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Sample records for cleaning residual nak

  1. Ouabain affinity determining residues lie close to the Na/K pump ion pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Pablo; Gadsby, David C

    2006-08-15

    The Na/K pump establishes essential ion concentration gradients across animal cell membranes. Cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, are specific inhibitors of the Na/K pump. We exploited the marine toxin, palytoxin, to probe both the ion translocation pathway through the Na/K pump and the site of its interaction with ouabain. Palytoxin uncouples the pump's gates, which normally open strictly alternately, thus allowing both gates to sometimes be open, so transforming the pump into an ion channel. Palytoxin therefore permits electrophysiological analysis of even a single Na/K pump. We used outside-out patch recording of Xenopus alpha1beta3 Na/K pumps, which were made ouabain-resistant by point mutation, after expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. Endogenous, ouabain-sensitive, Xenopus alpha1beta3 Na/K pumps were silenced by continuous exposure to ouabain. We found that side-chain charge of two residues at either end of the alpha subunit's first extracellular loop, known to make a major contribution to ouabain affinity, strongly influenced conductance of single palytoxin-bound pump-channels by an electrostatic mechanism. The effects were mimicked by modification of cysteines introduced at those two positions with variously charged methanethiosulfonate reagents. The consequences of these modifications demonstrate that both residues lie in a wide vestibule near the mouth of the pump's ion pathway. Bound ouabain protects the site with the strongest influence on conductance from methanethiosulfonate modification, while leaving the site with the weaker influence unprotected. The results suggest a method for mapping the footprint of bound cardiotonic steroid on the extracellular surface of the Na/K pump.

  2. Protonation of key acidic residues is critical for the K⁺-selectivity of the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Ratheal, Ian M; Artigas, Pablo; Roux, Benoît

    2011-09-11

    The sodium-potassium (Na/K) pump is a P-type ATPase that generates Na(+) and K(+) concentration gradients across the cell membrane. For each hydrolyzed ATP molecule, the pump extrudes three Na(+) and imports two K(+) by alternating between outward- and inward-facing conformations that preferentially bind K(+) or Na(+), respectively. Remarkably, the selective K(+) and Na(+) binding sites share several residues, and how the pump is able to achieve the selectivity required for the functional cycle is unclear. Here, free energy-perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations based on the crystal structures of the Na/K pump in a K(+)-loaded state (E2·P(i)) reveal that protonation of the high-field acidic side chains involved in the binding sites is crucial to achieving the proper K(+) selectivity. This prediction is tested with electrophysiological experiments showing that the selectivity of the E2P state for K(+) over Na(+) is affected by extracellular pH.

  3. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  4. Nitrogen Immobilization in Plant Growth Substrates: Clean Chip Residual, Pine Bark, and Peatmoss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R. Boyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising costs of potting substrates have caused horticultural growers to search for alternative, lower-cost materials. Objectives of this study were to determine the extent of nitrogen immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate, clean chip residual. Microbial activity and nitrogen availability of two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm of clean chip residual were compared to control treatments of pine bark and peatmoss in a 60-day incubation experiment. Four rates (0, 1, 2, or 3 mg of supplemental nitrogen were assessed. Peatmoss displayed little microbial respiration over the course of the study, regardless of nitrogen rate; followed by pine bark, 0.95 cm clean chip residual, and 0.48 cm clean chip residual. Respiration increased with increasing nitrogen. Total inorganic nitrogen (plant available nitrogen was greatest with peatmoss; inorganic nitrogen in other treatments were similar at the 0, 1, and 2 mg supplemental nitrogen rates, while an increase occurred with the highest rate (3 mg. Clean chip residual and pine bark were similar in available nitrogen compared to peatmoss. This study suggests that nitrogen immobilization in substrates composed of clean chip residual is similar to pine bark and can be treated with similar fertilizer amendments during nursery production.

  5. Measurement of the Residual Sodium and Reaction Compounds on a Cleaned Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun Nam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either a intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, a chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. It is important to determine the levels of residual sodium that can be accepted so that those deleterious effects will not negate the reuse of the component. The purpose of this paper is to measure the amount of the sodium and the reaction compounds remaining on a component after a cleaning and prepare acceptable criteria for the reuse of components which have been subjected to a sodium cleaning

  6. Characterization and electrolytic cleaning of poly(methyl methacrylate) residues on transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O.; Liu, Yuxin

    2017-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π-π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.

  7. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  8. Aa Ah Nak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  9. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method.

  10. Enhanced Cleaning of Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61348 for Film Residue Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allton, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a nonnominal reentry. During the recovery of the collector materials from the capsule, many of the collector fragments were placed on the adhesive protion of post-it notes to prevent the fragments from moving during transport back to Johnson Space Center. This unknowingly provided an additional contaminate that would prove difficult to remove with the limited chemistries allowed in the Genesis Curation Laboratory. Generally when collector material samples are prepared for allocation to PIs, the samples are cleaned front side only with Ultra-Pure Water (UPW) via megasonic dispersion to the collector surface to remove crash debris and contamination. While this cleaning method works well on samples that were not placed on post-its during recovery, it has caused movement of the residue on the back of the sample to be deposited on the front in at least two examples. Therefore, samples placed on the adhesive portion on post-it note, require enhanced cleaning methods since post-it residue has proved resistant to UPW cleaning.

  11. Observations of changes in residual gas and surface composition with discharge cleaning in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Bol, K.; Cohen, S.A.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Meservey, E.B.; Rossnagel, S.M.

    1978-10-01

    Hydrogen discharge cleaning of the PLT vacuum vessel has been studied by mass spectroscopy of desorbed gases and surface analysis of exposed samples. Several modes of vessel conditioning have been studied to date: (1) a high power discharge cleaning (PDC) mode, with a peak power density to the vessel wall P/sub s/ approximately 0.6 w/cm 2 and a peak electron temperature T/sub e/ approximately 100 ev; (2) low power (Taylor-type) discharge cleaning (TDC) with P/sub s/ approximately 0.05 w/cm 2 and T/sub e/ equal to or less than 5 eV. The predominant residual gases produced during PDC are CH 4 (1-5 x 10 -6 torr) and CO (1-10 x 10 -7 torr), whereas TDC produced primarily H 2 O (1-2 x 10 -6 torr) and CH 4 (1-10 x 10 -7 torr). In situ surface analysis of hydrocarbon-covered stainless steel has shown significant decreases in carbon coverage occurring after 10 3 -10 4 pulses of either cleaning mode. Observed changes in oxygen coverage are more difficult to interpret because of the presence of the nascent oxide layer on the stainless steel substrates

  12. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W. Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health. PMID:29324717

  13. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City's Clean Heat Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-11

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  14. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP, were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53% of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  15. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  16. Clean-lifting transfer of large-area residual-free graphene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Ho, Po-Hsun; Li, Shao-Sian; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Wang, Duan-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Yu-Yang; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chia-Chun; Liang, Chi-Te; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2013-08-27

    A unique "clean-lifting transfer" (CLT) technique that applies a controllable electrostatic force to transfer large-area and high-quality CVD-grown graphene onto various rigid or flexible substrates is reported. The CLT technique without using any organic support or adhesives can produce residual-free graphene films with large-area processability, and has great potential for future industrial production of graphene-based electronics or optoelectronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Deep cleaning of a metallurgical zinc leaching residue and recovery of valuable metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peng; Ma, Bao-zhong; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Cheng-yan; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-lu; Chen, Yong-qiang; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiu-yin

    2017-11-01

    Huge quantities of zinc leaching residues (ZLRs) generated from zinc production are dumped continuously around the world and pose a potential environmental threat because of their considerable amounts of entrained heavy metals (mainly lead). Most ZLRs have not been properly treated and the valuable metals in them have not yet been effectively recovered. Herein, the deep cleaning of a ZLR and recovery of valuable metals via a hydrometallurgical route were investigated. The cleaning process consists of two essential stages: acid leaching followed by calcium chloride leaching. The optimum conditions for extracting zinc, copper, and indium by acid leaching were a sulfuric acid concentration of 200 g·L-1, a liquid/solid ratio of 4:1 (mL/g), a leaching time of 2 h, and a temperature of 90°C. For lead and silver extractions, the optimum conditions were a calcium chloride concentration of 400 g·L-1, a pH value of 1.0, a leaching time of 1 h, and a temperature of 30°C. After calcium chloride leaching, silver and lead were extracted out and the lead was finally recovered as electrolytic lead by electrowinning. The anglesite phase, which poses the greatest potential environmental hazard, was removed from the ZLR after deep cleaning, thus reducing the cost of environmental management of ZLRs. The treatment of chlorine and spent electrolyte generated in the process was discussed.

  18. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Duizer, Erwin

    2012-11-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log(10) for poliovirus and close to 4 log(10) for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log(10) reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested.

  19. Toward High Carrier Mobility and Low Contact Resistance:Laser Cleaning of PMMA Residues on Graphene Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuehui Jia; Xin Gong; Pei Peng; Zidong Wang; Zhongzheng Tian; Liming Ren; Yunyi Fu; Han Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) is widely used for graphene transfer and device fabrication.However,it inevitably leaves a thin layer of polymer residues after acetone rinsing and leads to dramatic degradation of device performance.How to eliminate contamination and restore clean surfaces of graphene is still highly demanded.In this paper,we present a reliable and position-controllable method to remove the polymer residues on graphene films by laser exposure.Under proper laser conditions,PMMA residues can be substantially reduced without introducing defects to the underlying graphene.Furthermore,by applying this laser cleaning technique to the channel and contacts of graphene fieldeffect transistors(GFETs),higher carrier mobility as well as lower contact resistance can be realized.This work opens a way for probing intrinsic properties of contaminant-free graphene and fabricating high-performance GFETs with both clean channel and intimate graphene/metal contact.

  20. Catheter for Cleaning Surgical Optics During Surgical Procedures: A Possible Solution for Residue Buildup and Fogging in Video Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Igor Renato Louro Bruno; Abrão, Fernando Conrado; Silva, Alessandra Rodrigues; Corrêa, Larissa Teresa Cirera; Younes, Riad Nain

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is a tendency to perform surgical procedures via laparoscopic or thoracoscopic access. However, even with the impressive technological advancement in surgical materials, such as improvement in quality of monitors, light sources, and optical fibers, surgeons have to face simple problems that can greatly hinder surgery by video. One is the formation of "fog" or residue buildup on the lens, causing decreased visibility. Intracavitary techniques for cleaning surgical optics and preventing fog formation have been described; however, some of these techniques employ the use of expensive and complex devices designed solely for this purpose. Moreover, these techniques allow the cleaning of surgical optics when they becomes dirty, which does not prevent the accumulation of residue in the optics. To solve this problem we have designed a device that allows cleaning the optics with no surgical stops and prevents the fogging and residue accumulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate through experimental testing the effectiveness of a simple device that prevents the accumulation of residue and fogging of optics used in surgical procedures performed through thoracoscopic or laparoscopic access. Ex-vivo experiments were performed simulating the conditions of residue presence in surgical optics during a video surgery. The experiment consists in immersing the optics and catheter set connected to the IV line with crystalloid solution in three types of materials: blood, blood plus fat solution, and 200 mL of distilled water and 1 vial of methylene blue. The optics coupled to the device were immersed in 200 mL of each type of residue, repeating each immersion 10 times for each distinct residue for both thirty and zero degrees optics, totaling 420 experiments. A success rate of 98.1% was observed after the experiments, in these cases the device was able to clean and prevent the residue accumulation in the optics.

  1. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  2. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses,

  3. Mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators; Bergtechnische Verwertung von Abgasreinigungsrueckstaenden aus Verbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werthmann, Rainer [K+S Entsorgung GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Abfallchemie und Zulassungen

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust gas purification of a household incinerator or a substitute fuel power plant intends to remove dust, heavy metal compounds and acid harmful gases from the exhaust gas in order to comply with the immission-control legal limits. The particulate matter contains volatile heavy metal chlorides which precipitate as a solid matter. The enhanced amount of water-soluble salts is conspicuous. The concentration of soluble components is limited to 10,000 mg/L in the 1:10 eluate due to the landfill regulation. Thus, the residues of exhaust gas cleaning are predestined for an underground waste disposal in salt mines. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators.

  4. Atomic Level Cleaning of Poly Methyl Methacrylate Residues from the Graphene Surface Using Radiolized Water at High Temperatures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    arbitrary substrates like oxides, semiconductors , or even on other 2-D materials in order to make 2-D heterostructures.11–19 Poly-methyl...Following approaches utilized in semiconductor manufacturing, where PMMA is cleaned from the surface of semiconductors after lithographic patterning, wet...of these suggest the presence of significant amount of PMMA residue and inorganic particles made of SiOx and carbon in different places of the chip

  5. Cleaning verification: A five parameter study of a Total Organic Carbon method development and validation for the cleaning assessment of residual detergents in manufacturing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ahmad, Imad A Haidar; Tam, James; Wang, Yan; Dao, Gina; Blasko, Andrei

    2018-02-05

    A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) based analytical method to quantitate trace residues of clean-in-place (CIP) detergents CIP100 ® and CIP200 ® on the surfaces of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment was developed and validated. Five factors affecting the development and validation of the method were identified: diluent composition, diluent volume, extraction method, location for TOC sample preparation, and oxidant flow rate. Key experimental parameters were optimized to minimize contamination and to improve the sensitivity, recovery, and reliability of the method. The optimized concentration of the phosphoric acid in the swabbing solution was 0.05M, and the optimal volume of the sample solution was 30mL. The swab extraction method was 1min sonication. The use of a clean room, as compared to an isolated lab environment, was not required for method validation. The method was demonstrated to be linear with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9999. The average recoveries from stainless steel surfaces at multiple spike levels were >90%. The repeatability and intermediate precision results were ≤5% across the 2.2-6.6ppm range (50-150% of the target maximum carry over, MACO, limit). The method was also shown to be sensitive with a detection limit (DL) of 38ppb and a quantitation limit (QL) of 114ppb. The method validation demonstrated that the developed method is suitable for its intended use. The methodology developed in this study is generally applicable to the cleaning verification of any organic detergents used for the cleaning of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment made of electropolished stainless steel material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of Residual Dose Rates and Intervention Scenarios for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions-Constraints and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, Markus; Assmann, R W; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Menzel, Hans Gregor; Roesler, Stefan; Vincke, Helmut H

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection of the personnel who will perform interventions in the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions is mandatory and includes the design of equipment and the establishment of work procedures. Residual dose rates due to activated equipment are expected to reach significant values such that any maintenance has to be planned and optimized in advance. Three-dimensional maps of dose equivalent rates at different cooling times after operation of the LHC have been calculated with FLUKA. The simulations are based on an explicit calculation of induced radioactivity and of the transport of the radiation from the radioactive decay. The paper summarizes the results for the Beam Cleaning Insertions and discusses the estimation of individual and collective doses received by personnel during critical interventions, such as the exchange of a collimator or the installation of Phase 2. The given examples outline the potential and the need to optimize, in an iterative way, the design of components as well as the layout of ...

  7. NaK handling and removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desreumaux, J.; Rodriguez, G.; Guigon, A.; Verdelli, J.; Thomine, G.

    1997-01-01

    Sodium-potassium alloy is used in specific application in French Fast Breeder Reactors as: cold traps, NaK bubbler for argon purification, valves and also in experimental irradiation devices. lt has been preferred to sodium because it is liquid from + 7 deg. C for the most common peritectic alloy. After its use, NaK is considered as a hazardous waste (nuclear or not) due to its high reactivity with air and water. The most important risk remains in handling NaK systems which have not been operated for some time. The NaK will be covered with a crust of the superoxide K02 which is a strong oxidising agent. Thermodynamically, K02 will react with most organic material or metallic dust or swarfs and can also react with additional NaK to give sufficient heat to boil part of the NaK, resulting in a sudden increase in pressure and small explosions. We describe the formation given to experimenters in our Sodium School and the CEA's experience in treating specific devices for transportation, decanting of tanks, tank opening and NaK removal. (author)

  8. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  9. Study of composition change and agglomeration of flue gas cleaning residue from a fluidized bed waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, P; Verbinnen, B; Bollaert, P; Alderweireldt, N; Mertens, G; Elsen, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2011-10-01

    Blocking of the collection hoppers of the baghouse filters in a fluidized bed incinerator for co-incineration of high calorific industrial solid waste and sludge was observed. The composition of the flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR), both from a blocked hopper and from a normal hopper, was investigated by (differential) thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction and wet chemical analysis. The lower elemental carbon concentration and the higher calcium carbonate concentration of the agglomerated sample was the result of oxidation of carbon and subsequent reaction of CO2 with CaO. The evolved heat causes a temperature increase, with the decomposition of CaOHCl as a consequence. The formation of calcite and calcium chloride and the evolution of heat caused agglomeration of the FGCR. Activated lignite coke was replaced by another adsorption agent with less carbon, so the auto-ignition temperature increased; since then no further block formation has occurred.

  10. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  11. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  12. Cleaning of the equipment of residual sodium by means of water-vacuum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klykov, B.P.; Lednev, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigation into a problem of equipment decontamination from sodium, that have been conducted in OKBM since 1960 are given. The investigations performed have shown that a water-vacuum washing process is the most optimal method for equipment decontamination from sodium residues. The essence of the method is in conduction of sodium-water reaction under reduced pressure in a leak-tight tank. Boundary conditions are selected experimentally which not allow sodium to be melted during the process, that gives possibility to control the sodium-water reaction. Continuous removal of H 2 and reaction products creates safe conditions for the process conduction. More that 20-year period of operation of a stationary water-vacuum facility and washing the electromagnetic pump for BN-350 fast nuclear reactor directly at is test rig are the best proofs of the proposed method. This method is well suitable for washing the equipment contaminated by radioactive sodium, because by-products of the process are simply utilized. The method is used in a number of Russian enterprises, and recommended for implementation at BN-350 and BN-600 reactor plants. (author)

  13. Patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation and transurethral indwelling catheterisation for treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume after vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, R. A.; Nieuwkerk, P. T.; Burger, M. P.; Emanuel, M. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) relative to transurethral indwelling catheterisation (TIC) as the treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume (PVR) following vaginal prolapse surgery. Scenario-based preference assessment during face-to-face

  14. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.

  15. Effect of No-Clean Flux Residues on the Performance of Acrylic Conformal Coating in Aggressive Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathinavelu, Umadevi; Jellesen, Morten S.; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    at various temperatures was quantified using ion chromatography by extracting the residue, and surface morphology of the residues was investigated using optical microscopy. The flux residue in general consists of both resin and activator components such as carboxylic acids. Coated samples with flux residues...

  16. Functional and operational design requirements for decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-I Mark-II NaK: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Crandall, D.L.; Dafoe, R.E.; Dolenc, M.R.; LaRue, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 180 gal of sodium/potassium (NaK) eutectic liquid metal were severely radioactively contaminated during a meltdown of the Mark-II core of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) in November 1955. This contaminated NaK, which is contained in four vessels, is currently stored in an underground bunker located at the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) located approximately at the center of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This document presents the Functional and Operational Requirements (F and ORs) for the D and D of the contaminated NaK and the ARVFS bunker site. This project will chemically deactivate the NaK; dispose of the radioactively contaminated product at a designated burial site; chemically deactivate any residual NaK in the containers, and dispose of the containers at a designated burial site; decontaminate and decommission any contaminated process equipment used in these operations, and decontaminate and decommission the ARVFS bunker site. Completion of the above technical objectives will allow for the effective disposition of the NaK, and will return the ARFVS bunker and immediate area to a reusable condition. Upon completion, the ARVFS NaK, which is now considered a significant potential hazard, will be removed from the Surplus Facilities Management Program priority listing of projects. 33 refs., 8 figs

  17. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  18. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  19. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shaohua; Zhang Yifei; Zhang Yi; Xue Peiyi; Wang Yihui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The extraction fractions of various valuable metals during NH 4 Cl leaching are very high. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. → The process can detoxified the hazardous elements such as Pb, As, Cd thoroughly. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. → The final residue contains about 55 wt% Fe, and have the potential to be used as iron concentrate. - Abstract: A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650 o C for 1 h. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55 wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration.

  20. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of Irinotecan hydrochloride residues for cleaning validation in production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in pharmaceutical industry. The main purpose of cleaning validation is to prove the effectiveness and consistency of cleaning in a given pharmaceutical production equipment to prevent cross contamination and adulteration of drug product with other active ingredient. Objective: a rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of irinotecan hydrochloride in cleaning validation swab samples. Method: the method was validated using waters symmetry shield RP-18 (250mm x 4.6mm 5 µm column with isocratic mobile phase containing a mixture of 0.02 M potassium di-hydrogen ortho-phosphate, pH adjusted to 3.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid, methanol and acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v/v. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min with column temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength at 220nm. The sample injection volume was 100 µl. Results: the calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 0.024 to 0.143 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation were below 3.2%. The recoveries obtained from stainless steel, PCGI, epoxy, glass and decron cloth surfaces were more than 85% and there was no interference from the cotton swab. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.008 and 0.023 µg ml-1, respectively. Conclusion: the developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The overall procedure can be used as part of a cleaning validation program in pharmaceutical manufacture of irinotecan hydrochloride.

  1. Na+,K+ pumpen vedbliver at overraske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of news about the Na+,K+ pump, an indispensable enzyme whose protein structure has been described in a recent article in Nature, 50 years after its discovery. In combination with mutational analysis, the structure reveals the binding pocket for the K+ ions...... and the regulation of Na+ transport by a strategically located C-terminus of the protein. Focus is also on the pathophysiology of two neurological disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, recently shown to be caused by mutations in the Na+,K+-ATPase. Udgivelsesdato: may 19...

  2. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Huihui; Xia, Mengdie; Gong, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions), a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh) to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  3. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions, a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  4. Clean-up of aqueous acetone vegetable extracts by solid-matrix partition for pyrethroid residue determination by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, A; Barbini, D A; Generali, T; Pelosi, P; Ausili, A; Vergori, F; Camoni, I

    1997-03-21

    Disposable, ready-to-use cartridges filled with macroporous diatomaceous material are used to carry out a partition clean-up that, in a single step, is capable of transferring pesticide residues from aqueous acetone extracts into light petroleum-dichloromethane (75:25, v/v). This procedure takes the place of some functions (such as separatory-funnel partition, drying over anhydrous sodium sulphate and partial adsorption clean-up) usually performed by separate steps in classical schemes. Fourteen pyrethroid pesticides, including tefluthrin, tetramethrin, cyphenothrin, cyfluthrin, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, deltamethrin, bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and tralomethrin were determined using the described procedure with satisfactory recoveries for most of them, at spiking levels ranging from 0.08 to 0.82 mg/kg for the different compounds. Crops subjected to the described procedure included strawberry, apple, and orange gave extracts containing a mass of co-extractives that was between 5 and 30 mg. Compared with classical schemes, the described procedure is simple, less labour intensive, allows parallel handling of several extracts and does not require the preparation and maintenance of equipment. Troublesome emulsions such as those frequently observed in separation funnel partitioning do not occur.

  5. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of residual bacterial species of fouled membranes after NaOCl cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ronald R; Hori, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Kazuyuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems during wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this regard, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been widely used to wash fouled membranes for maintenance and recovery purposes. Advanced chemical and biological characterization was conducted in this work to evaluate the performance of aqueous NaOCl solutions during washing of polyacrylonitrile membranes. Fouled membranes from MBR operations supplemented with artificial wastewater were washed with 0.1% and 0.5% aqueous NaOCl solutions for 5, 10 and 30 min. The changes in organics composition on the membrane surface were directly monitored by an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrometer. In addition, high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was applied to detect any residual microorganisms. Results from ATR-FT-IR analysis indicated the complete disappearance of functional groups representing different fouling compounds after at least 30 min of treatment with 0.1% NaOCl. However, the biomolecular survey revealed the presence of residual bacteria even after 30 min of treatment with 0.5% NaOCl solution. Evaluation of microbial diversity of treated samples using Chao1, Shannon and Simpson reciprocal indices showed an increase in evenness while no significant decline in richness was observed. These implied that only the population of dominant species was mainly affected. The high-resolution phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of numerous operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whose close relatives exhibit halotolerance. Some OTUs related to thermophilic and acid-resistant strains were also identified. Finally, the taxonomic analysis of recycled membranes that were previously washed with NaOCl also showed the presence of numerous halotolerant-related OTUs in the early stage of fouling. This further suggested the possible contribution of such chemical tolerance on their survival against NaOCl washing, which in turn

  6. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force

  7. Determination of Anthracycline Drug Residual in Cleaning Validation Swabs of Stainless-Steel Equipment after Production of Cytostatic Injections Using HPLC Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Slivová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning procedures of production line equipment were verified after manufacture of cytostatic injections containing Anthracycline derivate substance. Residual content of Anthracycline drug substance on stainless-steel equipment surface was determined using swab sampling with a specific HPLC-DAD analysis. The acceptance limit was decided as 200.0 μg/100 cm2. Recovery from the stainless-steel surface was 90.1%. Linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 0.155–194 μg/mL when estimated using Zorbax TMS (5 μm, 0.25 m × 4.6 mm ID column at 1.3 mL/min flow rate and 254 nm (DAD 190–600 nm. The mobile phase consisted of lauryl hydrogen sulphate solution (3.7 g/L : methanol : acetonitrile (54 : 16 : 30, v/v/v with pH adjusted to 2.5 using phosphoric acid (85%. The LOD and LOQ for Anthracycline derivate were found to be 0.047 and 0.155 μg/mL, respectively. The method validation confirmed the method provides acceptable degree of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for the intended purposes.

  8. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  9. Influence of hexavanadates on Na+/K+- ATPase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great interest in use of polioximetalates in clinical medicine, primary as antibacterial, antiviral and antitumoral agents. Considering the key role of Na+/ K+- ATPase in normal functioning of most animal cells, as well as pivotal roles in cancer cell migration, the aim of this paper was to examine the influence of new synthesized hexavandates [V6-CH3][Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 on Na+/K+- ATPase activity. Material and methods: The enzymatic activity of porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+- ATPase was followed in both the absence and presence of increasing concentration of [V6-CH3] [Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 (within the range 10-8 - 10-3 mol/L. The released Pi, liberated from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP, was determined by spectrophotometric method, using Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results: Investigated compounds inhibit the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase in dose-dependent manner within the investigated range. Obtained results indicate that all investigated compounds inhibit the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, but with different inhibiting power. [V6-NO2] [TBA]2 (IC50 = 1,87 × 10-5 mol/L was the most potent inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, while [V6-C5d][TBA]2 showed the least potent inhibiting power (IC50 = 1,31 × 10-4 mol/L . The results are consistent with previously published concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of polyoxometalates (including polioxovandates on ATPase activity from different model syistems. Conclusion: Based on the results, we can conclude that the examined compounds inhibit Na+/K+- ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibiting power of tested hexavanadates are different, and weaker than inhibiting power of decavanadates (tested earlier on Na+/K+- ATPase activity, which is probably due to differences in charge, size and shape of these polioxometalates. Considering the role of this enzymes in the functioning of healthy cells and the

  10. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  11. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  12. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  13. Conceptual design report: Decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-1 Mark-2 NaK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; La Rue, D.M.; Stoll, F.E.; Dolenc, M.R.; Crandall, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    A conceptual design of a processing system for approximately 180 gallons of contaminated NaK (sodium/potassium eutectic alloy) is presented. This NaK resulted from an incident at EBR-1 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1955. The proposed method of decommissioning the NaK is to chemically deactivate it by combining it with gaseous chlorine. This process will produce a solid mass of potassium chloride and sodium chloride salts which will mitigate the consequences of further chemical reaction of the NaK should the storage containers be breached in any way. Following the processing of the NaK, the storage vessels will be transferred to an appropriate storage facility for radioactive wastes. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  14. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David E.; Godfroy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid, which has specific pumping requirements. Traditionally, electromagnetic linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and pressure head conditions for NaK systems but they can be limited in performance, efficiency, and number of available vendors. The objective of the project was to develop a mechanical NaK centrifugal pump that takes advantages of technology advances not available in previous liquid metal mechanical pump designs. This paper details the design, build, and performance test of a mechanical NaK pump developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  15. Enhancement of Na/K pump activity by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protected against reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Cai; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Li-Nan; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Qing; Li, Jun-Xia; Yin, Jian; Wang, Yong-Li

    2011-06-01

    Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has been shown to attenuate intracellular Na(+) accumulation and Ca(2+) overload during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), both of which are closely related to the outcome of myocardial damage. Na/K pump plays an essential role in maintaining the equilibrium of intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) during I/R. It has been shown that enhancement of Na/K pump activity by ischemic preconditioning may be involved in the cardiac protection. Therefore, we tested whether Na/K pump was involved in the cardioprotection by CIHH. We found that Na/K pump current in cardiac myocytes of guinea pigs exposed to CIHH increased 1.45-fold. The K(1) and f(1), which reflect the portion of α(1)-isoform of Na/K pump, dramatically decreased or increased, respectively, in CIHH myocytes. Western blot analysis revealed that CIHH increased the protein expression of the α(1)-isoform by 76%, whereas the protein expression of the α(2)-isoform was not changed significantly. Na/K pump current was significantly suppressed in simulated I/R, and CIHH preserved the Na/K pump current. CIHH significantly improved the recovery of cell length and contraction during reperfusion. Furthermore, inhibition of Na/K pump by ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by CIHH. Collectively, these data suggest that the increase of Na/K pump activity following CIHH is due to the upregulating α(1)-isoform of Na/K pump, which may be one of the mechanisms of CIHH against I/R-induced injury.

  16. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  17. Na and K dependence of the Na/K pump in cystic fibrosis fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Reznik, V M; Schneider, J A; Mendoza, S A

    1981-01-01

    The Na and K dependence of the Na/K pump was measured in skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis and age/sex-matched controls. Under basal conditions, there was no difference between control and cystic fibrosis cells in protein per cell, intracellular Na and K content, or Na/K pump activity (measured as ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake). There was no difference in the Na dependence of the Na/K pump between cystic fibrosis cells and control cells. In cells from patients with cystic fi...

  18. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David; Godfroy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for mid-range spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid. Traditionally, linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and head conditions for liquid metal systems but can be limited in performance. This paper details the design, build, and check-out test of a mechanical NaK pump. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  19. Physical Manipulation of the Na/K Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David; Mathis, Clausell; Chen, Wei

    2012-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a well-designed oscillating electric field can synchronize and modulate the functions of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump, a ubiquitous active transporter in the cell membrane. Current work aims to improve this technique in order to synchronize the individual steps in the pumping cycle, allowing all of the individual pumps to run simultaneously. Using frog skeletal muscle fibers and the double Vaseline-gap voltage clamp technique, we are working to design wave pulses, which will isolate the voltage dependent steps of the active ion transport. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio and provide insight into the protein conformation changes that occur during active transport.

  20. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  1. Oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figtree, Gemma A; Keyvan Karimi, Galougahi; Liu, Chia-Chi; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2012-12-15

    The Na(+)-K(+) pump is an essential heterodimeric membrane protein, which maintains electrochemical gradients for Na(+) and K(+) across cell membranes in all tissues. We have identified glutathionylation, a reversible posttranslational redox modification, of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's β1 subunit as a regulatory mechanism of pump activity. Oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump by angiotensin II- and β1-adrenergic receptor-coupled signaling via NADPH oxidase activation demonstrates the relevance of this regulatory mechanism in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. This has implications for dysregulation of intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) as well as increased oxidative stress in heart failure, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, and regulation of vascular tone under conditions of elevated oxidative stress. Treatment strategies that are able to reverse this oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump have the potential for cardiovascular-protective effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional interaction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Na+/K+ ATPase from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Xiao, Youxin; Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Zewen; Fang, Jichao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-06

    Associated proteins are important for the correct functioning of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present study, a neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column was used to isolate related proteins from a solubilized membrane preparation from the nervous system of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). 1530 peptides were identified and most of them were involved in the membranous structure, molecular interaction and cellular communication. Among these peptides, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase had the highest MASCOT score and were involved in the molecular interaction, which suggested that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and nAChRs might have strong and stable interactions in insect central nervous system. In the present study, functional interactions between nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were examined by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. The results showed that the activated nAChRs increased pump currents of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which did not require current flow through open nAChRs. In turn, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase significantly increased agonist sensitivities of nAChRs in a pump activity-independent manner and reduced the maximum current (Imax) of nAChRs. These findings provide novel insights concerning the functional interactions between insect nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase.

  3. Evidence for coordinate genetic control of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuise, M.; Flier, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The erythrocyte is widely used as a model cell for studies of the Na,K pump in health and disease. However, little is known about the factors that control the number of Na,K pumps expressed on the erythrocytes of a given individual, nor about the extent to which erythrocytes can be used to validly assess the pump density on other cell types. In this report, the authors have compared the interindividual variance of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes of unrelated individuals to that seen with identical twins. Unlike unrelated individuals, in whom pump parameters, i.e., ouabain binding sites, 86 Rb uptake, and cell Na concentration vary widely, identical twin pairs showed no significant intrapair variation for these values. Thus, a role for genetic factors is suggested. In addition, the authors established and validated a method for determining Na,K pump density and pump-mediated 86 Rb uptake in human peripheral lymphocytes. Using this method, they show that whereas Na,K pump density differs markedly between erythrocytes (mean of 285 sites per cell) and lymphocytes (mean 40,600 sites per cell), there is a strong and highly significant correlation (r = 0.79, P less than 0.001) between the pump density in these cell types in any given individual. Taken together, these studies suggest that genetic factors are important determinants of Na,K pump expression, and that pump density appears to be coordinately regulated in two cell types in healthy individuals

  4. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P ... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P Na+,K+ pump content by 18 ± 9% (P

  5. A brief history of residual alkali metal destruction development in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The reactors at Dounreay are being decommissioned and there is a need to remove all the residual alkali metal before they can be dismantled. When the Prototype Fast Reactor was shut down work was started to remove the bulk sodium and development of the Water Vapour Nitrogen (WVN) process for the destruction of the residual alkali metal commenced. This development has been ongoing to the present day. Trials began with small amounts of sodium and NaK before moving to larger scale experiments. The development raised a number of issues. As knowledge was built up, the development was expanded to deal with NaK pools in the DFR. Differences in the behaviour of NaK and sodium led to various different processes being developed. This paper presents a brief history of the alkali metal destruction process development within the UK and highlights some of the lessons learnt for future application during reactor decommissioning (authors)

  6. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-01-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific 86 Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition

  7. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.

  8. Synchronization modulation of Na/K pumps on Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    We developed a new technique named synchronization modulation to electrically synchronize and modulate the Na/K pump molecules by a specially designed oscillating electric field. This technique is based on the theory of energy-trap in quantum physics as well as the concept of electronic synchrotron accelerator. As a result, the Na-transports are all entrapped into the positive half-cycle of the applied electric field and consequently, all of the K-transports are entrapped into the negative half cycle of the field. To demonstrate the process of the pump synchronization and modulation, we use Xenopus oocytes as a platform and introduce two-electrode whole-cell voltage clamp in measurement of pump current. Practically, we first synchronize the pump molecules running at the same pace (rate and phase) by a specially designed oscillation electric field. Then, we carefully maintain the pump synchronization status and gradually change the field frequency (decrease and increase) to modulate the pump molecules to newer pumping rate. The result shows a separation of the inward K current from the outward Na current, and about 10 time increase of the total (inward plus outward) pump current from the net outward current from the random paced pump molecules. Also, the ratio of the modulated total pump current with synchronized total pump current is consistent with the ratio of their field frequencies.

  9. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  10. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  11. Alloxan-induced diabetes reduces sarcolemmal Na+-K+ pump function in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter S; Clarke, Ronald J; Buhagiar, Kerrie A; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; White, Caroline; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of diabetes on sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump function is important for our understanding of heart disease associated with diabetes and design of its treatment. We induced diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia but no other major metabolic disturbances in rabbits. Ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rabbits and controls were voltage clamped and internally perfused with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p), arising from the 3:2 Na(+)-to-K(+) exchange ratio) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by Na(+)-K(+) pump blockade with 100 micromol/l ouabain in most experiments. There was no effect of diabetes on I(p) recorded when myocytes were perfused with pipette solutions containing 80 mmol/l Na(+) to nearly saturate intracellular Na(+)-K(+) pump sites. However, diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in I(p) measured when pipette solutions contained 10 mmol/l Na(+). The decrease was independent of membrane voltage but dependent on the intracellular concentration of K(+). There was no effect of diabetes on the sensitivity of I(p) to extracellular K(+). Pump inhibition was abolished by restoration of euglycemia or by in vivo angiotensin II receptor blockade with losartan. We conclude that diabetes induces sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition that can be reversed with pharmacological intervention.

  12. Electrogenic properties of the Na+/K+ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K+] and [Na+], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na+/K+ pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na+/K+ pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na+]. Second, we show that the Na+/K+ pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na+/K+ pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na+/K+ ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. PMID:25589588

  13. Synchronization modulation increases transepithelial potentials in MDCK monolayers through Na/K pumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Tran

    Full Text Available Transepithelial potential (TEP is the voltage across a polarized epithelium. In epithelia that have active transport functions, the force for transmembrane flux of an ion is dictated by the electrochemical gradient in which TEP plays an essential role. In epithelial injury, disruption of the epithelial barrier collapses the TEP at the wound edge, resulting in the establishment of an endogenous wound electric field (∼100 mV/mm that is directed towards the center of the wound. This endogenous electric field is implicated to enhance wound healing by guiding cell migration. We thus seek techniques to enhance the TEP, which may increase the wound electric fields and enhance wound healing. We report a novel technique, termed synchronization modulation (SM using a train of electric pulses to synchronize the Na/K pump activity, and then modulating the pumping cycles to increase the efficiency of the Na/K pumps. Kidney epithelial monolayers (MDCK cells maintain a stable TEP and transepithelial resistance (TER. SM significantly increased TEP over four fold. Either ouabain or digoxin, which block Na/K pump, abolished SM-induced TEP increases. In addition to the pump activity, basolateral distribution of Na/K pumps is essential for an increase in TEP. Our study for the first time developed an electrical approach to significantly increase the TEP. This technique targeting the Na/K pump may be used to modulate TEP, and may have implication in wound healing and in diseases where TEP needs to be modulated.

  14. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  15. Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase transport velocity by RNA editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Colina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Because firing properties and metabolic rates vary widely, neurons require different transport rates from their Na(+/K(+ pumps in order to maintain ion homeostasis. In this study we show that Na(+/K(+ pump activity is tightly regulated by a novel process, RNA editing. Three codons within the squid Na(+/K(+ ATPase gene can be recoded at the RNA level, and the efficiency of conversion for each varies dramatically, and independently, between tissues. At one site, a highly conserved isoleucine in the seventh transmembrane span can be converted to a valine, a change that shifts the pump's intrinsic voltage dependence. Mechanistically, the removal of a single methyl group specifically targets the process of Na(+ release to the extracellular solution, causing a higher turnover rate at the resting membrane potential.

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  18. Reversible oxidative modification: a key mechanism of Na+-K+ pump regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figtree, Gemma A; Liu, Chia-Chi; Bibert, Stephanie; Hamilton, Elisha J; Garcia, Alvaro; White, Caroline N; Chia, Karin K M; Cornelius, Flemming; Geering, Kaethi; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2009-07-17

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits the cardiac sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump via protein kinase (PK)C-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. We examined whether this is mediated by oxidative modification of the pump subunits. We detected glutathionylation of beta(1), but not alpha(1), subunits in rabbit ventricular myocytes at baseline. beta(1) Subunit glutathionylation was increased by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), paraquat, or activation of NADPH oxidase by Ang II. Increased glutathionylation was associated with decreased alpha(1)/beta(1) subunit coimmunoprecipitation. Glutathionylation was reversed after addition of superoxide dismutase. Glutaredoxin 1, which catalyzes deglutathionylation, coimmunoprecipitated with beta(1) subunit and, when included in patch pipette solutions, abolished paraquat-induced inhibition of myocyte Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p)). Cysteine (Cys46) of the beta(1) subunit was the likely candidate for glutathionylation. We expressed Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(1) subunits with wild-type or Cys46-mutated beta(1) subunits in Xenopus oocytes. ONOO(-) induced glutathionylation of beta(1) subunit and a decrease in Na(+)-K(+) pump turnover number. This was eliminated by mutation of Cys46. ONOO(-) also induced glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase beta(1) subunit from pig kidney. This was associated with a approximately 2-fold decrease in the rate-limiting E(2)-->E(1) conformational change of the pump, as determined by RH421 fluorescence. We propose that kinase-dependent regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump occurs via glutathionylation of its beta(1) subunit at Cys46. These findings have implications for pathophysiological conditions characterized by neurohormonal dysregulation, myocardial oxidative stress and raised myocyte Na(+) levels.

  19. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not

  20. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  1. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  2. Dual throat NaK pump performance evaluation (conceptual design of prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of the dual throat NaK pump for the 5 Kwe Reactor TE System is discussed. Performance at nominal operating conditions and at startup conditions is predicted. The basis for selection of this pump design is presented. (U.S.)

  3. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx and [ 3 H] ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, [ 3 H] ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated 86 Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx to normal

  4. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José Jaime; Bundgaard, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity...

  5. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-09-01

    Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated /sup 86/Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx to normal.

  6. Reduced levels of skeletal muscle Na+K+ -ATPase in McArdle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, R. G.; Clausen, T.; Vissing, J.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that impaired sarcolemmal function associated with exaggerated potassium release, impaired potassium uptake, or both may contribute to exertional fatigue and abnormal circulatory responses to exercise in McArdle disease (MD). The cellular mechanism of exertional fatigue and muscle injury in MD is unknown but likely involves impaired function of the ATPases that couple ATP hydrolysis to cellular work, including the muscle sodium potassium pump (Na+K+-ATPase). However, the concentration of muscle Na+K+ pumps in MD is not known, and no studies have related exercise increases in blood potassium concentrations to muscle Na+K+ pump levels. We measured muscle Na+K+ pumps (3H-ouabain binding) and plasma K+ in response to 20 minutes of cycle exercise in six patients with MD and in six sex-, age-, and weight-matched sedentary individuals. MD patients had lower levels of 3H-ouabain binding (231 +/- 18 pmol/g w.w., mean +/- SD, range, 210 to 251) than control subjects (317 +/- 37, range, 266 to 371, p Na+K+ pump levels are low in MD patients compared with healthy subjects and identify a limitation of potassium reuptake that could result in sarcolemmal failure during peak rates of membrane activation and may promote exaggerated potassium-activated circulatory responses to submaximal exercise. The mechanism of the low Na+K+ pump concentrations in MD is unknown but may relate to deconditioning or to disruption of a close functional relationship between membrane ion transport and glycolysis.

  7. Angiotensin II inhibits the Na+-K+ pump via PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Caroline N; Figtree, Gemma A; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Chia, Karin K M; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2009-04-01

    The sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump, pivotal in cardiac myocyte function, is inhibited by angiotensin II (ANG II). Since ANG II activates NADPH oxidase, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase mediates the pump inhibition. Exposure to 100 nmol/l ANG II increased superoxide-sensitive fluorescence of isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The increase was abolished by pegylated superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and by myristolated inhibitory peptide to epsilon-protein kinase C (epsilonPKC), previously implicated in ANG II-induced Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition. A role for epsilonPKC was also supported by an ANG II-induced increase in coimmunoprecipitation of epsilonPKC with the receptor for the activated kinase and with the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase. ANG II decreased electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. The decrease was abolished by SOD, by the gp91ds inhibitory peptide that blocks assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase, and by epsilonPKC inhibitory peptide. Since colocalization should facilitate NADPH oxidase-dependent regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, we examined whether there is physical association between the pump subunits and NADPH oxidase. The alpha(1)-subunit coimmunoprecipitated with caveolin 3 and with membrane-associated p22(phox) and cytosolic p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits at baseline. ANG II had no effect on alpha(1)/caveolin 3 or alpha(1)/p22(phox) interaction, but it increased alpha(1)/p47(phox) coimmunoprecipitation. We conclude that ANG II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump via PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase activation.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion via the Na+-K+ pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amin; Oh, Young-Bin; Shan, Gao; Song, Chang Ho; Park, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2010-09-01

    The alteration in osmolarity challenges cell volume regulation, a vital element for cell survival. Hyposmolarity causes an increase in cell volume. Recently, it has been reported that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in cell volume regulation. We investigated the effect of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] on hyposmolarity-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in normal and diabetic (DM) rat atria and modulation of the effect of Ang-(1-7) by the Na(+)-K(+) pump. Using isolated control rat atria, we observed that perfusion of hyposmotic solution into the atria increased ANP secretion. When Ang-(1-7) [0.1 microM or 1 microM] was perfused in a hyposmolar solution, it decreased the hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of Ang-(1-7) could be mediated by the Na(+)-K(+) pump, since ouabain, an Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor, significantly decreased the effect of Ang-(1-7) on hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion. In contrast, N(omega) Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) did not modify the effect of Ang-(1-7) on the hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion. Interestingly, the ANP secretion was increased robustly by the perfusion of the hyposmolar solution in the DM atria, as compared to the control atria. However, the inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on the hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion was not observed in the DM atria. In the DM atria, atrial contractility was significantly increased. Taken together, we concluded that Ang-(1-7) attenuated hyposmolarity-induced ANP secretion via the Na(+)-K(+) pump and a lack of Ang-(1-7) response in DM atria may partly relate to change in Na(+)-K(+) pump activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of the (Na+K+S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko; Chartrand, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    The (Na+K+S) system is of primary importance for the combustion of black liquor in the kraft recovery boilers in pulp and paper mills. A thermodynamic evaluation and optimization for the (Na+K+S) system has been made. All available data for the system have been critically evaluated to obtain optimized parameters of thermodynamic models for all phases. The liquid model is the quasichemical model in the quadruplet approximation, which evaluates 1st- and 2nd-nearest-neighbour short-range-order. In this model, cations (Na + and K + ) are assumed to mix on a cationic sublattice, while anions (S 2- ,S 2 2- ,S 3 2- ,S 4 2- ,S 5 2- ,S 6 2- ,S 7 2- ,S 8 2- ,Va - ) are assumed to mix on an anionic sublattice. The thermodynamic data of the liquid polysulphide components M 2 S 1+n (M=Na, K and n=1-7) are fitted to ΔG=A(n)+B(n).T for the reaction M 2 S(l)+nS(l)=M 2 S n+1 (l). The solid phases are the alkali alloys, alkali sulphides, several different alkali polysulphides and sulphur. The solid solutions (Na,K) (Na,K) 2 S and (Na,K) 2 S 2 are modelled using the compound energy formalism. The models can be used to predict the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria in the multicomponent heterogeneous system. The experimental data are reproduced within experimental error limits for equilibria between solid, liquid and gas. The ternary phase diagram of the system (Na 2 S+K 2 S+S) has been predicted as no experimental determinations of the phase diagram have been made previously

  10. Reduced levels of skeletal muscle Na+K+ -ATPase in McArdle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, R. G.; Clausen, T.; Vissing, J.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that impaired sarcolemmal function associated with exaggerated potassium release, impaired potassium uptake, or both may contribute to exertional fatigue and abnormal circulatory responses to exercise in McArdle disease (MD). The cellular mechanism of exertional fatigue and muscle injury in MD is unknown but likely involves impaired function of the ATPases that couple ATP hydrolysis to cellular work, including the muscle sodium potassium pump (Na+K+-ATPase). However, the concentration of muscle Na+K+ pumps in MD is not known, and no studies have related exercise increases in blood potassium concentrations to muscle Na+K+ pump levels. We measured muscle Na+K+ pumps (3H-ouabain binding) and plasma K+ in response to 20 minutes of cycle exercise in six patients with MD and in six sex-, age-, and weight-matched sedentary individuals. MD patients had lower levels of 3H-ouabain binding (231 +/- 18 pmol/g w.w., mean +/- SD, range, 210 to 251) than control subjects (317 +/- 37, range, 266 to 371, p < 0.0004), higher peak increases in plasma potassium in response to 45 +/- 7 W cycle exercise (MD, 1.00 +/- 0.15 mmol/L; control subjects, 0.48 +/- 0.09; p < 0.0001), and mean exercise heart rate responses to exercise that were 45 +/- 12 bpm greater than control subjects. Our results indicate that Na+K+ pump levels are low in MD patients compared with healthy subjects and identify a limitation of potassium reuptake that could result in sarcolemmal failure during peak rates of membrane activation and may promote exaggerated potassium-activated circulatory responses to submaximal exercise. The mechanism of the low Na+K+ pump concentrations in MD is unknown but may relate to deconditioning or to disruption of a close functional relationship between membrane ion transport and glycolysis.

  11. Effect of dexamethasone on skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump subunit specific expression and K+ homeostasis during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Ovesen, Jakob; Thomassen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on Na(+),K(+) pump subunit expression and muscle exchange of K(+) during exercise in humans was investigated. Nine healthy male subjects completed a randomized double blind placebo controlled protocol, with ingestion of dexamethasone (Dex: 2 x 2 mg per day) or placebo...... (Pla) for 5 days. Na(+),K(+) pump catalytic alpha1 and alpha2 subunit expression was approximately 17% higher (P ...). The results indicate that an increased Na(+),K(+) pump expression per se is of importance for thigh K(+) reuptake at the onset of low and moderate intensity exercise, but less important during high intensity exercise....

  12. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  13. The effect of deferoxamine on brain lipid peroxide levels and Na-K ATPase activity following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Türközkan, N; Aricioğlu, A; Aykol, S; Cevik, C; Göksel, M

    1994-05-01

    1. In the present study we have studied the effects of deferoxamine treatment on lipid peroxidation and Na-K ATPase activity after experimental induction of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in guinea pigs. 2. We assessed the extent of lipid peroxidation by measuring the level of malondialdehyde and Na-K ATPase activity in 3 different groups (sham-operated, SAH, SAH + deferoxamine). 3. There was no significant difference in lipid peroxide content between sham-operated and haemorrhagic animals, but Na-K ATPase activity decreased after SAH. 4. Deferoxamine treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content and induced the recovery of Na-K ATPase activity, exerting a brain protective role against the detrimental effects of the haemorrhage.

  14. Modification of NaK (Na and K) dissolution device at the L.E.C.I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansard, Bernard; Ducas, Serge; Riviere, Michel

    1969-12-01

    As three NaK dissolution devices had been operated since 1965 and as irradiation assemblies with a greater capacity (2 to 3 times) are now to be used, the modification of these dissolution devices is addressed. This requires a better control of the dissolution reaction (the NaK + alcohol reaction is highly exothermic and results in an effervescence which requires a greater volume). The objectives are therefore to delay the dissolution, to trigger it, to stop it, to control it at will, and to release heat. The new device is then described with its vessel, its cap, its ball valve, and its two tight sleeves. The operation principle is described, as well as the NaK draining process, and the NaK dissolution. Safety, time saving and raw matter saving issues are finally outlined

  15. On the effect of hyperaldosteronism-inducing mutations in Na/K pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dylan J; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2017-11-06

    Primary aldosteronism, a condition in which too much aldosterone is produced and that leads to hypertension, is often initiated by an aldosterone-producing adenoma within the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Somatic mutations of ATP1A1, encoding the Na/K pump α1 subunit, have been found in these adenomas. It has been proposed that a passive inward current transported by several of these mutant pumps is a "gain-of-function" activity that produces membrane depolarization and concomitant increases in aldosterone production. Here, we investigate whether the inward current through mutant Na/K pumps is large enough to induce depolarization of the cells that harbor them. We first investigate inward currents induced by these mutations in Xenopus Na/K pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes and find that these inward currents are similar in amplitude to wild-type outward Na/K pump currents. Subsequently, we perform a detailed functional evaluation of the human Na/K pump mutants L104R, delF100-L104, V332G, and EETA963S expressed in Xenopus oocytes. By combining two-electrode voltage clamp with [ 3 H]ouabain binding, we measure the turnover rate of these inward currents and compare it to the turnover rate for outward current through wild-type pumps. We find that the turnover rate of the inward current through two of these mutants (EETA963S and L104R) is too small to induce significant cell depolarization. Electrophysiological characterization of another hyperaldosteronism-inducing mutation, G99R, reveals the absence of inward currents under many different conditions, including in the presence of the regulator FXYD1 as well as with mammalian ionic concentrations and body temperatures. Instead, we observe robust outward currents, but with significantly reduced affinities for intracellular Na + and extracellular K + Collectively, our results point to loss-of-function as the common mechanism for the hyperaldosteronism induced by these Na/K pump mutants. © 2017 Meyer et al.

  16. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  17. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  18. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  19. Is activation of the Na+K+ pump necessary for NGF-mediated neuronal survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendtner, M.; Gnahn, H.; Wakade, A.; Thoenen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of nerve growth factor to cause rapid activation of the Na+K+ pump of its responsive cells was examined by measuring the uptake of 86 Rb+. A significant increase in 86 Rb+ uptake in E8 chick dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons after NGF treatment was seen only if the cells had been damaged during the preparation procedure. Such damaged cells could not survive in culture in the presence of NGF, and undamaged cells that did survive in response to NGF exhibited no increased 86 Rb+ uptake rate. Furthermore, cultured calf adrenal medullary cells did not show an increase in 86 Rb+ uptake after treatment with NGF, although these cells respond to NGF with an increased synthesis of catecholaminergic enzymes. These results are incompatible with the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of NGF that promotes neuronal survival and enzyme induction results from an initial stimulation of the Na+K+ pump

  20. Multichannel modeling and two-photon coherent transfer paths in NaK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, T. A.; Temelkov, I. I.; Gempel, M. W.; Hartmann, T.; Knöckel, H.; Ospelkaus, S.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-08-01

    We explore possible pathways for the creation of ultracold polar NaK molecules in their absolute electronic and rovibrational ground state starting from ultracold Feshbach molecules. In particular, we present a multichannel analysis of the electronic ground and K(4p)+Na(3s) excited-state manifold of NaK, analyze the spin character of both the Feshbach molecular state and the electronically excited intermediate states and discuss possible coherent two-photon transfer paths from Feshbach molecules to rovibronic ground-state molecules. The theoretical study is complemented by the demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage from the X1Σ+(v=0) state to the a3Σ+ manifold on a molecular beam experiment.

  1. Erythrocyte Na+/K+ ATPase activity measured with sup 23 Na NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouwerkerk, R.; van Echteld, C.J.; Staal, G.E.; Rijksen, G. (University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherland))

    1989-11-01

    A {sup 23}Na NMR assay for measurement of erythrocyte Na+/K+ ATPase activity is presented. Using the nonpermeant shift reagent dysprosium tripolyphosphate the signals of intra- and extracellular sodium are separated, enabling measurement of sodium fluxes nondestructively, without the need to physically separate the cells from their environment. By increasing membrane permeability with nystatin we have shown that the assay allows the detection of differences in membrane permeability. With low doses of nystatin the ouabain-sensitive sodium flux increased more than twofold. With high doses of nystatin the Na+/K+ pump could not prevent an almost total equilibration of intra- and extracellular sodium. All sodium that entered the cells remained NMR visible, proving that sodium influx can be measured quantitatively. {sup 31}P NMR spectra taken before and after the assay revealed a slight acidification of the cells and no significant change in ATP concentration. No evidence of Dy3+ entering the cell was observed.

  2. Characterization of the cardiac Na+/K+ pump by development of a comprehensive and mechanistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Chiaki; Cha, Chae Young; Noma, Akinori

    2010-07-07

    A large amount of experimental data on the characteristics of the cardiac Na(+)/K(+) pump have been accumulated, but it remains difficult to predict the quantitative contribution of the pump in an intact cell because most measurements have been made under non-physiological conditions. To extrapolate the experimental findings to intact cells, we have developed a comprehensive Na(+)/K(+) pump model based on the thermodynamic framework (Smith and Crampin, 2004) of the Post-Albers reaction cycle combined with access channel mechanisms. The new model explains a variety of experimental results for the Na(+)/K(+) pump current (I(NaK)), including the dependency on the concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), the membrane potential and the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. The model demonstrates that both the apparent affinity and the slope of the substrate-I(NaK) relationship measured experimentally are affected by the composition of ions in the extra- and intracellular solutions, indirectly through alteration in the probability distribution of individual enzyme intermediates. By considering the voltage dependence in the Na(+)- and K(+)-binding steps, the experimental voltage-I(NaK) relationship could be reconstructed with application of experimental ionic compositions in the model, and the view of voltage-dependent K(+) binding was supported. Re-evaluation of charge movements accompanying Na(+) and K(+) translocations gave a reasonable number for the site density of the Na(+)/K(+) pump on the membrane. The new model is relevant for simulation of cellular functions under various interventions, such as depression of energy metabolism. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  4. Insulin regulation of Na/K pump activity in rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelehrter, T.D.; Shreve, P.D.; Dilworth, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Insulin rapidly increases Na/K pump activity in HTC rat hepatoma cells in tissue culture, as measured by the ouabain-sensitive influx of the potassium analogue 86Rb+. Increased influx is observed within minutes and is maximal (70% above control) within 1-2 h. The effect appears to be mediated by the insulin receptors, as: the concentration dependence on insulin is identical to that for insulin induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and stimulation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport, proinsulin is 6% as potent as insulin, and the effect is blocked by anti-receptor antibodies. The early stimulation of potassium influx is not blocked by cycloheximide and is not associated with an increased number of pump sites as measured by 3 H-ouabain binding. The insulin effect is blocked by amiloride, which blocks sodium influx, and is mimicked by the sodium ionophore monensin, which increases sodium influx and intracellular accumulation. Insulin also rapidly increases the initial rate of 22 Na+ influx, suggesting that insulin may enhance Na/K pump activity, in part, by increasing intracellular sodium concentration. Incubation of HTC cells with insulin for 24 h causes complete unresponsiveness to the insulin induction of transaminase and stimulation of amino acid transport, a phenomenon mediated by postbinding mechanisms. In contrast, similar incubation with insulin does not cause unresponsiveness to the insulin stimulation of Na/K pump activity. Therefore, the site of regulation of responsiveness to insulin must be distal to, or separate from, those events causing stimulation of ion fluxes

  5. Explosive hazards analysis of the eutectic solution NaK and KO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.

    1975-06-01

    Planning, preparation, conductance, and evaluation of field tests are reported to determine the explosive hazards associated with the combining of the sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) with the superoxide of potassium (KO 2 ) under various conditions of state, contamination, and detonation initiation. The planning and preparation was conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the explosive hazards testing was done by Cook Associates, Inc., at IRECO Chemicals Pelican Point Research and Development facility in Utah. The test results showed that binary combinations of pure NaK and KO 2 could not be made to detonate, although the mixtures will spontaneously ignite and burn. However, tertiary combinations of NaK, KO 2 plus a water or hydrocarbon contaminant produced explosive hazards under a variety of conditions. The work was performed as part of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the first Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-I) and was funded by 189c I-215. (U.S.)

  6. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  7. Na-K pump site density and ouabain binding affinity in cultured chick heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobaugh, L.A.; Lieberman, M.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of multiple [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites and the relationship between ouabain binding and Na-K pump inhibition in cardiac muscle were studied using cultured embryonic chick heart cells. [ 3 H]ouabain bound to a single class of sites in 0.5 mM K (0.5 Ko) with an association rate constant (k+1) of 3.4 X 10(4) M-1.s-1 and a dissociation rate constant (k-1) of 0.0095 s. Maximal specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding RT to myocyte-enriched cultures is 11.7 pmol/mg protein and Kd is 0.43 microM in 0.5 Ko, whereas Kd,apparent is 6.6 microM in 5.4 Ko. The number of binding sites per myocyte was calculated by correcting for the contribution of fibroblasts in myocyte-enriched cultures using data from homogeneous fibroblast cultures (RT = 3.3 pmol/mg protein; Kd = 0.19 microM in 0.5 Ko). Equivalence of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites and Na-K pumps was implied by agreement between maximal specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain and 125 I-labeled monoclonal antibody directed against Na+-K+-ATPase (approximately 2 X 10(6) sites/cell). However, [ 3 H]ouabain binding occurred at lower concentrations than inhibition of ouabain-sensitive 42 K uptake in 0.5 Ko. Further studies in both 0.5 K and 5.4 Ko showed that ouabain caused cell Na content Nai to increase over the same range of concentrations that binding occurred, implying that increased Nai may stimulate unbound Na-K pumps and prevent a proportional decrease in 42 K uptake rate. The results show that Na-K pump inhibition occurs as a functional consequence of specific ouabain binding and indicate that the Na-K pump is the cardiac glycoside receptor in cultured heart cells

  8. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na+/2 K+ transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na+/K+ transport when external K+ ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na+-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na+ and K+ ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na+/K+ exchange and H+ import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na+/K+ pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na+/K+ pump–mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or pathophysiological significance remains to be clarified. PMID

  9. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2014-04-01

    A single Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) outwards and two K(+) inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na(+) than K(+) generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na(+)/K(+) pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K(+) and Na(+) ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na(+) release from phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na(+)/2 K(+) transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na(+)/K(+) transport when external K(+) ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na(+)-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na(+) and K(+) ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na(+)/K(+) exchange and H(+) import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na(+)/K(+) pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na(+)/K(+) pump-mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or

  10. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  11. Lithium-induced inhibition of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase activities in rat brain synaptosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. W.

    1995-01-01

    To explore the action mechanism of lithium in the brain, the author investigated the effects of lithium on Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes prepared from forebrains by the method of Booth and Clark. The activities of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase were assayed by the level of inorganic phosphate liberated from the hydrolysis of ATP. Lithium at the optimum therapeutic concentration of 1 mM decreased the activity of Na-K ATPase from the control value of 19.08 +/- 0.29 to 18.27 +/- 0.10 micromoles Pi/mg protein/h and also reduced the activity of Ca ATPase from 6.38 +/- 0.12 to 5.64 +/- 0.12 micromoles Pi/mg protein/h. The decreased activity of Na-K ATPase will decrease the rate of Ca2+ efflux, probably via an Na-Ca exchange mechanism and will increase the rate of Ca2+ entry by the depolarization of nerve terminals. The reduced activity of Ca ATPase will result in the decreased efflux of Ca2+. As a Conclusion, it can be speculated that lithium elevates the intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ concentration via inhibition of the activities of Na-K ATPase and Ca ATPase, and this increased [Ca2+]i will cause the release of neurotransmitters and neurological effects of lithium. PMID:7598829

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  13. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  14. A new power station with clean combustion of coal residues financed by the Commission wins an international prize. Una nueva central electrica de combustion limpia de residuos de carbon financiada por la Comision gana un premio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Between 1987 and 1989 10,55 million ecus were given by the European Commission's Demonstration Programme for the construction of the Emile Huchet power station using circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The power station was constructed jointly by Charbonnages de France, COREAL, Stein Industrie and Lurgi. An important feature was its ability to burn coal preparation wastes cleanly. Despite burning poor quality fuel its emissions are well below the maximum standards. Other stations of this type are now planned in France.

  15. Sodium and Proton Effects on Inward Proton Transport through Na/K Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Travis J.; Zugarramurdi, Camila; Olivera, J. Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Na/K pump hydrolyzes ATP to export three intracellular Na (Nai) as it imports two extracellular K (Ko) across animal plasma membranes. Within the protein, two ion-binding sites (sites I and II) can reciprocally bind Na or K, but a third site (site III) exclusively binds Na in a voltage-dependent fashion. In the absence of Nao and Ko, the pump passively imports protons, generating an inward current (IH). To elucidate the mechanisms of IH, we used voltage-clamp techniques to investigate the [H]o, [Na]o, and voltage dependence of IH in Na/K pumps from ventricular myocytes and in ouabain-resistant pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lowering pHo revealed that Ho both activates IH (in a voltage-dependent manner) and inhibits it (in a voltage-independent manner) by binding to different sites. Nao effects depend on pHo; at pHo where no Ho inhibition is observed, Nao inhibits IH at all concentrations, but when applied at pHo that inhibits pump-mediated current, low [Na]o activates IH and high [Na]o inhibits it. Our results demonstrate that IH is a property inherent to Na/K pumps, not linked to the oocyte expression environment, explains differences in the characteristics of IH previously reported in the literature, and supports a model in which 1), protons leak through site III; 2), binding of two Na or two protons to sites I and II inhibits proton transport; and 3), pumps with mixed Na/proton occupancy of sites I and II remain permeable to protons. PMID:24940773

  16. alpha-Adducin mutations increase Na/K pump activity in renal cells by affecting constitutive endocytosis: implications for tubular Na reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torielli, Lucia; Tivodar, Simona; Montella, Rosa Chiara; Iacone, Roberto; Padoani, Gloria; Tarsini, Paolo; Russo, Ornella; Sarnataro, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2008-08-01

    Genetic variation in alpha-adducin cytoskeletal protein is implicated in the polymerization and bundling of actin and alteration of the Na/K pump, resulting in abnormal renal sodium transport and hypertension in Milan hypertensive rats and humans. To investigate the molecular involvement of alpha-adducin in controlling Na/K pump activity, wild-type or mutated rat and human alpha-adducin forms were, respectively, transfected into several renal cell lines. Through multiple experimental approaches (microscopy, enzymatic assays, coimmunoprecipitation), we showed that rat and human mutated forms increased Na/K pump activity and the number of pump units; moreover, both variants coimmunoprecipitate with Na/K pump. The increased Na/K pump activity was not due to changes in its basolateral localization, but to an alteration of Na/K pump residential time on the plasma membrane. Indeed, both rat and human mutated variants reduced constitutive Na/K pump endocytosis and similarly affected transferrin receptor trafficking and fluid-phase endocytosis. In fact, alpha-adducin was detected in clathrin-coated vesicles and coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. These results indicate that adducin, besides its modulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics, might play a direct role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The constitutive reduction of the Na/K pump endocytic rate induced by mutated adducin variants may be relevant in Na-dependent hypertension.

  17. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  18. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  19. Nucleotide binding induces conformational changes apparent on the Na+/K+ -ATPase large cytoplasmic loop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimunová, Lenka; Kubala, M.; Lánský, Zdeněk; Teisinger, Jan; Amler, Evžen

    Roč.13, č.1 (2006), s. 37-37 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions on Structural Molecular Biology /5./. 16.03.2006-18.03.2006, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR 1ET400110403; GA ČR GD305/03/H148 Grant - others:Grantová agentura UK(CZ) 200053 Keywords : Na+/K+ - ATPase * ATP binding * TNP-ATP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 60 mL/min/1.73 m2or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was −0.60 ± 1.58 versus −0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39. Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of

  1. Cardiac glycoside activities link Na(+)/K(+) ATPase ion-transport to breast cancer cell migration via correlative SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpusao, Anniefer N; Omolloh, George; Johnson, Joshua; Gascón, José; Peczuh, Mark W; Fenteany, Gabriel

    2015-02-20

    The cardiac glycosides ouabain and digitoxin, established Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors, were found to inhibit MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through an unbiased chemical genetics screen for cell motility. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase acts both as an ion-transporter and as a receptor for cardiac glycosides. To delineate which function is related to breast cancer cell migration, structure-activity relationship (SAR) profiles of cardiac glycosides were established at the cellular (cell migration inhibition), molecular (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibition), and atomic (computational docking) levels. The SAR of cardiac glycosides and their analogs revealed a similar profile, a decrease in potency when the parent cardiac glycoside structure was modified, for each activity investigated. Since assays were done at the cellular, molecular, and atomic levels, correlation of SAR profiles across these multiple assays established links between cellular activity and specific protein-small molecule interactions. The observed antimigratory effects in breast cancer cells are directly related to the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) transport. Specifically, the orientation of cardiac glycosides at the putative cation permeation path formed by transmembrane helices αM1-M6 correlates with the Na(+) pump activity and cell migration. Other Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors that are structurally distinct from cardiac glycosides also exhibit antimigratory activity, corroborating the conclusion that the antiport function of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and not the receptor function is important for supporting the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Correlative SAR can establish new relationships between specific biochemical functions and higher-level cellular processes, particularly for proteins with multiple functions and small molecules with unknown or various modes of action.

  2. FXYD proteins reverse inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump mediated by glutathionylation of its beta1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibert, Stéphanie; Liu, Chia-Chi; Figtree, Gemma A; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Marassi, Francesca M; Sweadner, Kathleen J; Cornelius, Flemming; Geering, Käthi; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2011-05-27

    The seven members of the FXYD protein family associate with the Na(+)-K(+) pump and modulate its activity. We investigated whether conserved cysteines in FXYD proteins are susceptible to glutathionylation and whether such reactivity affects Na(+)-K(+) pump function in cardiac myocytes and Xenopus oocytes. Glutathionylation was detected by immunoblotting streptavidin precipitate from biotin-GSH loaded cells or by a GSH antibody. Incubation of myocytes with recombinant FXYD proteins resulted in competitive displacement of native FXYD1. Myocyte and Xenopus oocyte pump currents were measured with whole-cell and two-electrode voltage clamp techniques, respectively. Native FXYD1 in myocytes and FXYD1 expressed in oocytes were susceptible to glutathionylation. Mutagenesis identified the specific cysteine in the cytoplasmic terminal that was reactive. Its reactivity was dependent on flanking basic amino acids. We have reported that Na(+)-K(+) pump β(1) subunit glutathionylation induced by oxidative signals causes pump inhibition in a previous study. In the present study, we found that β(1) subunit glutathionylation and pump inhibition could be reversed by exposing myocytes to exogenous wild-type FXYD3. A cysteine-free FXYD3 derivative had no effect. Similar results were obtained with wild-type and mutant FXYD proteins expressed in oocytes. Glutathionylation of the β(1) subunit was increased in myocardium from FXYD1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, there is a dependence of Na(+)-K(+) pump regulation on reactivity of two specifically identified cysteines on separate components of the multimeric Na(+)-K(+) pump complex. By facilitating deglutathionylation of the β(1) subunit, FXYD proteins reverse oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and play a dynamic role in its regulation.

  3. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+-K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation, and performance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter M; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Nybo, Lars; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in performance of highly trained soccer players with intensified training or training cessation. Eighteen elite soccer players were, for a 2-wk period, assigned to either a group that performed high-intensity training with a reduction in the amount of training (HI, n = 7), or an inactivity group without training (IN, n = 11). HI improved (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform was 15% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump expression was not changed. In HI, the FXYD1ser68-to-FXYD1 ratio was 27% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform expression, and that cessation of training for 2 wk does not affect the expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na(+)-K(+) pump is changed by training and inactivity and may play a role in performance during repeated, intense exercise.

  4. Contribution of the basolateral isoform of the Na-K-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1/BSC2) to renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrop, Hayo; Lorenz, John N; Hansen, Pernille B

    2005-01-01

    Acute administration of loop diuretics like furosemide leads to a stimulation of renin secretion, an effect thought to result from inhibition of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2)-mediated salt transport at the luminal surface of the macula densa (MD). However, loop diuretics also inhibit NKCC1......, the second isoform of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, with similar potency. In the present study, we examined the influence of furosemide on renin secretion in NKCC1-deficient mice to distinguish between effects of the loop diuretic involving NKCC2 and, by implication, the MD pathway, and effects that might...

  5. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  6. Social Marketing in Malaysia: Cognitive, Affective, and Normative Mediators of the TAK NAK Antismoking Advertising Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Fong, Geoffrey T; Dewhirst, Timothy; Kennedy, Ryan D; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Awang, Rahmat; Omar, Maizurah

    2015-01-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society.

  7. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  9. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI) [de

  10. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-09-14

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes.

  11. Cotransport of water by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José J; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl(-) fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored...

  12. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat ...

  13. β(3) adrenergic stimulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump by reversal of an inhibitory oxidative modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current contributes to negative inotropy of β(3) adrenergic receptor (β(3) AR) activation, but effects on other determinants of excitation-contraction coupling are not known. Of these, the Na(+)-K(+) pump is of particular interest because of adverse effects attributed ...

  14. ß(3) adrenergic stimulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump by reversal of an inhibitory oxidative modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current contributes to negative inotropy of ß(3) adrenergic receptor (ß(3) AR) activation, but effects on other determinants of excitation-contraction coupling are not known. Of these, the Na(+)-K(+) pump is of particular interest because of adverse effects attributed ...

  15. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  16. Ultra-clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroether, K.

    1987-01-01

    No other method guarantees such a thorough cleaning of contaminated materials' surfaces. Only ultrasound can reach those cavities crevices and corners where any manual cleaning fails. Furthermore there is no cumbersome and time-consuming manual decontamination which often has to be carried out in glove boxes and hot cells. Depending on the design the cleaning effect can reach from removing adhering dirt particles to removing complete surface layers. (orig./PW) [de

  17. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides

  18. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  19. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  20. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( Pshrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of the (Na+K+S) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: Daniel.Lindberg@abo.fi; Backman, Rainer [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden); Hupa, Mikko [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Chartrand, Patrice [Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique (CRCT), Ecole Polytechnique, Box 6079, Station Downtown, Montreal, Que., H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    The (Na+K+S) system is of primary importance for the combustion of black liquor in the kraft recovery boilers in pulp and paper mills. A thermodynamic evaluation and optimization for the (Na+K+S) system has been made. All available data for the system have been critically evaluated to obtain optimized parameters of thermodynamic models for all phases. The liquid model is the quasichemical model in the quadruplet approximation, which evaluates 1st- and 2nd-nearest-neighbour short-range-order. In this model, cations (Na{sup +} and K{sup +}) are assumed to mix on a cationic sublattice, while anions (S{sup 2-},S{sub 2}{sup 2-},S{sub 3}{sup 2-},S{sub 4}{sup 2-},S{sub 5}{sup 2-},S{sub 6}{sup 2-},S{sub 7}{sup 2-},S{sub 8}{sup 2-},Va{sup -}) are assumed to mix on an anionic sublattice. The thermodynamic data of the liquid polysulphide components M{sub 2}S{sub 1+n} (M=Na, K and n=1-7) are fitted to {delta}G=A(n)+B(n).T for the reaction M{sub 2}S(l)+nS(l)=M{sub 2}S{sub n+1}(l). The solid phases are the alkali alloys, alkali sulphides, several different alkali polysulphides and sulphur. The solid solutions (Na,K) (Na,K){sub 2}S and (Na,K){sub 2}S{sub 2} are modelled using the compound energy formalism. The models can be used to predict the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria in the multicomponent heterogeneous system. The experimental data are reproduced within experimental error limits for equilibria between solid, liquid and gas. The ternary phase diagram of the system (Na{sub 2}S+K{sub 2}S+S) has been predicted as no experimental determinations of the phase diagram have been made previously.

  2. β(3) adrenergic stimulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump by reversal of an inhibitory oxidative modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Huang, Yifei; Chia, Karin K M; Hunyor, Stephen N; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2010-12-21

    inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current contributes to negative inotropy of β(3) adrenergic receptor (β(3) AR) activation, but effects on other determinants of excitation-contraction coupling are not known. Of these, the Na(+)-K(+) pump is of particular interest because of adverse effects attributed to high cardiac myocyte Na(+) levels and upregulation of the β(3) AR in heart failure. we voltage clamped rabbit ventricular myocytes and identified electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p)) as the shift in holding current induced by ouabain. The synthetic β(3) AR agonists BRL37344 and CL316,243 and the natural agonist norepinephrine increased I(p). Pump stimulation was insensitive to the β(1)/β(2) AR antagonist nadolol and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but sensitive to the β(3) AR antagonist L-748,337. Blockade of nitric oxide synthase abolished pump stimulation and an increase in fluorescence of myocytes loaded with a nitric oxide-sensitive dye. Exposure of myocytes to β(3) AR agonists decreased β(1) Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit glutathionylation, an oxidative modification that causes pump inhibition. The in vivo relevance of this was indicated by an increase in myocardial β(1) pump subunit glutathionylation with elimination of β(3) AR-mediated signaling in β(3) AR(-/-) mice. The in vivo effect of BRL37344 on contractility of the nonfailing and failing heart in sheep was consistent with a beneficial effect of Na(+)-K(+) pump stimulation in heart failure. the β(3) AR mediates decreased β(1) subunit glutathionylation and Na(+)-K(+) pump stimulation in the heart. Upregulation of the receptor in heart failure may be a beneficial mechanism that facilitates the export of excess Na(+).

  3. Stimulation of the cardiac myocyte Na+-K+ pump due to reversal of its constitutive oxidative inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Karin K M; Liu, Chia-Chi; Hamilton, Elisha J; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A; Hannam, William; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2015-08-15

    Protein kinase C can activate NADPH oxidase and induce glutathionylation of the β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, inhibiting activity of the catalytic α-subunit. To examine if signaling of nitric oxide-induced soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP/protein kinase G can cause Na(+)-K(+) pump stimulation by counteracting PKC/NADPH oxidase-dependent inhibition, cardiac myocytes were exposed to ANG II to activate NADPH oxidase and inhibit Na(+)-K(+) pump current (Ip). Coexposure to 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) to stimulate sGC prevented the decrease of Ip. Prevention of the decrease was abolished by inhibition of protein phosphatases (PP) 2A but not by inhibition of PP1, and it was reproduced by an activator of PP2A. Consistent with a reciprocal relationship between β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit glutathionylation and pump activity, YC-1 decreased ANG II-induced β1-subunit glutathionylation. The decrease induced by YC-1 was abolished by a PP2A inhibitor. YC-1 decreased phosphorylation of the cytosolic p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit and its coimmunoprecipitation with the membranous p22(phox) subunit, and it decreased O2 (·-)-sensitive dihydroethidium fluorescence of myocytes. Addition of recombinant PP2A to myocyte lysate decreased phosphorylation of p47(phox) indicating the subunit could be a substrate for PP2A. The effects of YC-1 to decrease coimmunoprecipitation of p22(phox) and p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits and decrease β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit glutathionylation were reproduced by activation of nitric oxide-dependent receptor signaling. We conclude that sGC activation in cardiac myocytes causes a PP2A-dependent decrease in NADPH oxidase activity and a decrease in β1 pump subunit glutathionylation. This could account for pump stimulation with neurohormonal oxidative stress expected in vivo. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Ventricular performance and Na+-K+ ATPase activity are reduced early and late after myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stefanon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction leads to compensatory ventricular remodeling. Disturbances in myocardial contractility depend on the active transport of Ca2+ and Na+, which are regulated by Na+-K+ ATPase. Inappropriate regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity leads to excessive loss of K+ and gain of Na+ by the cell. We determined the participation of Na+-K+ ATPase in ventricular performance early and late after myocardial infarction. Wistar rats (8-10 per group underwent left coronary artery ligation (infarcted, Inf or sham-operation (Sham. Ventricular performance was measured at 3 and 30 days after surgery using the Langendorff technique. Left ventricular systolic pressure was obtained under different ventricular diastolic pressures and increased extracellular Ca2+ concentrations (Ca2+e and after low and high ouabain concentrations. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure increased 3 days after myocardial infarction and normalized by 30 days (Sham 3 = 88 ± 6; Inf 3 = 130 ± 9; Inf 30 = 92 ± 7 mmHg; P < 0.05. The inotropic response to Ca2+e and ouabain was reduced at 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction (Ca2+ = 1.25 mM; Sham 3 = 70 ± 3; Inf 3 = 45 ± 2; Inf 30 = 29 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05, while the Frank-Starling mechanism was preserved. At 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction, ventricular Na+-K+ ATPase activity and contractility were reduced. This Na+-K+ ATPase hypoactivity may modify the Na+, K+ and Ca2+ transport across the sarcolemma resulting in ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  7. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  8. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  9. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  10. Muscle K+, Na+, and Cl- disturbances and Na+-K+ pump inactivation: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    (+)-ATPase activity during exercise stabilizes Na(+) and K(+) concentration gradients and membrane excitability and thus protects against fatigue. However, during intense contraction some Na(+)-K(+) pumps are inactivated and together with further ionic disturbances, likely precipitate muscle fatigue.......Membrane excitability is a critical regulatory step in skeletal muscle contraction and is modulated by local ionic concentrations, conductances, ion transporter activities, temperature, and humoral factors. Intense fatiguing contractions induce cellular K(+) efflux and Na(+) and Cl(-) influx......, causing pronounced perturbations in extracellular (interstitial) and intracellular K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. Muscle interstitial K(+) concentration may increase 1- to 2-fold to 11-13 mM and intracellular K(+) concentration fall by 1.3- to 1.7-fold; interstitial Na(+) concentration may decline by 10 m...

  11. An Experiment Study on Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling NAK80 Die Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces that the high speed milling experiments on NAK80 die steel was carried out on the DMU 60 mono BLOCK five axis linkage high speed CNC machining center tool by the TiAlN coated tools, in order to research the effect of milling parameters on surface roughness Ra. The results showed that the Ra value increased with the decrease of milling speed vc, increased with the axial depth of milling ap, and feed per tooth fz and radial depth of milling ae. On the basis of the single factor experiment results, the mathematics model for between surface roughness and milling parameters were established by linear regression analysis.

  12. Investigating the potassium interactions with the palytoxin induced channels in Na+/K+ pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Teixeira, Hewerson Z; Duarte, Mário A

    2009-02-01

    K(+) has been appointed as the main physiological inhibitor of the palytoxin (PTX) effect on the Na(+)/K(+) pump. This toxin acts opening monovalent cationic channels through the Na(+)/K(+) pump. We investigate, by means of computational modeling, the kinetic mechanisms related with K(+) interacting with the complex PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump. First, a reaction model, with structure similar to Albers-Post model, describing the functional cycle of the pump, was proposed for describing K(+) interference on the complex PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump in the presence of intracellular ATP. A mathematic model was derived from the reaction model and it was possible to solve numerically the associated differential equations and to simulate experimental maneuvers about the PTX induced currents in the presence of K(+) in the intra- and extracellular space as well as ATP in the intracellular. After the model adjusting to the experimental data, a Monte Carlo method for sensitivity analysis was used to analyze how each reaction parameter acts during each experimental maneuver involving PTX. For ATP and K(+) concentrations conditions, the simulations suggest that the enzyme substate with ATP bound to its high-affinity sites is the main substate for the PTX binding. The activation rate of the induced current is limited by the K(+) deocclusion from the PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump complex. The K(+) occlusion in the PTX induced channels in the enzymes with ATP bound to its low-affinity sites is the main mechanism responsible for the reduction of the enzyme affinity to PTX.

  13. Intracellular mediators of Na+-K+ pump activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, S.R.; Ochs, D.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of Ca 2+ and cyclic nucleotides in neurohormonal regulation of Na + -K + -ATPase (Na + -K + pump) activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Changes in Na+-K+ pump activity elicited by secretagogues were assessed by [3H]ouabain binding and by ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake. Carbachol (CCh) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) each stimulated both ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and equilibrium binding of [ 3 H]ouabain by approximately 60%. Secretin increased both indicators of Na+-K+ pump activity by approximately 40% as did forskolin, 8-bromo- and dibutyryl cAMP, theophylline, and isobutylmethylxanthine. Incubation of acinar cells in Ca 2+ -free HEPES-buffered Ringer (HR) with 0.5 mM EGTA reduced the stimulatory effects of CCh and CCK-8 by up to 90% but caused only a small reduction in the effects of secretin, forskolin, and cAMP analogues. In addition, CCh, CCK-8, secretin, and forskolin each stimulated ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake by acinar cells. The increase elicited by CCh and CCK-8 was greatly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , while that caused by the latter two agents was not substantially altered. The effects of secretagogues on free Ca 2+ levels in pancreatic acinar cells also were investigated with quin-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ chelator. Basal intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) was 161 nM in resting cells and increased to 713 and 803 nM within 15 s after addition of 100 microM CCh or 10 nM CCK-8, respectively

  14. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  15. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  16. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  17. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  18. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  19. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  20. The conserved potassium channel filter can have distinct ion binding profiles: structural analysis of rubidium, cesium, and barium binding in NaK2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yee Ling; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David Bryant; Jiang, Youxing

    2014-08-01

    Potassium channels are highly selective for K(+) over the smaller Na(+). Intriguingly, they are permeable to larger monovalent cations such as Rb(+) and Cs(+) but are specifically blocked by the similarly sized Ba(2+). In this study, we used structural analysis to determine the binding profiles for these permeant and blocking ions in the selectivity filter of the potassium-selective NaK channel mutant NaK2K and also performed permeation experiments using single-channel recordings. Our data revealed that some ion binding properties of NaK2K are distinct from those of the canonical K(+) channels KcsA and MthK. Rb(+) bound at sites 1, 3, and 4 in NaK2K, as it does in KcsA. Cs(+), however, bound predominantly at sites 1 and 3 in NaK2K, whereas it binds at sites 1, 3, and 4 in KcsA. Moreover, Ba(2+) binding in NaK2K was distinct from that which has been observed in KcsA and MthK, even though all of these channels show similar Ba(2+) block. In the presence of K(+), Ba(2+) bound to the NaK2K channel at site 3 in conjunction with a K(+) at site 1; this led to a prolonged block of the channel (the external K(+)-dependent Ba(2+) lock-in state). In the absence of K(+), however, Ba(2+) acts as a permeating blocker. We found that, under these conditions, Ba(2+) bound at sites 1 or 0 as well as site 3, allowing it to enter the filter from the intracellular side and exit from the extracellular side. The difference in the Ba(2+) binding profile in the presence and absence of K(+) thus provides a structural explanation for the short and prolonged Ba(2+) block observed in NaK2K. © 2014 Lam et al.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean. After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding.

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  8. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  9. 6 Home Cleaning Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aluminum, brass, ceramics, chrome, copper, fiberglass, glass/quartz, plastic, and steel. GLASS CLEANER 1 cup vinegar 1 ... originally filled with commercial cleaning products. Instead, reuse plastic water bottles.  Always place a label on the ...

  10. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  12. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  13. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  16. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  17. Regulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump activity and estimation of the reserve capacity in intact rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Johansen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    Evidence is provided that regulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in rat peritoneal mast cells occurs mainly through stimulation of the pump from inside the plasma membrane by sodium. It is demonstrated that there is a large reserve capacity for the exchange of intracellular sodium...... with extracellular potassium in these cells. The maximal pump activity was estimated to be 3230 pmol/10(6) cells per min and Km for extracellular potassium was 1.5 mM....

  18. Susceptibility of β1 Na+-K+ pump subunit to glutathionylation and oxidative inhibition depends on conformational state of pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Hamilton, Elisha J; Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Fry, Natasha A S; Figtree, Gemma A; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2012-04-06

    Glutathionylation of cysteine 46 of the β1 subunit of the Na(+)-K(+) pump causes pump inhibition. However, the crystal structure, known in a state analogous to an E2·2K(+)·P(i) configuration, indicates that the side chain of cysteine 46 is exposed to the lipid bulk phase of the membrane and not expected to be accessible to the cytosolic glutathione. We have examined whether glutathionylation depends on the conformational changes in the Na(+)-K(+) pump cycle as described by the Albers-Post scheme. We measured β1 subunit glutathionylation and function of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in membrane fragments and in ventricular myocytes. Signals for glutathionylation in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-enriched membrane fragments suspended in solutions that preferentially induce E1ATP and E1Na(3) conformations were much larger than signals in solutions that induce the E2 conformation. Ouabain further reduced glutathionylation in E2 and eliminated an increase seen with exposure to the oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity after exposure to ONOO(-) was greater when the enzyme had been in the E1Na(3) than the E2 conformation. We exposed myocytes to different extracellular K(+) concentrations to vary the membrane potential and hence voltage-dependent conformational poise. K(+) concentrations expected to shift the poise toward E2 species reduced glutathionylation, and ouabain eliminated a ONOO(-)-induced increase. Angiotensin II-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition was eliminated by conditions expected to shift the poise toward the E2 species. We conclude that susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump.

  19. Susceptibility of β1 Na+-K+ Pump Subunit to Glutathionylation and Oxidative Inhibition Depends on Conformational State of Pump*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Hamilton, Elisha J.; Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Fry, Natasha A. S.; Figtree, Gemma A.; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J.; Rasmussen, Helge H.

    2012-01-01

    Glutathionylation of cysteine 46 of the β1 subunit of the Na+-K+ pump causes pump inhibition. However, the crystal structure, known in a state analogous to an E2·2K+·Pi configuration, indicates that the side chain of cysteine 46 is exposed to the lipid bulk phase of the membrane and not expected to be accessible to the cytosolic glutathione. We have examined whether glutathionylation depends on the conformational changes in the Na+-K+ pump cycle as described by the Albers-Post scheme. We measured β1 subunit glutathionylation and function of Na+-K+-ATPase in membrane fragments and in ventricular myocytes. Signals for glutathionylation in Na+-K+-ATPase-enriched membrane fragments suspended in solutions that preferentially induce E1ATP and E1Na3 conformations were much larger than signals in solutions that induce the E2 conformation. Ouabain further reduced glutathionylation in E2 and eliminated an increase seen with exposure to the oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity after exposure to ONOO− was greater when the enzyme had been in the E1Na3 than the E2 conformation. We exposed myocytes to different extracellular K+ concentrations to vary the membrane potential and hence voltage-dependent conformational poise. K+ concentrations expected to shift the poise toward E2 species reduced glutathionylation, and ouabain eliminated a ONOO−-induced increase. Angiotensin II-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent Na+-K+ pump inhibition was eliminated by conditions expected to shift the poise toward the E2 species. We conclude that susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na+-K+ pump. PMID:22354969

  20. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  1. Environmental cleaning resources and activities in Canadian acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutman, Dick E; Ford, B Douglas; Sopha, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Environmental cleaning interventions have increased cleaning effectiveness and reduced antibiotic-resistant organisms in hospitals. This study examined cleaning in Canadian acute care hospitals with the goal of developing strategies to improve cleaning and reduce antibiotic-resistant organism rates. Managers most responsible for environmental services (EVS) completed an extensive online survey that assessed EVS resources and cleaning practices. The response rate was 50.5%; 96 surveys were completed, representing 103 of 204 hospitals. Whereas 86.3% (82/95) of managers responsible for EVS reported their staff was adequately trained and 76.0% (73/96) that supplies and equipment budgets were sufficient, only 46.9% (45/96) reported that EVS had enough personnel to satisfactorily clean their hospital. A substantial minority (36.8%, 35/95) of EVS departments did not audit the cleaning of medical surgical patient rooms on at least a monthly basis. Cleaning audits of medical surgical patient rooms frequently included environmental marking methods in only one third (33.3%, 31/93) of hospitals and frequently included the measurement of residual bioburden in only 13.8% (13/94). There was a general need for increased and improved auditing of environmental cleaning in Canadian hospitals, and there were perceived EVS staffing deficits in the majority of hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in cardiovascular function and vascular Na-K pump activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, vascular reactivity and Na-K pump function were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats and rats made diabetic with a single dose of STZ (50 mg/Kg, I.V.). In each group, body weight, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined weekly, and serum glucose was measured biweekly for 12 weeks. Contractile responses and Na-K pump activity of vascular smooth muscle were studied in caudal artery strips. At 12 weeks after treatment, STZ rats had elevated serum glucose but decreased body weight and heart rate in comparison to control rats. Systolic blood pressure of STZ rats was not significantly increased at any time during the treatment period. Contractile responses of caudal artery strips to norepinephrine and serotonin did not indicate altered sensitivity (ED50) of vascular smooth muscle in STZ rats. The responsiveness (g tension/g wet wt.), however, was significantly increased in artery strips from STZ rats. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plot showed that neither the rate of 86 Rb-uptake nor the affinity for rubidium were altered by STZ treatment. The data indicate that nonspecific increases in the reactivity of caudal arteries to excitatory agents occur in diabetic rats which may precede the development of hypertension. The enhanced reactivity is not associated with alteration of the vascular Na-K pump activity

  3. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  4. Serotonin-mediated modulation of Na+/K+ pump current in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Nan; Su, Su Wen; Guo, Fang; Guo, Hui Cai; Shi, Xiao Lu; Li, Wen Ya; Liu, Xu; Wang, Yong Li

    2012-01-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can modulate Na+/K+ pump in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. 5-HT (0.1, 1 mM) showed Na+/K+ pump current (Ip) densities of 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.34 ± 0.03 pA/pF contrast to 0.63 ± 0.04 pA/pF of the control of 0.5 mM strophanthidin (Str), demonstrating 5-HT-induced inhibition of Ip in a dose-dependent manner in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effect was partly attenuated by ondasetron, a 5-HT3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist, not by WAY100635, a 5-HT1AR antagonist, while 1-(3-Chlorophenyl) biguanide hydrochloride (m-CPBG), a 5-HT3R specific agonist, mimicked the effect of 5-HT on Ip. 5-HT inhibits neuronal Na+/K+ pump activity via 5-HT3R in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This discloses novel mechanisms for the function of 5-HT in learning and memory, which may be a useful target to benefit these patients with cognitive disorder.

  5. Alteration of Na-K pump activity in supersensitive rat caudal artery following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.K.; Foley, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Contractile response and the Na-K pump activity, measured as ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb-uptake, were determined in caudal artery strips of rats pretreated with 6-OHDA. At 6-7 days after 6-OHDA treatment, the potencies of norepinephrine and serotonin in causing contraction of rat caudal artery were significantly increased by 2.3 - and 1.7 - fold respectively. There was, however, no change in maximum contractile response to either agent. Treatment with 6-OHDA also reduced endogenous catecholamine content of the caudal artery to 7% of the control. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of rat caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plots showed that both the rate of 86 Rb-uptake and the affinity for rubidium were depressed after 6-OHDA treatment. The results indicate that 6-OHDA induced supersensitivity in the rat caudal artery is associated with a decrease in the Na-K pump activity. These data provide additional support to the concept that inhibition of the Na-K pump may result in partial depolarization of the cell membrane which leads to supersensitivity of smooth muscle to excitatory drugs

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-I complex. Topical report No. 3. NAK disposal pilot plant test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.; Lewis, L.; Hammer, R.

    1975-06-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) requires processing of the primary coolant, an eutectic solution of sodium and potassium (NaK), remaining in the EBR-I primary and secondary coolant systems. While developing design criteria for the NaK processing system, reasonable justification was provided for the development of a pilot test plant for field testing some of the process concepts and proposed hardware. The objective of this activity was to prove the process concept on a low-cost, small-scale test bed. The pilot test plant criteria provided a general description of the test including: the purpose, location, description of test equipment available, waste disposal requirements, and a flow diagram and conceptual equipment layout. The pilot plant test operations procedure provided a detailed step-by-step procedure for operation of the pilot plant to obtain the desired test data and operational experience. It also spelled out the safety precautions to be used by operating personnel, including the requirement for alkali metals training certification, use of protective clothing, availability of fire protection equipment, and caustic handling procedures. The pilot plant test was performed on May 16, 1974. During the test, 32.5 gallons or 240 lb of NaK was successfully converted to caustic by reaction with water in a caustic solution. (auth)

  7. Fluctuation-driven directional flow of energy in biochemical cycle: Electric activation of Na,K ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow Tsong, Tian

    1998-03-01

    Na,K ATPase is an ion pump which uses chemical bond energy of ATP to pump Na ion out of, and K ion into living cell thus maintaining ionic and osmotic balances of the cell. Both are uphill transport reactions. Surprisingly we have found that electric energy can also substitute chemical energy to fuel the pump activity. However, in this case only electric fields of certain waveforms, amplitudes, and frequencies are effective. Waveform, amplitude and frequency are three elements of signal. In other words, Na,K ATPase can recognize, process, and harvest energy from an oscillating or a fluctuating electric field to drive an endergonic reaction. The enzyme is a molecular transducer of electric signal. This report will describe electric activation experiment to define electric signal. Electric signal will then mixed with electric noise of broad power spectrum for experiment. Effect of white noise (WN) on the efficiency of Na,K ATPase will be investigated. It will be shown that WN of appropriate power level can improve the pump efficiency when a sub-optimal electric field is used. WN can also carry a sub-threshold signal to cross over the threshold. Stochastic resonance will be discussed in reference to these observations.

  8. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o

  9. Transmural gradients in Na/K pump activity and [Na+]I in canine ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Wang, W; Cohen, I S; Mathias, R T

    2005-09-01

    There are well-documented differences in ion channel activity and action potential shape between epicardial (EPI), midmyocardial (MID), and endocardial (ENDO) ventricular myocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in Na/K pump activity. The whole cell patch-clamp was used to measure Na/K pump current (I(P)) and inward background Na(+)-current (I(inb)) in cells isolated from canine left ventricle. All currents were normalized to membrane capacitance. I(P) was measured as the current blocked by a saturating concentration of dihydro-ouabain. [Na(+)](i) was measured using SBFI-AM. I(P)(ENDO) (0.34 +/- 0.04 pA/pF, n = 17) was smaller than I(P)(EPI) (0.68 +/- 0.09 pA/pF, n = 38); the ratio was 0.50 with I(P)(MID) being intermediate (0.53 +/- 0.13 pA/pF, n = 19). The dependence of I(P) on [Na(+)](i) or voltage was essentially identical in EPI and ENDO (half-maximal activation at 9-10 mM [Na(+)](i) or approximately -90 mV). Increasing [K(+)](o) from 5.4 to 15 mM caused both I(P)(ENDO) and I(P)(EPI) to increase, but the ratio remained approximately 0.5. I(inb) in EPI and ENDO were nearly identical ( approximately 0.6 pA/pF). Physiological [Na(+)](i) was lower in EPI (7 +/- 2 mM, n = 31) than ENDO (12 +/- 3 mM, n = 29), with MID being intermediate (9 +/- 3 mM, n = 22). When cells were paced at 2 Hz, [Na(+)](i) increased but the differences persisted (ENDO 14 +/- 3 mM, n = 10; EPI 9 +/- 2 mM, n = 10; and MID intermediate, 11 +/- 2 mM, n = 9). Based on these results, the larger I(P) in EPI appears to reflect a higher maximum turnover rate, which implies either a larger number of active pumps or a higher turnover rate per pump protein. The transmural gradient in [Na(+)](i) means physiological I(P) is approximately uniform across the ventricular wall, whereas transporters that utilize the transmembrane electrochemical gradient for Na(+), such as Na/Ca exchange, have a larger driving force in EPI than ENDO.

  10. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  11. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  12. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  13. The mode of inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump activity in mast cells by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    , and hence the pump activity. This hypothesis is supported by the stimulation of pump activity produced by monensin, which is not inhibited by calcium. The enhancement of pump activity after exposure of calcium-deprived cells to EGTA might be the result of a further increase in the sodium permeability......1 The inhibition by calcium of the Na(+)-K+ pump in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells was studied in pure populations of the cells by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake of the radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium (86Rb+). 2 Exposure of the cells to calcium induced a time......- and concentration-dependent decrease in the ouabain-sensitive K+(86Rb+)-uptake of the cells without influencing the ouabain-resistant uptake. The development of the inhibition required the presence of potassium in the medium in the millimolar range (1.5-8.0 mM), and it did not occur at a concentration of potassium...

  14. Model and simulation of Na+/K+ pump phosphorylation in the presence of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Teixeira, Hewerson Z; Duarte, Mario A

    2008-02-01

    The ATP hydrolysis reactions responsible for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase phosphorylation, according to recent experimental evidences, also occur for the PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump complex. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that PTX interferes with the enzymes phosphorylation status. However, the reactions involved in the PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump complex phosphorylation are not very well established yet. This work aims at proposing a reaction model for PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump complex, with similar structure to the Albers-Post model, to contribute to elucidate the PTX effect over Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Computational simulations with the proposed model support several hypotheses and also suggest: (i) phosphorylation promotes an increase of the open probability of induced channels; (ii) PTX reduces the Na(+)/K(+) pump phosphorylation rate; (iii) PTX may cause conformational changes to substates where the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may not be phosphorylated; (iv) PTX can bind to substates of the two principal states E1 and E2, with highest affinity to phosphorylated enzymes and with ATP bound to its low-affinity sites. The proposed model also allows previewing the behavior of the PTX-pump complex substates for different levels of intracellular ATP concentrations.

  15. An unexpected oxidation: NaK5Cl2(S2O62 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. A. Harrison

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, NaK5Cl2(S2O62 [systematic name: sodium pentapotassium dichloride bis(dithionate], arose as an unexpected product from an organic synthesis that used dithionite (S2O42− ions as a reducing agent to destroy excess permanganate ions. Compared to the previous study [Stanley (1953. Acta Cryst. 6, 187–196], the present tetragonal structure exhibits a root 2a × root 2a × c super-cell due to subtle changes in the orientations of the dithionate anions. The structure can be visualized as a three-dimensional framework of [001] columns of alternating trans-NaO4Cl2 and KO4Cl2 octahedra cross-linked by the dithionate ions with the interstices occupied by KO6Cl2 polyhedra to generate a densely packed three-dimensional framework. The asymmetric unit comprises two sodium ions (site symmetries 4 and -4, four potassium ions (site symmetries = -4, 4, 1 and 1, three chloride ions (site symmetries = 4, 4 and 2 and two half-dithionate ions (all atoms on general positions. Both dithionate ions are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The crystal chosen for data collection was found to be rotationally twinned by 180° about the [100] axis in reciprocal space with a 0.6298 (13:0.3702 (13 domain ratio.

  16. Early effects of aldosterone on Na-K pump in rat cortical collecting tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Takemoto, F.; Katz, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained exposure to aldosterone (Aldo) increases the abundance and activity of the Na-K pump in cortical collecting tubules (CCT). However, the onset and mechanism of the early interaction of Aldo with the CCT pump, especially in adrenal-intact animals, are unclear. We evaluated the short-term effects of the hormone on Na-K-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity and on ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, a measure of the transporting rate of the pump, in microdissected CCT from adrenal-intact rats. Incubation with Aldo (10(-8) M, 2 h) had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity (Vmax), whereas it produced at least a twofold increase in 86Rb uptake. This effect was generated by physiological concentrations of the hormone (threshold 10(-10) M; apparent K1/2 approximately 10(-9) M), after a short lag of less than or equal to 30 min. Incubation with Aldo in the presence of amiloride or nystatin or in a Na-free medium (choline chloride) did not prevent the enhanced 86Rb uptake seen after Aldo alone; possible interpretations of these observations are discussed. We conclude that Aldo produces a rapid stimulation of pump function in CCT that precedes its induction of new pump synthesis; the physiological significance of this effect is suggested by its occurrence in tubules from adrenal-intact animals within the time frame and concentration range of the hormone's effects on electrolyte transport

  17. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  18. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  19. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  20. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  1. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  2. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  3. Changes in the expression and current of the Na+/K+ pump in the snail nervous system after exposure to a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ljiljana; Bataveljić, Danijela; Andjus, Pavle R; Nedeljković, Miodrag; Todorović, Dajana; Janać, Branka

    2013-09-15

    Compelling evidence supports the use of a moderate static magnetic field (SMF) for therapeutic purposes. In order to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying SMF treatment, it is essential to examine the cellular responses elicited by therapeutically applied SMF, especially in the nervous system. The Na(+)/K(+) pump, by creating and maintaining the gradient of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane, regulates the physiological properties of neurons. In this study, we examined the expression of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in the isolated brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia, along with the immunoreactivity and current of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in isolated snail neurons after 15 min exposure to a moderate (10 mT) SMF. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 10 mT SMF did not significantly change the expression of the Na(+)/K(+) pump α-subunit in the snail brain and the neuronal cell body. However, our immunofluorescence data showed that SMF treatment induced a significant increase in the Na(+)/K(+) pump α-subunit expression in the neuronal plasma membrane area. This change in Na(+)/K(+) pump expression was reflected in pump activity as demonstrated by the pump current measurements. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated snail neurons revealed that Na(+)/K(+) pump current density was significantly increased after the 10 mT SMF treatment. The SMF-induced increase was different in the two groups of control snail neurons, as defined by the pump current level. The results obtained could represent a physiologically important response of neurons to 10 mT SMF comparable in strength to therapeutic applications.

  4. A marked animal-vegetal polarity in the localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity and its down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Basant Kumar; Gupta, Brij L

    2012-02-01

    The stage-VI Xenopus oocyte has a very distinct animal-vegetal polarity with structural and functional asymmetry. In this study, we show the expression and distribution pattern of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase in stage-VI oocytes, and its changes following progesterone-induced maturation. Using enzyme-specific electron microscopy phosphatase histochemistry, [(3) H]-ouabain autoradiography, and immunofluorescence cytochemistry at light microscopic level, we find that Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is mainly confined to the animal hemisphere. Electron microscopy histochemical results also suggest that polarized distribution of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity persists following progesterone-induced maturation, and it becomes gradually more polarized towards the animal pole. The time course following progesterone-induced maturation suggests that there is an initial up-regulation and then gradual down-regulation of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity leading to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). By GVBD, the Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is completely down-regulated due to endocytotic removal of pump molecules from the plasma membrane into the sub-cortical region of the oocyte. This study provides the first direct evidence for a marked asymmetric localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in any vertebrate oocyte. Here, we propose that such asymmetry in Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in stage-VI oocytes, and their down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation, is likely to have a role in the active state of the germinal vesicle in stage-VI oocytes and chromosomal condensation after GVBD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evidence that the Na+-K+ leak/pump ratio contributes to the difference in endurance between fast- and slow-twitch muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, T; Overgaard, K; Nielsen, O B

    2004-02-01

    Muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch (type II) fibres [ext. dig. longus (EDL)] show considerably lower contractile endurance than muscles containing mainly slow-twitch (type I) fibres (soleus). To assess whether differences in Na+-K+ fluxes and excitability might contribute to this phenomenon, we compared excitation-induced Na+-K+ leaks, Na+ channels, Na+-K+ pump capacity, force and compound action potentials (M-waves) in rat EDL and soleus muscles. Isolated muscles were mounted for isometric contractions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and exposed to direct or indirect continuous or intermittent electrical stimulation. The time-course of force decline and concomitant changes in Na+-K+ exchange and M-waves were recorded. During continuous stimulation at 60-120 Hz, EDL showed around fivefold faster rate of force decline than soleus. This was associated with a faster loss of excitability as estimated from the area and amplitude of the M-waves. The net uptake of Na+ and the release of K+ per action potential were respectively 6.5- and 6.6-fold larger in EDL than in soleus, which may in part be due to the larger content of Na+ channels in EDL. During intermittent stimulation with 1 s 60 Hz pulse trains, EDL showed eightfold faster rate of force decline than soleus. The considerably lower contractile endurance of fast-twitch compared with slow-twitch muscles reflects differences in the rate of excitation-induced loss of excitability. This is attributed to the much larger excitation-induced Na+ influx and K+ efflux, leading to a faster rise in [K+]o in fast-twitch muscles. This may only be partly compensated by the concomitant activation of the Na+-K+ pumps, in particular in fibres showing large passive Na+-K+ leaks or reduced content of Na+-K+ pumps. Thus, endurance depends on the leak/pump ratio for Na+ and K+.

  6. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  7. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of particles by ICRF cleaning in HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jiansheng; Li Jiangang; Zhang Shouyin; Gu Xuemao; Zhang Xiaodong; Zhao Yanping; Gong Xianzu; Kuang Guangli; Li Chengfu; Luo Jiarong; Wang Xiaoming; Gao Xiang; Wan Baonian; Xie Jikang; Wan Yuanxi

    2001-01-01

    The ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range Frequency) cleaning technique has been used as a routine wall cleaning method in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak. In a wide range of toroidal field, the removal rate of residual gas by ICRF cleaning was about twenty times higher than that of glow discharge cleaning (GDC). At different gas pressure and RF power levels, the ICRF cleaning is studied carefully. A good impurity cleaning effect and a very high hydrogen removal rate were obtained. The removal rate of hydrogen by 5 kW ICRF cleaning achieved was 1.6 x 10 -5 Torr.l/s. And the relationships among pressure P, outgassing rate Q, atomic layers L absorbed on surface and the cleaning mode were discussed briefly

  9. Coolant clean-up system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuburaya, Hirobumi; Akita, Minoru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Okura, Minoru; Tsuji, Akio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure a sufficient urging pressure at the inlet of a coolant clean-up system pump in a nuclear reactor and eliminate radioactive contaminations to the pump. Constitution: Coolant clean-up system (CUW) pump in a nuclear reactor is disposed to the downstream of a filtration desalter and, for compensating the insufficiency of the urging pressure at the pump inlet, the reactor water intake port to the clean-up system is disposed to the downstream of the after-heat removing pump and the heat exchanger. By compensating the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the clean-up system from the residual heat removing system, the problems of insufficient NPSH for the CUW pump upon reactor shut-down can be dissolved and, accordingly, the reactor clean-up system can be arranged in the order of the heat exchanger, clean-up device and pump. Thus, the CUW pump acts on reactor water after cleaned-up in the clean-up device to reduce the radioactivity contamination to the pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  11. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  12. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  14. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  16. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  17. The effect of different doses of epidermal growth factor on liver ornithine decarboxylase and Na-K ATPase activities in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Turkozkan, N; Isman, F; Kilinc, M; Demirsoy, S

    1998-08-01

    1. Ornithine decarboxylase and Na-K ATPase activities were studied in rat livers that were treated with different doses of epidermal growth factor (EGF). 2. The ornithine decarboxylase activities were studied with spectrophotometry, and results were expressed as micromoles of putrescine per hour per milligram of protein. Na-K ATPase activities were studied on the basis of the principle of measuring the amount of inorganic phosphates released by the hydrolysis of ATP, and the results were expressed as micromoles of inorganic phosphate per hour per milligram of protein. 3. When compared with the controls, although the Na-K ATPase activities were decreased at low doses of EGF, their activities were found to be increased at high doses of EGF. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between ornithine decarboxylase activities and EGF doses. 4. The results of this study suggest that, whereas the decrease in Na-K ATPase activities at low doses of EGF can be due to the utilization of the enzyme, the increase in Na-K ATPase activities at high doses of EGF can be attributed to its enhanced synthesis.

  18. [Protective effects of luteolin on neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury via improving Na+/K+ -ATPase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lumei; Zhang, Mingming; Ding, Yuemin; Fang, Yuting; Yao, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Luteolin, a flavone, has considerable neuroprotective effects by its anti-oxidative mechanism. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced injury. After 2 hours oxygen-glucose deprivation and 24 hours reperfusion treatment in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, the neuron viability, survival rate and apoptosis rate were evaluated by MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. The activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was examined in cultured neurons or in the hippocampus of SD rats treated by 10 minutes global cerebral ischemia and followed 24 hours reperfusion. Treatment by OGD/R markedly reduced neuronal viability, increased LDH leakage rate and increased apoptosis rate. Application of luteolin (10-100 micromol x L(-1)) during OGD inhibited OGD/R induced neuron injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control group or OGP/R-treated neurons, the activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was significantly suppressed in global ischemia/reperfusion group or OGD/R-treated neurons. Application of luteolin during ischemia or OGD preserved the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Na+/K+ -ATPase with ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by luteolin. The data provide the evidence that luteolin has neuroprotective effect against OGD/R induced injury and the protective effect may be associated with its ability to improve Na+/K+ -ATPase activity after OGD/R.

  19. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  1. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges

  2. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  3. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges.

  4. There will be no clean fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the fusion reactor often evoked as the ideal ''clean'' energy source may involve some serious surprises in the field. Indeed, the reaction from which two hydrogen atoms merge to form an helium atom with an energy release does not create itself any radioactive ashes. However the fast neutrons emitted that carry away 80% of the energy, interact with the matter. Some of the atoms from the bombarded materials are converted into radioisotopes of long period that might constitute cumbersome dangerous residues. An ecological problem also arises in relation with the large amounts of tritium to be confined [fr

  5. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of pesticide residues in soil samples collected from a former storage site one year after clean-up of stockpiles and treatment with NaOH was investigated. The analytes were extracted from samples by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was conducted by ...

  6. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  8. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  9. Down-Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Human Parvovirus B19 Capsid Protein VP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Almilaji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Human parvovirus B19 (B19V may cause inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. The B19V capsid protein VP1 contains a lysophosphatidylcholine producing phospholipase A2 (PLA sequence. Lysophosphatidylcholine has in turn been shown to inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase. The present study explored whether VP1 modifies Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Methods: Xenopus oocytes were injected with cRNA encoding VP1 isolated from a patient suffering from fatal B19V-iCMP or cRNA encoding PLA2-negative VP1 mutant (H153A and K+ induced pump current (Ipump as well as ouabain-inhibited current (Iouabain both reflecting Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: Injection of cRNA encoding VP1, but not of VP1(H153A or water, was followed by a significant decrease of both, Ipump and Iouabain in Xenopus oocytes. The effect was not modified by inhibition of transcription with actinomycin (10 µM for 36 hours but was abrogated in the presence of PLA2 specific blocker 4-bromophenacylbromide (50 µM and was mimicked by lysophosphatidylcholine (0.5 - 1 µg/ml. According to whole cell patch clamp, lysophosphatidylcholine (1 µg /ml similarly decreased Ipump in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC. Conclusion: The B19V capsid protein VP1 is a powerful inhibitor of host cell Na+/K+ ATPase, an effect at least partially due to phospholipase A2 (PLA2 dependent formation of lysophosphatidylcholine.

  10. Characterization of thyroid hormone effects on Na-K pump and membrane potential of cultured rat skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thyroid hormone on the Na-K pump and resting membrane potential (EM) of rat skeletal myotubes in culture. Myotubes were obtained from fetal (19-21 day) or neonatal rats (1-2 day) by serial trypsinization and maintained in culture for up to 10 days. Cells were treated with T4 or T3 on day 6 or 7, and measurements were made of EM, [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake at various times thereafter. Hormone treatment increased the values of all three variables within 24 h, plateau levels being attained by 48-72 h. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D totally blocked the effects of thyroid hormone when added together to the cells, thus suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for the effects of these hormones. Scatchard analysis showed that the new receptors have lower ouabain affinity than those in control. Blockade of spontaneously occurring action potentials with tetrodotoxin, which blocks voltage-dependent Na channels, or Na/H antiporter with amiloride, abolished the hormone effects seen after 24 h and significantly reduced those obtained after 48 h of hormone treatment. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced increased amount and activity of the electrogenic Na-K pump in cultured myotubes occurs, at least in part, in response to an initial effect to increase Na influx. Moreover, the findings are consistent with the concept that the Na-K pump plays an important role in regulation of EM in this preparation

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  13. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  14. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  15. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount

  16. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joiner, C. A.; Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M.; Chakrabarti, B.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Cleaning Challenges of High-κ/Metal Gate Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Shamiryan, Denis G.; Paraschiv, Vasile; Sano, Kenichi; Reinhardt, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    High-κ/metal gates are used as transistors for advanced logic applications to improve speed and eliminate electrical issues associated with polySi and SiO2 gates. Various integration schemes are possible and will be discussed, such as dual gate, gate-first, and gate-last, both of which require specialized cleaning and etching steps. Specific areas of discussion will include cleaning and conditioning of the silicon surface, forming a high-quality chemical oxide, removal of the high-κ dielectric with selectivity to the SiO2 layer, cleaning and residue removal after etching, and prevention of galvanic corrosion during cleaning. © 2011 Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.

  18. Cleaning Challenges of High-κ/Metal Gate Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-12-20

    High-κ/metal gates are used as transistors for advanced logic applications to improve speed and eliminate electrical issues associated with polySi and SiO2 gates. Various integration schemes are possible and will be discussed, such as dual gate, gate-first, and gate-last, both of which require specialized cleaning and etching steps. Specific areas of discussion will include cleaning and conditioning of the silicon surface, forming a high-quality chemical oxide, removal of the high-κ dielectric with selectivity to the SiO2 layer, cleaning and residue removal after etching, and prevention of galvanic corrosion during cleaning. © 2011 Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.

  19. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  20. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  1. HCO3(-)-coupled Na+ influx is a major determinant of Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, J.G.; Lidofsky, S.D.; Weisiger, R.A.; Xie, M.H.; Cochran, M.; Grotmol, T.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies in hepatocytes indicate that Na(+)-coupled HCO3- transport contributes importantly to regulation of intracellular pH and membrane HCO3- transport. However, the direction of net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement and the effect of HCO3- on Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity are not known. In these studies, the effect of HCO3- on Na+ influx and turnover were measured in primary rat hepatocyte cultures with 22Na+, and [Na+]i was measured in single hepatocytes using the Na(+)-sensitive fluorochrome SBFI. Na+/K+ pump activity was measured in intact perfused rat liver and hepatocyte monolayers as Na(+)-dependent or ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake, and was measured in single hepatocytes as the effect of transient pump inhibition by removal of extracellular K+ on membrane potential difference (PD) and [Na+]i. In hepatocyte monolayers, HCO3- increased 22Na+ entry and turnover rates by 50-65%, without measurably altering 22Na+ pool size or cell volume, and HCO3- also increased Na+/K+ pump activity by 70%. In single cells, exposure to HCO3- produced an abrupt and sustained rise in [Na+]i from approximately 8 to 12 mM. Na+/K+ pump activity assessed in single cells by PD excursions during transient K+ removal increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-, and the rise in [Na+]i produced by inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump was similarly increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-. In intact perfused rat liver, HCO3- increased both Na+/K+ pump activity and O2 consumption. These findings indicate that, in hepatocytes, net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement is inward and represents a major determinant of Na+ influx and Na+/K+ pump activity. About half of hepatic Na+/K+ pump activity appears dedicated to recycling Na+ entering in conjunction with HCO3- to maintain [Na+]i within the physiologic range

  2. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+/K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation and performance in soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in performance of highly trained soccer players with intensified training or training cessation. Eighteen elite soccer players were for a 2-wk period assigned to either a group which performed high intensity training with a reduction....... The present data suggest that short-term intensified training even for trained soccer players can increase muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2 isoform expression and that cessation of training for two weeks does not affect the expression of Na(+)/K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na...

  3. Short-term memory of motor network performance via activity-dependent potentiation of Na+/K+ pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T

    2012-03-20

    Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  5. (/sup 3/H)ouabain localization of Na-K ATPase in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usukura, J.; Fain, G.L.; Bok, D.

    1988-04-01

    The secretion of the aqueous humor has been proposed to occur as the result of active Na+ transport by a ouabain-sensitive Na-K ATPase. We have examined the localization of this enzyme in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata using (3H)ouabain autoradiography. Single ciliary processes were isolated and incubated in Ringer containing (3H)ouabain. Processes were then rapidly frozen, freezedried, sectioned and exposed for autoradiography. In the light microscope, silver grains were found predominantly over the nonpigmented epithelial cells. In the electron microscope, grains could be localized for the most part to the interdigitations of the nonpigmented cell basolateral membrane. Label could also be observed at a much lower density above other membranes and above the pigmented and nonpigmented cell cytoplasm. No label was found in sections of control tissue which had been incubated in (3H)ouabain with an excess of cold ouabain. To show that the (3H)ouabain had free access to all of the membrane surfaces within the epithelium, in parallel experiments we incubated isolated processes in horseradish peroxidase. Our experiments suggest that most of the active Na+ transport in ciliary body epithelium occurs across the basolateral membrane of nonpigmented cells into the posterior chamber. Furthermore, the placement of the Na-K ATPase within the narrow membrane infoldings of the interdigitations is consistent with a role for this enzyme in water transport and the production of the aqueous.

  6. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  7. Humoral Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in essential hypertension and in normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamnani, M.B.; Burris, J.F.; Jemionek, J.F.; Huot, S.J.; Price, M.; Freis, E.D.; Haddy, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma from black male patients with essential hypertension was bioassayed for vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity. Halves of the same rat tail artery were incubated for two hours in boiled plasma supernates from a hypertensive patient and a paired age-, sex-, and race-matched normotensive subject and then ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was measured. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake by their leukocytes was also measured. Eighteen pairs of subjects were studied. The uptakes were not significantly different in the hypertensive patients and control subjects. However, when we selected from the eighteen hypertensive patients, nine with low plasma renin activity on the day of the study, uptakes were reduced in the hypertensive patients relative to the paired control subjects. We also assayed plasma supernates from normotensive black and white male subjects before and after acute volume expansion (2.5 L saline IV + 1.5 L distilled water orally over a three-hour period) and from paired normotensive subjects before and after sham volume expansion and obtained a positive bioassay in the expanded subjects both on intraindividual and interindividual comparisons. These studies demonstrate increased vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in the plasma of black male patients with low renin essential hypertension and in the plasma of normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion. The findings suggest that the inhibitory activity in the hypertensive subjects' plasma is related to volume expansion, relative or absolute

  8. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  9. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  10. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  11. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were

  13. McClean Lake. Site Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Located over 700 kilometers northeast of Saskatoon, Areva's McClean Lake site is comprised of several uranium mines and one of the most technologically advanced uranium mills in the world - the only mill designed to process high-grade uranium ore without dilution. Areva has operated several open-pit uranium mines at the McClean Lake site, and is evaluating future mines at and near the site. The McClean Lake mill has recently undergone a multimillion-dollar upgrade and expansion, which has doubled its annual production capacity of uranium concentrate to 24 million pounds. It is the only facility in the world capable of processing high-grade uranium ore without diluting it. The mill processes the ore from the Cigar Lake mine, the world's second largest and highest-grade uranium mine. The McClean Lake site operates 365 days a year on a week-in/week-out rotation schedule for workers, over 50% of whom reside in northern Saskatchewan communities. Tailings are waste products resulting from milling uranium ore. This waste is made up of leach residue solids, waste solutions and chemical precipitates that are carefully engineered for long-term disposal. The TMF serves as the repository for all resulting tailings. This facility allows proper waste management, which minimizes potential adverse environmental effects. Mining projections indicate that the McClean Lake mill will produce tailings in excess of the existing capacity of the TMF. After evaluating a number of options, Areva has decided to pursue an expansion of this facility. Areva is developing the Surface Access Borehole Resource Extraction (SABRE) mining method, which uses a high-pressure water jet placed at the bottom of the drill hole to extract ore. Areva has conducted a series of tests with this method and is evaluating its potential for future mining operations. McClean Lake maintains its certification in ISO 14001 standards for environmental management and OHSAS 18001 standards for occupational health

  14. Dynamics of Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and Na+,K+-ATPase expression in the branchial epithelium of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen; Seidelin, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of branchial Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) expression were investigated in brown trout and Atlantic salmon during salinity shifts and the parr-smolt transformation, respectively. In the brown trout, Western blotting revealed that NKCC and NKA abundance...

  15. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  16. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W.

    2017-01-01

    The Na/K pump exports cytoplasmic Na ions while importing K ions, and its activity is thought to be affected by restricted intracellular Na diffusion in cardiac myocytes. Lu and Hilgemann find instead that the pump can enter an inactivated state and that inactivation can be relieved by cytoplasmic Na.

  17. The relationship between the hypokalaemic response to adrenaline, beta-adrenoceptors, and Na(+)-K+ pumps in skeletal and cardiac muscle membranes in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfellah, M.S.; Reid, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The hypokalaemic response to adrenaline and the involvement of beta-adrenoceptors and Na(+)-K+ pumps were investigated in control rabbits and animals chronically pretreated with adrenaline. The hypokalaemic response to acute intravenous infusion of adrenaline was significantly reduced when rabbits were chronically pretreated with adrenaline for 10 days. Chronic pretreatment of rabbits with adrenaline significantly reduced the densities for [125I]cyanopindolol and [3H]ouabain binding sites in skeletal muscle and heart. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001) between the Bmax for ICYP and [3H]ouabain, in the rabbit heart. Ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake and the activity of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate phosphatase were used to assess the function of the Na(+)-K+ pump in skeletal and cardiac muscle. There was no significant difference in these functional indices of the Na(+)-K+ pump between the control and adrenaline-pretreated animals, in skeletal or cardiac muscle. Thus, downregulation of the [3H]ouabain binding sites did not appear to be accompanied by reduced function of the Na(+)-K+ pump. Additional investigations are required to confirm further the dissociation between the function of the pump and the ouabain binding sites

  18. Oxidative inhibition of the vascular Na+-K+ pump via NADPH oxidase-dependent β1-subunit glutathionylation: implications for angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Weisbrod, Robert M; Hansen, Thomas; Ravaie, Ramtin; Nunez, Andrea; Liu, Yi B; Fry, Natasha; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Sweadner, Kathleen J; Cohen, Richard A; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-12-01

    Glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's β1-subunit is a key molecular mechanism of physiological and pathophysiological pump inhibition in cardiac myocytes. Its contribution to Na(+)-K(+) pump regulation in other tissues is unknown, and cannot be assumed given the dependence on specific β-subunit isoform expression and receptor-coupled pathways. As Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is an important determinant of vascular tone through effects on [Ca(2+)]i, we have examined the role of oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in mediating angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in vascular reactivity. β1-subunit glutathione adducts were present at baseline and increased by exposure to Ang II in rabbit aortic rings, primary rabbit aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and human arterial segments. In VSMCs, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with marked reduction in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, an effect that was abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide, tat-gp91ds. In aortic segments, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with decreased K(+)-induced vasorelaxation, a validated index of pump activity. Ang II-induced oxidative inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and decrease in K(+)-induced relaxation were reversed by preincubation of VSMCs and rings with recombinant FXYD3 protein that is known to facilitate deglutathionylation of β1-subunit. Knock-out of FXYD1 dramatically decreased K(+)-induced relaxation in a mouse model. Attenuation of Ang II signaling in vivo by captopril (8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) decreased superoxide-sensitive DHE levels in the media of rabbit aorta, decreased β1-subunit glutathionylation, and enhanced K(+)-induced vasorelaxation. Ang II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump in VSMCs via NADPH oxidase-dependent glutathionylation of the pump's β1-subunit, and this newly identified signaling pathway may contribute to altered vascular tone. FXYD proteins reduce oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and may have an

  19. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  20. Self-cleaning efficiency of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Koch, Kerstin

    2009-03-03

    The hierarchical structured surface of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.) leaf provides a model for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces. On these water-repellent surfaces, water droplets move easily at a low inclination of the leaf and collect dirt particles adhering to the leaf surface. Flat hydrophilic and hydrophobic, nanostructured, microstructured, and hierarchical structured superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated, and a systematic study of wettability and adhesion properties was carried out. The influence of contact angle hysteresis on self-cleaning by water droplets was studied at different tilt angles (TA) of the specimen surfaces (3 degrees for Lotus wax, 10 degrees for n-hexatriacontane, as well as 45 degrees for both types of surfaces). At 3 degrees and 10 degrees TA, no surfaces were cleaned by moving water applied onto the surfaces with nearly zero kinetic energy, but most particles were removed from hierarchical structured surfaces, and a certain amount of particles were captured between the asperities of the micro- and hierarchical structured surfaces. After an increase of the TA to 45 degrees (larger than the tilt angles of all structured surfaces), as usually used for industrial self-cleaning tests, all nanostructured surfaces were cleaned by water droplets moving over the surfaces followed by hierarchical and microstructures. Droplets applied onto the surfaces with some pressure removed particles residues and led to self-cleaning by a combination of sliding and rolling droplets. Geometrical scale effects were responsible for superior performance of nanostructured surfaces.

  1. Zespół nakładania astmy i przewlekłej obturacyjnej choroby płuc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kroczyńska-Bednarek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Astma i przewlekła obturacyjna choroba płuc (POChP to zapalne choroby dróg oddechowych, które łączy obecność ograniczenia przepływu powierza przez drogi oddechowe podkreślane w ich definicji. Zapalenie, które leży u podłoża obu chorób, różni się jakościowo rodzajem przeważających komórek i głównych mediatorów zapalnych. Inna jest też na ogół odpowiedź na leki rozszerzające oskrzela w astmie i POChP. Pomimo tych różnic i znaczących odrębności naturalnego przebiegu, rokowania i patogenezy właściwe rozpoznanie obu chorób w praktyce jest trudne, a niekiedy nawet niemożliwe z powodu nakładania się cech astmy i POChP u tego samego pacjenta. Wraz z upływem lat u części chorych na astmę dochodzi do utrwalenia się obturacji, a wielu pacjentów z POChP wykazuje istotną reaktywność oskrzeli i częściową odwracalność obturacji. Nawet profil zapalenia w ciężkiej astmie może zmieniać się na podobny do obserwowanego w POChP, a zaostrzenie POChP przebiega niejednokrotnie z większym udziałem eozynofilów. Głównej przyczyny takiego współwystępowania obu schorzeń (zespołu nakładania upatruje się we wspólnych czynnikach ryzyka i fakcie, że sama astma może zwiększać prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia POChP. Powszechność zjawiska zmusza do wypracowania skutecznych metod zapobiegania rozwojowi zespołu nakładania, lepszego różnicowania obu chorób, a w przypadku ich współistnienia – do poszukiwania optymalnych sposobów postępowania i leczenia.

  2. β3-Adrenoceptor activation relieves oxidative inhibition of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump in hyperglycemia induced by insulin receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A; Hamilton, Elisha J; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2015-09-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO)- and superoxide (O2 (·-))-dependent signaling contributes to the pathobiology of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. We examined if stimulation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, relieves oxidative inhibition of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump induced by hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was established in male New Zealand White rabbits by infusion of the insulin receptor antagonist S961 for 7 days. Hyperglycemia increased tissue and blood indexes of oxidative stress. It induced glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit in cardiac myocytes, an oxidative modification causing pump inhibition, and reduced the electrogenic pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. Hyperglycemia also increased glutathionylation of eNOS, which causes its uncoupling, and increased coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47(phox) and membranous p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits, consistent with NADPH oxidase activation. Blocking translocation of p47(phox) to p22(phox) with the gp91ds-tat peptide in cardiac myocytes ex vivo abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit and decrease in pump current. In vivo treatment with the β3-AR agonist CL316243 for 3 days eliminated the increase in indexes of oxidative stress, decreased coimmunoprecipitation of p22(phox) with p47(phox), abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, and abolished the decrease in pump current. CL316243 also increased coimmunoprecipitation of glutaredoxin-1 with the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, which may reflect facilitation of deglutathionylation. In vivo β3-AR activation relieves oxidative inhibition of key cardiac myocyte proteins in hyperglycemia and may be effective in targeting the deleterious cardiac effects of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Mechanisms of isoform-specific Na/K pump regulation by short- and long-term adrenergic activation in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Guo, Hui-Cai; Yu, Ding; Wang, Hui-Ci; Li, Jun-Xia; Wang, Yong-Li

    2014-01-01

    Many stressful conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, induce long-term elevations in circulating catecholamines, thereby leading to changes of the Na/K pump and thus affecting myocardial functions. However, only short-term adrenergic regulation of the Na/K pump has been reported. The present study is the first investigation of long-term adrenergic regulation of the Na/K pump and the potential mechanism. After acutely isolated Sprague-Dawley rat myocytes were incubated with noradrenaline or isoprenaline for 24 h, Na/K pump high- (IPH) and low-affinity current (IPL), α-isoform mRNA, and α-isoform protein were examined using patch-clamp, RT-PCR, and Western blotting techniques, respectively. After the short-term incubation, isoprenaline reduced the IPL through a PKA-dependent pathway that involves α1-isoform translocation from the membrane to early endosomes, and noradrenaline increased the IPH through a PKC-dependent pathway that involves α2-isoform translocation from late endosomes to the membrane. After long-term incubation, isoprenaline increased the IPL, α1-isoform mRNA, and α1-isoform protein, and noradrenaline reduced the IPH, α2-isoform mRNA, and α1-isoform protein through a PKA-or PKC-dependent pathway, respectively. These results suggest that long-term adrenergic Na/K pump regulation is isoform-specific and negatively feeds back on the short-term response. Furthermore, long-term regulation involves transcription and translation of the respective α-isoform, whereas short-term regulation involves the translocation of the available α-isoform to the plasma membrane. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling induces oxidative modification of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump and inhibits its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Caroline N; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Chia, Karin K M; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2010-04-30

    Cellular signaling can inhibit the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump via protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase and a downstream oxidative modification, glutathionylation, of the beta(1) subunit of the pump alpha/beta heterodimer. It is firmly established that cAMP-dependent signaling also regulates the pump, and we have now examined the hypothesis that such regulation can be mediated by glutathionylation. Exposure of rabbit cardiac myocytes to the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin increased the co-immunoprecipitation of NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and p22(phox), required for its activation, and increased superoxide-sensitive fluorescence. Forskolin also increased glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump beta(1) subunit and decreased its co-immunoprecipitation with the alpha(1) subunit, findings similar to those already established for PKC-dependent signaling. The decrease in co-immunoprecipitation indicates a decrease in the alpha(1)/beta(1) subunit interaction known to be critical for pump function. In agreement with this, forskolin decreased ouabain-sensitive electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (arising from the 3:2 Na(+):K(+) exchange ratio) of voltage-clamped, internally perfused myocytes. The decrease was abolished by the inclusion of superoxide dismutase, the inhibitory peptide for the epsilon-isoform of PKC or inhibitory peptide for NADPH oxidase in patch pipette solutions that perfuse the intracellular compartment. Pump inhibition was also abolished by inhibitors of protein kinase A and phospholipase C. We conclude that cAMP- and PKC-dependent inhibition of the cardiac Na(+)-K(+) pump occurs via a shared downstream oxidative signaling pathway involving NADPH oxidase activation and glutathionylation of the pump beta(1) subunit.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide hyperpolarizes guinea pig airway epithelium by increasing the activities of the epithelial Na(+) channel and the Na(+)-K(+) pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael W; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2010-10-01

    Earlier, we found that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg/kg) hyperpolarized the transepithelial potential difference (V(t)) of tracheal epithelium in the isolated, perfused trachea (IPT) of the guinea pig 18 h after injection. As well, LPS increased the hyperpolarization component of the response to basolateral methacholine, and potentiated the epithelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated relaxation responses to hyperosmolar solutions applied to the apical membrane. We hypothesized that LPS stimulates the transepithelial movement of Na(+) via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/Na(+)-K(+) pump axis, leading to hyperpolarization of V(t). LPS increased the V(t)-depolarizing response to amiloride (10 μM), i.e., offset the effect of LPS, indicating that Na(+) transport activity was increased. The functional activity of ENaC was measured in the IPT after short-circuiting the Na(+)-K(+) pump with basolateral amphotericin B (7.5 μM). LPS had no effect on the hyperpolarization response to apical trypsin (100 U/ml) in the Ussing chamber, indicating that channel-activating proteases are not involved in the LPS-induced activation of ENaC. To assess Na(+)-K(+) pump activity in the IPT, ENaC was short-circuited with apical amphotericin B. The greater V(t) in the presence of amphotericin B in tracheas from LPS-treated animals compared with controls revealed that LPS increased Na(+)-K(+) pump activity. This finding was confirmed in the Ussing chamber by inhibiting the Na(+)-K(+) pump via extracellular K(+) removal, loading the epithelium with Na(+), and observing a greater hyperpolarization response to K(+) restoration. Together, the findings of this study reveal that LPS hyperpolarizes the airway epithelium by increasing the activities of ENaC and the Na(+)-K(+) pump.

  6. The Electrogenic Na+/K+ Pump Is a Key Determinant of Repolarization Abnormality Susceptibility in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: A Population-Based Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Oliver J; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Virág, László; Varró, András; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cellular repolarization abnormalities occur unpredictably due to disease and drug effects, and can occur even in cardiomyocytes that exhibit normal action potentials (AP) under control conditions. Variability in ion channel densities may explain differences in this susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. Here, we quantify the importance of key ionic mechanisms determining repolarization abnormalities following ionic block in human cardiomyocytes yielding normal APs under control conditions. Methods and Results: Sixty two AP recordings from non-diseased human heart preparations were used to construct a population of human ventricular models with normal APs and a wide range of ion channel densities. Multichannel ionic block was applied to investigate susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. I Kr block was necessary for the development of repolarization abnormalities. Models that developed repolarization abnormalities over the widest range of blocks possessed low Na + /K + pump conductance below 50% of baseline, and I CaL conductance above 70% of baseline. Furthermore, I NaK made the second largest contribution to repolarizing current in control simulations and the largest contribution under 75% I Kr block. Reversing intracellular Na + overload caused by reduced I NaK was not sufficient to prevent abnormalities in models with low Na + /K + pump conductance, while returning Na + /K + pump conductance to normal substantially reduced abnormality occurrence, indicating I NaK is an important repolarization current. Conclusions: I NaK is an important determinant of repolarization abnormality susceptibility in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, through its contribution to repolarization current rather than homeostasis. While we found I Kr block to be necessary for repolarization abnormalities to occur, I NaK decrease, as in disease, may amplify the pro-arrhythmic risk of drug-induced I Kr block in humans.

  7. Mechanisms of Isoform-Specific Na/K Pump Regulation by Short- and Long-Term Adrenergic Activation in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many stressful conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, induce long-term elevations in circulating catecholamines, thereby leading to changes of the Na/K pump and thus affecting myocardial functions. However, only short-term adrenergic regulation of the Na/K pump has been reported. The present study is the first investigation of long-term adrenergic regulation of the Na/K pump and the potential mechanism. Methods: After acutely isolated Sprague-Dawley rat myocytes were incubated with noradrenaline or isoprenaline for 24 h, Na/K pump high- (IPH and low-affinity current (IPL, α-isoform mRNA, and α-isoform protein were examined using patch-clamp, RT-PCR, and Western blotting techniques, respectively. Results: After the short-term incubation, isoprenaline reduced the IPL through a PKA-dependent pathway that involves α1-isoform translocation from the membrane to early endosomes, and noradrenaline increased the IPH through a PKC-dependent pathway that involves α2-isoform translocation from late endosomes to the membrane. After long-term incubation, isoprenaline increased the IPL, α1-isoform mRNA, and α1-isoform protein, and noradrenaline reduced the IPH, α2-isoform mRNA, and α1-isoform protein through a PKA-or PKC-dependent pathway, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that long-term adrenergic Na/K pump regulation is isoform-specific and negatively feeds back on the short-term response. Furthermore, long-term regulation involves transcription and translation of the respective α-isoform, whereas short-term regulation involves the translocation of the available α-isoform to the plasma membrane.

  8. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  9. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  10. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... of the filter. A numerical, FE- and BE-based model for calculation of the response of ultrasonic transducers of various geometries formed the basis for the design of such transducers. During laboratory experiments frequency and output power have been varied in order to find the optimal transducer design...

  11. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  12. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  13. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  14. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  15. Combustion and environmental performance of clean coal end products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications]|[Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab]|[Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Solid Fuels and Environment; Someus, E. [Thermal Desorption Technology Group (Greece); Grammelis, P.; Amarantos, P.S. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications; Palladas, A.; Basinas, P.; Natas, P.; Prokopidou, M.; Diamantopoulou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab

    2006-07-01

    Clean and affordable power production is needed in order to achieve sustainable economic development. This paper focused on clean coal technologies in which coal-fired power plants are used in conjunction with large amounts of renewable energy sources to offer a high level of process safety and long term management of all residual operation streams. Thermal Desorption Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Technology (TDT-3R) was described as being a promising solid fuel pretreatment process for clean energy production up to 300 MWe capacities. TDT-3R is based on low temperature carbonisation fuel pre-treatment principles, which produce cleansed anthracite type fuels from coal and other carbonaceous material such as biomass and organic wastes. The combustion efficiency of such clean coals and the environmental performance of the TDT-3R process were investigated in this study via pilot scale tests of clean fuel production. Tests included flue gas emissions monitoring, raw fuel and product characterisation and thermogravimetric tests, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans, and heavy metals analyses, and toxicity tests. Raw material included coal and biomass, such as willow, straw and demolition wood. The fuels were heated in a rotary kiln operating at 550 degrees C under slightly vacuum conditions. Clean coals were tested either alone or in conjunction with biomass fuels in a pilot scale combustion facility at Dresden, Germany. The clean coal samples were shown to have higher fixed carbon and ash content and lower volatiles compared to the respective raw coal samples. The major advantage of the TDT-3R process is the production of fuels with much lower pollutants content. Low nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal contents result in produced fuels that have excellent environmental performance, allow boiler operation in higher temperatures and overall better efficiency. Moreover, the use of clean fuels reduces deposition problems in the combustion chamber due to the

  16. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  17. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  18. Selectivity of externally facing ion-binding sites in the Na/K pump to alkali metals and organic cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheal, Ian M; Virgin, Gail K; Yu, Haibo; Roux, Benoît; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2010-10-26

    The Na/K pump is a P-type ATPase that exchanges three intracellular Na(+) ions for two extracellular K(+) ions through the plasmalemma of nearly all animal cells. The mechanisms involved in cation selection by the pump's ion-binding sites (site I and site II bind either Na(+) or K(+); site III binds only Na(+)) are poorly understood. We studied cation selectivity by outward-facing sites (high K(+) affinity) of Na/K pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes, under voltage clamp. Guanidinium(+), methylguanidinium(+), and aminoguanidinium(+) produced two phenomena possibly reflecting actions at site III: (i) voltage-dependent inhibition (VDI) of outwardly directed pump current at saturating K(+), and (ii) induction of pump-mediated, guanidinium-derivative-carried inward current at negative potentials without Na(+) and K(+). In contrast, formamidinium(+) and acetamidinium(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Measurement of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity and radiolabeled cation uptake confirmed that these cations are external K(+) congeners. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that bound organic cations induce minor distortion of the binding sites. Among tested metals, only Li(+) induced Na(+)-like VDI, whereas all metals tested except Na(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Pump-mediated K(+)-like organic cation transport challenges the concept of rigid structural models in which ion specificity at site I and site II arises from a precise and unique arrangement of coordinating ligands. Furthermore, actions by guanidinium(+) derivatives suggest that Na(+) binds to site III in a hydrated form and that the inward current observed without external Na(+) and K(+) represents cation transport when normal occlusion at sites I and II is impaired. These results provide insights on external ion selectivity at the three binding sites.

  19. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  20. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Sato, Chikashi

    1997-01-01

    'How clean is clean?' is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects

  1. Facile Dry Surface Cleaning of Graphene by UV Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Haidari, Mohd Musaib; Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Hakseong; Yu, Young-Jun; Park, Jonghyurk

    2018-05-01

    Graphene has been considered an ideal material for application in transparent lightweight wearable electronics due to its extraordinary mechanical, optical, and electrical properties originating from its ordered hexagonal carbon atomic lattice in a layer. Precise surface control is critical in maximizing its performance in electronic applications. Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is widely used but it produces polymeric residue following wet/chemical transfer process, which strongly affects its intrinsic electrical properties and limits the doping efficiency by adsorption. Here, we introduce a facile dry-cleaning method based on UV irradiation to eliminate the organic residues even after device fabrication. Through surface topography, Raman analysis, and electrical transport measurement characteristics, we confirm that the optimized UV treatment can recover the clean graphene surface and improve graphene-FET performance more effectively than thermal treatment. We propose our UV irradiation method as a systematically controllable and damage-free post process for application in large-area devices.

  2. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  3. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  4. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  5. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  6. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  7. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  8. Influence of usage history, instrument complexity, and different cleaning procedures on the cleanliness of blood-contaminated dental surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Yu, X.F.

    2009-01-01

    Our study assessed the factors that influence the resistance of blood residues on dental surgical instruments to washer‐disinfector-based cleaning procedures in a clinical setting. The use of 2 additional cleaning methods—presoaking and scrubbing by hand—and the use of newer and/or less structurally

  9. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P cleaning and disinfection programme used, there was a statistically significant (P cleaning and disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  10. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  11. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  12. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  13. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of 0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50ÀC will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  14. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of Irinotecan hydrochloride residues for cleaning validation in production area Método RP- HPLC validado para la determinación de residuos de Irinotecan Hidrocloruro para la validación de la limpieza en el área de producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in pharmaceutical industry. The main purpose of cleaning validation is to prove the effectiveness and consistency of cleaning in a given pharmaceutical production equipment to prevent cross contamination and adulteration of drug product with other active ingredient. Objective: a rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of irinotecan hydrochloride in cleaning validation swab samples. Method: the method was validated using waters symmetry shield RP-18 (250mm x 4.6mm 5 µm column with isocratic mobile phase containing a mixture of 0.02 M potassium di-hydrogen ortho-phosphate, pH adjusted to 3.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid, methanol and acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v/v. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min with column temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength at 220nm. The sample injection volume was 100 µl. Results: the calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 0.024 to 0.143 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation were below 3.2%. The recoveries obtained from stainless steel, PCGI, epoxy, glass and decron cloth surfaces were more than 85% and there was no interference from the cotton swab. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.008 and 0.023 µg ml-1, respectively. Conclusion: the developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The overall procedure can be used as part of a cleaning validation program in pharmaceutical manufacture of irinotecan hydrochloride.

  15. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  16. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  17. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, M.; Jessen, S.; Onslev, J.

    2017-01-01

    of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+. Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 n......M with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline...

  19. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  1. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  2. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  3. Gas plant cleaning case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, B

    1971-03-22

    Basic steps to be taken before using any cleaning method are select a responsible group and give it full responsibility; know the problem, what type of fouling, lab samples, amount of material, time and cost; sell the idea to management; maintain the cleaning equipment; and follow up each cleaning operation. These principles have been applied to advantage in the amine contractor at Taylor, a vessel 60 ft high with 78-in. OD, containing carbon steel deck trays with stainless steel caps. The original attempt to clean with wire scrapers manually involved much lost time and several crews. There was limited space in the tray vessels, design created areas difficult to clean, working conditions were unpleasant, equipment downtime was extended, labor cost was high, and the final result was not satisfactory. Chemical cleaning was substituted, preceded by a water wash. Five hours of caustic wash with a 3% solution at 170$F were followed by a water wash, an acid wash, 1-hr neutralization with a weak soda ash solution, and finally passivation to eliminate iron oxide. For the acid wash, sulfamic acid was found best, in 10% concentration for 4 hr. Cascading was most economical, but flooding has been employed sometimes at 2-1/2 times the cost, to reach all the dark corners.

  4. Reduced resting potentials in dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers are secondary to NF-κB-dependent negative modulation of ouabain sensitive Na+-K+ pump activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M T; Cottey, E; Cottey, A; Stefanski, C; Carlson, C G

    2011-04-15

    To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic α1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-κB activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-κB dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of Na+/K+ pump in fine modulation of bursting activity of the snail Br neuron by 10 mT static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ljiljana; Todorović, Nataša; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Stanić, Marina; Rauš, Snežana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Janać, Branka

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneously active Br neuron from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia rhythmically generates regular bursts of action potentials with quiescent intervals accompanied by slow oscillations of membrane potential. We examined the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in modulating its bursting activity by applying a static magnetic field. Whole snail brains and Br neuron were exposed to the 10-mT static magnetic field for 15 min. Biochemical data showed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased almost twofold after exposure of snail brains to the static magnetic field. Similarly, (31)P NMR data revealed a trend of increasing ATP consumption and increase in intracellular pH mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in snail brains exposed to the static magnetic field. Importantly, current clamp recordings from the Br neuron confirmed the increase in activity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump after exposure to the static magnetic field, as the magnitude of ouabain's effect measured on the membrane resting potential, action potential, and interspike interval duration was higher in neurons exposed to the magnetic field. Metabolic pathways through which the magnetic field influenced the Na(+)/K(+) pump could involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as blocking these processes abolished the effect of the static magnetic field.

  6. Test Results From a Pair of 1-kWe Dual-Opposed Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertors Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Penswick, L. Barry; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1-kW-class free-piston Stirling convertors were modified to operate with a NaK (sodium (Na) and potassium (K)) liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The convertors were successfully tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from June 6 through July 14, 2009. The convertors were operated for a total test time of 66 hr and 16 min. The tests included (a) performance mapping the convertors over various hot- and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes, and NaK flow rates and (b) transient test conditions to simulate various startup (i.e., low-, medium-, and high-temperature startups) and fault scenarios (i.e., loss of heat source, loss of NaK pump, convertor stall, etc.). This report documents the results of this testing

  7. Summary of Test Results From a 1 kW(sub e)-Class Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertor Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors was modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The tests included performance mapping the convertors over various hot and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes and NaK flow rates; and transient test conditions to simulate various start-up and fault scenarios. Performance maps of the convertors generated using the pumped NaK loop for thermal input show increases in power output over those measured during baseline testing using electric heating. Transient testing showed that the Stirling convertors can be successfully started in a variety of different scenarios and that the convertors can recover from a variety of fault scenarios.

  8. Summary of Test Results From a 1 kWe-Class Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertor Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors was modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The tests included performance mapping the convertors over various hot and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes and NaK flow rates; and transient test conditions to simulate various start-up and fault scenarios. Performance maps of the convertors generated using the pumped NaK loop for thermal input show increases in power output over those measured during baseline testing using electric heating. Transient testing showed that the Stirling convertors can be successfully started in a variety of different scenarios and that the convertors can recover from a variety of fault scenarios.

  9. Stepwise evolution of resistance to toxic cardenolides via genetic substitutions in the Na+/K+ -ATPase of milkweed butterflies (lepidoptera: Danaini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschenka, Georg; Fandrich, Steffi; Sander, Nils; Wagschal, Vera; Boppré, Michael; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-09-01

    Despite the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) being famous for its adaptations to the defensive traits of its milkweed host plants, little is known about the macroevolution of these traits. Unlike most other animal species, monarchs are largely insensitive to cardenolides, because their target site, the sodium pump (Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase), has evolved amino acid substitutions that reduce cardenolide binding (so-called target site insensitivity, TSI). Because many, but not all, species of milkweed butterflies (Danaini) are associated with cardenolide-containing host plants, we analyzed 16 species, representing all phylogenetic lineages of milkweed butterflies, for the occurrence of TSI by sequence analyses of the Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase gene and by enzymatic assays with extracted Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase. Here we report that sensitivity to cardenolides was reduced in a stepwise manner during the macroevolution of milkweed butterflies. Strikingly, not all Danaini typically consuming cardenolides showed TSI, but rather TSI was more strongly associated with sequestration of toxic cardenolides. Thus, the interplay between bottom-up selection by plant compounds and top-down selection by natural enemies can explain the evolutionary sequence of adaptations to these toxins. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Failure of Cleaning Verification in Pharmaceutical Industry Due to Uncleanliness of Stainless Steel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Blasko, Andrei

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this work is to identify the parameters that affect the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons. A series of factors were assessed, including drug product spike levels, spiking procedure, drug-excipient ratios, analyst-to-analyst variability, intraday variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned the coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of cleaning the surface of the coupons with clean-in-place solutions (CIP) gave high recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (Srel≤4%) regardless of the conditions that were assessed previously. The approach was successfully applied for cleaning verification of small molecules (MW <1,000 Da) as well as large biomolecules (MW up to 50,000 Da).

  11. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  12. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  13. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...

  14. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  15. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2017-07-03

    Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization. Na channel currents are nearly unchanged by pump activity in these conditions, and conversely, continuous Na currents up to 0.5 nA in magnitude have negligible effects on pump currents. These outcomes are even more pronounced using 50 mM Li as a cytoplasmic Na congener. Thus, the Na/K pump current decay reflects mostly an inactivation mechanism that immobilizes Na/K pump charge movements, not cytoplasmic Na depletion. When channel currents are increased beyond 1 nA, models with unrestricted subsarcolemmal diffusion accurately predict current decay (τ ∼15 s) and reversal potential shifts observed for Na, Li, and K currents through Na channels opened by veratridine, as well as for Na, K, Cs, Li, and Cl currents recorded in nystatin-permeabilized myocytes. Ion concentrations in the pipette tip (i.e., access conductance) track without appreciable delay the current changes caused by sarcolemmal ion flux. Importantly, cytoplasmic mixing volumes, calculated from current decay kinetics, increase and decrease as expected with osmolarity changes (τ >30 s). Na/K pump current run-down over 20 min reflects a failure of pumps to recover from inactivation. Simulations reveal that pump inactivation coupled with Na-activated recovery enhances the rapidity and effectivity of Na homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, an autoregulatory mechanism enhances cardiac Na/K pump activity when

  16. F2α-isoprostane, Na+-K+ ATPase and membrane fluidity of placental syncytiotrophoblast cell in preeclamptic women with vitamin E supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciscus D. Suyatna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to analyze F2α-isoprostane level, Na+-K+ ATPase activity and placental syncytiotrophoblast cell membrane fluidity in preeclamptic women who received vitamin E supplementation.Methods: The study was conducted between September 2003 and February 2005 at Budi Kemuliaan Maternity Hospital, Central Jakarta. Samples were 6 preeclamptic women with vitamin E supplementation, 6 preeclamptic women without vitamin E supplementation and 6 normal pregnant women. The dose of vitamin E was 200 mg daily. F2α-isoprostane was measured with ELISA reader at λ of 450 nm. Cell membrane fluidity was measured by comparing the molar ratio of total cholesterol and cell membrane phospholipid concentration. The cholesterol was measured by Modular C800 using Roche reagent. Phospholipid was measured by Shimadzu RF5301PC spectrofluorometer (excitation 267 nm, emission 307 nm. Na+-K+ ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. Pi production was measured with Fiske and Subbarow method using spectrophotometer at λ of 660 nm. Data was analyzed using F test with one-way ANOVA.Results: Vitamin E supplementation in preeclamptic women decreased the oxidative stress, indicated by significantly lower level of F2α-isoprostane compared to those without vitamin E (26.72 ± 11.21 vs 41.85 ± 7.09 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.017. Membrane fluidity in syncytiotrophoblast cell of preeclampsia with vitamin E group was maintained at 0.39 ± 0.08 while in those without vitamin E was 0.53 ± 0.14 (p = 0.04. Na+-K+ ATPase activity in syncytiotrophoblast cell membrane was not affected by vitamin E (p = 0.915.Conclusion: Vitamin E supplementation in preeclamptic women decreases F2α-isoprostane level and maintains cell membrane fluidity of syncytiotrophoblast cells; however, it does not increase Na+-K+ ATPase enzyme activity. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:225-9Keywords: F2α-isoprostane, membrane fluidity, Na+-K+ ATPase, preeclampsia, vitamin E

  17. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  18. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  20. The effect of X-irradiation on Na-K ATPase and cation distribution in rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The Na-K ATPase activity of rabbit lens was measured at various times after exposure to a single dose of 2000 rads of X-ray and was compared with that in contralateral control eyes. A decrease in enzyme activity in both whole lens and in isolated capsule-epithelium was first observed 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation and became increasingly marked at 7.5 weeks after X-ray. These findings are consistent with our earlier observations that active transport of cations is reduced in these lenses and support the view that loss of membrane ATPase is responsible for the impairment of the cation pump in X-irradiated lenses. Despite a significant loss of the enzyme, X-irradiated lenses were able to maintain near normal levels of total cations (Na+ + K+), thus accounting for their normal hydration. The results of the changes in lens Na+ and K+ levels revealed that between 4 and 7.5 weeks after X-ray, the gain in Na+ was compensated by an equivalent loss of K+. A breakdown of this relationship of 1:1 exchange of Na+ for K+ is accompanied by a disproportionate increase in Na+ and water

  1. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  2. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based...... on an experimental study, a technology called clean air heat pump is proposed as a practical approach for indoor air cleaning....

  3. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  4. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  5. Residual contamination and corrosion on electrochemically marked uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Bullock, J.S.; Bennett, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Residual contamination and potential corrosion problems on uranium parts resulting from PHB-1 and PHB-1E electroetchants have been investigated using ion microprobe mass analysis (IMMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and light microscopy (LM). The effectiveness of various solvent cleaning sequences and the influence of the use of an abrasive cleaner were evaluated. The marking thicknesses and chlorine distributions were determined

  6. Steam generator secondary side chemical cleaning at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, S.

    2006-01-01

    After more than 20 years of operation, the secondary side of the four steam generators at Gentilly-2 were chemically cleaned during the 2005 annual outage. The FRAMATOME ANP high temperature cleaning process used to remove magnetite loading involved stepwise injection of solvent with PHT temperature in the range 160 o C to 175 o C. The heat required to maintain the PHT temperature was provided by the operation of the main PHT pumps and the reactor core residual heat. The temperature control was accomplished by the shutdown cooling system heat exchangers. A total of 1280 kg of magnetite was removed from the four steam generators. A copper-cleaning step was applied after the iron step. The PHT has been cooled down and the steam generators drained to temporary tanks and dried in preparation of the copper step. The process has been applied at room temperature, two boilers at a time. The solvent removed a total of 116 kg of copper. During the iron step, steam flow to the feedwater tank chemically contaminate the Balance Of Plant (BOP) systems. The isolation of this path should have been part of the G2 procedures. Around 700 m3 of water had to be drained to interim storage tanks for subsequent resin treatment before disposal. Visual inspection of BO1 tubesheet and first support plate showed clean surfaces without measurable sludge pile. Upper support plates visual inspection of BO4 revealed that broach holes blockage reported in 2000 is still present in peripheral area. Following the plant restart, the medium range level measurement instability observed since several years for BO3 was no more present. As anticipated, it also has been observed that the medium and wide range level measurements have shifted down as a result of downcomer flow increase after the cleaning. The cleaning objectives were achieved regarding the fouling reduction on the steam generators secondary side but broach holes blockage of the upper support plate is still present in periphery. (author)

  7. Cleaning of biomaterial surfaces: protein removal by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Fabian; Grass, Simone; Umanskaya, Natalia; Scheibe, Christian; Müller-Renno, Christine; Davoudi, Neda; Hannig, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The removal of biofilms or protein films from biomaterials is still a challenging task. In particular, for research investigations on real (applied) surfaces the reuse of samples is of high importance, because reuse allows the comparison of the same sample in different experiments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of different solvents (SDS, water, acetone, isopropanol, RIPA-buffer and Tween-20) on five different biomaterials (titanium, gold, PMMA (no acetone used), ceramic, and PTFE) with different wettability which were covered by layers of two different adsorbed proteins (BSA and lysozyme). The presence of a protein film after adsorption was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After treatment of the surfaces with the different solvents, the residual proteins on the surface were determined by BCA-assay (bicinchoninic acid assay). Data of the present study indicate that SDS is an effective solvent, but for several protein-substrate combinations it does not show the cleaning efficiency often mentioned in literature. RIPA-buffer and Tween-20 were more effective. They showed very low residual protein amounts after cleaning on all examined material surfaces and for both proteins, however, with small differences for the respective substrate-protein combinations. RIPA-buffer in combination with ultrasonication completely removed the protein layer as confirmed by TEM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  9. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  10. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  11. Stethoscope Cleaning During Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Ghazi Wahla; Ahmad, Nina; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in two community teaching hospitals to better understand clinicians' beliefs and practices related to cleaning of their stethoscopes. The study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2016. Among the total 358 responses received, 45%, 40%, 10% and 5% were from attending physicians, medical students, nurses, and resident physicians, respectively. Although the majority of the respondents (76%) frequently used a stethoscope at work, and almost all (93%) believed that stethoscopes can be involved in pathogen transmission, only 29% of participants reported cleaning their stethoscopes after every use. Hospitals should include stethoscope cleaning into their overall infection prevention efforts. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-05.asp].

  12. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  13. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  14. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  15. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  16. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+ -ATPase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ronald J Y; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2011-02-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  17. Evaluation of common cleaning and disinfection programmes in battery cage and on-floor layer houses in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Michel, V; Balaine, L; Petetin, I; Eono, F; Ecobichon, F; Bouquin, S Le

    2010-04-01

    1. The aim in this study was to evaluate cleaning and disinfection programmes in battery cage and on-floor layer houses in France. 2. Cleaning and disinfection efficiency was assessed by a visual evaluation of cleaning and a bacteriological monitoring of surface contamination from counts of thermotolerant streptococci on contact agar plates. 3. In battery cage houses, dropping belts, manure conveyors, and house floors remained highly contaminated due to poor cleaning in half of the buildings examined. 4. In on-floor houses, a high standard of cleaning was achieved but errors in the planning of cleaning and disinfection operations sometimes led to a high residual contamination of nest boxes and egg sorting tables.

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of cleaning procedures for synchrotron radiation beamline materials at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Ryding, D.; Liu, C.; Kuzay, T.M.; McDowell, M.W.; Rosenberg, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    TZM (a high temperature molybdenum alloy), machinable tungsten, and 304 stainless steel were cleaned using environmentally safe, commercially available cleaning detergents. The surface cleanliness was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a simple alkaline detergent is very effective at removal of organic and inorganic surface contaminants or foreign particle residue from machining processes. The detergent can be used with ultrasonic agitation at 140 F to clean the TZM molybdenum, machinable tungsten, and 304 stainless steel. A citric-acid-based detergent was also found to be effective at cleaning metal oxides, such as iron oxide, molybdenum oxide, as well as tungsten oxides at mild temperatures with ultrasonic agitation, and it can be used to replace strong inorganic acids to improve cleaning safety and minimize waste disposal and other environmental problems. The efficiency of removing the metal oxides depends on both cleaning temperature and time

  19. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  20. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system [it

  1. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  2. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...

  3. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  4. Meeting the clean air demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, C.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the impacts to the emissions control industry and the future of small independent projects of the Clean Air Act. Topics discussed include technological and market niche of pollution control companies, risk reduction by owning and operating the emission control portion of the plant as a separate entity, the diversity of technologies, and legislative effects

  5. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  6. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  7. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  8. Steam generator cleaning campaigns at Bruce A: 1993-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzzuoli, F.V.; Leinonen, P.J.; Lowe, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Boiler chemical cleaning (BOCC) and high-pressure water lancing operations were performed during the Bruce A 1993 Unit 3, 1994 Unit 3, 1995 Unit 1 and 1996 Unit 3 outages to remove secondary side deposits. High-pressure water lancing focused on three boiler areas: tube support plates, to remove broached hole deposits, hot leg U-bend supports to dislodge deposits contributing to boiler tube stress corrosion cracking and tube sheets with the aim of removing accumulated sludge piles and post BOCC insoluble residues. The chemical cleaning processes applied were modified versions of the one developed by the Electric Power Research Institute/Steam Generator Owners Group. During these BOCC operations, corrosion for several key boiler materials was monitored and was well below the specified allowances

  9. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1996-10-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories

  10. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  11. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  12. Alzheimer's Toxic Amyloid Beta Oligomers: Unwelcome Visitors to the Na/K ATPase alpha3 Docking Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiChiara, Thomas; DiNunno, Nadia; Clark, Jeffrey; Bu, Riana Lo; Cline, Erika N; Rollins, Madeline G; Gong, Yuesong; Brody, David L; Sligar, Stephen G; Velasco, Pauline T; Viola, Kirsten L; Klein, William L

    2017-03-01

    Toxic amyloid beta oligomers (AβOs) are known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of AD. Their structure is heterogeneous, and they are found in both intracellular and extracellular milieu. When given to CNS cultures or injected ICV into non-human primates and other non-transgenic animals, AβOs have been found to cause impaired synaptic plasticity, loss of memory function, tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, synapse elimination, oxidative and ER stress, inflammatory microglial activation, and selective nerve cell death. Memory loss and pathology in transgenic models are prevented by AβO antibodies, while Aducanumab, an antibody that targets AβOs as well as fibrillar Aβ, has provided cognitive benefit to humans in early clinical trials. AβOs have now been investigated in more than 3000 studies and are widely thought to be the major toxic form of Aβ. Although much has been learned about the downstream mechanisms of AβO action, a major gap concerns the earliest steps: How do AβOs initially interact with surface membranes to generate neuron-damaging transmembrane events? Findings from Ohnishi et al (PNAS 2005) combined with new results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that AβOs act as neurotoxins because they attach to particular membrane protein docks containing Na/K ATPase-α3, where they inhibit ATPase activity and pathologically restructure dock composition and topology in a manner leading to excessive Ca++ build-up. Better understanding of the mechanism that makes attachment of AβOs to vulnerable neurons a neurotoxic phenomenon should open the door to therapeutics and diagnostics targeting the first step of a complex pathway that leads to neural damage and dementia.

  13. Species-dependent adaptation of the cardiac Na+/K+ pump kinetics to the intracellular Na+ concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalle, Alexandre; Niederer, Steven A; Smith, Nicolas P

    2014-12-15

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) plays a critical role in maintaining ionic homeostasis and dynamic function in cardiac myocytes, within both the in vivo cell and in silico models. Physiological conditions differ significantly between mammalian species. However, most existing formulations of NKA used to simulate cardiac function in computational models are derived from a broad range of experimental sources spanning many animal species. The resultant inability of these models to discern species-specific features is a significant obstacle to achieving a detailed quantitative and comparative understanding of physiological behaviour in different biological contexts. Here we present a framework for characterising the steady-state NKA current using a biophysical mechanistic model specifically designed to provide a mechanistic explanation of the NKA flux supported by self-consistent species-specific data. We thus compared NKA kinetics specific to guinea- pig and rat ventricular myocytes. We observe that the apparent binding affinity for sodium in the rat is significantly lower, whereas the overall pump cycle rate is doubled, in comparison to the guinea pig. This sensitivity of NKA to its regulatory substrates compensates for the differences in Na(+) concentrations between the cell types. NKA is thereby maintained within its dynamic range over a wide range of pacing frequencies in these two species, despite significant disparities in sodium concentration. Hence, by replacing a conventional generic NKA model with our rat-specific NKA formula into a whole-cell simulation, we have, for the first time, been able to accurately reproduce the action potential duration and the steady-state sodium concentration as functions of pacing frequency. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Expression of three isoforms of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) in the kidney and regulation by dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuko; Izumi, Yuichiro; Inoue, Takeaki; Inoue, Hideki; Nakayama, Yushi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Takashi; Yamazaki, Taiga; Yasuoka, Yukiko; Makino, Takeshi; Nagaba, Yasushi; Tomita, Kimio; Kobayashi, Noritada; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Sodium reabsorption via Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limbs has a major role for medullary osmotic gradient and subsequent water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. We investigated intrarenal localization of three isoforms of NKCC2 mRNA expressions and the effects of dehydration on them in rats. To further examine the mechanisms of dehydration, the effects of hyperosmolality on NKCC2 mRNA expression in microdissected renal tubules was studied. RT-PCR and RT-competitive PCR were employed. The expressions of NKCC2a and b mRNA were observed in the cortical thick ascending limbs (CAL) and the distal convoluted tubules (DCT) but not in the medullary thick ascending limbs (MAL), whereas NKCC2f mRNA expression was seen in MAL and CAL. Two-day dehydration did not affect these mRNA expressions. In contrast, hyperosmolality increased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL in vitro. Bradykinin dose-dependently decreased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL. However, dehydration did not change NKCC2 protein expression in membrane fraction from cortex and outer medulla and in microdissected MAL. These data show that NKCC2a/b and f types are mainly present in CAL and MAL, respectively. Although NKCC2 mRNA expression was stimulated by hyperosmolality in vitro, NKCC2 mRNA and protein expressions were not stimulated by dehydration in vivo. These data suggest the presence of the inhibitory factors for NKCC2 expression in dehydration. Considering the role of NKCC2 for the countercurrent multiplier system, NKCC2f expressed in MAL might be more important than NKCC2a/b. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular beam study of the a 3Σ+ state of NaK up to the dissociation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelkov, I.; Knöckel, H.; Pashov, A.; Tiemann, E.

    2015-03-01

    We provide spectroscopic data for the a 3Σ+ state of the 23Na39K molecule. The experiment is done in an ultrasonic beam apparatus, starting from the ground state X 1Σ+and driving the population to the a 3Σ+ state, using a Λ scheme with fixed pump and scanning dump laser. The signals are observed as dips of the total fluorescence. The intermediate level is chosen to be strongly perturbed by the B 1Π/c 3Σ+ states mixing to overcome the singlet-triplet transfer prohibition. We observed highly resolved hyperfine spectra of various rovibrational levels of the a 3Σ+state from va=2 up to the highest vibrational levels for rotational quantum numbers Na=4 ,6 ,8 . By the typical experimental linewidth of 17 MHz, the vibrational dependence of the hyperfine splitting is clearly revealed for NaK. The absolute frequency measurements of the vibrational levels are used for improvement of the a 3Σ+ potential curve and of the derived scattering length of all natural isotope combinations. Applying the Λ scheme in the reverse direction can provide a pathway for efficient transfer of ultracold 23Na39K molecules from the Na(3 s )+K(4 s ) asymptote to the lowest levels of the ground state. We show spectra that couple the absolute ground state vX=0 ,J =0 with an appropriate intermediate state for direct realization of the reverse path. The refined theoretical model of the coupled excited states of the Na(3 s )+K(4 p ) asymptote allows predictions of efficient paths for 23Na40K ; one example is calculated.

  16. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  17. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The status of pesticide residues in soil samples collected from a former storage site one year after clean-up ... risk to the underground water (Felsot et al. ... the properties of the contaminants, soil .... and isotope ratios for the labelled standards.

  18. Study on surface properties of gilt-bronze artifacts, after Nd:YAG laser cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeyoun [Division of Restoration Technology, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namchul, E-mail: nam1611@hanmail.net [Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science, Kongju National University, Gongju, 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmyoung [Laser Engineering Group, IMT Co. Ltd, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    As numerous pores are formed at plating gilt-bronze artifacts, the metal underlying the gold is corroded and corrosion products are formed on layer of gold. Through this study, the surfaces of gilt-bronze are being investigated before and after the laser irradiation to remove corrosion products of copper by using Nd:YAG laser. For gilt-bronze specimens, laser and chemical cleaning were performed, and thereafter, surface analysis with SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS were used to determine the surface characteristics. Experimental results show that chemical cleaning removes corrosion products of copper through dissolution but it was not removed uniformly and separated the metal substrate and the gold layer. Nevertheless, through laser cleaning, some of the corrosions were removed with some damaged areas due to certain conditions and brown residues remained. Brown residues were copper corrosion products mixed with soil left within the gilt layer. It was due to surface morphology of uneven and rough gilt layer. Hence, they did not react effectively to laser beams, and thus, remained as residues. The surface properties of gilt-bronze should be thoroughly investigated with various surface analyses to succeed in laser cleaning without damages or residues.

  19. Use of a portable fluorescence imaging device to facilitate cleaning of deli slicers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-contamination is a recognized food safety concern for deli departments, and deli slicers remain a particular concern. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that deli commodity residues can be detected using fluorescence imaging, and that the efficacy of cleaning and sanitation in produce proc...

  20. Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, Jonathan; Saxena, Samveg; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Wang, Dai

    2018-05-01

    California has issued ambitious targets to decarbonize transportation through the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), and to decarbonize the electricity grid through the expansion of both renewable generation and energy storage. These parallel efforts can provide an untapped synergistic opportunity for clean transportation to be an enabler for a clean electricity grid. To quantify this potential, we forecast the hourly system-wide balancing problems arising out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and load continues to grow. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits from EVs modulating the charging or discharging of their batteries to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of drivers. Our results show that with its EV deployment target and with only one-way charging control of EVs, California can achieve much of the same benefit of its Storage Mandate for mitigating renewable intermittency, but at a small fraction of the cost. Moreover, EVs provide many times these benefits if two-way charging control becomes widely available. Thus, EVs support the state’s renewable integration targets while avoiding much of the tremendous capital investment of stationary storage that can instead be applied towards further deployment of clean vehicles.

  1. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  2. Partial characterization and response under hyperregulating conditions of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase activities in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Andrea Pinoni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, characteristics and response to changes in environmental salinity of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase (AP activities were studied in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus. Chela muscle exhibited an Na+-K+ ATPase activity which was strongly dependent on ATP concentration, pH and temperature of the reaction mixture. Maximal activity was found at 1 mM ATP, 30-37°C and pH 7.4. Levamisole-sensitive AP activity was characterised at physiological pH 7.4 and at pH 8.0. I50 for levamisole-sensitive AP activity was 8.8 mM and 8.0 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. At both pH levels, levamisole-sensitive AP activity exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km=3.451 mM and 6.906 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. Levamisole-sensitive AP activities were strongly affected by temperature, exhibiting a peak at 37ºC. In crabs acclimated to low salinity (10; hyperegulating conditions, Na+-K+ ATPase activity and levamisole-sensitive AP activity at the physiological pH were higher than in 35 psu (osmoconforming conditions. The response to low salinity suggests that both activities could be components of muscle regulatory mechanisms at the biochemical level secondary to hyperegulation of C. angulatus. The study of these activities under hyperegulating conditions contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of biochemical mechanisms underlying the adaptive process of euryhaline crabs.

  3. The Electrogenic Na+/K+ Pump Is a Key Determinant of Repolarization Abnormality Susceptibility in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: A Population-Based Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Britton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cellular repolarization abnormalities occur unpredictably due to disease and drug effects, and can occur even in cardiomyocytes that exhibit normal action potentials (AP under control conditions. Variability in ion channel densities may explain differences in this susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. Here, we quantify the importance of key ionic mechanisms determining repolarization abnormalities following ionic block in human cardiomyocytes yielding normal APs under control conditions.Methods and Results: Sixty two AP recordings from non-diseased human heart preparations were used to construct a population of human ventricular models with normal APs and a wide range of ion channel densities. Multichannel ionic block was applied to investigate susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. IKr block was necessary for the development of repolarization abnormalities. Models that developed repolarization abnormalities over the widest range of blocks possessed low Na+/K+ pump conductance below 50% of baseline, and ICaL conductance above 70% of baseline. Furthermore, INaK made the second largest contribution to repolarizing current in control simulations and the largest contribution under 75% IKr block. Reversing intracellular Na+ overload caused by reduced INaK was not sufficient to prevent abnormalities in models with low Na+/K+ pump conductance, while returning Na+/K+ pump conductance to normal substantially reduced abnormality occurrence, indicating INaK is an important repolarization current.Conclusions: INaK is an important determinant of repolarization abnormality susceptibility in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, through its contribution to repolarization current rather than homeostasis. While we found IKr block to be necessary for repolarization abnormalities to occur, INaK decrease, as in disease, may amplify the pro-arrhythmic risk of drug-induced IKr block in humans.

  4. Comparison of high‐intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Gary; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high‐intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting‐fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high‐intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117–123, 2017. PMID:26426906

  5. Comparison of high-intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Gary; Hopkins, Carl; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting-fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117-123, 2017. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oskarshamn 1 RPV: cleaning it out before venturing in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svantesson, I.; Ingemansson, K.-E.; Ericsson, J.-O.; Bjerler, J.

    1994-01-01

    An opportunity to carry out nondestructive testing of the bottom dome of the Oskarshamn 1 BWR vessel arose when all the reactor internals had to be removed to replace cracked feedwater risers. This necessitated decontamination of the lower part of the vessel, the four main recirculation loops, the residual heat removal system and the reactor water clean-up system. A decontamination factor of between 100 and 1000 was achieved, making the vessel accessible for manual inspection and repair work. The decontamination process, using the Siemens KWU CORD method, is outlined. (UK)

  7. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  8. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  9. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  10. Design of single-walled NaK capsules for fast breeder fuel pins irradiation (IVO-FR2-Vg7 program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.; Hafner, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    In Frame of the Joint Irradiation Program IVO-FR2 between the Nuclear Research Centre of Karlsruhe (RFA) and the Junta de Energia Nuclear (Spain) is carried out in the FR2 reactor (Karlsruhe) the irradiation of 12 mixed-oxide fuel rods of 172 mm length. These test rods are first irradiated under various conditions in four modified FR2 capsule (Typ 7). Two versions of single-walled NaK (78% K) are used for this purpose. This report contains the design and description of these two capsule versions as well as the considerations required to oftain the operations licence, supplemented by the relevant figures. (author)

  11. Photodissociation of NaK: Ab initio spin-orbit interaction of the Na (32S) and K (42Pj) manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaa, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The relevant interstate b 3 II, A 1 Σ + , c 3 Σ + , and B 1 II spin-orbit induced matrix elements, arising from the Ma (3 2 S) K (4 2 P j ) manifold are treated within the full microscopic Breit-Pauli approximation based on ab initio configuration interaction (CI) wave functions. The determination of these couplings as a function of the internuclear distance of NaK should permit a full treatment of the fine-structure branching ratio K*(4 2 P 1/2 (D 1 ))/Kasterisk(4 2 P 3/2 (D 2 )) in manifold-meditated photodissociation and in the treatment of interstate perturbations

  12. Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+/K+ pump {alpha}2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson; Wendell, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    was unaltered, but the 3-K (3,000 m) time was reduced (Pexpression and performance remained unaltered in CON. The present data suggest that both short- and long-term......% reduction in the amount of training but including speed endurance training consisting of 6-12 30-s sprint runs 3-4 times a week (SET, n=12) or a control group (CON, n=5), which continued the endurance training (about 55 km(.)wk(-1)). For SET the expression of the muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2-subunit was 68...

  13. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    the case of radiopharmaceutical, radiological contamination is relevant. Preliminary studies indicated that the use of the sanitizer proxitane alfa is effective in removing viable and non-viable particles in clean rooms, and it is compatible with the materials, including hot cells and equipment for production. The cleaning process with this sanitizer can be performed quickly, just before the production, enabling the production of radiopharmaceuticals, particularly the ultra-short half-life ones, and does not leave any residue after use. (author)

  14. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    the case of radiopharmaceutical, radiological contamination is relevant. Preliminary studies indicated that the use of the sanitizer proxitane alfa is effective in removing viable and non-viable particles in clean rooms, and it is compatible with the materials, including hot cells and equipment for production. The cleaning process with this sanitizer can be performed quickly, just before the production, enabling the production of radiopharmaceuticals, particularly the ultra-short half-life ones, and does not leave any residue after use. (author)

  15. Private Exploration Primitives for Data Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Chang; Ilyas, Ihab F.; He, Xi; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Data cleaning, or the process of detecting and repairing inaccurate or corrupt records in the data, is inherently human-driven. State of the art systems assume cleaning experts can access the data (or a sample of it) to tune the cleaning process. However, in many cases, privacy constraints disallow unfettered access to the data. To address this challenge, we observe and provide empirical evidence that data cleaning can be achieved without access to the sensitive data, but with access to a (no...

  16. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  17. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  7. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell is...

  10. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Zhong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Bo, Liu; Song-Lin, Feng; Bomy, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  11. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  12. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  13. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  14. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Reduced volume but increased training intensity elevates muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and NHE1 expression as well as short-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Thomassen, Martin; Kolding, Helle

    2008-01-01

    by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training ( approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(1)-subunit and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P ... pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the control of K(+) homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise....... Furthermore, plasma K(+) concentration was reduced (P

  16. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, M; Struyf, H; Mertens, P; Heyns, M; Gendt, S De; Brems, S; Glorieux, C

    2012-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of 'megasonic' cleaningcleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain – the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of 'pulsed' sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning

  17. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  18. A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baohong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Wang Shengli; Zhou Qiang; Tan Baimei; Zhu Yadong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO 4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection. (semiconductor technology)

  19. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures for CTGS Substrates for SAW Technology with XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Brachmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and reproducible cleaning procedure of piezoelectric substrates is essential in surface acoustic waves (SAW technology to fabricate high-quality SAW devices, especially for new applications such SAW sensors wherein new materials for piezoelectric substrates and interdigital transducers are used. Therefore, the development and critical evaluation of cleaning procedures for each material system that is under consideration becomes crucial. Contaminants like particles or the presence of organic/inorganic material on the substrate can dramatically influence and alter the properties of the thin film substrate composite, such as wettability, film adhesion, film texture, and so on. In this article, focus is given to different cleaning processes like SC-1 and SC-2, UV-ozone treatment, as well as cleaning by first-contact polymer Opticlean, which are applied for removal of contaminants from the piezoelectric substrate Ca 3 TaGa 3 Si 2 O 14 . By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the presence of the most critical contaminants such as carbon, sodium, and iron removed through different cleaning procedures were studied and significant differences were observed between the outcomes of these procedures. Based on these results, a two-step cleaning process, combining SC-1 at a reduced temperature at 30 ∘ C instead of 80 ∘ C and a subsequent UV-ozone cleaning directly prior to deposition of the metallization, is suggested to achieve the lowest residual contamination level.

  20. Cleaning and Restoration of an Oil Painting with a Polymer Gel in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major stages in the conservation and restoration of a painting is to clean its colored surface of unwanted stains, and old and darkened varnishes. Various solvents have been used to date for this purpose; however, new cleaning materials have also come onto the market in the past decade that are still unknown and may never have been employed in Iran. The present study aims to introduce a polymer gel and use an in vitro sample of the substance for cleaning and to then present the results of the tests carried out. Applying a polymer gel in the cleaning of paintings yielded better results and greater advantages over the solvents previously used to clean artworks. The advantages include, performing on the surface without penetrating the lower layers, the absence of residues after application, flexibility, solubility and the gentle removal of old stains and varnishes, maintaining clarity and cleaning the surface by simple removal of the thin dried layer, which requires no mechanical pressure. Microscopic examinations and pH testing showed that this new alternative technique can be of use in cleaning the color layers of oil paintings.

  1. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  2. Experimental study on flow characteristics of a vertically falling film flow of liquid metal NaK in a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengchen; Serizawa, Akimi

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out on the characteristics of a vertically falling film flow of liquid metal sodium-potassium alloy (NaK-78) in a vertical square duct in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field was up to 0.7 T. The Reynolds number, defined by the hydraulic diameter based on the wetted perimeter length and the liquid average velocity, ranged from 8.0x10 3 to 3.0x10 4 . The free surfaces of the falling film flows in both a stainless steel and an acrylic resin channels were visualized. The instantaneous film thickness of the falling film flow in the acrylic resin channel was then measured by means of the ultrasonic transmission technique. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on the characteristics of the falling film flow were investigated by the visualization and the statistical analysis of the measured film thickness. It was found that the falling liquid NaK film was thickened and the flow was stabilized remarkably by a strong transverse magnetic field. A bifurcation of the film was recovered by the applied magnetic field. The turbulence of the flow was substantially suppressed

  3. 86Rb(K) influx and [3H]ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P.

    1989-01-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), 86 Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding by the human platelet. This 86 Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active 86 Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active 86 Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets

  4. Ankyrin-B coordinates the Na/K ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor in a cardiac T-tubule/SR microdomain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We report identification of an ankyrin-B-based macromolecular complex of Na/K ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 2 isoforms, Na/Ca exchanger 1, and InsP3 receptor that is localized in cardiomyocyte T-tubules in discrete microdomains distinct from classic dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor "dyads." E1425G mutation of ankyrin-B, which causes human cardiac arrhythmia, also blocks binding of ankyrin-B to all three components of the complex. The ankyrin-B complex is markedly reduced in adult ankyrin-B(+/- cardiomyocytes, which may explain elevated [Ca2+]i transients in these cells. Thus, loss of the ankyrin-B complex provides a molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia in humans and mice. T-tubule-associated ankyrin-B, Na/Ca exchanger, and Na/K ATPase are not present in skeletal muscle, where ankyrin-B is expressed at 10-fold lower levels than in heart. Ankyrin-B also is not abundantly expressed in smooth muscle. We propose that the ankyrin-B-based complex is a specialized adaptation of cardiomyocytes with a role for cytosolic Ca2+ modulation.

  5. sup 86 Rb(K) influx and ( sup 3 H)ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P. (Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (England))

    1989-08-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), {sup 86}Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding by the human platelet. This {sup 86}Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets.

  6. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water

  7. Evaporation and wet oxidation of steam generator cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, P.N. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) is used in metal-cleaning formulations. Usually the form of the EDTA used is the tetra ammonium salt. When these powerful cleaning solutions are used in steam generators, they attract the key metals of interest--iron and copper. A reduction in the volume of these cleaners and EDTA destruction is required to meet waste management and disposal standards. One method of volume reduction is described: concentration by evaporation. Once volume is reduced, the liquid waste can then be further volume reduced and treated for EDTA content through the use of wet oxidation. The effect of this process on the total organic carbon (TOC) in the form of EDTA contained in the copper as well as the iron spent cleaning solutions is reviewed, including regression analysis of selected benchmark and production data. A regressive analysis is made of the relationship between the EDTA and the TOC analyzed in the wet-oxidation batch residuals as well as the summary effects of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, and reaction time on the percentage of TOC destroyed

  8. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  9. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  10. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  11. Cleaning Insertions and Collimation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010-2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  12. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  13. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  14. Method of continuously cleaning condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Akira; Takahashi, Sankichi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent marine livings from depositing to the inside of ball recycling pipeways. Method: Copper electrodes are provided to the downstream of a sponge ball collector in a sponge ball recycling pipeways for cleaning through the cooling pipes of a condenser. Electrical current is supplied by way of a variable resister to the electrodes and copper ions resulted from the dissolution of the electrodes are fed in the pipes to kill the marine livings such as barnacles and prevent the marine livings from depositing to the inside of the sponge ball recycling pipeways. (Seki, T.)

  15. Study of chemical cleaning technique for removing sludge in secondary side of PWR SG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Pan Qingchun; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng

    1993-12-01

    The effect of components, concentration, pH, temperature, cleaning time and flowrate of chemical cleaning solvent made from EDTA mainly on Fe 3 O 4 solubility and corrosion rate of A3 carbon steel, S271 low alloy steel and 800 alloy are introduced. A small chemical cleaning test loop (30L) was built to study the cleaning technique. The effect of residue of chemical cleaning solvent on anti-corrosion performance of materials has been studied under the simulation condition of PWR (pressure water reactor) SG (steam generator) secondary side. The results show that the chemical solvent (pH = 7, 10% EDTA, 1% assistance solvent and 0.25% inhibitor A) can dissolve Fe 3 O 4 18 ∼23 g/L under the conditions of 93 +- 5 degree C, 8 hours and 112 r/min (1.8 ∼ 2.0 t/h). The corrosion rate of material is low. When the residue of EDTA is less than 0.01% there is no impact on the anti-corrosion performance of materials in PWR SG secondary side at normal operation condition (260 +- 5 degree C)

  16. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  17. Dissipation and residue of bifenthrin in wheat under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Jiang, Naiwen; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Congyun; Wang, Suli

    2013-02-01

    Field trials were carried out to investigate the dissipation and residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half-lives of bifenthrin in wheat seedlings ranged from 2.4 to 10.5 days. At harvest time, the terminal residues of bifenthrin were below the maximum residue limit (0.5 mg/kg) set by Codex Alimentarius Committee or European Union in wheat grain, which suggested that the use of this pesticide was safe for humans. However, the relatively high residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat straw should be paid attention to.

  18. Fundamentals and applications of dry CO2 cryogenic aerosol for photomask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Bowers, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    There is a dire need for the removal of all printable defects on lithography masks. As the technology node advances, smaller particles need to be efficiently removed from smaller features without any damage or adders. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning is a dry, residue-free and chemically inert technique that doesn't suffer from disadvantages of conventional wet cleaning methods such as transmission/reflectivity loss, phase change, CD change, haze/progressive defects, and/or limitation on number of cleaning cycles. Ultra-pure liquid CO2 when dispensed through an optimally designed nozzle results in CO2 clusters that impart the required momentum for defect removal. Historically nanomachining debris removal has been established with this technique. Several improvements have been incorporated for cleaning of advanced node masks, which has enabled Full Mask Final Clean, a new capability that has been successfully demonstrated. The properties of the CO2 clusters can be captured utilizing the Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and effect of varying process and design parameters can be verified. New nozzles have been designed to widen the cleaning process window for advanced node optical masks, without any damage to the weak primary features and/or sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). This capability has been experimentally proven for high aspect ratio SRAFs e.g. 2.79 (52nm wide by 145 nm tall) as well as SRAFs 45nm wide by 73 nm tall. In this paper, 100% removal of soft defects that would have printed on advanced node masks is demonstrated. No printed defects larger than 50nm is observed after the CO2 cleaning. Stability of the cleaning and handling mechanisms has been demonstrated over the last 4.5 months in a production environment. The CO2 cleaning technique is expected to be effective for more advanced masks and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography.

  19. Efficacy and acceptance of professional dental cleaning among nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Anna Greta; Kottmann, Hannah Elisa; Hamacher, Stefanie; Derman, Sonja Henny Maria; Noack, Michael Johannes

    2018-05-13

    To determine the impact of general and oral health status of nursing home residents in Germany on efficacy and acceptance of professional dental cleaning performed by a dental nurse. Participants (N = 41; mean age 83 ± 8 years) living in a nursing home were included. Personal and general health, oral health, oral hygiene habits, and needs were investigated. Individual acceptance regarding professional dental cleaning via different devices (scaler, interdental brushes, ultrasonic cleaning) was assessed, as was the efficacy of this method using after-cleaning indices. Oral health among nursing home residents was impaired and independent from dementia status. Most residents (33/41) performed oral hygiene procedures independently and showed better index values than those in need of external help. Residents requiring help with oral hygiene showed increased risk profiles (higher age, more often immobile, demented, more xerostomia). The dental cleaning procedure required a mean time of 37 ± 11 min, was widely accepted (36/41), and achieved clean results (plaque index 0.1 ± 0.5, oral hygiene index 0.2 ± 1.6, Volpe-Manhold index 0.4 ± 1.6); food residues were reduced to 0 independent from cognitive status. Regarding the cleaning methods, scalers were accepted best without difference between demented and non-demented residents. Professional dental cleaning in nursing homes is an accepted and efficacious oral hygiene procedure among nursing home residents. Professional dental cleaning is an efficacious and accepted method as a first step in line with strategies to improve oral health and should be considered in nursing home residents.

  20. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  1. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  2. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  3. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  4. Modern Procedures Used in Cleaning Old, Illegibly and Blackened Icons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruteanu Silvea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to restore the original aesthetic aspect, to improve the state of the age patina and of the gold halo, similar processes are required. The cleaning process is one of the most important aspects for an artwork and is considering a series of deteriorations and degradations, like dirt deposits (clogged or unclogged opalescent varnish, colors blackening, burns, blisters, gaps (missing ground, painting layer or varnish. This step in the restoration process includes physical and mechanical proceedings like dusting (with a vacuum, brushing (with a brush, scraping (with a scalpel, removal or polishing etc. The scalpel and the milling process are rough unconventional means that are used only in exceptional cases. The wet cleaning of dirt includes classic washing processes, with water or other complex systems of organic solvents (emollients, surface additives or surfactants, mixtures of solvents. Cleaning the clogged dirt deposits with unconventional methods can be done by means of electronic laser, ion and thermal exchange or ultrasounds. Laser cleaning is often used in removing unwanted dirt deposits from different layers of the art piece. A lot of attention goes towards the controlled elimination of the exterior protection layer (varnish, which can be photo- degraded and oxidized by atmospheric exposure. Visual analysis, with enlargers (OM, SEM, AFM etc. combined with transmission or penetration techniques (radiography, endoscopy, X-ray diffraction etc. provides information on the superficial structures of the art work. In order to determine the modifications of the desiccant oils, SEM was used to observed the changes in the morphology of the oil painting layers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS can be used to detrmine detergent residues on the painting layer.

  5. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-01-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL

  6. Cleaning protocol for a FO membrane fouled in wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-05-30

    microscope and TEP-specific dyeing/staining of the membrane. Two solutions were tested to clean in place of the SL: a 1% NaOCl solution and the same detergent solution used to clean the AL. The former agent compromised the integrity of the FO membrane, as proved with flux and conductivity measurements; 94.5% of flux was recovered with the latter agent, showing that chemically irreversible fouling for the FO membrane is on the order of 5.5%, which might be associated with the adsorption of biopolymers on the AL and some TEP residuals on the SL. Physical cleaning (air scouring) of the AL proved to be the most effective way to control fouling. © 2013 Copyright Balaban Desalination Publications.

  7. Cleaning protocol for a FO membrane fouled in wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Qingyu; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    microscope and TEP-specific dyeing/staining of the membrane. Two solutions were tested to clean in place of the SL: a 1% NaOCl solution and the same detergent solution used to clean the AL. The former agent compromised the integrity of the FO membrane, as proved with flux and conductivity measurements; 94.5% of flux was recovered with the latter agent, showing that chemically irreversible fouling for the FO membrane is on the order of 5.5%, which might be associated with the adsorption of biopolymers on the AL and some TEP residuals on the SL. Physical cleaning (air scouring) of the AL proved to be the most effective way to control fouling. © 2013 Copyright Balaban Desalination Publications.

  8. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water. Solare Reinigung verschmutzter Waesser mittels Photokatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, D

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  9. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  10. Clean technology for the small auriferous mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotruba, Herrnann

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of gold in the small auriferous mining is characterized by several deficiencies, among them low recovery, emissions of mercury in form of milled mercury; amalgams and vapor, cyanide emissions and of its compounds, low level of industrial security. The mercury is used for the amalgamation of concentrated (taken place by several methods of gravimetric separation), for the amalgamation of the whole mineral load. The last case represents a mercury use in open circuit, with lost discharges of mercury to the process tales. The cyanidation is used in most of the cases for the residuals of the gravimetric concentration. This means that combines amalgamation with cyanidation that is in double cost and double environmental impact. To minimize operation costs and environmental impacts, the following steps of the mineral benefit, are advisable: controlled mill and appropriate to liberate the gold and not over miller; gravimetric concentration to recover a pre-concentrated with lost minimum of gold; Separation of the thick gold (if it exists) of the pre-concentrate. The free and thick gold can separate for gravimetric processes of the pre-concentrate and to smelt it directly; the amalgamation is not more necessary. The pre-concentrated cyanidation for agitation generally has bigger recovery and it is quicker than the traditional method for percolation. The realization of the new process has a gold recovery more high, less operation costs, less cyanide emissions, any emission of mercury and a higher work security. It should be mentioned that the viability and efficiency of the clean process depends of the mineral nature

  11. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  12. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  13. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  14. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  15. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Doll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources.

  16. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Michelle; Stevens, Michael; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation, repackaging and incineration of NaK and Na used for heat transfer experiences on LMFBR at the JRC-Ispra site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzuccato, M.; D' Alberti, F.; D' Amati, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Via Fermi 210207 Ispra VA (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is a service of the European Commission and its mission is to provide scientific and technical support to the EU policies. At the Italian JRC Ispra site is currently ongoing a nuclear decommissioning program aimed at dismantling and disposing facilities and materials no longer used for nuclear research purposes, e.g. alkali metals, whose radioactive content has to be checked prior the disposal as radioactive or conventional waste. This paper describes the project phases consisting in characterising, repackaging and disposing of {approx}607 kg of alkali metals, composed by {approx}397 kg of NaK liquid alloy and {approx}210 kg of Na metal. The material was used in the past for scientific experiences on heat transfer for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The alkali metals are very reactive in presence of water leading to the formation of hydrogen; moreover the NaK had been stored for several years in a bunker inside drums unable to guarantee the needed confinement, with the consequent formation of oxygenated compounds in the outer layer of the alloy crust, as Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NaO{sub 2}, K{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KO{sub 2}, unstable if moved in presence of the liquid substrate. To perform the characterization and repackaging operations in a safe manner, avoiding any possible reaction between the liquid alloy and the solid surface of oxides, the alloy has been solidified reducing bunker temperature down to the alloy melting point (-15 deg. C). The sampling has been carried out by means of glove bag sealed on the top of each drum and filled in with inert gas to reduce the presence of humidity. Having characterization campaign proved that the alkali metals could not be classified as radioactive material, the NaK and Na containers were shipped to UK in a refrigerated truck. In order to allow a safe thermal destruction in a conventional incineration plant, additional repackaging has been performed in a UK plant to reduce the amount of alkali

  18. Removal and recovery of heavy metals of residual water industrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil P, Edison

    1999-01-01

    On the next work the state of the art about the different methods and technologies for the present removal and recovery of heavy metals for the de-contamination and control of industrial wastewater is presented. Further more, it is introduce a removal alternative for chromium (III) and chromium (V I) using a solid waste material as an adsorbent, obtaining successful results which makes this proposal circumscribe into the clean technology program and residues bag

  19. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  20. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  1. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  2. A novel compound cleaning solution for benzotriazole removal after copper CMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhangbing; Liu Yuling; Gao Baohong; Wang Chenwei; Deng Haiwen

    2015-01-01

    After the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, the copper surface is contaminated by a mass of particles (e.g. silica) and organic residues (e.g. benzotriazole), which could do great harm to the integrated circuit, so post-CMP cleaning is essential. In particular, benzotriazole (BTA) forms a layer of Cu-BTA film with copper on the surface, which leads to a hydrophobic surface of copper. So an effective cleaning solution is needed to remove BTA from the copper surface. In this work, a new compound cleaning solution is designed to solve two major problems caused by BTA: one is removing BTA and the other is copper surface corrosion that is caused by the cleaning solution. The cleaning solution is formed of alkaline chelating agent (FA/O II type), which is used to remove BTA, and a surfactant (FA/O I type), which is used as a corrosion inhibitor. BTA removal is characterized by contact angle measurements and electrochemical techniques. The inhibiting corrosion ability of the surfactant is also characterized by electrochemical techniques. The proposed compound cleaning solution shows advantages in removing BTA without corroding the copper surface. (paper)

  3. Floor cleaning: effect on bacteria and organic materials in hospital rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B M; Rasch, M; Kvist, J; Tollefsen, T; Lukkassen, R; Sandvik, L; Welo, A

    2009-01-01

    Routine surface cleaning is recommended to control the spread of pathogens in hospital environments. In Norway, ordinary cleaning of patient rooms is traditionally performed with soap and water. In this study, four floor-mopping methods--dry, spray, moist and wet mopping--were compared by two systems using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence (Hygiena and Biotrace). These systems assess residual organic soil on surfaces. The floor-mopping methods were also assessed by microbiological samples from the floor and air, before and after cleaning. All methods reduced organic material on the floors but wet and moist mopping seemed to be the most effective (P < 0.001, P < 0.011, respectively, ATP Hygiena). The two ATP methods were easy to use, although each had their own reading scales. Cleaning reduced organic material to 5-36% of the level present before cleaning, depending upon mopping method. All four mopping methods reduced bacteria on the floor from about 60-100 to 30-60 colony-forming units (cfu)/20cm2 floor. Wet, moist and dry mopping seemed to be more effective in reducing bacteria on the floor, than the spray mopping (P=0.007, P=0.002 and P=0.011, respectively). The burden of bacteria in air increased for all methods just after mopping. The overall best cleaning methods seemed to be moist and wet mopping.

  4. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  5. Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  6. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  7. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  8. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  9. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  10. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  11. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  12. Na(+)/K(+) pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-09-02

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+). The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K(+)-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump's contributions to bursting activity based on Na(+) dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks.

  13. Post-Irradiation Examination of Fuel Pin R54-F20A, Irradiated in a NaK Environment. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwast, H.

    1972-12-01

    Fuel pin R54-F20A has been irradiated in a NaK-environment. Temperature measurements in the NaK were carried out at average linear fission powers of 552 and 825 W/cm respectively. A maximum average canning temperature of 920°C was reached. The fuel pin was irradiated for about 50 minutes at the maximum irradiation conditions, while the total irradiation time was two hours. The irradiation had to be broken off before the end condition was reached because of malfunctioning of the fuelfailure detection system. No power peaking did occur at the upper and lower interfaces between the 50%-enriched UO 2 - and the natural UO 2 + 8 w/o UB 4 pellet. About 35% of the fuel has molten, but the fuel pin did not fail. The irradiation has been carried out in the Poolside Facility (PSF) of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. (author)

  14. Physiology and pathophysiology of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the heart, brain, and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. F.; O´Donnell, M. E.; Anderson, S. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of a stable cell volume and intracellular pH is critical for normal cell function. Arguably, two of the most important ion transporters involved in these processes are the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). Both NHE1 and NKCC1....... The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms and consequences of stress-induced stimulation of these transporters with focus on the heart, brain, and blood. The physiological stressors reviewed are metabolic/exercise stress, osmotic stress, and mechanical stress, conditions in which...... are stimulated by cell shrinkage and by numerous other stimuli, including a wide range of hormones and growth factors, and for NHE1, intracellular acidification. Both transporters can be important regulators of cell volume, yet their activity also, directly or indirectly, affects the intracellular concentrations...

  15. The phosphatase activity of the isolated H4-H5 loop of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase resides outside its ATP binding site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krumscheid, R.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Sovová, Žofie; Sušánková, Klára; Lánský, Zdeněk; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Linnertz, H.; Teisinger, Jan; Amler, Evžen; Schoner, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 19 (2004), s. 3923-3936 ISSN 0014-2956 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/01/0254; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/01/1001; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/03/D082; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1479 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) Bonn Scho 139/21-2+3; CZ-DE(CZ) TSR-088-97; CZ-DE(CZ) CZE 00/33 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Na(+)/K(+) ATPase * p-nitrophenylphosphate * H4-H5 loop Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.260, year: 2004

  16. Tank 16 Annulus Cleanout Analysis Doses at Seepline from Transport of Residual Tc-99 Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of residual Tc-99 in the Tank 16 annulus was conducted to assess the potential benefit from cleaning the annulus. One analysis was performed for the as-is case to determine seepline doses if no clean out occurs. Another analysis was performed assuming that ninety percent of existing contaminants are removed. Characterization data for samples retrieved from the annulus were used in the analysis. Only Tc-99 was analyzed because preliminary modeling identified it as the highest dose contributor. The effect of residual waste in piping was not analyzed

  17. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  18. Balance of unidirectional monovalent ion fluxes in cells undergoing apoptosis: why does Na+/K+ pump suppression not cause cell swelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Rubashkin, Andrey A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2011-05-01

    Cells dying according to the apoptotic program, unlike cells dying via an unprogrammed mode, are able to avoid swelling and osmotic bursting with membrane disruption.There are indications that apoptosis is accompanied by suppression of the Na+/K+ pump and changes in the K+ and Cl− channels. It remains unclear how ion fluxes through individual ion pathways are integrated so as to induce loss of intracellular ions and concomitant apoptotic volume decrease. A decrease in activity of the sodium pump during apoptosis should cause cell swelling rather than shrinkage. We have made the first systemic analysis of the monovalent ion flux balance in apoptotic cells. Experimental data were obtained for human U937 cells treated with staurosporine for 4–5 h, which is known to induce apoptosis. The data include cellular Cl− content and fluxes, K+, Na+, water content and ouabain-sensitive and -resistant Rb+ fluxes.Unidirectional monovalent ion fluxeswere calculated using these data and a cell model comprising the double Donnan system with the Na+/K+ pump, Cl−, K+, Na+ channels, the Na+–K+–2Cl−cotransporter (NKCC), the Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NC), and the equivalent Cl−/Cl− exchange.Apoptotic cell shrinkage was found to be caused, depending on conditions, either by an increase in the integral channel permeability of membrane for K+ or by suppression of the pump coupledwith a decrease in the integral channel permeability of membrane for Na+. The decrease in the channel permeability of membrane for Na+ plays a crucial role in cell dehydration in apoptosis accompanied by suppression of the pump. Supplemental Table S1 is given for easy calculating flux balance under specified conditions.

  19. Protein kinase-dependent oxidative regulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump: evidence from in vivo and in vitro modulation of cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J; Rasmussen, Helge H; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-06-15

    The widely reported stimulation of the cardiac Na(+)-K(+) pump by protein kinase A (PKA) should oppose other effects of PKA to increase contractility of the normal heart. It should also reduce harmful raised myocyte Na(+) levels in heart failure, yet blockade of the β1 adrenergic receptor (AR), coupled to PKA signalling, is beneficial. We treated rabbits with the β1 AR antagonist metoprolol to modulate PKA activity and studied cardiac myocytes ex vivo. Metoprolol increased electrogenic pump current (Ip) in voltage clamped myocytes and reduced glutathionylation of the β1 pump subunit, an oxidative modification causally related to pump inhibition. Activation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin to enhance cAMP synthesis or inclusion of the catalytic subunit of PKA in patch pipette solutions abolished the increase in Ip in voltage clamped myocytes induced by treatment with metoprolol, supporting cAMP/PKA-mediated pump inhibition. Metoprolol reduced myocardial PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, reduced coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47(phox) and membranous p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits and reduced myocardial O2(•-)-sensitive dihydroethidium fluorescence. Treatment also enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of the β1 pump subunit with glutaredoxin 1 that catalyses de-glutathionylation. Since angiotensin II induces PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, we examined the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with captopril. This treatment had no effect on PKA activity but reduced the activity of PKC, reduced β1 subunit glutathionylation and increased Ip. The PKA-induced Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition we report should act with other mechanisms that enhance contractility of the normal heart but accentuate the harmful effects of raised cytosolic Na(+) in the failing heart. This scheme is consistent with the efficacy of β1 AR blockade in the treatment of heart failure.

  20. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]ouabain. Cycling cells which had [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with [ 3 H]ouabain. However, [ 3 H]ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation

  1. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  2. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)ouabain. Cycling cells which had ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with ({sup 3}H)ouabain. However, ({sup 3}H)ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation.

  3. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  4. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  7. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  8. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  9. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  11. WWW expert system on producer gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, E.J.; Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The University of Groningen (RUG) has developed an expert system on cleaning of biomass producer gas. This work was carried out in close co-operation with the Biomass Technology Group B.V. (BTG) in Enschede, The Netherlands within the framework of the EC supported JOR3-CT95-0084 project. The expert system was developed as a tool for the designer-engineer of downstream gas cleaning equipment and consists of an information package and a flowsheet package. The packages are integrated in a client/server system. The flowsheeting package of the expert system has been designed for the evaluation of different gas cleaning methods. The system contains a number of possible gas cleaning devices such as: cyclone, fabric filter, ceramic filter, venturi scrubber and catalytic cracker. The user can select up to five cleaning steps in an arbitrary order for his specific gas cleaning problem. After specification of the required design parameters, the system calculates the main design characteristics of the cleaning device. The information package is a collection of HTML{sup TM} files. It contains a large amount of information, tips, experience data, literature references and hyperlinks to other interesting Internet sites. This information is arranged per cleaning device. (orig.)

  12. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...

  13. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  14. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  16. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  17. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  19. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  20. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  1. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  2. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  3. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Centrifuge-based cryogenic pellet accelerator technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of refueling fusion reactors with high-speed pellets of frozen deuterium/tritium,is now being developed as a method of cleaning without the use of conventional solvents. In these applications large quantities of pellets made of frozen CO 2 or argon are accelerated in a high-speed rotor. The accelerated pellet stream is used to clean or etch surfaces. The advantage of this system is that the spent pellets and debris resulting from the cleaning process can be filtered leaving only the debris for disposal. This paper discusses the centrifuge CO 2 pellet cleaning system, the physics model of the pellet impacting the surface, the centrifuge apparatus, and some initial cleaning and etching tests

  4. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  6. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  7. [Evaluation of Medical Instruments Cleaning Effect of Fluorescence Detection Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Shen, Yue; Li, Zhen; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine and manual cleaning on coupling type surgical instruments. A total of 32 cleaned medical instruments were randomly sampled from medical institutions in Putuo District medical institutions disinfection supply center. Hygiena System SUREII ATP was used to monitor the ATP value, and the cleaning effect was evaluated. The surface ATP values of the medical instrument of manual cleaning were higher than that of the automatic cleaning machine. Coupling type surgical instruments has better cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine before disinfection, the application is recommended.

  8. Clean Transfer of Wafer-Scale Graphene via Liquid Phase Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Kang, Boseok; Suk, Ji Won; Li, Nannan; Kim, Kwang S; Ruoff, Rodney S; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Cho, Kilwon

    2015-05-26

    Pentacene (C22H14), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, was used as both supporting and sacrificing layers for the clean and doping-free graphene transfer. After successful transfer of graphene to a target substrate, the pentacene layer was physically removed from the graphene surface by using intercalating organic solvent. This solvent-mediated removal of pentacene from graphene surface was investigated by both theoretical calculation and experimental studies with various solvents. The uses of pentacene and appropriate intercalation solvent enabled graphene transfer without forming a residue from the supporting layer. Such residues tend to cause charged impurity scattering and unintentional graphene doping effects. As a result, this clean graphene exhibited extremely homogeneous surface potential profiles over a large area. A field-effect transistor fabricated using this graphene displayed a high hole (electron) mobility of 8050 cm(2)/V·s (9940 cm(2)/V·s) with a nearly zero Dirac point voltage.

  9. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Naim, R.; Duek, A.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning

  12. Experiments on cleaning effects of TDC, GDC and ECR-DC in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miura, Y.; Ohtsuka, H.; Suzuki, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Tani, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cleaning effects of Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) were studied in the JFT-2M tokamak by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas, by observing the surface composition of samples and by residual gas analysis. The operational parameters of the three discharge cleaning techniques were as follows; the plasma current for TDC is 20 kA, the DC current for GDC is 3 A and the RF power for ECR-DC is 2.3 kW. Parameters of the tokamak plasmas such as loop voltages, radiation losses, spectra emission of oxygen, maximum mean electron densities and profiles of electron temperature were improved as the TDC and ECR-DC proceeded. Changes in the surface composition of samples were measured by Auger electron spectrosopy. The results showed that during the TDC and ECR-DC oxygen was reduced, while GDC reduced mainly carbon. Residual gas analysis performed during discharge cleaning corroborated these results. (orig.)

  13. Roles of transmembrane segment M1 of Na(+),K (+)-ATPase and Ca (2+)-ATPase, the gatekeeper and the pivot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Vilsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    In this review we summarize mutagenesis work on the structure-function relationship of transmembrane segment M1 in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The original hypothesis that charged residues in the N-terminal part of M1 interact with the transported...... cations can be rejected. On the other hand hydrophobic residues in the middle part of M1 turned out to play crucial roles in Ca(2+) interaction/occlusion in Ca(2+)-ATPase and K(+) interaction/occlusion in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Leu(65) of the Ca(2+)-ATPase and Leu(99) of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, located...... of the extracytoplasmic gate in both the Ca(2+)-ATPase and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  14. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  15. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A; Hase, A [eds.; VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  16. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Leon G; Brosius, Tierney R; Reinhard, Karl J; Carter, David

    2016-09-01

    We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30-90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and vortexed in 10- to 15-sec bursts until all puparia appeared clean (with our samples this required a total of 60-120 sec). (iv) Specimens were removed from the 2% KOH, placed in 75% ethanol, and examined microscopically. (v) Material was stored in 75% ethanol for identification and long-term preservation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  18. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  19. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.