha Removal Process Filter Cleaning Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is developing a process to treat radioactive waste that is low in cesium-137, but high in strontium-90, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) personnel asked Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) personnel to provide recommendations for chemically cleaning the Alpha Removal Process filters. The authors reviewed previous SRTC filter cleaning experience with bench-scale radioactive filters and pilot-scale simulant filters from tests with simulated and actual waste. From reviewing the previous filter cleaning data and assuming the heel in the 512-S filtration system is 85 gallons or less, the authors recommendations and approach to the inquiry are contained in this report

  3. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  4. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  5. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  6. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  7. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  8. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  9. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  11. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  12. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  13. Classes of almost clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  14. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  15. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  16. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  17. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  18. Nil-clean matrix rings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  19. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  20. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  1. Fabric compatibility and cleaning effectiveness of drycleaning with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, S.B.; Laintz, K.E.; Spall, W.D.; bustos, L.; Taylor, C.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers an environmentally sound replacement solvent to the currently used drycleaning solvent, perchloroethylene (PERC). In addition to the health and safety benefits of a CO{sub 2} based cleaning system, large savings in solvent costs provide an incentive for conversion to the new system. Lower operating costs for the new technology provide further incentive. Experimental studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} in both small scale and pilot scale test systems in order to address fabric compatibility with this alternative cleaning method. Results from these tests show that fabric shrinkage using CO{sub 2} is controlled to the same level as current drycleaning methods. In addition, tests to evaluate the cleaning performance of liquid CO{sub 2} drycleaning were also conducted. These results show the prototype liquid CO{sub 2} cleaning system to be better than PERC at soil removal, and worse than PERC at inorganic salt removal.

  2. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  3. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  4. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  5. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  6. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  7. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...

  8. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  9. Retrofitting fabric filters for clean stack emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fly ash generated from New South Wales coals, which are predominately low sulphur coals, has been difficult to collect in traditional electrostatic precipitators. During the early 1970's development work was undertaken on the use of fabric filters at some of the Commission's older power stations. The satisfactory performance of the plant at those power stations led to the selection of fabric filters for flue gas cleaning at the next two new power stations constructed by the Electricity Commission of New South Wales. On-going pilot plant testing has continued to indicate the satisfactory performance of enhanced designs of fabric filters of varying types and the Commission has recently retrofitted pulse cleaned fabric filters to 2 x 350 MW units at a further power station with plans to retrofit similar plant to the remaining 2 x 350 MW units at that station. A contract has also been let for the retrofitting of pulse cleaned fabric filters to 4 x 500 MW units at another power station in the Commission's system. The paper reviews the performance of the 6000 MW of plant operating with fabric filters. Fabric selection and fabric life forms an important aspect of this review

  10. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  12. On f-clean rings and f-clean elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Handam

    2011-01-01

    An associative ring R with identity is called f -clean ring if every element in R is the sum of an idempotent and a full element. In this paper, various basic properties of f -clean rings and f -clean elements are proved. Also, we give some new charaterizations of f -clean rings. In addition, we prove that the ring of skew Hurwitz series T = (HR, σ) where σ is an automorphism of R is f -clean if and only if R is f -clean.

  13. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  14. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  15. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  16. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  17. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  18. Mechanism of clean development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  19. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  20. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  1. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  2. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  3. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  4. CLEAN_LNAME: Stata module to clean lastname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes within a string variable. It also returns the uppercased version of the variable. clean_lname (together with clean_fname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  5. CLEAN_FNAME: Stata module to clean firstname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes from a string variable. It returns the proper version of the variable. clean_fname (together with clean_lname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  6. Cleaning of porous filters in fluidized bed reactors. Use of one ejector for various filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests to know the efficiency of a porous filters cleaning system by blow-back that uses on ejector for each set of simultaneously cleaned filters were carried out. A Calculation method to obtain the optimum ejector for this system was shown, taking n=2, as optimum number of working for the fluidized bed reactors belonging to the Pilot plant of the Materials Division at JEN. That is two filters for each ejector. (Author)

  7. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  10. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  11. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  12. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  13. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount o

  14. Method of cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  15. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  16. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  17. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  18. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;

    exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  19. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  20. Alcohol Attenuates Activation in the Bilateral Anterior Insula during an Emotional Processing Task: A Pilot Study †

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Claudia B.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C; Robinson, Shannon K.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol acutely reduces agitation and is widely used in social situations, but the neural substrates of emotion processing during its intoxication are not well understood. We examine whether alcohol's social stress dampening effect may be via reduced activity in the cortical systems that subserve awareness of bodily sensations, and are associated with affective distress. Methods: Blood oxygen level-dependent activation was measured through 24 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessio...

  1. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  2. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  3. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  4. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Mary D

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community - materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists - give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 2.1: Introduction (306 KB). Chapter 2.2: Semiconductor device equations (121 KB). Chapter 2.3: The p-n junction model of Shockley (1,017 KB). Chapter 2.4: Rea

  5. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  6. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  7. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevopoulos, Christos Alkiviadis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  8. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  9. Online soot cleaning using infrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torra i Fernandez, Eric; Ellebro, Martin [Infrafone AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-01

    The company Infrafone has been using infrasound as a soot cleaning method for more than 30 years. Infrasonic soot cleaning increases the efficiency, the availability and the lifetime of marine and industrial boilers. The properties and the description of infrasound and Infrafone's soot cleaning method are presented. Moreover, a brief comparison with audible sonic horns is carried out. The results and the savings of installing Infrafone's infrasonic cleaners are presented here with several case studies. (orig.)

  10. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  11. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  12. Simplified pilot module development and testing within the ATLAS PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drizhuk, Daniil; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the LHC data processing scale. The PanDA pilot is one of the major components in the PanDA system. It runs on a worker node and takes care of setting up the environment, fetching and pushing data to storage, getting jobs from the PanDA server and executing them. The original PanDA Pilot was designed over 10 years ago and has since then grown organically. Large parts of the original pilot code base are now getting old and are difficult to maintain. Incremental changes and refactoring have been pushed to the limit, and the time is now right for a fresh start, informed by a decade of experience, with the PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project. To create a testing environment for module development and automated unit and functional testing for next generation pilot tasks, a simple pilot version was developed. It resembles the basic workf...

  13. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... design suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while...... others filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  14. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  15. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  16. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  17. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  18. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  19. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively

  20. Academic Dissemination and Exploitation of a Clean-slate Internetworking Architecture:: The Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ain, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about disseminating and exploiting a clean-slate internetworking architecture through advanced academic courses. We design, execute, and report on the results of an academic course-based engagement and dissemination pilot-trial for a revolutionary clean-slate internetworking architecture: the Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP). ICT capabilities have evolved considerably since the inception of the Internet s predecessor, ARPANet, spawning a variety of new usag...

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  3. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  4. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  5. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  6. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  7. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  8. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  9. Pilot projects in Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Ker Rault; Wil Thissen; Jill Slinger; Heleen Vreugdenhil

    2010-01-01

    Pilot projects appear in many forms in policy making and management. In an effort to understand the nature and use of pilot projects and improve their effectiveness, we undertake a practice-based and theoretical study of the pilot project phenomenon. First, we examine the roles assigned to pilot projects in the policy development literature and explore their use in a Dutch water innovation platform. Second, we determine characteristics of pilot projects to deepen insights into the nature of t...

  10. A note on clean abelian groups

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Brendan; Vamos, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nicholson defined a ring to be clean if every element is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. A module is clean if its endomorphism algebra is clean. We show that torsion-complete Abelian p-groups are clean and characterize the clean groups among the class of totally projective p-groups. An example is given of a clean p-group which is neither totally projective nor torsion- complete

  11. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  12. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  13. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic fuel cleaning has been demonstrated to be effective for avoiding or postponing the axial offset anomaly (AOA) in high-duty PWRs. In addition, the reduction in corrosion product inventory achieved by this method of fuel cleaning has been shown to reduce ex-core dose rates, and hence reduce personnel exposure. Through laboratory mock-up tests as well as tests on discharged fuel in the Callaway spent fuel pool, the EPRI ultrasonic fuel cleaning system was demonstrated to clean crud from fuel rods throughout the assembly without deleterious effects on fuel integrity. This paper presents details of the evaluation tests at AmerenUE's Callaway PWR, as well as the full-reload ultrasonic cleaning for Cycle 12. Ninety-six once-burned fuel assemblies were cleaned via the EPRI ultrasonic process during refueling outage 11 in April 2001. Fuel cleaning activities presented no special problems in or around the fuel pool, neither in terms of activity nor in terms of turbidity of the pool water, nor were special radiological situations encountered by personnel working in the area. The corrosion products were captured on cartridge filters designed to avoid loss of material into the fuel pool water during interim storage. Activity levels on the cartridges were maintained sufficiently low for ease of handling, processing, and shipment in Radwaste. The fuel cleaning operation was completed within a time window of approximately 48 hours. The cleaned fuel was returned to service in May 2001 for Cycle 12. To date, this fuel cycle remains free of AOA (Axial Offset Anomaly). This result is in contrast to earlier cycles of similar design and power duty, but without reload fuel cleaning. These cycles were operated at a reduced TAVE in order to mitigate AOA. Nevertheless, Cycle 11 experienced AOA starting as early as 6 GWD/MTU. Based on the favorable Cycle 12 data, the utility intends to institute fuel cleaning as a routine outage activity, thus expecting to recover the TAVE

  14. On strongly clean matrices over commutative clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The literature about strongly clean matrices over commutative rings is quite extensive. The sharpest results are about matrices over commutative local rings, for example those by Borooah, Diesl and Dorsey. The purpose of this note is to show that, using Pierce sheaf techniques, many of the known results about matrices over commutative local rings can be extended to those over commutative clean rings in general.

  15. Combined filtering facilities for nuclear air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The choice of an optimal cleaning technology and cleaning system design depends on the specificity of the provision of the ecological safety of NPP under operation and accident conditions. The major requirements imposed on such systems are to achieve high efficiency (99,0-99,95 %) and reliability. In this respect, the important problem is to develop combined filtering facilities (CFF) which are able within the same aggregate to provide complex cleaning of air from moisture, radioactive aerosols, iodine in molecular (I2) and organic (CH3I) forms. A great experience accumulated at SSC RF IPPE and other organizations in the course of researches dealing with construction of aerosol filters and iodine filters-sorbers for NPPs and radio-chemical plants made it possible to develop a pilot mock-up facility providing complex cleaning of air from radioactive aerosols and iodine in reference to the real ventilation conditions at the First in the World Nuclear Power Plant. By now complex tests of the mock-up specimen of the UFK-3500 facility have been run with the aim of determining the functional efficiency of its separate filtering sections in terms of droplet moisture, atmospheric and radioactive aerosols and radioiodine and its organic compounds as well as of the filtering facility as a whole. Control over aerosol and radioiodine concentrations and volumetric activity was performed using laser and gamma spectrometry. The obtained data give necessary grounds to formulate the recommendations, how to develop and organize production of combined filtering facilities for flow rates of the medium to be cleaned of 3500, 7000, 10500 m3/h. The production is organized on the basis of OAO PZ 'Signal' in Obninsk. Provision is made for using small capacity small size filters (for radiochemical plants and research test facilities and rigs) and high efficiency sorbers (for commercial NPP) as filters-sorbers. To date the design plans and specifications

  16. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  17. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  18. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  20. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  1. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  2. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  3. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  5. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    OpenAIRE

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields...

  6. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  7. Cleaning services in local authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Klungseth, Nora Johanne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses cleaning services in local authorities and is a response to calls for new knowledge on public facility management (FM). The research was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD). The aim is to describe and explore cleaning in order to provide new knowledge which may contribute to developing and improving FM in local authorities. The research undertaken was based on a descriptive and exploratory mixed-method approach consisting...

  8. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  9. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  10. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  11. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γflows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially

  12. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  13. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  14. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  15. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  16. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  17. Service Catalog Pilot Project Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the ServCat pilot project and offers recommendations for the full-scale implementation of the database. During the pilot project a total of...

  18. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. The Mini-CLEAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because liquid neon is easily purified, has no intrinsic radioactivity, and scintillates brightly in response to ionizing radiation, it is a promising material for the detection of rare low-energy events. The Mini-CLEAN experiment will contain an active mass of approximately 100 kg of liquid neon viewed by 32 photomultiplier tubes and will serve as a prototype for the 10-100 ton CLEAN detector. Mini-CLEAN will be used to test the practicality of liquid neon as a scintillation material for neutrino detection. Additionally, the liquid neon can be replaced with liquid argon to provide improved sensitivity to dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. The ability to exchange the two cryogens, with different sensitivities to dark matter and fast neutrons, will allow the two event types to be accurately characterized. Radioactive backgrounds from gamma rays and 39Ar beta-decay will be rejected through pulse-shape discrimination

  1. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  2. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  3. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  4. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  5. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed. PMID:24858515

  6. Nuclear power industry needs to know: How clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) provides a unified nuclear power industry approach on generic nuclear regulatory and technical issues and interacts with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or other government agencies, as appropriate, on those issues. NUMARC's membership includes every U.S. utility that has a license to build or operate a commercial nuclear plant. The reactor vendors and major architect/engineering firms are also of NUMARC. The NRC has made determined efforts over the past several years to establish a coherent risk-based policy to govern decisions on applications of radioactivity of such low levels that they do not warrant the same regulatory controls as do higher levels of radioactivity. All agencies responsible for environmental quality have struggled with the question 'How clean is clean?' The NRC is preparing to conduct a participative rule-making process on one aspect of this question, residual contamination criteria. This is an area for which the nuclear power industry needs to know 'how clean is clean.' NUMARC fully supports the NRC's efforts to establish technically correct residual contamination criteria that have public acceptance and plans to actively participate on behalf of the nuclear power industry

  7. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  8. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow;

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...

  9. On some constructions of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings

    OpenAIRE

    Stancu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several constructions that lead to new examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings. A characterization of the idempotents in the algebra defined by a 2-cocycle is given and used to prove some of the algebra's properties (the infinitesimal deformation case). From infinitesimal deformations we go to full deformations and prove that any formal deformation of a clean (exchange) ring is itself clean (exchange). Examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings arising ...

  10. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    OpenAIRE

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models. Based on this outcome, a new cleaning model is proposed to capture cleaning dynamics for 10 different cleaning agents, varying from acidic, alkali and oxidizing to sequestering agents ...

  11. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  13. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  14. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  15. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  16. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  17. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  18. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  19. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  20. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  1. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  3. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  4. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  5. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  6. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  7. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  8. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Gothwal; Abhijit Dhumal; Anand Gang; Siddharth Gavali; Sandip Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer ...

  9. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  10. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  16. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  19. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  4. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  12. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  14. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  19. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be sent, as a script to be run, or it can be fetched from a remote location. A pilot 2.0 can run on every computing resource, e.g.: on CREAM Computing elements, on DIRAC Computing elements, on Virtual Machines as part of the contextualization script, or IAAC resources, provided that these machines are properly configured, hiding all the details of the Worker Nodes (WNs) infrastructure. Pilots 2.0 can be generated server and client side. Pilots 2.0 are the “pilots to fly in all the skies”, aiming at easy use of computing power, in whatever form it is presented. Another aim is the unification and simplification of the monitoring infrastructure for all kinds of computing resources, by using pilots as a network of distributed sensors coordinated by a central resource monitoring system. Pilots 2.0 have been developed using the command pattern. VOs using DIRAC can tune pilots 2.0 as they need, and extend or replace each and every pilot command in an easy way. In this

  2. Air cleaning in accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  3. Gaseous cleaning in enrichment installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), either pure or mixed to other gases, is widely used as a process gas in the great majority of the known uranium isotopic enrichment processes. Due to a long term operation of the enrichment facilities there is a decomposition of the UF6, which solid products like UO2F2 and UF5, deposit on the walls of the reservoirs. This work describe a cleaning process used to remove the solid products of the UF6 decomposition from one of the reservoirs (V = 620 l) of the Jet Nozzle enrichment project facilities of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/Belo Horizonte. It was used a gaseous mixture which presented the advantage of cleaning up the reservoir without dismounting the equipment. The yielded products are all gaseous and can be easily pumped out. (author)

  4. Magnetic pulse cleaning of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the application of a magnetic impact for inventing new equipment and methods of cleaning cast precision blanks from fragile or granular thickened surface coatings, which are difficult to remove and highly resistant to further mechanical processing. The issues relating to a rational use of the new method for typical products and auxiliary operations have been studied. The calculation and design methods have been elaborated for load-carrying elements of the equipment created. It has been shown, that the application of the magnetic pulse method, combined with a low-frequency vibration process is perspective at enterprises of general and special machine construction, for cleaning lightweight blanks and containers, used for transporting bulk goods.

  5. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  6. A pilot project: Antioch Delta Cove, Antioch, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project involves the restoration of the Hickmott cannery site, comprising approximately 15 acres (three five acre parcels) located on the Delta in inter-city Antioch. Hickmott Foods, Inc., operated a fruit and vegetable cannery between 1905 and the early 1970's, during which time tomato skins, peach and apricot pits, and asparagus butts were discharged on the site. The decaying fruit pits have caused cyanide contamination. Additionally, the site contains some petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as gypsum board contamination, apparently from nearby manufacturing operations. The Antioch Delta Cove Pilot shows how interested parties can work together to clean up contaminated sites and use the clean up process to stimulate technology transfer. The Antioch project is a blueprint that can be replicated at other sites across California

  7. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  8. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  9. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  10. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  11. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  12. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  13. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  14. Technical Proposal Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-03-28

    The proposed Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program comprises two phases. The objective of Phase 1 is to develop the technology for power generation from high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines existing in the Salton Sea known geothermal resources area. Phase 1 work will result in the following: (a) Completion of a preliminary design and cost estimate for a pilot geothermal brine utilization facility. (b) Design and construction of an Area Resource Test Facility (ARTF) in which developmental geothermal utilization concepts can be tested and evaluated. Program efforts will be divided into four sub-programs; Power Generation, Mineral Extraction, Reservoir Production, and the Area Resources Test Facility. The Power Generation Subprogram will include testing of scale and corrosion control methods, and critical power cycle components; power cycle selection based on an optimization of technical, environmental and economic analyses of candidate cycles; preliminary design of a pilot geothermal-electric generating station to be constructed in Phase 2 of this program. The Mineral Extraction Subprogram will involve the following: selection of an optimum mineral recovery process; recommendation of a brine clean-up process for well injection enhancement; engineering, construction and operation of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities; analysis of facility operating results from environmental, economical and technical point-of-view; preliminary design of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities of sufficient size to match the planned pilot power plant. The Reservoir Production Subprogram will include monitoring the operation and maintenance of brine production, handling and injection systems which were built with private funding in phase 0, and monitoring of the brine characteristics and potential subsidence effects during well production and injection. Based on the above, recommendations and specifications will be prepared for production and

  15. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  16. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  17. Very clean matrices over local rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Ungor, B.; Halicioglu, S.

    2014-01-01

    An element $a\\in R$ is very clean provided that there exists an idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $ae=ea$ and either $a-e$ or $a+e$ is invertible. A ring $R$ is very clean in case every element in $R$ is very clean. We explore the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a triangular $2\\times 2$ matrix ring over local rings is very clean. The very clean $2\\times 2$ matrices over commutative local rings are completely determined. Applications to matrices over power series are also obtained.

  18. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ; DRAGAN S. PEŠIĆ; SNEŽANA S. MITIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be ...

  19. Clean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2005-01-01

    Core competitiveness is a notion familiar to most managers with an MBA degree, These days, this is what is taught at renowned business schools and colleges. And in the real world,large and small enterprises are increasingly following this course of action, To concentrate on one or two single lines of business in most cases makes sense and boosts profit, There are, however,

  20. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gothwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.

  1. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  2. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. PMID:26741542

  3. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus; Ie Pedersen, Maria

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an action research study about effects specifications. It is a part of larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews and a workshop we have identified and specified the main effects that comprise...... the basis for the evaluation of the project. The study indicates that cross-organisational effects specifications cause a significant number of effects. To further prioritize these we argue that both interview and workshop must be facilitated as mutual learning processes between interviewer and...

  4. The serse pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy there are some 120 m3 of aged first cycle reprocessing aqueous wastes coming from three different campaigns which were carried out at the EUREX and ITREC pilot reprocessing plants with the MTR (materials testing reactor), CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium) and Elk River nuclear fuel elements. The authors report a simplified chemical composition of the MCE (MTR + CANDU + Elk River) solution; the values of table I are referred to the solution which would be obtained by mixing the total amounts of the three aged wastes actually stored in four stainless steel tanks

  5. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  6. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  7. Markkinointisuunnitelma case: Clean Water Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Ida-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Clean Water Oy:n uudelle tuoteryhmälle markkinointisuunnitelma. Tuoteryhmänä on kuluttajakäyttöön suunnitellut jätevesijärjestelmät. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena on löytää markkinoinnilliset ratkaisut uuden tuoteryhmän lanseeraukseen. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään niitä osa-alueita, joita käsitellään myös itse markkinointisuunnitelmassa. Markkinointi on jaettu perinteisiin markkinointikeinoihin ja digitaaliseen markk...

  8. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  9. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  10. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  11. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  12. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  13. Woodstove exchange program : pilot evaluation : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of British Columbia launched a woodstove exchange program to instigate the replacement of old or uncertified woodstoves with high efficiency Canadian Standards Association B415 or United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions-certified, clean-burning appliances. The initiative ran as a three-year pilot program focusing on the Highway 16 corridor of the Skeena region between Terrace and Burns Lake in British Columbia. A similar program has also been operating in the Cariboo and other regions. The program included an evaluation component, whose objectives were to guide the development of a provincial strategy for woodstove exchange, while improving on the pilot, and to develop an appropriate evaluation template that could be successfully applied to future exchange programs in Canada and the United States. The primary research component of the evaluation consisted of three separate public opinion surveys, including a consumer awareness survey, a participant survey, and a non-participant survey. This report presented a detailed analysis of the results of all three surveys. Results that were discussed for the consumer awareness survey included perceptions of local air quality; ownership of wood-burning appliances; awareness of and participation in the woodstove exchange program; likelihood of future participation in the woodstove exchange program; burn-it smart workshops; and perceptions of by-laws applicable to woodstoves. Similar topics were discussed in the other two surveys. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that although local air quality was generally rated as good, a significant number of respondents had some concerns about air pollution and saw wood burning as a source of air pollution. tabs., figs., appendices

  14. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  15. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  16. Glow discharge cleaning of vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Toya, H. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that glow discharge cleaning has ben advancing as a means of degassing vacuum chambers constructed for a large accelerator or for nuclear fusion research. To clean the whole surface of parts inside a vacuum switch tube (VST), a new technique is tried which generates glow discharge between the inner electrodes and copper grid surrounding it. Photographic observation reveals that the glow discharge spreads out and cleans the whole surface inside the VST. A breakdown test between the inner electrodes shows the effect of the cleaning with this technique. Higher breakdown voltage between the inner electrodes is attained by performing this glow discharge cleaning in argon rather than hydrogen gas. The difference of the cleaning effect seems to be attributed to that of the energy transfer from ion species to the absorbed molecules and microprotrusions on the surfaces.

  17. An automated cleaning system for hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient hygienic practices in Irish hospitals coupled with one of the highest number of reported cases of MRSA in Europe have highlighted the need for solutions to aid in the task of cleaning. This automated cleaning system consisted of two robots: a core robot developed separately with navigational and task scheduling capabilities integrated. The cleaning task was carried out by making use of a commercially available Roomba vacuum cleaner which had been adapted to operate in conju...

  18. Deep cleaning--valid or publicity stunt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    While deep cleaning is not new--hospitals have undertaken deep cleans ward-by-ward for some time, often following a "superbug" outbreak, Health Secretary Alan Johnson and Prime Minister Gordon Brown both emphasised on announcing the mandate that this was the first time all English NHS hospitals had been asked to deep clean their entire site, "restoring surfaces and fabrics to as close as possible as their original condition". PMID:18411818

  19. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  20. Selling Australia as 'Clean and Green'

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Kristiansen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    'Green and clean' has been used as a key marketing tool to promote Australian products overseas. The rationale is that consumers are generally concerned about personal health and the environment and will choose, and pay price premiums, for products that are, or perceived to be, clean (good for them) and green (good for the environment) over alternative products. But is Australia seen as clean and green? Is it really why people buy Australian products? And how effective is it as a marketing to...

  1. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  2. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  3. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured. PMID:15030561

  4. Bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with stoddard solvent and mop oil using the PetroClean bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Environmental Science and Engineering Inc. (ESE) was contracted by a confidential industrial client to perform a three-phased project. Phase I involved characterizing the site and delineating the extent of subsurface contamination. Phase II included biofeasibility and pilot-scale evaluations, determining remedial requirements, and designing the full-scale treatment system. Phase III involved implementing and operating the designed in situ bioremediation system (i.e., PetroClean 4000) to achieve site closure

  5. A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale, Globicephala melas

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christof; Fleischer, L.-G.; Roessner, D.; Meyer, W.; Siebers, D.

    2002-01-01

    Summary. The rheological properties of the stratum corneum of the pilot whale (Globicephala melas) were investigated with emphasis on their significance to the self-cleaning abilities of the skin surface smoothed by a jelly material enriched with various hydrolytic enzymes. The gel formation of the collected fluid was monitored by applying periodic-harmonic oscillating loads using a stress-controlled rheometer. In the mechanical spectrum of the gel, the plateau region of the storage modulus G...

  6. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  7. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt; Pedersen, Maria Ie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an exploratory action research study about effects specifications using the systems development method Effects-driven IT development. It is part of a larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews...... and a workshop we have identified and specified effects that comprise the basis for an evaluation of the project between several organisational agents with diverse professional backgrounds. Gathering organisational participants at a workshop with a common goal of discussing and prioritizing a finished...... list of effects has proved to be a valuable approach to create mutual learning process amongst the participants and the facilitators of the workshop. The challenges we experienced during the effects specification process were to balance a dichotomous focus between on one hand the visions of the...

  8. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  9. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  10. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens;

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...... where dirty areas are detected, that operator assistance is called only when cleanness hypothesis cannot be made with confidence. The paper describes the design of the system where learning from experience maps and operator instructions are combined to obtain a smart and autonomous cleaning robot.......Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform...

  11. Multi-Scale CLEAN: A comparison of its performance against classical CLEAN in galaxies using THINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J. W.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Cornwell, T. J.; Brinks, E.; Walter, F.; Bagetakos, I.; Kennicutt Jr., R. C.

    2008-01-01

    A practical evaluation of the Multi-Scale CLEAN algorithm is presented. The data used in the comparisons are taken from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). The implementation of Multi-Scale CLEAN in the CASA software package is used, although comparisons are made against the very similar Multi-Resolution CLEAN algorithm implemented in AIPS. Both are compared against the classical CLEAN algorithm (as implemented in AIPS). The results of this comparison show that several of the well-known cha...

  12. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  13. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a...

  14. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of extension of and changes to Community Advantage Pilot Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to...

  15. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Miniclean Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquids) detector is a prototype experiment in the search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. A target of single phase liquid argon with a fiducial mass of 150 kg is being deployed in a spherical detector surrounded by cryogenic temperature photomultiplier tubes. This design maximizes light yield and allows pulse shape discrimination to be used to separate nuclear recoils from electron recoil background events. The detector will demonstrate the technologies necessary for a future generation dark matter and low energy solar neutrino experiment using, interchangeably, targets of argon and neon. This talk will summarize the status of the ongoing commissioning and first physics runs at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  16. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public...... industry policy based on Michael Porters cluster theory. The paper however suggest that the narrow focus on productivity and economic growth in Porters theory should be qualified and integrated with a broader scope of societal policy aims including social and environmental issues. This suggestion also...

  17. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  18. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  19. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na202 and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na202 and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI

  20. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  1. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  2. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  3. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of t

  4. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  5. Studies of alpha activities in and around a mineral separation pilot plant with CR-39 foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) in a mineral separation pilot plant in Bangladesh was investigated with CR-39 foils. Inside the plant the clean floor near the west entrance has an activity of 0.051 ± 0.003 working level, non-conductor sand in a box has 0.345±0.007 working level, a zircon drum has 0.202 ±0.007 working level and garnet stock (monazite, zircon etc. mixture) has 2.537±0.076 working level. Outside the pilot plant, the centre of the raw sand stock has α-activities of 0.486 ±0.013 working level. In a rice field on the eastern side of pilot plant the α-activity was 0.116±0.006 working level. (author)

  6. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near-field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.S. (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada)); Jing, L. (Royal lnstitute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)) (eds.) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    This report presents the research works performed for the Phase 2 of Task A of the international co-operative research project DECOVALEX-THMC (2003-2007), in which the development and calibration of mathematical models for Lac-du-Bonnet granite and the MX-80 bentonite, using a variety of laboratory and field experiments are the major topics of research. The objective is to assess the implications of coupled THM processes in the near field of a typical repository on its long-term performance, with special concerns on the impact of rock damage and bentonite behaviours on the performance and safety assessments of underground nuclear waste repositories. The mathematical models used by all teams are based on the framework of Biot's theory of poroelasticity. However, the models are extended beyond the classical Biot's theory, in order to include such effects as thermal effects, unsaturated behaviour of the bentonite and damage behaviour of the granite. The results show that the behaviour of both materials are very complex, and an accurate scientific understanding is not currently achieved for repository safety assessment. However, the achievement have clarified a number of scientific and technical issues related to rock damage and bentonite behaviour and helped to establish adequate confidence in identifying the key safety features in the near field of a hypothetical repository, using coupled THM scoping calculations. These key features would be the temperature evolution, the resaturation and stresses in the bentonite, the extent of the inner damage zone in the rock, and the change in hydraulic and mechanical properties in the rock

  7. Pilot project for vehicle scrapping in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Accelerated vehicle scrappage programs have been suggested as a possible means to clean the air in urban areas by allowing sponsoring entities to generate emissions credits through the purchase and scrapping of older, high-emitting vehicles. Although two previous car scrapping projects had been executed, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) decided that doing another project would be productive. The authors wanted to further explore certain aspects of vehicle scrappage and concentrate on specific characteristics of the local vehicle fleet to determine how such programs should be considered for credit generation in Illinois. The IEPA, in conjunction with two contractual consultants and a combined team from General Motors and the Environmental Defense Fund, designed a pilot project that would investigate the feasibility of a large scale vehicle scrappage program in the Chicago area. The Illinois Cash for Clunkers project introduced several attributes that had not been part of previous scrappage efforts. The project purchased 207 vehicles from southern Chicago and the southern suburbs. All vehicles were tested using an IM 240 test procedure with a purge and pressure analysis of evaporative emissions. The total average emissions per car in grams per mile for testable cars were found to be: Hydrocarbons (HC), 16.09; Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 4.81; Carbon Monoxide (CO), 62.42; and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 496.3.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  9. Clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, P.C. (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van dit onderzoek is het in kaart brengen van de private clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland (Gelderland en Overijssel). Clean tech is de verzamelnaam voor producten en diensten die een bijdrage leveren aan een schonere aarde. Als basis voor het onderzoek is een zo volledig mogelijke lijst

  10. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  11. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  12. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  16. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  20. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  1. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  2. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  3. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  4. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  5. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  6. CO2-pellet cleaning process cuts costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non Destructive Cleaning (NDC) process is truly a ''dry process'' that generates no secondary waste streams. Since no solid grit or aggregate is used, there is no need for bulk radioactive solid waste handling equipment. Moreover, since no chemicals are used, the mobile decontamination facility requires no radioactive chemical processing or mixed waste handling facilities. Instead the NDC process uses solid carbon dioxide particles propelled by dry compressed air as the cleaning medium. The carbon dioxide particles shatter upon impact with the surface of the material to be cleaned and flash into dry carbon dioxide gas. This flashing into gas results in a rapid volume expansion of about ten to one. The cleaning action is due to the rapidly expanding carbon dioxide gas flashing into the surface of the item to be cleaned (which is porous at the microscopic level) and flushing foreign materials out. The microscopic particles of foreign material are captured on high efficiency particulate filters. Larger sized fragments are lifted off the surface by the flashing carbon dioxide gas, fall to the bottom of the cleaning area and are vacuumed away to dry air filters. The NDC process also has the advantage that it does not attack the surface of the material being cleaned, making it unique among cleaning processes. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  8. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  9. Rockfish Pilot Permit Program (RPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rockfish Pilot Program was a five-year project that allowed harvesters to form voluntary cooperatives and receive an exclusive harvest privilege for groundfish...

  10. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  11. 19 CFR 151.71 - Laboratory testing for clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory testing for clean yield. 151.71 Section... Laboratory testing for clean yield. (a) Test and report by Customs laboratory. The clean yield of all general... clean yield. A report of the percentage clean yield of each general sample as established by the...

  12. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Levitsky; R. Naim; A. Duek; V. Gitis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning tim

  13. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  14. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  15. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  16. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  17. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  18. Key Technology and Experimental Results of the Clean Air Heated Facility for Supersonic Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zipeng; SONG Wenyan; LE Jialing

    2009-01-01

    The scramjet, which is the propulsion of hypersonic vehicle, has become the focus in many military developed countries. The ground tests play an important role in the research of scramjet. There is defect of test medium contamination (the thermochemical characteristic of the ground test medium is different from that of the flight medium) in existing ground test facilities for scramjet combustor experiment. To solve the problem of test medium contamination, the first clean air heated facility of China for scramjet combustor experiment is designed. The key technology of designing the clean air heated facility is summarized. By using bypass duct, combustor model is protected from high temperature. To reduce the switching time between main duct and bypass duct, solenoid valve and water-cooled system were used. Having centrosymmetric structure, the heat radiating area of the facility and heat loss of the facility are much lower than others. Clean air heated facility is adopted to conduct experiment, which is the first experiment of China in clean air inflow, research on hydrogen-fueled and ethylene-fueled ignition and combustion for scramjet combustor at different equivalence ratio. Successful ignition and sustained combustion of hydrogen has been achieved. Successful ethylene ignition and sustained main stream combustion is achieved with normal fuel injection and taking hydrogen as pilot flame. Experiment result shows that the wall pressure of combustor model rises when the equivalence ratio of hydrogen rises. As the wall pressure of combustor model rises, the pressure disturbance influences the shock train in the upstream.

  19. Dilute chemical cleaning of PWR steam generators off-line cleaning process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project evaluated the feasibility of using a low-concentration (approx. 0.5 wt %) chemical cleaning process to remove corrosion product deposits from steam generator surfaces and magnetite from tube-to-support plate crevices of PWR steam generators. The primary objective was to develop a dilute process that could be safely applied at scheduled intervals, such as during normal refueling outages, to maintain a clean operating condition in the steam generator. The dilute chemical cleaning process developed in this project was demonstrated successfully on two model generators which were operated on faulted chemistry by DOE/CRC at Commonwealth's State Line Facility. Unit 5 was cleaned after 48 days of operation with 1% seawater fouling, and Unit 6 was cleaned after 112 days of operations with Lake Michigan water. This report describes work leading to the model generator cleaning demonstrations and provides details of the cleaning operation for each model steam generator

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  1. The Marcoule pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marcoule spent fuel reprocessing pilot facility was built in 1960-1961 for extended testing of the PUREX process with various types of fuel under conditions similar to those encountered in a production plant. Extensive modification work was undertaken on the facility in 1983 in the scope of the TOR project, designed with the following objectives: - increase the throughput capacity to at least 5 metric tons of PHENIX equivalent fuel per year, - extend equipment and process R and D capability, - improve job safety by maximum use of remote handling facilities, - maximize waste conditioning treatments to produce waste forms suitable for direct storage, - provide a true industrial process demonstration in continuous operation under centralized control using computerized procedures. The redesigned plant is scheduled to begin operation during the second half of 1986. The proximity of the Industrial Prototypes Service and the ATALANTE radiochemical research laboratory scheduled to begin operation in 1990, will provide a synergistic environment in which R and D program may be carried out under exceptional conditions

  2. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO2) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Cleaning up Wismut's waste dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive uranium ore mining activities in Saxony and Thuringia up until 1990 have produced not only some 220,000 t of uranium, but also a multitude of shafts, dumps, sludge ponds, and a big hole left over from open-cast mining, on a total plant area of approx. 37 square kilometers. Decommissioning and disposing of these installations, and cleaning up and recultivating the plant areas, is the purposes and sole activity of Wismut GmbH. Under applicable law, the strategy of the firm is aimed at using modern technical procedures to decommission and dispose of the mining and dressing facilities and make plant areas and the site available for other uses and, in doing so, strike an optimum balance between ecological, economic, and social aspects of cleanup. For this purpose, international exerience is utilized by the firm in arranging workshops on important problems. After flooding of the mines and clearing of the tailings had been treated in previous years, a workshop on dump cleanup was organized in Chemniti in November 1995. The paper deals with aspects of preparing for dump cleanup on the Aue and Ronneburg sites. (orig.)

  4. Condensate cleaning-up method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon cleaning-up condensates by filtration through thread-like hollow porous membranes in BWR type reactors, the thread-like hollow porous membranes used have average pore size of 0.01 - 1 μm and porosity of 40 to 80 % , having ionic exchange capacity corresponding to 0.05 to 2 meq of sulfonic groups introduced per one gram of the thread-like hollow porous membranes, in which the sulfonic groups at the outer surface are in the form of salts of non-dissociating metals. By using the thread-like hollow porous membranes capable of satisfying such conditions, it is possible to prevent the formation of solid-like iron deposited to the inner and the outer surfaces of the thread-like hollow membranes even when the condensates in a nuclear power plant are filtered for a long period of time. Further, since there is no scarce reduction in the water permeation rate, stable operation is possible. (T.M.)

  5. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  6. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  7. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  8. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included:  Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors.  Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org.  Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  9. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  12. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  13. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  14. Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos

  15. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  16. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-08-31

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements.

  17. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  18. Environmental Cleaning and Disinfecting for MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections Share Compartir Environmental Cleaning & Disinfecting for MRSA On this Page Selecting ... or dust. Disinfectants are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). You can use a disinfectant ...

  19. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  20. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  1. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  2. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  3. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  4. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is a national air quality monitoring network designed to provide data to assess trends in air quality, atmospheric...

  5. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  6. Clean conditions during the erection phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the basic requirements of the Regulatory Guide 1.37 and ANSI 45.2.1 - Standard on Cleaning of Fluid Systems and Associated Components during the Construction Phase of Nuclear Power Plants as a guideline, the implementation of cleaning operations in the pre-installation phase, the installation phase and the maintenance of clean conditions until the operational phase is covered. Specific information will be given from the practical experience point of view with the work execution under clean conditions of piping and components at the semi-finished product manufacturer, the prefabrication workshop and the on-site installation with specific reference to the various detailed procedures required by individual system builders for nuclear power plants in Germany and abroad. (orig.)

  7. NATO COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES TO MODERN SOCIETY PILOT STUDY: CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promote cooperation for improving the common pollution landscape by stimulating cross-national dialogues and collaboration. Share knowledge on the methods, tools, and technologies for making cleaner products and processes possible.

  8. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Bate, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity $\\psi / c_h$ instead of $\\psi$. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, $c_h$, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving $\

  9. Knowledge spillovers from clean and dirty technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Martin, Ralf; Mohnen, Myra

    2014-01-01

    How much should governments subsidize the development of new clean technologies? We use patent citation data to investigate the relative intensity of knowledge spillovers in clean and dirty technologies in two technological fields: energy production and transportation. We introduce a new methodology that takes into account the whole history of patent citations to capture the indirect knowledge spillovers generated by patents. We find that conditional on a wide range of potential confounding f...

  10. 2013 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) in 2013, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  11. Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Allison E.; Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart B.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Lin, Susan X.; Larson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug re...

  12. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  13. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  14. komunikace značky Clean & Clear

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to describe a communication campaign of Clean & Clear brand. A brand owned by Johnson & Johnson company specializing in cosmetics for teenage girls. Campaign is described into details, evaluated in terms of effectiveness of its communication tools by achieving marketing goals over a specified period of time. This thesis should confirm the suitability and effectivity of the communication mix applied for Clean & Clear brand in a specific enviroment of anti-acne c...

  15. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  16. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  17. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  18. Radioactive waste examination pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a contact-handled radioactive waste examination pilot facility at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant determines through computerized nondestructive examination (NDE) whether transuranic waste now stored at the INEL qualifies for shipment to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico or whether it needs further processing. As a container proceeds through the plant it is weighed, x-rayed with real-time radiography to determine actual contents, assayed to determine fissile contents, ultrasonically examined to determine container integrity, and surveyed for surface radiation and contamination. Because the facility handles transuranic waste, proper information management is essential. A microprocessor-based data management system has been developed for this purpose; a key feature is its direct communication with the computerized NDE equipment and with a mainframe computer on which the data is stored permanently. 4 references, 2 figures

  19. Cleaning laser spark spectroscopy for online cleaning quality control method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutin, T. Y.; Smirnov, V. N.; Veiko, V. P.; Volkov, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    This work is dedicated to spectroscopic investigations of laser spark during the laser cleaning process. The goal is to proof its analytical possibilities for chemical composition determination for online cleaning quality control. Photographic recordings of laser spark were performed to estimate its parameters. Fiber spectrometer was used to analyze the emission of cleaning process established with fiber laser. Conclusions have been made about fiber laser radiation usability for spectroscopic purpose.

  20. Financing clean energy market creation : clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean ener...

  1. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  2. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  3. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N2 atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N2-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N2 plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N2 storage and transfer.

  4. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  5. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  6. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Ch.; Kuhr, S.; Geffers, H.; Schmidt, Th.; Flege, J. I.; Aschenbrenner, T.; Hommel, D.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, Bremen 28334 (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N{sub 2} atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N{sub 2}-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N{sub 2} plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N{sub 2} storage and transfer.

  7. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  8. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Piloting Salters Horners Advanced Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kerry; Swinbank, Elizabeth; Taylor, Bernard

    2000-05-01

    The Salters Horners Advanced Physics course has been running as a pilot for the new-style AS and A-levels since September 1998. Here, some of those involved in the pilot reflect on their experiences.

  9. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  10. 76 FR 19267 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... entitled, ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Final Rule'' (74 FR 42500). That...: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on August 21, 2009 (74 FR 42500). In that rule, the FAA... Administration 14 CFR Part 61 RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification;...

  11. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a “pathway toward commercialization”

  12. Study of slow sand filtration with backwash and the influence of the filter media on the filter recovery and cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernando Hymnô; Pizzolatti, Bruno Segalla; Schöntag, Juliana Marques; Sens, Maurício Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Slow sand filters are considered as a great alternative for supplying drinking water in rural and/or isolated areas where raw water that is treatable with this technique is available. Some studies used backwashing as an alternative for cleaning the slow sand filter with the goal of applying the technology in small communities, since filters that supply water to a small number of people do not require much space. In this study the influence of the effective diameter on water quality in the filters and cleaning system was evaluated. A pilot system with six filters was built: three filters were conventionally cleaned by scraping and the other three were cleaned by backwashing, each with a different effective diameter of filter medium. Most filters had an average turbidity of less than 1.0 NTU, the turbidity required at the output of the filters by the Brazilian Ministry of Health Ordinance. In the study, the filters cleaned by scraping with smaller-diameter filter beds effectively filtered water better but had worse effective production. The opposite occurs in the case of backwashed filters. PMID:26789389

  13. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of changes to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA provided an overview of the...

  14. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  15. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping containers; cleaning and... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Cognitive processing and motor execution in the lexical decision task: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Verrel, Julius

    2014-04-01

    We investigated lexical decision making in children and adults by analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of responses involving a hand movement. Children's and adults' movement trajectories were assessed in three tasks: a lexical decision task (LDT), a pointing task that involved minimal cognitive processing, and a symbol task requiring a simple binary decision. Cognitive interference on motor performance was quantified by analyzing movement characteristics in the LDT and symbol task relative to the pointing task. Across age groups, movements in the LDT were less smooth, slower, and more strongly curved to the opposite response option, and these interference effects decreased steadily with age. Older children showed stronger interference effects than did adults, even though their reaction times were similar to adults' performance. No comparable effects were found in the symbol task, indicating that task characteristics such as response mapping and decision selection alone are not able to explain the developmental differences observed in the LDT. Our results indicate substantial overlap between cognitive processing and motor execution in the LDT in children that is not captured by computational models of visual word recognition and cognitive development. PMID:24030472

  18. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  19. Rehabilitation Education: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kolk, Charles; Jaques, Marceline E.

    1972-01-01

    The presentation of undergraduate courses in rehabilitation could serve several purposes: (a) preparation for graduate level work; (b) training for support personnel; and (c) interdisciplinary education. This article describes a pilot study of a course in rehabilitation to investigate through pre- and post measures, attitude change, attainment of…

  20. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course was ...

  1. Ultrasonic cleaning of 3D printed objects and Cleaning Challenge Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Zanderink, Thijs; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    We report our experiences in the evaluation of ultrasonic cleaning processes of objects made with additive manufacturing techniques, specifically three-dimensional (3D) printers. These objects need to be cleaned of support material added during the printing process. The support material can be remov

  2. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin and needle hygiene intervention for injection drug users: Results from a randomized, controlled Stage I pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Kristina T.; Stein, Michael D.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Corsi, Karen F.

    2012-01-01

    A new skin and needle hygiene intervention, designed to reduce high-risk injection practices associated with bacterial and viral infections, was tested in a pilot, randomized controlled trial. Participants included 48 active heroin injectors recruited through street outreach and randomized to either the two-session intervention or an assessment-only condition (AO) and followed for six months. The primary outcome was skin and needle cleaning behavioral skills measured by videotaped demonstrati...

  4. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  5. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  6. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource... and Natural Resource Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  7. Dynamic self-cleaning in gecko setae via digital hyperextension

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shihao; Lopez, Stephanie; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2012-01-01

    Gecko toe pads show strong adhesion on various surfaces yet remain remarkably clean around everyday contaminants. An understanding of how geckos clean their toe pads while being in motion is essential for the elucidation of animal behaviours as well as the design of biomimetic devices with optimal performance. Here, we test the self-cleaning of geckos during locomotion. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that geckos clean their feet through a unique dynamic self-cleaning mechani...

  8. Pilot remediation of sediment from the Petroleum harbour in Amsterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Harbour project is the third pilot remediation, which was carried out within the framework of POSW (the national development programme for treatment processes of polluted sediments). The main objectives of the pilot remediation are: to demonstrate the biological treatment of dredged materials on a practical scale; and to gain knowledge and experience for the future remediation of the total Petroleum harbour. A strict tender procedure was carefully executed in order to select the most effective and 'state of the art' biodegradation technology. The selected remediation chain was a combination of 'standard' soil treatment technology and newly developed biotechnology. Dredging, biotechnological treatment and the effects of the remediation on the environment were monitored in detail. The quality of the treated sand fraction complied with the Dutch standards for re-use and was actually applied in a project of Rijkswaterstaat. Biodegradation resulted in a substantial decrease of the oil and PAH's contents, but due to the lack of breakdown of a few high-molecular PAH's, the quality requirements of the contract were not achieved. It is concluded that the two main objectives of the project have been attained. Finally some recommendations for the future clean-up of the Petroleum harbour are given. (author)

  9. Space Solar Power Concepts: Demonstrations to Pilot Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie K.; Feingold, Harvey; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of abundant, affordable power where needed is a key to the future exploration and development of space as well as future sources of clean terrestrial power. One innovative approach to providing such power is the use of wireless power transmission (WPT). There are at least two possible WPT methods that appear feasible; microwave and laser. Microwave concepts have been generated, analyzed and demonstrated. Technologies required to provide an end-to-end system have been identified and roadmaps generated to guide technology development requirements. Recently, laser W T approaches have gained an increased interest. These approaches appear to be very promising and will possibly solve some of the major challenges that exist with the microwave option. Therefore, emphasis is currently being placed on the laser WPT activity. This paper will discuss the technology requirements, technology roadmaps and technology flight experiments demonstrations required to lead toward a pilot plant demonstration. Concepts will be discussed along with the modeling techniques that are used in developing them. Feasibility will be addressed along with the technology needs, issues and capabilities for particular concepts. Flight experiments and demonstrations will be identified that will pave the road from demonstrations to pilot plants and beyond.

  10. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  11. Chemical cleaning restores metal filter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern Metal Processing has developed a means of cleaning and recertifying metal filters used in condensate polishing, applications which yields pressure drop readings and on-stream run times that are virtually identical to new filters. Initially, a chemical cleaning process is carried out, designed to remove all ion exchange resin as well as iron oxide residue from the porosity of the filter media. This process is compatible with all stainless steel filters now available on the market. In addition, certain non-metallic filters previously used as disposables can also be cleaned using this process. Tests have shown that chemical cleaning designed to remove iron oxide only will result in high delta P readings, due to the continued presence of the various ion exchange resins. These resins are most effectively removed by a 1-2h dwell time in a 700-750oF environment. The remaining iron oxide can then be removed by a variety of non-corrosive acids and proper flushing techniques. After cleaning, each filter is subjected to a battery of tests to confirm the level of cleanliness and the integrity of the media at a given micron rating. While incidents of small pinholes or cracks in the media are very rare, such a problem can quickly worsen when the filter is exposed to the filtering and blowback cycles during a normal run. (author)

  12. Source terms in relation to air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two sets of source terms for consideration in air cleaning, those for routine releases and those for accident releases. With about 1000 reactor years of commercial operating experience in the US done, there is an excellent data base for routine and expected transient releases. Specifications for air cleaning can be based on this body of experience with confidence. Specifications for air cleaning in accident situations is another matter. Recent investigations of severe accident behavior are offering a new basis for source terms and air cleaning specifications. Reports by many experts in the field describe an accident environment notably different from previous models. It is an atmosphere heavy with aerosols, both radioactive and inert. Temperatures are sometimes very high; radioiodine is typically in the form of cesium iodide aerosol particles; other nuclides, such as tellurium, are also important aerosols. Some of the present air cleaning requirements may be very important in light of these new accident behavior models. Others may be wasteful or even counterproductive. The use of the new data on accident behavior models to reevaluate requirements promptly is discussed

  13. Bayesian Data Cleaning for Web Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yuheng; Chen, Yi; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2012-01-01

    Data Cleaning is a long standing problem, which is growing in importance with the mass of uncurated web data. State of the art approaches for handling inconsistent data are systems that learn and use conditional functional dependencies (CFDs) to rectify data. These methods learn data patterns--CFDs--from a clean sample of the data and use them to rectify the dirty/inconsistent data. While getting a clean training sample is feasible in enterprise data scenarios, it is infeasible in web databases where there is no separate curated data. CFD based methods are unfortunately particularly sensitive to noise; we will empirically demonstrate that the number of CFDs learned falls quite drastically with even a small amount of noise. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose a fully probabilistic framework for cleaning data. Our approach involves learning both the generative and error (corruption) models of the data and using them to clean the data. For generative models, we learn Bayes networks from the data. Fo...

  14. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  15. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  16. Odor and the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case described in this paper involves the interpretation of language contained in the Texas Clean Air Act Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. Sections 382.001-382.141. The State of Texas, on behalf of the Texas Air Control Board, brought suit in the District Court of Erath County, Texas against the F/R Cattle Company, Inc., alleging that, because of odors emanating from the company's cattle feeding facility, the company was violating the Clean Air Act. The Board is granted the power and duty to administer the Clean Air Act and is directed to accomplish the purposes of the Act through the control of air contaminants by all practical and economically feasible methods. Described here is the evidence presented at and proceedings of the trial

  17. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  18. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately

  19. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  20. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  1. Chemical cleaning processes - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion products and impurities can accumulate in the secondary side of steam generators causing accelerated corrosion, steam flow disruption and heat transfer loss. Traditionally, chemical cleaning processes have been performed using multi-step processes that employ relatively concentrated reagents (e.g. EPRI-SGOG, 10-20 wt.%), that are applied at elevated temperatures. The use of such reagents dictates the use of large and relatively complex reagent handling systems for both reagent preparation and disposal. The significant duration and cost of each chemical clean has dictated that these cleaning processes are only applied on a remedial basis. An assessment of existing technology was carried out and improvements to the EPRI-SGOG processes are being developed. Results of these assessments are reported. Advanced processes are being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that use lower concentrations of reagents, require shorter application times and generate lower amounts of waste. This technology can be used on a preventive basis to keep steam generators clean. Included are: A dilute regenerative process that is applied during shutdown. The dilute reagent is continuously recirculated and regenerated during the cleaning process, resulting in shorter application times using modular and portable equipment. The low reagent concentration results in a significantly reduced waste volume. For deposits containing both magnetite and copper a pseudo one-step process (using the same base electrolyte and pH) is used with alternate addition of oxidizing or reducing agents; A dilute on-line process that can be used while the reactor is operating. Such a process would be used on a periodic basis and dislodged oxides removed by blowdown or by mechanical means; Additives that can be used to keep steam generators clean. A demonstration of this technology is currently being planned. Details of these technologies will be described. (author)

  2. Cleaning of process and utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleaning of the process and utility equipment and systems forms part of the underlying strategy of planning and implementation. General observation shows that planning is the first essential element to a successful project. A prerequisite to good planning is establishing the goals and objectives at the very outset of the Abandonment Planning. These goals and objectives must be measurable against preestablished criteria so that the project can be evaluated to establish the level of success. Good planning can be viewed as a series of hurdles that one must clear to achieve the pre-set goals and objectives. Understanding of the legal, safety, environmental and legislative requirements allows the perimeters and constraints to be established before the final implementation of the, ''CLEANING OF PROCESS AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS'' activities. The very subject of ''CLEANING OF PROCESS AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS'' that may be considered straight forward, because some of these activities often form part of the normal platform operations performed from time to time on these systems. Before implementation of these activities, there must be an understanding of the ground rules and terminology used together with the resultant implications. A question that demonstrates the inherent problems, what does the term ''Clean'' mean? A limited list has been compiled to give some examples of what the dictionary defines the term clean to be; NOT DIRTY; UN-POLLUTED; DECONTAMINATED; STAINLESS; UNCONTAMINATED; SPOTLESS; VIRGIN; UNSTAINED; UNADULTERATED; STERILE; Liaison with Government departments during recent planning activities established a consensus for understanding the term ''Clean'' so that unreasonable expectation with regards to the level of cleanliness would not be greater than that which is practicable

  3. Precision Cleaning of Oxygen Systems and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Currently, NASA uses Dichloropentafluoropropane (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone depleting substance (ODs), to clean contaminated oxygen systems. Starting in 20 15, the Montreal Protocols and Clean Air Act prohibit the production and importation of all hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), except for limited use in refrigeration applications. Thus, a new non-ozone depleting solvent needs to be developed for use in cleaning. Optimally, such a solvent should also be environmentally benign or green to avoid needing to replace the new solvent with yet another solvent in the future due to other environmental concerns. Work for the first year consisted of two parts. The first part was developing a method of testing the cleaning efficiency of potential solvents. Stainless steel coupons were contaminated with a known weight of various contaminants and contaminant combinations and then immersed in solvent for ten minutes. The coupons were then removed and dried in an oven until all solvent had evaporated. Once dry, the coupons were weighed and the mass of the non-volatile residue (NVR) left on the coupon was determined. The cleaning efficiency of the solvents is reported as percent cleaning, with 100% cleaning being zero NVR left on the test coupon. The second half of the first goal was to use the develop method to perform baseline testing on current solvents. The second part of the work was to begin exploring alternative cleaning solvents. A variety of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were tested. Preliminary testing was also performed with ionic liquids and aqueous surfactant solutions. Once potential solvents were identified, an analysis of the performance and environmental characteristics of each was to be conducted. Four contaminants were specified for use in testing. These are Mil-Spec-H-5606 (5606), a hydraulic fluid, Mil-H-83282B (83282), another hydraulic fluid, diethylhexyl sebacate (Sebacate), and WD-40. The structures of these contaminants are all similar, with long aliphatic

  4. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  5. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. The task in Phase II study for coal selection, preparation, and characterization is completed in this reporting period. The optimization of adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates is about completed. Experiments have shown that successful coal cleaning can be obtained with this magnetizing reagent approach. The task to adapt the approach to various processing schemes is just initiated.

  6. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......-ray photo-electron spectroscopy are used to characterize surface cleanliness. A low peak-current potential-difference and charge transfer resistance indicates a cleaner surface, as does a higher percentage of elemental gold on the electrode surface. The potassium hydroxide potential sweep method is found to...... leave the gold surface the cleanest overall....

  7. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  8. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  9. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  10. Cleaning methods and philosophy of cleaning to prevent or mitigate microbiological influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that clean material surfaces remain free of most forms of debilitating corrosion, including microbiological influenced corrosion (MIC). Therefore, the prevention of MIC depends on effective treatments and service conditions which precludes various fouling mechanisms, especially biofouling. Mitigation of MIC must begin by removal of fouling deposits which contribute to colonization of material surfaces by bacteria which influence corrosion. There are many cleaning methods and alternatives to consider which can be generally classified as chemical or mechanical processes. Selection of the cleaning process(es) involves technical, economic, and practical factors. Deposit characterization and cleaning trials are essential tot he success of any cleaning project. Procedures should identify all major steps of the cleaning, however, the project manager must have the latitude and technical support to facilitate changes to protect plant equipment and optimize the cleaning effectiveness. This review is most applicable to raw cooling water systems, where much of the emphasis on mitigation of MIC is needed. Closed loop cooling water systems are discussed briefly, as are fire protection systems and high purity water systems

  11. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  12. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  13. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
. PMID:25806886

  14. Correction: Data from 617 Healthy Participants Performing the Iowa Gambling Task: A “Many Labs” Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Steingroever

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article details a correction to the article: Steingroever, H. et al., (2015. Data from 617 Healthy Participants Performing the Iowa Gambling Task: A “Many Labs” Collaboration. Journal of Open Psychology Data. 3:e5. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/jopd.ak

  15. The Pilot Restoration Yard of the Church of San Frediano in Pisa: Results of a Multidisciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, C.; Pini, R.; Fabiani, F.; Ciafaloni, M.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Sabatini, G.; Giamello, M.; Franzini, M.; Lezzerini, M.; Spampinato, M.; Gravina, F.; Andreazzoli, F.

    In the frame of the EC Project "RIS+ Tuscany: Transfer of innovative technologies for Cultural Heritage" we carried out a pilot restoration yard to apply and evaluate laser cleaning procedures in the conservation of stones and decorations on the façade of the church of S. Frediano (XI-XII Cent.) in Pisa. A multidisciplinary scientific committee was established, formed by art historians, architects, physicists, geologists, and conservators. Italian firms involved in conservation services and in laser technology participated in the project. The conservation has been recently completed after two years of work, providing a critical evaluation on the effectiveness and safety of optimized laser cleaning operations, the definition of an integrated conservation protocol which included the laser technique, as well as other conventional cleaning techniques, and the evaluation of time productivity and operative costs of laser operations.

  16. D22 Analysis of Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Elizabeth; MacGregor, Sharon; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Manea, Madalina; Penanen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the CHERMUG games was carried out in 3 phases which contributed in different ways to the game development and evaluation. Different cohorts of staff and students were involved in each phase and a detailed account of the list of pilot institutions is shown in Deliverable 21. Phase 1 was the preliminary testing of the initial game prototype and involved a small number of serious games experts, research methods experts and teacher trainers. Elements of the games were still chan...

  17. The clean, the dirty and the ugly: A critical analysis of 'clean joke' Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Shifman, Limor; Varsano, Hamutal Ma’apil

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the phenomenon of ‘clean joke’ Web sites. Such sites are often described as providing family-friendly humor, which is safe for children. However, our analysis reveals that the term ‘clean joke’ has mainly one operative meaning: a joke which is ‘sex-free’. Whereas sex is excluded from ‘clean joke’ sites, sexist, racist and ageist content does appear in them. Therefore, the problematic message some of these Web sites convey is that: a) sex is ‘dirty’; and b) sexism and othe...

  18. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  19. Optimization of an UF pilot plant for the treatment of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossflow filtration process has been developed to treat the Harwell site low level active liquid waste. A pilot plant was then constructed and operated to determine the α and βγ removal from the effluent. The unit has been used to assess the long term performance of ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes. The reliability of the pilot plant equipment has also been demonstrated over periods of between 6,000-10,000 operating hours. Tests have shown that the process gives optimum α removal at pH5 down to 1.5 mBq/ml and that addition of copper ferrocyanide and zirconium phosphate to the effluent can significantly improve βγ removal. Direct electrical Membrane Cleaning has been shown on a laboratory scale to enhance crossflow filtration performance at conductive UF and microfiltration membranes by improving their performance at reduced crossflow velocites. Pilot scale units based on Tech Sep M4 and MA1/S sintered stainless steel membranes have been designed and constructed for longer term evaluation in the UF pilot plant. Tests on the former have recently begun. (author)

  20. Can propane compete in the clean alternate fuels market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of various clean fuels programs for fleet vehicles. It also identifies and assesses the fleet market for clean fuels in nonattainment areas and addresses the factors critical to penetrating this market. Title II of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have defined clean fuels as ethanol, methanol, other alcohols, hydrogen, electricity, natural gas, and LP-Gas (propane). Leading clean fuels are identified and discussed. This paper also assesses the advantages and disadvantages for propane versus the other clean vehicle fuel options

  1. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  2. Agriculture and the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F; Dinar, Ariel; Frisbie, J. Aapris

    2011-01-01

    Many experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The...

  3. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  4. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  5. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  6. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  7. Uus silt turul - clean label / Gunnel Koba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koba, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Suurbritanniast alguse saanud clean labeli toiduainete märgis annab tarbijale kindlustunde, et tegemist on võimalikult puhta lihtsa ja arusaadava koostisega tootega. Samas pole märgisel ametlikku definitsiooni ning pole välistatud, et toiduaine koostises ei ole ka mõni e-aine

  8. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  9. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 105 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  10. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  11. Cleaning techniques for intense ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of high power lithium ion beams on the SABRE (1TW) and PBFA-X (20 TW) accelerators have been limited by the parallel acceleration of contaminant ions. during the beam pulse lithium is replaced by protons and carbon ions. This replacement is accompanied by rapid impedance decay of the diode. The contaminant hydrogen and carbon is believed to originate from impurity molecules on the surface and in the bulk of the lithium ion source and its substrate material. Cleaning techniques designed to remove hydrocarbons from the ion source have been employed with some success in test stand experiments and on SABRE. The test stand experiments have shown that a lithium fluoride (LiF) ion source film can accrue dozens of hydrocarbon monolayers on its surface while sitting in vacuum. Application of 13.5 MHz RF discharge cleaning with 90% Ar/10% O2 can significantly reduce the surface hydrocarbon layers on the LiF film. On SABRE, combinations of RF discharge cleaning, anode heating, layering gold between the source film (LiF) and its substrate, and cryogenic cathode cooling produced an increase by a factor of 1.5--2 in the quantity of high energy lithium in the ion beam. A corresponding decrease in protons and carbon ions was also observed. Cleaning experiments on PBFA-X are underway. New designs of contamination resistant films and Li ion sources are currently being investigated

  12. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  13. Cleaning Our World through Reverse Graffiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Gabe; LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade artists have begun to experiment with "reverse pollution" techniques, such as reverse graffiti, which focuses on cleaning environmental surfaces. Having recently been introduced to the works of Moose, the artist known for inventing the reverse graffiti technique, the authors decided to design a curriculum to increase…

  14. Copper elimination during secondary side chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests have been carried out to evaluate the capability of EDF chemical cleaning solution to dissolve copper. If laboratory air bubbling is not efficient, oxygen bubbling was used in these tests with success. The results concerning the copper dissolution capacity of the gluconic-citric solution are very interesting: the copper concentration can reach the value of 15 g/l. (author)

  15. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT)

  16. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  17. Geothermal energy - a clean, sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total geothermal resource is much larger than that contained in all the fossil and uranium reserves worldwide. The author explains how the enormous potential of this clean, reliable, energy source is just beginning to be realized with the construction of geothermally powered electrical generating stations, district heating systems, food processing plants and greenhouses throughout the world. (author)

  18. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  19. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  20. The cost of a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideally, to help put environmental expenditures into context would entail comparing the costs and benefits of individual actions. However, great uncertainty remains in our enumeration and understanding of the harmful physical effects that would be avoided by environmental mitigation and the value to be placed on those physical effects. Therefore, this paper focuses primarily on costs, not the benefits, of environmental regulation, but it is important to remember that our environmental expenditures have produced results. To that end, some of the accomplishments over the last 20 years are reviewed. The EPA's open-quotes Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment (Cost of Clean)close quotes which presents a good historic record of actual out-of-pocket pollution control expenditures, as well as projections of costs through the year 2000, is summarized. Some brief clarifying comments on the costs of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (1990 CAAA) are included. Finally, it is noted that out-of-pocket expenditures capture only a portion of the true impact of environmental regulation on measured gross national product (GNP). Environmental expenditures have important secondary effects, affecting economy-wide distribution of capital expenditures, increasing the cost of capital, altering the rate and composition of capital accumulation, and ultimately influencing aggregate economic growth. EPA is engaged in a series of analytic efforts designed to account for these general equilibrium effects. A general equilibrium framework is being applied to analysis of the Clean Air Act, both retrospectively and prospectively. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage....... Unresolved issues, such as determination of the optimal recycle location of flue gas, the flue gas cleaning steps required (SO2, NOx, and particles), and the impact of an oxy-fuel flue gas on the cleaning steps, also persist. The aim of this work was to study the performance of the wet flue gas...... desulfurization (FGD) process under operating conditions corresponding to oxy-fuel firing. The most important output parameters were the overall degree of desulfurization and the residual limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry. Pilot-scale experiments quantified that the introduction of a flue gas with 90...

  3. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  4. Mild desalination demo pilot: New normalization approach to effectively evaluate electrodialysis reversal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel Bisselink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.

  5. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits

  6. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before......, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  7. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  8. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman; Svendsen, Kristin V.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Methods Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual...

  9. Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

    2012-01-01

    We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

  10. Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health,...

  11. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  12. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 15, No. 1, April 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on electric vehicle deployment, renewable natural gas, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  15. Auto-control facility for sodium removal by chemical clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the technological process of sodium removal and micro-computer control system on sodium cleaning facility. Micro-computer auto-monitoring and controlling are realized in the cleaning process. The controlled results are satisfactory

  16. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  17. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 2013 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, J.; Tucker, E.; Thomas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  18. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 91.1093: (1) A check... simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type aircraft. (2) A check pilot (simulator) is...

  20. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Program. (70 FR 69645). The pilot, including the waiver of regulations, was designed as a temporary... its waiver of the Agency regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 with the... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  1. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Agency regulations for the 7(a) Business Loan Program. (70 FR 69645). Because the pilot was designed as a... regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 through September 30, 2011. SBA's waiver... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  2. Cleaning and decontamination: Experimental feedback from PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the first few years of operation of PHENIX, it proved necessary to clean, then decontaminate sodium-polluted components, particularly large components such as the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and the primary pumps (PP). Ibis document presents the evolution of the cleaning and decontamination processes used, and specifies the reasons for this evolution. As regards the cleaning, experimental feedback and a greater rigour with respect to the hydrogen hazard have resulted in a modification of the process. The new cleaning process used at present (since 1994) is described in greater detail in this document. The main steps are: cold CO2 bubbling in water, followed by hot CO2 bubbling, spraying phase, then drying for inspection before immersion. In order to optimize and validate the process, the cleaning and decontamination plant has been highly instrumented, which, in particular, has allowed confirmation of the contention that the major part of the sodium is eliminated during the bubbling phases. With respect to decontamination, the objective is to perfect an efficient process that allows both human intervention with no particular biological shield for repair or maintenance of the components, and requalification of the materials after the decontamination operation. Owing to the high operating temperature of Fast Breeder Reactor components (400 to 550 deg. C), the activated corrosion products deposited on the components melt into the metal. The decontamination process therefore consists in either dissolving the deposits on the surface, or dissolving a thickness of about less than ten micrometers of the base metal. The reference process for austenitic-type steels is the SPm process, which consists in immersing the component in a sulphuric-phosphoric bath (sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid) at a temperature of 60 deg. C for 6 hours. The problem linked to this process is the treatment of the effluents that are produced, particularly phosphate releases. A series

  3. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO2. As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO2

  4. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152...-cleaning. (a) The owner or operator who uses air cleaning, as specified in §§ 61.142(a), 61.144(b)(2), 61... spun. (2) Properly install, use, operate, and maintain all air-cleaning equipment authorized by...

  5. An activated fluid stream - New techniques for cold water cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Birkin, Peter; Offin, Douglas; Leighton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical, acoustic and imaging techniques are used to characterise surface cleaning with particular emphasis on the understanding of the key phenomena relevant to surface cleaning. A range of novel techniques designed to enhance and monitor the effective cleaning of a solid/liquid interface is presented. Among the techniques presented, mass transfer of material to a sensor embedded in a surface is demonstrated to be useful in the further exploration of ultrasonic cleaning of high asp...

  6. Energy Systems Comparison and Clean High Tech Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    Humanity can be confident to survive on planet Earth in good livelihood, because 1 - there is enough clean, sustainable energy available for centuries to come 2 - these clean, sustainable energy systems are competitive with finite polluting systems 3 - decentralized, clean sustainable energy conversion will be growing world-wide 4 - environmental impacts can be avoided with clean, sustainable energy systems 5 - mineral resources can be conserved for future generations and must not be burnt an...

  7. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  8. 76 FR 60478 - Record of Decision, Texas Clean Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of Decision, Texas Clean Energy Project AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Record of decision... support to the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP). DOE prepared an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Texas Clean Energy, LLC (Summit) would design, construct, and operate. The project will...

  9. BP Cooperates with Chinese Partners for Clean Energy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Tsinghua University held a seminar on clean energy at the Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Educational Center on November 12 to review the results achieved in the past year to implement the 10-year CAS-BP cooperative research project titled "Clean Energy for Future."

  10. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be part of the batch record. The persons performing and double-checking the cleaning and... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  11. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  12. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final determination of clean yield. 151.75 Section 151.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Final determination of clean yield. The port director shall base his final determination of clean...

  13. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean Water... INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) (hereinafter referred to as ``Section...

  14. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... Richardson at (215) 814-5675. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires...

  15. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  16. 40 CFR 63.744 - Standards: Cleaning operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... use allowances or exemptions in 40 CFR 82.4. Table 1—Composition Requirements for Approved Cleaning... such design so as to contain the vapors of the cleaning solvent. Cotton-tipped swabs used for very... other textile materials used in the interior of the aircraft; (9) Cleaning of metallic and...

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  20. COST BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF PHYSICALLY CLEANED COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report identifies and quantifies several benefits associated with the use of physically cleaned coal in the operation of utility electric power plants. The benefits occur in: coal and ash handling, boiler operation, and gas handling and cleaning. Cleaning removes sulfur from ...

  1. Preventive acid chemical cleaning operation (PACCO) on steam generator in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Generators (SG) usually present important deposit loading and Tube Support Blockage, resulting from Secondary Side corrosion products. These phenomena modify SG behavior which can lead to safety, heat exchange performance and lifetime problems. In this context, a Chemical Cleaning Process (PACCO) was designed to solve the issue. After almost two years of intensive lab tests, pilot simulation and mock-ups, the chemical process was finally qualified by EDF. The aim of the work was firstly the development in laboratory of a chemical process that could eliminate partially the deposit loading, respecting the integrity of materials and gas emission limits. Secondly, the objective was the design and the implementation of the process on-site. The process has been applied successfully in 3 SG in Dampierre nuclear power plant in France on July 2013. The main results were: - Corrosion < 100 μm. - 40% of the initial deposit loading, removed by SG. (authors)

  2. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  3. Clean Code - Why you should care

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    - Martin Fowler Writing code is communication, not solely with the computer that executes it, but also with other developers and with oneself. A developer spends a lot of his working time reading and understanding code that was written by other developers or by himself in the past. The readability of the code plays an important factor for the time to find a bug or add new functionality, which in turn has a big impact on the productivity. Code that is difficult to undestand, hard to maintain and refactor, and offers many spots for bugs to hide is not considered to be "clean code". But what could considered as "clean code" and what are the advantages of a strict application of its guidelines? In this presentation we will take a look on some typical "code smells" and proposed guidelines to improve your coding skills to write cleaner code that is less bug prone and better to maintain.

  4. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low–middle income range facing financial constraints. (letter)

  5. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was...... equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...... acceptability of air quality, odour intensity and air freshness at both desks in random order. Lower odour intensity and higher air freshness was reported at the desk with DPV with the activated carbon filter. The results suggest that using local air cleaning devices integrated with DPV may improve perceived...

  6. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  7. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  8. Clean-up of a radioactive spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific was extensively contaminated with radionuclides deposited by thermonuclear weapons testing in the 1940s and 1950s. In recent years, the U.S. government has attempted to restore the habitability of the islands by cleaning up the remaining radioactive material. Although the island no longer presents an acute radiation risk to inhabitants, plants growing on the island concentrate cesium-137 from the soil, presenting an unacceptable risk to the future population. The behavior of Cs-137 has proved to be an intractable problem that has major implications for the risks associated with transporting and processing high-level nuclear wastes in the U.S. Various proposed soil treatment strategies for Bikini are discussed, including ion-exchange treatments and competing-ion strategies. No fully satisfactory treatment currently exists and the problems and prospects of cleaning up after a major nuclear waste spill are presented

  9. Clean Slate 1 revegetation and monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Clean Slate 1 site (located on the Tonopah Test Range). This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the Double Tracks cleanup site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native plant species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of that study, and the results from numerous other studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the cleanup of the Clean Slate 1 site. The plan also contains procedures for monitoring both short-term and long-term reclamation

  10. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  11. Discussion panel for Pilot:3

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Suhail; Beech, Amanda; Esche, Charles; Phillips, Andrea; Poole, Matthew; Sassen, Saskia

    2007-01-01

    As part of the preview for the third edition of PILOT: during the opening week of the Venice Biennale, we are pleased to announce that we will be hosting a panel discussion in collaboration with PoCA, the Political Currency of Art research group. The discussion will focus on the historical trajectory of the Venice Biennale and its changing role within the shifting socio-political context of the city, as well as looking to issues within the art world in general regarding the role o...

  12. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  13. Gas Cleaning with Granular Bed Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ødegård, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    A literature study is first presented then the practical experiments are described. The theoretical chapter provides an overview of filtration mechanisms and available gas cleaning technologies, with an emphasis on hot gas and cake filtration. The experimental chapters describe the setup and testing of the filter tray test rig and the L10-56 test rig. The filter tray test rig was built, instrumentation was installed and programming performed. Puff-back calibration and heating tests were pe...

  14. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Guldin, Stefan; Kohn, Peter; Stefik, Morgan; Song, Juho; Divitini, Giorgio; Ecarla, Fanny; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer ...

  15. Biomass Gasification and High Temperature Gas Cleaning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejdová, Petra; Solich, M.; Vosecký, Martin; Malecha, J.; Koutský, B.; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej

    -: -, 2005, s. 221-224. ISBN 80-8073-382-1. [New Trends in Technology Systems Operation'05. Prešov (SK), 20.11.2005-21.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass and waste * gasification * hot gas cleaning Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Clean Energy Cooperation Steering in Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cooperation, it is a win-win choice for China and the US. Cooperation has almost become the hottest buzz word in the energy sector globally. During the US President Obama's visit to China recently, China and the US made agreement on the climate change, energy and environment sectors and put forward specific measures for jointly promoting development in these fields, further heating the cooperation between China and the US in the clean energy sector.

  17. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  18. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  19. Clean Valuation Framework for the USD Silo

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Fujii; Akihiko Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    In the forthcoming ISDA Standard Credit Support Annex (SCSA), the trades denominated in non-G5 currencies as well as those include multiple currencies are expected to be allocated to the USD silo, where the contracts are collateralized by USD cash, or a different currency with an appropriate interest rate overlay to achieve the same economic effects. In this paper, we have presented a simple generic valuation framework for the clean price under the USD silo with the the detailed procedures fo...

  20. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal. Laser-Activated Irrigation (LAI) and Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) are techniques for improving the irrigant distribution, of which we have investigated the cleaning mechanism, being acousti...