WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaner production practices

  1. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  2. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  3. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...... sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production'....

  4. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  5. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  6. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  7. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  8. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  9. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  10. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  11. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    focus in the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative. The purpose of this evaluation has been to assess experience from the initiatives to date against the intentions of the action plan, and to provide constructive input to help flesh out a future product-oriented initiative, including the activities...... linked to the new programme for cleaner products. The evaluation has focused on three selected sectors and on inter-sector product-oriented projects carried out under the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1993-97. The investigation has been carried out at the request of the Council for Recycling...

  12. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  13. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  14. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  15. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  16. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  17. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  18. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  19. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  20. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  1. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Li, W.-M.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  2. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Li, W.-M. [Qinhuangdao Long-shi Brewery Inc. (China)

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  3. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  4. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  5. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  6. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Ferrer, Barbara Ivette; Orue Valdes, Sonia; Mena Ulecia, Karel

    2007-01-01

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  7. EVALUATION AND ACTIONS OF CLEANER PRODUCTION IN GALVANIC INDUSTRY OF THE VILLA CLARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Velazco Pedroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assessment results accomplished in different processes of the galvanic industry are presented and it is taking into account the application of good practices and measures of Cleaner Production. The main critical points in the processes of metallic coating were identified; and the characterization of the effluents generated by the installation is done. A number of technological changes in the processes are proposed, as well as the introduction of cleaner production measures which contribute to increase the efficiency and safety of processes, reduce risks and improvements to internal operations. It provides advantages of economic, environmental and social nature for the galvanic industry due to the minimizing of the impacts on environment, because the sewage and its pollutant load are reduced. Besides, we can save water, energy and raw materials. The economic evaluation showed the feasibility of applying the Cleaner Production (PML measures proposed with a Net Present Value (NPV of $109 696.26, and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR of 64 % value and payback period lower than two years.

  8. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  9. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  10. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  11. Cleaners in reducing the hazards of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; Wasiolek, P.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three types of air cleaners on the concentration and size distribution of radon progeny in a normally occupied house. Using an automated, semi-continuous, graded-screen array system and a radon monitor, the activity size distribution and radon concentration was measured and the exposure of the occupants of the home to radon could be assessed. The dose model developed as part of the recently released U.S. National Academy of Sciences report was used to related the exposure to deposited dose in the tissue of the bronchial epithelium. Thus, the effectiveness of the air cleaners in reducing both exposure and dose were evaluated. (author)

  12. Determination and ranking cleaner production criteria by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Latif paper products company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghob Asadizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production process is an environmentally friendly approach that attempts to reduce waste and energy consumption then reduce environmental pollutions of industrial processes to provide the possibility of sustainable production in industrial units. To achieve this goal and alignment with cleaner production strategies, paper industries should consider reducing wastes of production processes and irregular consumption of energy as a priority in their programs. In this research Analytic Hierarchy Process has been applied and a three level hierarchy model was structured to facilitate the cleaner production process in Latif paper products firm. Using a literature review and field study, the proposed model provided a framework for cleaner production implementation in the firm. Results showed priorities of the main criteria of cleaner production are process change, product modification, implementation of preventive maintenance system, resititution and man force capitals respectively. Process change criterion allocated 40 percent of the total weighing value and has the highest priority in implementation of cleaner production strategy. Existence of industrial automation and its technology level which is a sub criterion of process change has the highest priority among 31 sub criteria. Also some of higher priority sub criteria such as use of higher quality inclusion and implementation of calibration system are related to process change. Therefore, to achieve cleaner production goals and implementation of its strategic objectives it is necessary to pay more attention to this criterion. Inconsistency ratio of the research is 0.06 which indicates the results are compatible. The results of this research can be used to accelerate the implementation of cleaner production process in Iran’s pulp and paper industry.

  13. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  14. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  15. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Raziye Montazerolfaraj; Hakime Selsele Vaziri; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Alireza Arsalan; Tahere Zarabie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM) techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Tex...

  16. 某精细化工企业清洁生产审核实践研究%Cleaner Production Audit on A Fine Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯俊丽; 张时佳

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes the cleaner production of a company as example to expound the necessity and practical signifi-cance of carrying out cleaner production audit in fine chemical industry. According to eight existing issues of this company, the study provides practical low and high cost clean production project, totally 28 items. After calculating the economic, environmen-tal and social benefit of each project,the practical values of cleaner production audit to a company were pointed out, giving direc-tion of energy-saving emission reduction and low carbon development. This audit discusses the specific practice of cleaner pro-duction in fine chemical industry and it has guiding significance of practicing cleaner production in this domain.%以某企业的清洁生产审核为例,阐述分析精细化工行业开展清洁生产审核的必要性及实践意义.针对该企业存在的八方面问题,提出切实可行的无低费及中高费清洁生产方案共计28项,经核算各方案的经济、环境、社会效益,指出企业开展清洁生产审核的实际价值,为企业节能减排、低碳发展指明方向.本次审核初步探讨了清洁生产在精细化工行业的具体实践,对该行业清洁生产的践行具有一定的指导意义.

  17. Third quarterly report and final report within the counterpart subcontract no. 97/219: Support to the National Cleaner Production Centre, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The report analyses barriers and incentivres to cleaner production in Tanznaia based on experiences in three demonstration projects with around 25 companies.An outline for a policy study on cleaner production in Tanzania and for the strengthening of cleaner production in Tanzania is given....

  18. Sustainability and cleaner production: a study on the implications competitive advantage in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the adoption of environmental management system in the business and the competitive advantages that can result from this process. Therefore, the effects are discussed the emergence of a model of sustainable development and the role and opportunities of the company that perspective. Being theoretical, the aim of this paper is to discuss the potential contributions that the implementation of cleaner production technology can offer to the enterprise competitive strategy. To elucidate these relationships are discussed concepts relating to the introduction of an environmental management system, which emphasized the use of environmental measures, specifically the inherent Cleaner Production that aim to reduce the environmental impacts of industrial production, eliminating waste and reducing costs. Moreover, the concept of competitive advantage is crafted light of assumptions Porter on profitability from cost reduction and product differentiation. The findings indicate that the introduction of the Cleaner Production to reduce costs and add value to the image of the product, is an instrument of competitiveness that allows the company to differentiate and gain competitive advantage.

  19. Field evaluation and health assessment of air cleaners in removing radon decay products in domestic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chih-Shan.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, field evaluations of two types of air cleaners were conducted in three single-family houses. The measurements included radon concentration, particle number concentration, and concentration and size distribution of radon decay products. The influence on the behavior of radon decay products by various indoor particles both with and without the air cleaning systems was investigated. A room model was used to calculate the changes in the aerosol parameters caused by the operation of the air cleaners. Using the James dosimetric models (1989 and 1990), the changes in the hourly bronchial dose rate per Bq m -3 radon for men, women, and children can be estimated for various domestic environments. 94 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  20. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  1. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  2. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  3. Vocational training courses as an intervention on change of work practice among immigrant cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Flemming W; Frydendall, Karen B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how knowledge and skills from vocational training courses on working techniques modified for immigrant cleaners are applied in practice and to identify factors that influence the implementation. The modifications of the standard course included language support with possibilities for translation and an extension of the duration of the course. The study is a prospective intervention study based on qualitative data. Data were collected as structured interviews and observations were carried out at the workplaces before and after the course. The study population included 31 immigrant cleaners from five different workplaces. Changes were observed in the use of working techniques (i.e., positioning of hands when using the floor mop). In some cases the use of the taught techniques was incorrect, partial, or only used part of the time. Interactions between individual factors (i.e., knowledge, awareness, capability, or work orientation) and environmental factors (i.e., equipment, time, workload, or physical surroundings) influenced the use of the techniques in practice. The course provided the participants with new working techniques through which some were able to reduce work related pain. However, with regard to incorrect and partial use of the working techniques, follow-up and post-training support is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "The governance and practice of change of sustainable consumption and production." Introduction to the ideas and recommendations presented in the articles in this special issue of the journal of cleaner production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Sto, E.; Vezzoli, C.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue is a result of work of Sustainable Consumption Research Exchanges (SCORE!). This EU supported network project under the 6th Framework Program engaged a few hundred professionals interested in sustainable consumption and production (SCP) in Europe and beyond. A key goal of the

  5. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  7. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  8. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies......, integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  9. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  10. Exploring the Stakeholders Salience for the adoption the Principles and Tools of Cleaner Production in Brazil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The key objective of this paper is to show the primary environmental influences exerted by the government, economic agents and society on companies for the implementation of the principles and tools of cleaner production (CP, and the attributes (power, legitimacy and urgency used by stakeholders to coerce companies into adopting these principles. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was the application of an exploratory survey in 102 Brazilian companies and the multi-varied evaluation of data by means of multiple correspondent analysis. Findings – The study shows that some principles of CP are little used by companies in Brazil. Concerning the influences on the adoption of CP, the government, economic agents and society are singled out as the important influencers. The government influence is manifest through the adoption of environmental regulating measures (power in conjunction with sincere actions in environmental education (influence. The economic agents possess the power, legitimacy and urgency to influence the adoption of CP. Society’s influences are less relevant, in that Brazilian society has much less awareness of sustainable production and consumption as compared to other countries. Practical implications – This study shows that it is vital that Brazilian society learns more about sustainable production, because a society with no environmental conscience is a society with little means to demand the implementation of CP. Originality/value – The results of the study represent an important theoretical contribution in that, at present, there is little literature on the relationship between stakeholders and Cleaner Production. This is the first study in Brazil to address the subject.

  11. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  12. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  13. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  14. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  15. Application of cleaner production tools and failure modes and effects analysis in pig slaughterhourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fonseca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production programs (CP and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA are tools used to improve the sustainability of industries, ensuring greater profitability, quality, reliability and safety of their products and services. The meat industry is among the most polluting industries because of the large amounts of organic waste produced during meat processing. The objective of this study was to combine the CP and FMEA tools and to apply them in a pig slaughterhouse in order to detect critical points along the production chain that have a major environmental impact and to establish corrective and preventive actions that could minimize these problems. The results showed that water is the most consumed resource by the industry and also the main producer of waste due to microbiological contamination with animal feces and blood and meat residues. All impacts were found to be real due to their daily occurrence in the industry. Their severity, occurrence, detection and coverage were classified as moderate and high, high, low and moderate, and moderate and high, respectively. The application of the CP and FMEA tools was efficient in identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts caused by the slaughter and processing of pork carcasses. Liquid slaughter effluents and solid wastes (blood and bones are the factors that pose the greatest risks to the environment. The substitution of treatment plant chemicals with decomposing microorganisms, composting, and the production of animal meal and feed from solid waste are appropriate measures the industry could adopt to minimize the contamination of water resources and soil.

  16. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  17. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  18. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  19. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  20. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  1. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  2. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement applies are: (i) General purpose cleaners. Carpet and upholstery cleaners formulated for use in... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of...

  3. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  4. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as..., floors, walls, and other production-related work areas. The cleaning products within this item are...

  6. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  7. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology Combining Educational Learning and Practice Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Rasmussen, Bent Hesse

    2001-01-01

    -ordinating efficient management of environmental problems and technological processes of change in companies, and within the area of planning and co-ordinating relevant public regulation. Two of the major cornerstones in the education of Environmental Management are 1) the education should provide the students......The objective of the education of Environmental Manager is to make the student able to understand and co-ordinate solutions of environmental problems within the industrial sector and the public authorities. As such the education aims at qualifying the student both within the area of planning and co...... with new scientific theories and methods that relate to their field of practice. And 2) the education should bring in and develop new competencies and perspectives that can act as renewable elements in the students’ practical work. Among other things this means that the education becomes a place where...

  8. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  9. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  10. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Combining Education and Practice Learning in Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    to overcome these problems are discussed. The educational principles are presented as a combination of educational learning and practice learning named as reflexive learning. The experience from working with reflexive learning is discussed and relation to the role it can play in creating profes......This chapter argues for a new role for universities in adding the training of (existing) professionals to the core agenda in parallel to academic education and scientific research. Based on experiences from Denmark new challenges both to academic knowledge and training are presented and way...

  12. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementing cleaner production in an automotive company: an application of material input per unit of service tool to measure environmental and economic advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact reduction has been a growing concern of the automotive industry. One of the main challenges is to implement Cleaner Production as a tool to reduce environmental impacts and provide financial profits. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental impact and economic gains by implementing Cleaner Production, using an unexplored approach, in a company of the automotive sector. The research approach used was a case study, carried out by observation and semi-structured surveys. The production process chosen was updated, so technologies were changed to reduce biotic and abiotic disposal. For the analysis of environmental impacts, the ‘Material Input Per Unit of Service’ tool (MIPS was used, in which data was used to calculate: annual net profit; return on investment (% and return on investment for a period. The results showed that Cleaner Production implementation focusing on changing technology in the production process caused a 75% reduction in environmental impact, and a 62.7% decrease in production costs. Although of this study considers only one case to test the procedure applicability, it can be easily repeated in other more complex systems, by merely making the necessary adjustments due to the complexity of the processes involved.

  14. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  16. A generic method for the identification of options for cleaner products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, Reinout

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle assessment, a method for the assessment of the environmental impacts of products, is briefly explained. A mathematical method to perform the calculations and to identify dominant aspects in the environmental load of a product is developed. The results are used to derive expressions for a

  17. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  18. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  19. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  20. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  1. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Application of fuzzy analytic network process for barrier evaluation in automotive parts remanufacturing towards cleaner production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    to hidden facts. Many researchers have explored such hidden facts in auto parts remanufacturing in developing nations and their emerging economies. However, there is a huge gap in the state-of-the-art remanufacturing practices in India, despite India's strong advancements in the automobile industry. In fact......, India's automobile industry is rapidly approaching that of China's in recent years. Although some studies are available regarding remanufacturing implementation, current research has generally failed to offer a deep analysis of the factors and barriers that exist as hurdles to such implementation....... Consequently, this paper attempts to investigate the essential barrier to auto parts remanufacturing in an Indian scenario, and we also address vital interrelationships and interdependencies. To achieve the aim of the study, a model framework is proposed and applied to an Indian case industry. The data...

  3. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  5. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Budiyono; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1) workshop; (2) supervising; (3) technical meeting; (4) network meeting, and (5) technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 %) and CO2 (20.16 %). Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  6. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  7. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  9. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  10. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  11. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafthefer, B.

    1986-01-01

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  12. Mitigation of the effective dose of radon decay products through the use of an air cleaner in a dwelling in Okinawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, Chutima; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Shingaki, Reina; Furukawa, Masahide; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Chankow, Nares

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to assess the effects of an air cleaner on radon mitigation in a dwelling with a high radon concentration in Okinawa, Japan. The measurements included indoor radon concentration, individual radon progeny concentration, equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EECRn), unattached fraction, and size distribution of aerosol-attached radon progeny. These measurements were conducted in a 74 m 3 room with/without the use of an air cleaner. The results showed that the mean radon concentration during the measurement was quite high (301 Bq m -3 ). The operation of air cleaner decreased the radon progeny activity concentration, EECRn and equilibrium factor by 33%, 57% and 71%, respectively, whereas the unattached fraction increased by 174%. In addition, the activity concentration of attached radon progeny in the accumulation mode (50-2000 nm) was obviously deceased by 42%, when the air cleaner was operated. According to dosimetric calculations, the operation of air cleaner reduced the effective dose due to radon progeny by about 50%.

  13. New Insight into Sugarcane Industry Waste Utilization (Press Mud) for Cleaner Biobutanol Production by Using C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Khedkar, Manisha A; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, press mud, a sugar industry waste, was explored for biobutanol production to strengthen agricultural economy. The fermentative production of biobutanol was investigated via series of steps, viz. characterization, drying, acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation. Press mud contains an adequate amount of cellulose (22.3%) and hemicellulose (21.67%) on dry basis, and hence, it can be utilized for further acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production. Drying experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 60-120 °C to circumvent microbial spoilage and enhance storability of press mud. Furthermore, acidic pretreatment variables, viz. sulfuric acid concentration, solid to liquid ratio, and time, were optimized using response surface methodology. The corresponding values were found to be 1.5% (v/v), 1:5 g/mL, and 15 min, respectively. In addition, detoxification studies were also conducted using activated charcoal, which removed almost 93-97% phenolics and around 98% furans, which are toxic to microorganisms during fermentation. Finally, the batch fermentation of detoxified press mud slurry (the sample dried at 100 °C and pretreated) using Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B-527 resulted in a higher butanol production of 4.43 g/L with a total ABE of 6.69 g/L.

  14. Towards cleaner methods for the production of Mo-99 using refractory ceramics and its relevance to actinide partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, V.; Dos Santos, L.; Vaccaro, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-07-01

    Mo-99 is the most utilized isotope in nuclear medicine accounting for over 30 million medical diagnostic procedures annually worldwide. The process for the production of Mo-99 through fission of U-235 normally involves the irradiation of UAl{sub x} dispersion plate fuel in a research reactor, the subsequent dissolution of the fuel plate, the selective separation of the Mo-99 from all of the other fission products and possibly also the recovery of U-235 for future reuse. Compared to the amount of product recovered, copious radioactive waste is generated during the Mo-99 production process. Gaseous wastes are produced at the head-end during the plate dissolution and several liquid wastes are produced during the recovering of Mo-99 using solid extractants, typically polymeric ion exchange resins, which themselves constitute an additional waste stream. It would be extremely advantageous to devise a new process that generates little or no waste. We have been working on a new strategy for the production of fission Mo-99 that involves replacing the dispersion plate targets that are used in the traditional process with inert or active matrix fuel particles that do not need to be dissolved. In one embodiment of the strategy the preparation of new highly porous ZrC{sub x} and graphite-ZrC{sub x} composite target kernels are used that are prepared through polymer templating. The surface properties of these porous materials have been studied and are such that they can be easily loaded with uranium, or for that matter, with any other actinide. In our work we are exploring the possibility of selectively extracting the Mo-99 from the irradiated target kernels by either solution or gas-phase methods and then easily recover the uranium. The fission product-containing kernels can be oxidized in air to generate ZrO{sub 2} that can act as a stable host material either alone or as part of a multiphase ceramic matrix or possibly even as an actinide transmutation host. At the conceptual

  15. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  16. Green fracing : as the U.S. frac debate rolls on, service firms are developing cleaner fracing products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2010-09-15

    Apache Corporation fracing operations in British Columbia's Horn River Basin have involved 274 frac stimulations in 16 shale gas wells. The multi-stage horizontal well completions in the Horn River Basin are massive operations. The American Petroleum Institute has stated that hydraulic fracturing is so important that without it, the industry would lose 45 percent of domestic natural gas production and 17 percent of oil production within five years. The Marcellus fairway which covers parts of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, covers about 10 times the area of the core Barnett shale play. Production from the Marcellus may reach 489 trillion cubic feet of natural gas over a 50-year period. However, the amount of hydraulic fracing required for Marcellus production has raised concerns about potential harm to underground aquifers. Green Century Capital Management and New York State Common Retirement Fund are among the investor groups that are asking for greater transparency about the business and environmental risks associated with fracturing. Schlumberger has developed OpenFRAC, a new group of fracturing fluid additives that are all water-based. In order to eliminate contamination risks to formations, aquifers and product handlers, Trican unveiled its EcoClean-GSW slickwater system, which includes non-toxic, biodegradable and non-bioaccumulating additives. Sanjel Corporation in Canada also plans to unveil a new friction reducer as an alternative to polyacrylamides. However, in the short term, there may be higher costs and lower efficiency with the new enviro-friendly fracing fluids and additives. Water issues must also be addressed. Since slickwater fracing uses a lot of water, most companies are looking at the recycling and re-use of water. The B.C. Oil and Gas Commission is seeking to establish some ground rules to avoid conflict. A new Oil and Gas Activities Act will expand the commission's power to manage water withdrawals and

  17. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency and cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinoff, M.; Grozeva, Iv.

    1999-01-01

    Energy is the fundamental driver of the economic growth in the todays society. It is an absolute prerequisite for the industrial development in the developed countries as well as for improving the quality of life and reducing the poverty in the developing world. It is expected that the energy demand in the developing countries will increase rapidly in the next decades, and will even exceed the level of consumption in the rich countries due to rising population and incomes. The burning of fossil fuel, however, inevitably leads to negative environmental impact, which no longer can be neglected

  19. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  20. Metodologia de checkland aplicada à implementação da produção mais limpa em serviços Cleaner production implementation in services using checkland's methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Sena da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O programa de Produção Mais Limpa tem sido aplicado com sucesso na indústria manufatureira, entretanto, esta ferramenta está longe de ser adotada por empresas de prestação de serviço. Este artigo tem como principal contribuição caracterizar o desenvolvimento e a aplicação da Produção Mais Limpa na prestação de serviço, a partir da utilização da Metodologia de Checkland para estruturação de problemas. Essa metodologia objetiva a comparação entre sistema real (como a empresa se encontra hoje e conceitual (como a empresa iria funcionar se adotasse a Produção Mais Limpa no sentido de traçar cenários de mudanças e auxiliar os gestores na tomada de decisão sobre adotar ou não adotar este programa.The Cleaner Production program has been applied successfully in the manufacturing industry. However, this instrument is far from service company's adoption. The main contribution of this thesis is to characterize the development and application of the Cleaner Production program in Services using Checkland Methodology for structuring problems. The main objective of this methodology is make a comparison between the real system (the way the company is today and the conceptual system (the way the company would work if it adopted the Cleaner Production as it traces the changing pictures and help managers to decide on adopting this program or not. The aim of the presented Case Studies is to show how the model is applied in service companies.

  1. Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Azevedo, Susana G.; Carvalho, Helena

    2014-01-01

    elimination," "supply chain risk management" and "cleaner production." The following lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices do not have a significant impact on supply chain sustainability: "flexible transportation," "flexible sourcing," "ISO 14001 certification," and "reverse logistics...

  2. Development of self-running underwater cleaner for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Haruo; Mizutani, Takeshi; Miki, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    A self-running underwater cleaner for removing sediment accumulated on the bottoms of water tanks in nuclear power stations by remote operation was developed. This cleaner is used in the state maintaining the shielding effect of water against radiation as water is filled in equipment pits, and by the remote operation using cables, it runs freely in water and sucks bottom sediment. The sediment is transported through a drain hose to a treating facility in a power station, and treated in a lump. The cleaner is composed of the carriage with electric steering wheels and driving wheels and a high head submerged pump. Front and rear suction mouths are provided, and suck sediment with high speed water flow while scraping with rubber boards. The cleaner can be used in the water depth of 7 m, and as the results of practical test, it was confirmed that the decontaminating effect and maneuverability were very good so that the sediment at the corner was scarcely left behind, and the effects of labor saving and the reduction of exposure of employees were large. The fundamental experiments were carried out on the running mechanism, the coefficient of friction in water, and the construction of suction mouth. The trial manufacture of the under water cleaner, the water tank experiment and the test in the Mamaoka No. 1 plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated... the purposes of this rule. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content requirement for all hand cleaners and/or sanitizers shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

  5. Successes emerge in search for cleaner processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with mounting public and regulatory pressures, many chemical producers have long adopted pollution reduction efforts. But increasingly, firms are eyeing fundamental process changes to achieve cleaner technologies. In addition to environmental benefits, the promised economic payoffs are clear: higher yields and an escape from soaring waste treatment and disposal costs. Having such technologies, says Paolo Galli, Montecatini's (Milan) director/corporate research, is a tremendous tool. It's becoming an increasingly important competitive element. Indeed, suggests David Hyde, ICI's (London) manager/environmental technology, everyone is looking to use cleaner technologies for a competitive advantage. A number of leading technology groups, including UOP (Des Plaines, IL), are working on replacing hydrofluoric acid (HF) with solid catalysts in alkylation processes. Although it is technologically tough to replace HF or alternative sulfuric acid technology, the rewards could be huge in producing high-octane fuel additives. Catalytica (Mountain View, CA), for one, is building a pilot plant with partners Neste (Helsinki) and Du Pont's Conoco. The company has developed a process to manufacture high-purity DMC by direct synthesis from carbom monoxide, methanol, and oxygen. The medium-pressure process uses a copper salts catalyst system; EniChem says the only significant by-product is carbon dioxide, and there are no chlorinated impurities

  6. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  7. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  9. Evaluation of several air cleaners for reducing indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Montassier, N.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, studies have been made of the effectiveness of several kinds of air cleaners in removing radon decay products from indoor air using a recently developed automated, semi-continuous measurement system that can determine the activity-weighted size distributions in occupied homes. Measurements of activity-weighted size distributions and radon concentrations were made every 90 min in a home with a high air exchange rate. A week-long series of measurements was made for the home with no cleaner operating and a similar set of measurements were made for each of the air cleaners. Two different types of air cleaners were tested in this study; filtration units (two different designs from two different manufacturers) and two ion generator/fan systems (identical design NO-RAD systems, but from two different manufacturers). It was found that the filtration units resulted in a median reduction in exposure of 15% and 36% for the two units and corresponding dose reductions of 32% and 53%. The two NO-RAD systems produced 37% and 10% reductions in the median exposure, but the reductions in the median dose were 49% and 46%. (author)

  10. Reconstructing the image of the cleaner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorcho van Vlijmen; Toine van den Hoogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article shows the relevance of an insider’s perspective on workers in the cleaning industry (cleaners). It explains how the ways in which cleaners create meaning in their work can be explored. These findings help to create added value for FM. Theory: Organisational theory describes a

  11. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  12. Learning within a product development working practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bang Mathiasen, John

    2012-01-01

    The subject matter chosen for this PhD, learning within a Product Development (PD) working practice, might give rise to wonder given that I have a theoretical education within supply chain management, achieved practical experience as senior supply chain manager and finally, conducted a great many lectures dealing with supply chain management. Offhand, it may seem an odd choice, but my practical experience, briefly illustrated in the below, triggered the decision to study learni...

  13. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  14. Production Practice During Language Learning Improves Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Elise W M; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2018-04-01

    Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production-comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices.

  15. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  17. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  18. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. ... tance to improve the goat production potential and livelihood of the farmers in the study ... ing the productivity and income from keeping goats, there is a study gap in ..... and day time, possibly increasing the chance of getting contagious diseases.

  19. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  20. Modeling and comparative assessment of bubbling fluidized bed gasification system for syngas production - a gateway for a cleaner future in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Areeb; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Horttanainen, Mika; Manttari, Mika; Havukainen, Jouni; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-06-19

    The present study explores the potential of MSW gasification for exergy analysis and has been recently given a premier attention in a region like Pakistan where the urbanization is rapidly growing and resources are few. The plant capacity was set at 50 MW based on reference data available and the total exergetic efficiency was recorded to be 31.5 MW. The largest irreversibility distribution appears in the gasifier followed by methanation unit and CO 2 capture. The effect of process temperature, equivalence ratio and MSW moisture content was explored for inspecting the variations in syngas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency. Special attention of the paper is paid to the comparative assessment of MSW gasification products in four regions, namely Pakistan, USA, UAE and Thailand. This extended study gave an insight into the spectrum of socioeconomic conditions with varying MSW compositions in order to explain the effect of MSW composition variance on the gasification products.

  1. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation in the Impl...... to improve the firms' environmental activities (e.g. setting up environmental policies, targets and action plans, implementing new procedures and technologies).......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...

  2. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.H.I.; Xiao, Y.; Sietsma, J.; Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process

  4. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  5. Practices of Productive Adult Book Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard; Yussen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This article examines two adult book club members' responses to literary texts over a 23-month period to identify practices that contribute to productive book club participation. Members were interviewed regarding their book selection procedures, preparation for and perceptions of the discussions, and what they valued about the…

  6. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  7. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  8. Lean Production Practices to Enhance Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Service sector organisations are constantly overcoming the challenges facing the over-production and waste reduction within their environments. Industries are also becoming very competitive thus forcing them to seek suitable production organisation strategies with the aim towards enhancing their competitiveness and efficiency. The aim of this research study is to investigate the impact of lean production practices on the performance of service based businesses through the case study of a local baked goods supplier. The research framework adopted consists of questionnaire survey method implemented with different end users, thus covering the overall production – retail – customer cycle. The research results and analysis justify the objective of the research that lean production practices enhance the performance of the supplier company and the common tool identified were JIT (Just in Time, Value Steam Mapping (VSP and the 5S methods. The results also suggest that JIT method has a higher impact towards improvement on performance relating to quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost of the supplier. However, the research study also identifies that one of the major challenges faced by the organisation while adopting lean practices was the lack of commitment from top management, continuous training and employee engagement measures.

  9. Good practice in the production of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Arencibia, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In the paper the evolution of concepts regarding the quality of the pharmaceutical products is analyzed in the framework of the production of radiopharmaceuticals at CENTIS. The world trends range from the quality control of the fi nal product to the comprehensive concept of quality management. It is concluded from the analysis that CENTIS has an appropriate system of Good Manufacturing Practice as a result of 15 years of systematic, growing and qualified attention to the issue, in correspondence with the world tendencies and the continuous support of CECMED, the Cuban regulatory authority. That is certified by the fact that all the production processes of CENTIS have been licensed and all the CENTIS products in the market have been registered. The existing conditions at CENTIS are favorable to establish and certificate a Quality Management System. (author)

  10. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority projects including milestone plans...

  11. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    schematics on the various wet treatment operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  12. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  13. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  14. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  15. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  16. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Michael P.

    1994-02-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  17. Environmental management practices and engineering science: a review and typology for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinos, Konstantinos I; Allan, Stuart; Jones, Keith; Nikolaou, Ioannis E

    2014-04-01

    Current literature describes a number of environmental management practices and cleaner production methods that facilitate different industrial sectors to address their various environmental impacts. The high number of present practices makes their use especially difficult and complicated. This paper aims to shed light on this field by providing a typology of those environmental management practices (such as environmental management systems, environmental indicators assessment methodologies, and cleaner productions methods) and their limitations. It also describes the strengths and weaknesses of using such tools and thoughts for future research. © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Soil management practices for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalos, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

  19. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  20. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  1. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  2. LEAN PRACTICES FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean product development (LPD is an approach that comprises lean principles and management practices that aim to reduce waste and improve operational effectiveness throughout the entire value stream in continuous improvement endless journey. Due to that, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously is a key element in order to minimize product development problems. Several LPD techniques are presented in the literature as possible enablers for lean implementation. However, little has been known about the impact of these enablers on the problems related to product development processes. Thus, this paper aims to examine the relationship between five LPD practices’ constructs and the occurrence frequency of eleven LPD problems’ constructs in companies that are implementing lean. Moreover, the identification of relevant relationships between LPD practices’ and problems’ constructs may contribute to specify the contexts in which problems are expected to occur. The study sample comprises sixty four companies already undergoing lean implementation both in shop floor and offices area. The results indicate that the same practices’ constructs, which are deemed as influential for minimizing LPD problems, present different relationship intensities among them.

  3. Postharvest Practices for Organically Grown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality of produce cannot be improved after harvest, only maintained. Postharvest handling depends on the specific conditions of production, season, method of handling, and distance to market. Under organic production, growers harvest and market their produce at or near the peak ripeness more commonly than in many conventional systems. Organic production often includes more specialty varieties whose shelf life and shipping traits are reduced or even inherently poor. Harvesting and handling techniques that minimize injury to the commodity, as well as increased care with field and packinghouse sanitation, (chlorine, ozone, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, acetic acid, peroxyacetic acid, vinegar, ethyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, etc. during postharvest processes are vital components of a postharvest management plan for organic products. Sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and physical treatments such as heat treatments (as hot water treatment or dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing or hot air can significantly lower the disease pressure on the harvested commodities. These sanitation practices are very easy to implement in the organic food production chain. They start in the field and continue during harvesting, sorting, packing, and transportation and continue even in the consumer’s home. All those treatments reduce rot development, provide quarantine security, and preserve fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. In addition, the use chitosan, propolis, methyl jasmonate, essential oils, carnuba wax, biocontrol agents and modified atmosphere packaging can also reduce decay development during prolonged storage. All these treatments can be applied alone or in combination with each other in order to improve decay control after harvest and provide a healthy and safe product to the consumer. The aim of this chapter is to shed more light on the latest information on permitted treatments for organic

  4. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  6. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  7. The effect of production system and management practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of production system and management practices on the environmental impact, quality and safety of milk and dairy products. ... that are important during the production of processed dairy foods such as cheese or yoghurt. There is no ...

  8. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  9. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  10. Beneficial and Harmful Agile Practices for Product Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Theobald, Sven; Diebold, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    There is the widespread belief that Agile neglects the product quality. This lack of understanding how Agile processes assure the quality of the product prevents especially companies from regulated domains from an adoption of Agile. This work aims to identify which Agile Practices contribute towards product quality. Hence, data from a survey study is analyzed to identify Ag-ile Practices which are beneficial or harmful for the quality of the product. From 49 practices that were used in the su...

  11. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  12. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  13. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  14. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on radioisotope production and radiation technology contributing to better health care and a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiation technology finds numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, most importantly in medicine, industry, agriculture and the environment. However, in order to take full advantage of the benefits offered by this technology, it is essential to provide the necessary infrastructure as well as qualified personnel. The IAEA strives to promote worldwide availability of products and facilities in order to offer the benefits of radioisotope products and radiation technology to developing countries. In particular, the IAEA helps Member States to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, strengthen quality assurance practices and regulatory compliance as well as facilitate human resources development. The multipronged need based approach includes providing advice, assistance and capacity building support for: Development, production and quality assurance of reactor and accelerator based medical isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially cancer; Establishment of irradiation facilities and utilization of gamma radiation, electron beam and X ray technology for varied applications, including tackling pollutants, wastewater treatment, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food grains, and synthesis and characterization of advanced materials; Application of radiation and isotopes in industrial process management.

  15. Estrutura organizacional para a difusão da produção mais limpa: uma contribuição da metodologia seis sigma na constituição de redes intra-organizacionais Organizational structure for cleaner production diffusion: a contribution of the six sigma methodology to the creation of intra-organizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Cerávolo Calia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A "Produção Mais Limpa" é uma metodologia criada para aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental das manufaturas. Devido a sua importância para o desenvolvimento sustentável, a Produção Mais Limpa foi amplamente promovida pela Organização das Nações Unidas e por diversas redes de organizações visando à difusão desta metodologia. No entanto, após mais de dez anos de atuação, estas redes para a difusão da Produção Mais Limpa têm se confrontado com significativas e recorrentes barreiras organizacionais que limitam seu desempenho. Utilizando-se do referencial teórico de "organizações em rede" no contexto da inovação, este artigo se baseia num aprofundado estudo de caso sobre uma estrutura organizacional em rede dentro de uma empresa multinacional que opera dezenas de manufaturas em diversos países. Esta empresa triplicou o desempenho ambiental em toneladas de poluição prevenidas e multiplicou em oito vezes o número de projetos de Produção Mais Limpa bem sucedidos, após ter implementado uma estrutura organizacional em rede para aumentar sua capacidade de gerenciar projetos para a melhoria de processos. Para explicar os motivos de tal aumento de desempenho ambiental, o artigo utiliza a metodologia de modelagem organizacional Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD para descrever as interações entre os objetivos, regras e processos do Programa de Produção Mais Limpa desta corporação, assim como as suas estruturas de relacionamento entre os atores que viabilizaram a integração das competências necessárias para a geração de uma maior capacidade de inovação ambientalmente sustentável nas manufaturas.Cleaner Production is a methodology to improve environmental sustainability in manufacturers. Due to its importance for sustainable development, the United Nations and many regional networks have taken on the responsibility to diffuse Cleaner Production methodology. After more than ten years of activity, however, these

  16. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  17. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  18. Relating French Immersion Teacher Practices to Better Student Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Olson Beal, Heather K.; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Louisiana kindergarten immersion teachers' practices to evaluate students' oral target language production and compare the oral production elicited when different instructional practices were used over a single semester. Three rounds of three 20-minute observations in three different contexts--circle time, direct…

  19. Creativity, Scientific Practice, and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…

  20. What factors affect the productivity and efficiency of physician practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Jonathan H; Hughes, Danny R; Meghea, Cristian; Bhargavan, Mythreyi

    2010-02-01

    Increasing the productivity and efficiency of physician practices could help relieve the rapid growth of US healthcare costs and the expected physician shortage. Radiology practices are an attractive specific focus for research on practices' productivity and efficiency because they are home to many purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies. This affords an opportunity to study the effect of production technology on physicians' output. As well, radiology is a leader in the general movement of physicians out of very small practices. And imaging is by the fastest-growing category of physician expenditure. Using data from 2003 to 2007 surveys of radiologists, we estimate a stochastic frontier model to study the effects of practice characteristics, such as work hours, practice size, and output mix, and technologies used in work production, on practices' productivity and efficiency. At the mean, the elasticities of output with respect to practice size and annual hours worked per full-time physician were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively. Some production technologies increase productivity by 15% to 20%; others generate no increase. Using "nighthawks"--ie, contracting out after-hours work to external firms that consolidate workflow--significantly increases practice efficiency. The general US trend toward larger practice size is unlikely to relieve cost or physician shortage pressures. The actual effect of purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies needs to be carefully evaluated before they are widely adopted. As the recently-developed innovations of nighthawks and hospitalists show, practices should give more attention to a possible choice to "buy," rather than "make," part of their output.

  1. Epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng

    2008-09-01

    The cleaning profession has been associated with multiple ergonomic and chemical hazards which elevate the risk for occupational injury. This study investigated the epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in healthcare work settings in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Incidents of occupational injury among cleaners, resulting in lost time from work or medical care, over a period of 1 year in two healthcare regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person-years obtained from payroll data. Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. A total of 145 injuries were identified among cleaners, with an annual incidence rate of 32.1 per 100 person-years. After adjustment for age, gender, subsector, facility, experience and employment status, Poisson regression models demonstrated that a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of all injury, musculoskeletal injury and cuts was associated with cleaning work in acute care facilities, compared with long-term care facilities. Female cleaners were at a higher RR of all injuries and contusions than male cleaners. A lower risk of all injury and allergy and irritation incidents among part-time or casual workers was found. Cleaners with >10 years of experience were at significantly lower risk for all injury, contusion and allergy and irritation incidents. Cleaners were found to be at an elevated risk of all injury categories compared with healthcare workers in general.

  2. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  3. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  4. Learning within a product development working practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang

    . To identify the characteristics enabling or constraining the learning process, both chapters focus on the composition of the STP and the transformation process. First, the composition of the interorganisational, cross-functional and daily working STPs is analysed. Applied constitutive means and the role......This thesis examines learning within a PD working practice when creating a Wind Turbine Control (WTC) in collaboration with a customer. The focus of the research is on the learning that takes place when engineers conduct a PD activity, frequently referred to as workplace learning. The research......, the logic applied throughout the thesis is abduction. The abductive logic paves the way for studying how learning occurs in consequence of the engineers’ doings when conducting a PD activity within a PD working practice. As this logic rejects any kind of dualism, the engineers’ doings are neither...

  5. Crop production management practices as a cause for low water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited knowledge of irrigated crop production among farmers has been identified as one of the constraints to improved crop productivity, but research that investigates the relationship between farmer practices and productivity is lacking. A monitoring study was therefore conducted at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) ...

  6. Compensation and Production in Family Medicine by Practice Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C. Essary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing focus on high performance, patient-centered, team-based care calls for a strategy to evaluate cost-effective primary care. The trend toward physician practice consolidation further challenges the primary care health care system. Productivity measures establish provider value and help inform decision making regarding resource allocation in this evolving health care system. In this national survey of family medicine practices, physician assistant (PA productivity, as defined by mean annual patient encounters, exceeds that of both nurse practitioners (NPs and physicians in physician-owned practices and of NPs in hospital or integrated delivery system-owned practices. Total compensation, defined as salary, bonus, incentives, and honoraria for physicians, is significantly more compared to both PAs and NPs, regardless of practice ownership or productivity. Physician assistants and NPs earn equivalent compensation, regardless of practice ownership or productivity. Not only do these data support the value and role of PAs and NPs on the primary care team but also highlight differences in patient encounters between practice settings. Rural and underserved community practices, where physician-owned practices persist, also merit further consideration. Further research is needed to inform both organizational and policy decisions for the provision of high-quality, cost-effective, and accessible primary health care.

  7. [Effectiveness and limits of the cleaners steam in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, O; Meistermann, C; Schwebel, A

    2009-05-01

    We assessed bactericidal activity of the cleaners steam used for the bio-cleaning of the hospital surfaces. We performed of samples (Rodac) before and after use of cleaner steam and compared with bactericidal effect of disinfecting detergent used in hospital for surfaces. We studied this effectiveness for different time of steam contact. Finally, we wanted to prove, by air sampling, that aero-bio-contamination was possible generated by using cleaners steam. We show that bactericidal effect of the cleaner steam is superior of some tested disinfecting detergent, for the treatment of one square meter till 2 min. This effectiveness diminishes to be just identical in that some disinfecting detergent when use of the cleaner steam is up to two or four square meters surfaces till 2 min. On the other hand, the cleaner steam is less efficient in terms of bacterial destruction when the time of contact steam-soil is superior in 2 min for six square meter surface. The air bacterial pollution, generated by the use of the cleaner steam, is restricted and not significantly augmented if measured in 44 cm above the soil in the course of cleaning. The cleaner steam is indeed a very good equipment for the cleaning of surfaces but it is necessary to respect a time of minimal contact of 2 min for four square meters surfaces treaties to acquire an antibacterial effect at least so important as that acquired with used disinfecting detergent. The disinfection of surfaces is then user-dependent and the time of requested contact is can be not compatible with hospital obligations.

  8. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of production system and management practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The effect of production system and management practices on the quality of ... contains more yellow pigments, which may affect a consumer's choice to purchase. ... which is better utilized, and much more attention is given to animal ethics, ...

  10. Farmers' adoption of improved vegetable production practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... the annual income of the PFs and NPFs, respectively. ... Key words: Adoption, improved vegetable, production practices, farmers and national fadama ..... so, fixed cost components such as depreciation, insurance, repairs,.

  11. A Practical Approach to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    , Orhan Çakır

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) grows faster and has great disease resistance. Therefore this species has been preferred to culture for years. Fry production, feeding and management of broodstock are explained practically in order to increase profitability.

  12. Evaluation of room air cleaners for the reduction of exposure and dose to indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Wasiolek, P.

    1994-01-01

    Since the proximate source of dose to the cells of the bronchial epithelium is the deposited radon progeny, the exposure and resulting dose could be reduced if the radon decay products were effectively removed from the indoor atmosphere. Thus, room air cleaners could be effective in reducing the risks associated with indoor radon. However, because of the short half-life of 218 Po, it grows back quickly and in the altered aerosol conditions that are produced by the presence of an air cleaner, the exposure/dose conditions as well as the magnitude of the dose can be substantially changed. To examine the nature of the exposure of individuals in normally occupied homes and to determine the effect of various types of room air cleaners on the exposure to and dose from the indoor radon progeny, a series of measurements have been made using an automated graded screen array system. Two extended experiments were performed in homes in Arnprior, Ontario and Parishville, NY, in which filtration systems, a positive ion electrostatic precipitator, and ioniser/fan systems have been tested for their ability to remove both airborne radioactivity and particles. In both experiments, measurements were made over one week periods with an air cleaner operating and the distributions of exposure are compared with measurements of the background conditions when no cleaner is functioning. The doses to both basal and secretory cells of the bronchial epithelium in the first eight generations of the bronchus were calculated using the model developed by James and their distributions are compared among the various exposure conditions. In most cases the presence of the air cleaner reduced the exposure to radon progeny. However, the reductions in dose were generally substantially smaller than the reductions in exposure. In the intercomparisons of the two filtration units and the two identical ioniser/fan systems, the units generally behaved in a similar manner. The results of this substantial set of

  13. Hospital trash: cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1998-06-01

    Feminist researchers have contrasted the caring provided by women in hospitals with a more fragmented "curing" approach, which they identify with the predominantly male professions of medicine and surgery. The author spoke with hospital cleaners about their jobs and their health. Several themes emerged: the invisibility of the cleaning function, lack of respect for cleaners, representations of cleaning as undemanding, and assumptions that women's work in cleaning is particularly easy. Cleaners use various strategies to combat these stereotypes but receive little help from administrators or fellow employees. There is a hierarchy in the status of Québec hospital workers with curing (doctors) at the top, followed by caring and healing (nurses, therapists, and attendants), and hygiene (cleaners, sterilizers, and launderers) at the bottom. Authority hierarchies in health care are not related to gender in a simple way, although there is discrimination against women cleaners. The fact that cleaning, especially cleaning performed by women, is invisible to managers, other hospital personnel, and patients has important consequences for cleaners' and for patients' health.

  14. Evaluation of electrolytic alkaline cleaners by evaporative-rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed by which electrolytic alkaline cleaners used in large volumes in steel mills can be evaluated for their ability to clean rolling oil from steel strip without the necessity of large-scale mill trials. The method is evaporative-rate analysis, which can be used to determine the relative amount of residual oil on steel strip after cleaning. The procedure consists in placing a droplet of a solution of a volatile, radioactive, carbon-14 tagged organic compound dissolved in a more volatile solvent, on the surface of the metal, where it forms a ternary solution with any oil on the surface. The amount of oil in this ternary solution affects the rate of evaporation of the tagged compound. The rate of evaporation, monitored by a Geiger-Mueller detector, is a measure of the cleanliness of the surface. A number of commercial alkaline cleaners, both solids and liquids, were evaluated over a range of concentrations. Results indicated that the effectiveness of commercial alkaline cleaners varies greatly, and is a function of the cleaner concentration, cleaner composition, and polarity of cleaning. The presence of antifoaming agents also affects cleaning ability. The results of this study indicate that evaporative-rate analysis is a rapid and effective method for evaluating cleaners

  15. Communication practices in inter-organisational product development

    OpenAIRE

    Paasivaara, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Geographically distributed, inter-organisational product development projects are becoming increasingly common. However, companies face challenges in managing this kind of complicated projects. Most of the challenges are related to communication. This study focused on communication needs, problems and practices in distributed inter-organisational product development projects. The main objective was to identify and describe successful communication practices. In addition, the study aimed t...

  16. Successful New Product Pricing Practices: A Contingency Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Debruyne, M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the success of new product pricing practices and the conditions upon which success is contingent. We distinguish three different pricing practices that refer to the use of information on customer value, competition, and costs respectively. Following Monroe's

  17. Successful New Product Pricing Practices: A Contingency Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Debruyne, M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the success of new product pricing practices and the conditions upon which success is contingent. We distinguish three different pricing practices that refer to the use of information on customer value, competition, and costs respectively. Following

  18. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  19. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  20. Semi-Spontaneous Oral Text Production: Measurements in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-01-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…

  1. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  2. Specificity of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Biomedical Cell Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, M A; Pyatigorskaya, N V

    2018-03-01

    The article describes special aspects of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for biomedical cell products (BMCP) that imply high standards of aseptics throughout the entire productio process, strict requirements to donors and to the procedure of biomaterial isolation, guaranty of tracing BMCP products, defining processing procedures which allow to identify BMCP as minimally manipulated; continuous quality control and automation of the control process at all stages of manufacturing, which will ensure product release simultaneously with completion of technological operations.

  3. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Wwww of... - Work Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table... be used as a cleaner in closed systems, and organic HAP containing cleaners may be used to clean...

  5. Potencial para implantação da produção mais limpa em sistemas locais de produção: o polo joalheiro de São José do Rio Preto Potential for implantation of cleaner production in local production systems: the jewelry cluster of São José do Rio Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Mana Domingues

    2009-12-01

    oportunidades para incorporar a dimensão ambiental em políticas e ações para a promoção de SLP, levando em conta as especificidades e a dinâmica tecnológica setorial em MPE.Policies and actions in national and international spheres which aim to develop the local industry competition, taking as their basis the many advantages of agglomeration, have been focusing on the local production systems (LPS. Such actions and policies indicate the LPS as a vector of economic dynamism that improves local development, emphasizing the role of micro and small enterprises (MSE which occur in an industrial agglomeration. However, the environmental dimension has thus far only received tangential treatment within the policies and actions in the promotional and structural activities mentioned above. Thus, there is a question as to how we could contemplate this dimension in order to understand and promote LPS, including the objective of preventing and reducing negative environmental impacts from the activities of these agglomerations. The article proposes to examine the opportunities for integration of environmental issues in a group of enterprises that belong to the São José do Rio Preto-SP Jewelry Cluster, which is the second largest in the State of São Paulo in manufacturing jewelers made from gold. These enterprises joined a competitiveness project undertaken by SEBRAE (Brazilian Agency for Support of Micro and Small Enterprises. The analysis adopts the cleaner production proposal(P + L as an approach and tool for environmental management, particularly suitable for smaller enterprises that are able to converge innovation efforts in order to provide alternatives for undertaking improvements in environmental performance. Qualitative exploratory research found that endeavors to update technology in the jewelry cluster analyzed with a view to cleaner production, leads to environmental, economic and occupational health and safety benefits due to the reduction in the consumption of raw

  6. Images of Environment and Management Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten; Remmen, Arne

    ; environment as a part of quality management; environment as a part of corporate branding and environment as a part of customer relations. The different images are distributed and coexist throughout the organization, where they may be a potential for conflicting priorities or a platform for organizational......Different images of environment can be found in relation to various understandings of environmental problems and solutions, such as cleaner production, environmental management, cleaner products and sustainability. Ascribed to these images are: environment as a part of license to operate...... as a technical issue as part of a formalized system created barriers for organizational learning in relation to sustainability, while the broader concept of social responsibility shaped a platform from which the employees could create meanings on sustainability more in line with their daily practices....

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals good practices handbook: ARCAL XV radiopharmaceuticals control and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera Presto, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    A safety practice of the therapeutics diagnostic proceeding in nuclear medicine require a permanent provide high quality radiopharmaceuticals manufacture. This work treat to give a guide for all radio pharmacies laboratories that produce,control, fraction and or dispense radiopharmaceuticals products, with attention hospitable radiopharmacy laboratory. Three chapters with recommendations in manufacture good practice in Hospital radiopharmacy, industrial centralized, bibliography and three annexe's about clean area classification,standards work in laminar flux bell, and guarantee and cleaning areas

  8. The role of safe practices in hospitals’ total factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy R Huerta1, Mark A Thompson2, Eric W Ford31Center for Health Innovation, Education, and Research, 2Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 3Forsyth Medical Center Distinguished Professor of Health Care, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: The dual aims of improving safety and productivity are a major part of the health care reform movement hospital leaders must manage. Studies exploring the two phenomena conjointly and over time are critical to understanding how change in one dimension influences the other over time. A Malmquist approach is used to assess hospitals’ relative productivity levels over time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA algorithms were executed to assess whether or not the Malmquist Indices (MIs correlate with the safe practices measure. The American Hospital Association’s annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Case Mix Index for fiscal years 2002–2006, along with Leapfrog Group’s annual survey for 2006 were used for this study. Leapfrog Group respondents have significantly higher technological change (TC and total factor productivity (TFP than nonrespondents without sacrificing technical efficiency changes. Of the three MIs, TC (P < 0.10 and TFP (P < 0.05 had significant relationships with the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices score. The ANOVA also indicates that the mean differences of TFP measures progressed in a monotonic fashion up the Safe Practices scale. Adherence to the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices recommendations had a major impact on hospitals’ operating processes and productivity. Specifically, there is evidence that hospitals reporting higher Safe Practices scores had above average levels of TC and TFP gains over the period assessed. Leaders should strive for increased transparency to promote both quality improvement and increased productivity.Keywords: safety, productivity, quality, safe

  9. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...... the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case...

  10. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  11. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  12. Good manufacturing practices of artisanal products in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, J.M.S.D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the importance of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of artisanal products, aiming to generate a discussion about this subject. The elaboration of artisanal food has been gaining prominence in several countries of the world since these products carry the identity and culture of a place. The traditional and artisanal way of manufacturing provides the food with a variation in its characteristics, which makes it peculiar in comparison to its similar, pleasing the most diverse demands of consumers. In addition, they are considered healthier and natural foods. In the Northeast of Brazil, these products are highlighted by the significant commercialization, being sources of income generation for the region. Among the most prominent products are the coalho and butter types cheeses, bottled butter and carne de sol. Despite the economic and cultural importance of these products, the traditional way of manufacturing, without proper hygiene care, can be a limiting factor for the formal commercialization of these products. Therefore, adopting good manufacturing practices at artisanal food processing places may be the first step towards the production of higher quality products that meet the requirements of the legislation but retain their artisanal manufacturing characteristics.

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  14. The cleaner, the greener? Product sustainability assessment of the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® in comparison to the conventional façade paint Jumbosil®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Antony

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The debate on the question whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability is discussed among scientists, business leaders, politicians and those responsible for project funding. The objective of this paper is to contribute to this controversial debate by presenting the sustainability assessment of one of the most well-known and most successful biomimetic products: the façade paint Lotusan®.Results: As a first step it has been examined and verified that the façade paint Lotusan® is correctly defined as a biomimetic product. Secondly, Lotusan® has been assessed and compared to a conventional façade paint within the course of a detailed product sustainability assessment (PROSA. For purposes of comparison, the façade paint Jumbosil® was chosen as reference for a conventional paint available on the market. The benefit analysis showed that both paints fulfil equally well the requirements of functional utility. With respect to the symbolic utility, Lotusan® has a particular added aesthetic value by the preservation of the optical quality over the life cycle. Within the social analysis no substantial differences between the two paints could be found regarding the handling and disposal of the final products. Regarding the life-cycle cost, Lotusan® is the more expensive product. However, the higher investment cost for a Lotusan®-based façade painting are more than compensated by the longer life time, resulting in both reduced overall material demand and lower labour cost. In terms of the life-cycle impact assessment, it can be ascertained that substantial differences between the paints arise from the respective service life, which are presented in terms of four scenario analyses.Conclusion: In summary, the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® has been identified as a cost-effective and at the same time resource-saving product. Based on the underlying data and assumptions it could be demonstrated that

  15. Flexibility practices, wages and productivity : evidence from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Ringdal, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test whether the use of numerical and functional flexibility practices in firms affect their performance. Design/methodology/approach - A combined employer/employee Norwegian data set is used to estimate production function like equations. The data stem from

  16. Product Life Cycle: Moving from Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Buchin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant, bar, and hospitality trends are rapidly changing, and businesses must be more proactive than ever before to continuously stimulate business and prepare for a products natural life cycle. This article will explore a model of predicting PLC and strategic practices that can extend the mature phase of a restaurant or bar.

  17. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical Approach. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Product development practice in medium-sized food processing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    Market orientation has in numerous empirical NPD-studies been identified as critical for success. However, this study reveals a severe gap between the normative implications regarding market orientation and current product development practice in number of Danish food-processing companies. Through...

  19. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  20. Governance and Upgrading Practices in Cloth Production Value Chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the governance _pal/ern and upgrading _practices of value chain of cloth _production, focusing on micro and small cloth _producing entetprises in Addis Ababa. The study is based on a sample of 222 respondents drawn from various actors of the value chain in the city. The value chain is found out to ...

  1. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  2. Strategies to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neb, Holger; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) aims to improve patient outcome and safety by reducing the number of unnecessary RBC transfusions and vitalizing patient-specific anemia reserves. Although PBM is increasingly recognized as best clinical practice in elective surgery, implementation of PBM is restrained in the setting of obstetrics. This review summarizes recent findings to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice. PBM-related evidence-based benefits should be urgently adopted in the field of obstetric medicine. Intravenous iron can be considered a safe, effective strategy to replenish iron stores and to correct both pregnancy-related and hemorrhage-related iron deficiency anemia. In addition to surgical techniques and the use of uterotonics, recent findings support early administration of tranexamic acid, fibrinogen and a coagulation factor concentrate-based, viscoelastically guided practice in case of peripartum hemorrhage to manage coagulopathy. In patients with cesarean section, autologous red cell blood salvage may reduce blood product utilization, although its use in this setting is controversial. Implementation of PBM in obstetric practice offers large potential to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products, even though large clinical trials are lacking in this specific field. Intravenous iron supplementation may be suggested to increase peripartum hemoglobin levels. Additionally, tranexamic acid and point-of-care-guided supplementation of coagulation factors are potent methods to reduce unnecessary blood loss and blood transfusions in obstetrics.

  3. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  4. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  5. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  6. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  7. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  8. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  10. The lean product design and development journey a practical view

    CERN Document Server

    Pessôa, Marcus Vinicius Pereira

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a series of high performance product design (PD) and development best practices that can create or improve product development organization. In contrast to other books that focus only on Toyota or other individual companies applying lean IPD, this book explains the lean philosophy more broadly and includes discussions of systems engineering, design for X (DFX), agile development, integrated product development, and project management. The “Lean Journey” proposed here takes a value-centric approach, where the lean principles are applied to PD to allow the tools and methods selected to emerge from observation of the individual characteristics of each enterprise. This means that understanding lean product development (LPD) is not about knowing which tools are available but knowing how to apply the philosophy. The book comes with an accompanying manual with problems and solutions available on Springer Extras.

  11. Semi-spontaneous oral text production: measurements in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-12-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.

  12. Science Teachers Sharing Artifacts from Practice like Students’ Tablet Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Research looking into the spreading of practices supporting students’ high-level use of ICT for multimedia productions etc. is discussed together with research emphasizing core features of effective professional development for teachers (TPD), as high quality TPD is claimed to be a crucial factor......, are discussed. A case of a teacher’s first experiences from facilitating her students’ productions with the tablet application Explain Everything are used to discuss both the students’ and the teachers’ meaning making, and spreading to more cautious colleagues....

  13. Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Bloom; Tobias Kretschmer; John Van Reenen

    2006-01-01

    Do “Anglo-Saxon” management practices generate higher productivity only at the expense of lousy work-life balance (WLB) for workers? Many critics of “neo-libéralisme sauvage” have argued that increased competition from globalisation is damaging employees’ quality of life. Others have argued the opposite that improving work-life balance is actually a competitive tool that companies can use to raise productivity. We try to shed some empirical light on these issues using an innovative survey too...

  14. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...... studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying...

  15. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Bruno G; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S; Reis, Catarina P

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability.

  16. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Bruno G.; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S.; Reis, Catarina P.

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability. PMID:25883511

  17. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  18. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  19. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as electrostatic precipitators use a process called electrostatic attraction to trap charged particles. They draw air through ... of ozone with indoor chemicals such as those coming from household cleaning products, air fresheners, certain paints, ...

  20. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  1. [Pharmaceutical product quality control and good manufacturing practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the roles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in pharmaceutical product quality control. There are three keys to pharmaceutical product quality control. They are specifications, thorough product characterization during development, and adherence to GMP as the ICH Q6A guideline on specifications provides the most important principles in its background section. Impacts of the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (rPAL) which became effective in 2005 on product quality control are discussed. Progress of ICH discussion for Pharmaceutical Development (Q8), Quality Risk Management (Q9) and Pharmaceutical Quality System (Q10) are reviewed. In order to reconstruct GMP guidelines and GMP inspection system in the regulatory agencies under the new paradigm by rPAL and the ICH, a series of Health Science studies were conducted. For GMP guidelines, product GMP guideline, technology transfer guideline, laboratory control guideline and change control system guideline were written. For the GMP inspection system, inspection check list, inspection memo and inspection scenario were proposed also by the Health Science study groups. Because pharmaceutical products and their raw materials are manufactured and distributed internationally, collaborations with other national authorities are highly desired. In order to enhance the international collaborations, consistent establishment of GMP inspection quality system throughout Japan will be essential.

  2. Reversing the conventional leather processing sequence for cleaner leather production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2006-02-01

    Conventional leather processing generally involves a combination of single and multistep processes that employs as well as expels various biological, inorganic, and organic materials. It involves nearly 14-15 steps and discharges a huge amount of pollutants. This is primarily due to the fact that conventional leather processing employs a "do-undo" process logic. In this study, the conventional leather processing steps have been reversed to overcome the problems associated with the conventional method. The charges of the skin matrix and of the chemicals and pH profiles of the process have been judiciously used for reversing the process steps. This reversed process eventually avoids several acidification and basification/neutralization steps used in conventional leather processing. The developed process has been validated through various analyses such as chromium content, shrinkage temperature, softness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and physical testing of the leathers. Further, the performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through bulk property evaluation. The process enjoys a significant reduction in COD and TS by 53 and 79%, respectively. Water consumption and discharge is reduced by 65 and 64%, respectively. Also, the process benefits from significant reduction in chemicals, time, power, and cost compared to the conventional process.

  3. Investment in biogas for energy purposes to promote cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bericiarto Pérez, Frank Abel; Poma García, Yaily; Guzmán Chinea, Jesús; García Lorenzo, Dunia; Mata Varela, Milagros de la Caridad

    2015-01-01

    In Cuba, by the characteristics of a developing country characteristics, formulation and evaluation of projects is a critical task, since the decision to invest means sacrificing the opportunity to meet current needs for different and long-term alternatives. The assessment prior to the execution of a project is proposed as the aim of the present study, as a crucial task that contributes to amendments or self-definition. The results should be directed to the analysis of development trends in the energy environment which indicates the increase of the contribution of renewable energy sources as a viable to meet global demand for energy efficient and sustainable way. For that reason, it has encouraged the use of biogas as the most important fuel of the future, since the materials required for processing and construction of the necessary facilities are within reach of many first-world economies as countries developmental. History: Specific methods of pollution trends in the province; Description: Evaluation of investment within the life cycle of the investment project. Techniques and instruments: Direct observation; Structured surveys and use of specialized software: Excel, QSB, Statgraphics. The research is justified and concludes that the project Swine Genetics UEB Cienfuegos achieved energy independence, as well as sales to 13.7 MW annual energy electro National System (SEN). (full text)

  4. Resource efficiency and cleaner production:Measurable advantages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raphulu, N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RECP can be defined as a systematic and integrated approach to managing energy, water, environmental and financial resources as well as eliminating or minimising waste and emissions to the environment on a sustainable and cost-effective basis...

  5. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Thorsen, Nils

    -ters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant job...... experience. Generally participants have had 5-15 years of practical experience and are in the position of a internal or external job change towards new tasks that require new knowledge, methodologies or management/co-ordination skills. The education of "Masters of Environmental Management" (MEM) started...

  6. Guide to cleaner coal technology-related web sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R; Jenkins, N; Zhang, X [IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Guide to Cleaner Coal Technology-Related Web Sites' is a guide to web sites that contain important information on cleaner coal technologies (CCT). It contains a short introduction to the World Wide Web and gives advice on how to search for information using directories and search engines. The core section of the Guide is a collection of factsheets summarising the information available on over 65 major web sites selected from organizations worldwide (except those promoting companies). These sites contain a wealth of information on CCT research and development, technology transfer, financing and markets. The factsheets are organised in the following categories. Associations, research centres and programmes; Climate change and sustainable development; Cooperative ventures; Electronic journals; Financial institutions; International organizations; National government information; and Statistical information. A full subject index is provided. The Guide concludes with some general comments on the quality of the sites reviewed.

  7. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  8. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  9. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  10. Sudden death involving inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) with spray cleaner: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kentaro; Maruyama-Maebashi, Kyoko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Nagai, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Miwako; Ochiai, Eriko; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2011-03-20

    Spray cleaner is a cleaning product containing compressed 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) to blow dust off electric devices and other sensitive equipment; however, it is also inhaled to induce euphoria. This report describes three cases of death involving HFC-152a inhalation with spray cleaner under different circumstances. In case 1, death was during inhalation for euphoria with which led to having frostbite. In case 2, death may have been associated with suicidal intention. Case 3 was also considered an accidental autoerotic death. In all three cases, HFC-152a was detected at 99.2-136.2mg/l in blood samples, 94.5-191.9 mg/l in urine samples and 3.6-18.4 mg in the gastric contents according to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. To prevent death associated with HFC-152a inhalation from spray cleaner, the danger of the sudden death should be announced to people, given the ready availability of commercial products containing HFC-152a. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Richer and cleaner - At others' expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehn, Taran; Bruvoll, Annegrete

    2009-01-01

    In rich economies emissions of many pollutants tend to grow at a slower rate than GDP. This could be a result of shifting comparative advantages. If so, net imports of dirty products to these economies will increase and rather than reduced, emissions will be relocated to other countries. In this paper we investigate if decoupling in a rich, open economy coincides with such pollution leakages abroad. Based on historical observations and model projections, we find little evidence to support this hypothesis. Historically, decoupling coincides with falling pollution leakages. Projections over a period of decades indicate a weakening of the decoupling, but that leakages will increase. (author)

  12. Practice patterns in prescribing oral care products by dental practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena B. Abdrashitova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the practice patterns of dental practitioners in how they choose oral care products for prescriptions to their patients. One hundred seventy-three respondents were selected for a medico-sociological study. They were divided into 3 groups based on their work experience: less than 5 years (30.0%, 5–9 years (40.0% and 10–14 years (30.0%. The majority of respondents were dental therapists (71.0%, and the rest were paedodontists, dental surgeons, periodontists and orthodontists (11.0%, 7.0%, 4.0% and 1.0%, respectively. The study was conducted using a questionnaire specially developed by us, which consisted of 34 questions grouped into several domains. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that the majority of dental practitioners (88.7% were competent in prescribing oral care products. Professionals with work experience over 10 years often choose oral care products incorrectly; 80.6% of them believe that long-term use of personal oral care products containing antiseptic components affects the oral microbial flora, which suggests that it is necessary to amend the existing classification of toothpastes.

  13. Product Portfolio Management Best Practices For New Product Development: A Review Of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival of any industrial organization depends on whether producing goods or services hinge on how innovative they have become in managing their product portfolio to craft new products that changes with the ever-changing tastes and needs of their customers. This study delves in to the models and theories that drive product portfolio management practices in a way that they support the successes of new product development. Our review is based on selected studies at the frontier of product management, summarized, and compared based on authors experiences, subsisting models, and theories with the results purely based on qualitative rather than quantitative approaches. The essence is to explore possible new theory or model in this field of research.

  14. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  15. Biohydrogen production: prospects and limitations to practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, D.B. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Biology and Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Pitt, L.; Love, M. [Univ. of Victoria, Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Hydrogen may be produced by a number of processes, including electrolysis of water, thermocatalytic reformation of hydrogen rich organic compounds, and biological processes. Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by electrolysis of water or by steam reformation of methane. Biological production of hydrogen (Biohydrogen) technologies provide a wide range of approaches to generate hydrogen, including Direct biophotolysis, Indirect Biophotolysis, Photo-fermentations, and Dark-fermentation. The practical application of these technologies to every day energy problems, however, is unclear. In order to assess which biohydrogen systems may be practical when combined with fuel cell technologies, we have calculated the size of biohydrogen bioreactors that would be required to power Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells of various sizes. Our analysis suggests that light-driven biohydrogen systems (Direct Photolysis, Indirect Photolysis, and Photo-fermentation) do not produce H{sub 2} at rates that are sufficient to power PEMFCs of sufficient size to be of practical use. Thermophilic and extreme thermophilic biohydrogen systems would require very large bioreactors (in the range of approximately 2900 L to 14,600 L) to provide sufficient H{sub 2} to power PEMFCs of 1.5 kW to 5.0 kW, respectively. Some Dark-fermentation systems, however, appear promising. Bioreactors of 500 L and 1000 L, designed so that H{sub 2} is rapidly removed from the culture medium, would be sufficient to power PEMFCs of 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW, respectively. Further research and development aimed at increasing rates of synthesis and final yields of H{sub 2} are essential if biohydrogen systems are to be of practical use. (author)

  16. Biohydrogen production: prospects and limitations to practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Pitt, L.; Love, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen may be produced by a number of processes, including electrolysis of water, thermocatalytic reformation of hydrogen rich organic compounds, and biological processes. Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by electrolysis of water or by steam reformation of methane. Biological production of hydrogen (Biohydrogen) technologies provide a wide range of approaches to generate hydrogen, including Direct biophotolysis, Indirect Biophotolysis, Photo-fermentations, and Dark-fermentation. The practical application of these technologies to every day energy problems, however, is unclear. In order to assess which biohydrogen systems may be practical when combined with fuel cell technologies, we have calculated the size of biohydrogen bioreactors that would be required to power Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells of various sizes. Our analysis suggests that light-driven biohydrogen systems (Direct Photolysis, Indirect Photolysis, and Photo-fermentation) do not produce H 2 at rates that are sufficient to power PEMFCs of sufficient size to be of practical use. Thermophilic and extreme thermophilic biohydrogen systems would require very large bioreactors (in the range of approximately 2900 L to 14,600 L) to provide sufficient H 2 to power PEMFCs of 1.5 kW to 5.0 kW, respectively. Some Dark-fermentation systems, however, appear promising. Bioreactors of 500 L and 1000 L, designed so that H 2 is rapidly removed from the culture medium, would be sufficient to power PEMFCs of 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW, respectively. Further research and development aimed at increasing rates of synthesis and final yields of H 2 are essential if biohydrogen systems are to be of practical use. (author)

  17. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating.

  18. Environmental Management in Danish transnational textile product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Hendriksen, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    on capacity building at the suppliers in developing countries, while other companies seem to focus the complex activities at domestic suppliers. Two new facilitating actors in environmental management in product chains were identified. Research limitations and implications The focus on one sector in one......Purpose The purpose is to analyse environmental responsibility of companies from industrialized countries when they source materials and products in countries with less environmental protection. Methodology The article is a study of corporate environmental management in the Danish textile...... have a practice without environmental initiatives. Dominating types of initiatives are cleaner technology, environmental management systems and cleaner products. Driving forces are governmental regulation, customer demands, market expectations and protection of corporate brands. Some companies focus...

  19. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  20. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  1. PRODUCCIÓN MÁS LIMPIA Y VIABILIDAD DE TRATAMIENTO BIOLÓGICO PARA EFLUENTES DE MATADEROS EN PEQUEÑAS LOCALIDADES: Caso: Municipio de El Tambo (Colombia CLEANER PRODUCTION AND FEASIBILITY OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR SLAUGHTERHOUSES EFFLUENTS IN SMALL TOWNS: Case: Municipality of Tambo (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO CHAUX

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la viabilidad de tratamiento biológico para el efluente del matadero del municipio de El Tambo (Cauca y se propuso la implementación de procesos de producción más limpia (PML en cuanto al uso del agua y algunos subproductos generados por esta central de sacrificio. Se llevaron a cabo jornadas de inspección sanitaria, aforos de caudal, cuantificación volumétrica de subproductos y análisis fisicoquímicos que incluyen: DBO5, DQO, SST, Nitrógeno Total, Fósforo Total, grasas y aceites, temperatura y pH. Se registra un elevado consumo de agua: 200 litros/cerdo y 1880 litros/res (superiores a los promedios del matadero de Popayán-Cauca: 100 L/cerdo y 500 L/res; valores de parámetros de contaminación: 9024 mg/L DQO, 1829 mg/L DBO5, 1357 mg/L SST, 889 mg/L N, 26 mg/L P, 79 mg/L de grasas y aceites, pH de 7.6. Producción de 23 L/bovino de rumen y 28 L/bovino de sangre. El efluente es de difícil biodegradabilidad; sin embargo, el tratamiento biológico anaeróbico es viable mediante una eliminación previa de grasas y rumen, colectándolos por separado mediante un estricto tratamiento preliminar. Antes del diseño de la planta de tratamiento de agua residual deben implementarse procesos de PML, con el fin de reducir el gasto masivo de agua y buscar una adecuada disposición y buen uso de subproductos.Was evaluated the feasibility of biological treatment for the effluent from the slaughterhouse in the municipality of El Tambo (Cauca and proposed the implementation of cleaner production processes (CPP in the use of water and some byproducts generated by the plant for slaughter. Conducted workshops for health inspection, flow capacities, volumetric quantification and analysis of physic-chemical byproducts that include BOD5, COD, TSS, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, fats and oils, temperature and pH. There are high water consumption: 200 liters/pork and 1800 liters/bovine (higher than the averages of the slaughterhouse of Popay

  2. The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P

    2004-01-01

    The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...

  3. Practice of building production planning system of company with a wide range of products - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Hadaś

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of the manufacturing environments of today's mechanical engineering companies and the number of both internal and external restrictions affecting to need of building tailored production planning and control systems. This statement is particularly important in conditions of companies with a wide range of products and different customer service strategies (different locations of the logistics decoupling point otherwise called "order penetration point". Streams of materials in these conditions require different management what is the main reason for carrying out research in business conditions by the authors. Material and methods: The research was carried out in industrial engineering in complex environmental conditions of production. This was a specializing in technology, multi-departments environment, with multiple streams of values and a wide range of products (about 500 items. The work was carried out under the transformation of the production system from the "push" logic of flow to "pull" logic of flow and building a dedicated system based on the best practice approach. Results: The paper describes the process of building tailored hybrid systems in the area of planning and shop flow control of production. The authors present the theoretical considerations on the issue and practical experiences. The authors present factors of selection of the transformation path and its road map. The article describes the part of the authors' own experience in the work on the methodology of transformation of Polish companies in the running business condition. Conclusions: Establishing the methodology of transformation of the production system is not a simple task. This paper presents only selected aspects of complex decision-making process. However, the authors presented work shows the important aspect of the transformation of production systems for these organizational conditions.

  4. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  5. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    are relevant issues to save energy and avoid greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions. This work compares the operating performance of 3 types of biomass stoves used in Europe in their interaction with dwellings. Field studies were conducted in 24 houses in Portugal and Denmark to analyse wood-burning behaviours......In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...

  6. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... and people of the neighbourhood coexist through events in real-time and depositions over time. The infra-ordinary as a spatial discourse interrogates and acknowledges the latent qualities of the common and seemingly banal, yet vitally important, spatial materiality of everyday life, as an alternative...

  7. Reactive adsorption: A cleaner technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, G.; Szanya, T.; Hanak, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cleaner technology prefers work with minimal loss and the wastes cause the less environmental damages. In the spirit of the previous sentence in the present paper reactive adsorption is investigated for the removal of radioactive nuclides from nuclear power plant decontamination solutions. During alkaline, oxidative decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment a radioactive solution is produced. Owing to the storing difficulties of radioactive solutions it is necessary to develop a method for the in situ treatment of radioactive, alkaline, oxidative decontamination solutions, and for the concentration of radioactive components. Reactive adsorption seems to be promising for this purpose. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  9. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  10. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  11. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  12. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  13. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  14. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  15. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  16. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...

  17. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  18. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...

  19. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Leachables and extractables handbook: safety evaluation, qualification, and best practices applied to inhalation drug products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    ...). It discusses best practices for evaluation and management of leachables and extractables throughout the pharma product lifecycle by providing practical knowledge about how and why safety thresholds were developed...

  1. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  2. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  3. Building research capacity and productivity among advanced practice nurses: an evaluation of the Community of Practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Janice G; West, Sandra H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Wenger's Community of Practice as a framework for building research capacity and productivity. While research productivity is an expected domain in influential models of advanced nursing practice, internationally it remains largely unmet. Establishment of nursing research capacity precedes productivity and consequently, there is a strong imperative to identify successful capacity-building models for nursing-focussed research in busy clinical environments. Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative descriptive design was used in this study. Bruyn's participant observation framed evaluation of a Community of Practice comprising 25 advanced practice nurses. Data from focus groups, education evaluations, blog/email transcripts and field observations, collected between 2007 and 2014, were analysed using a qualitative descriptive method. The Community of Practice model invited differing levels of participation, allowed for evolution of the research community and created a rhythm of research-related interactions and enduring research relationships. Participants described the value of research for their patients and families and the significance of the developing research culture in providing richness to their practice and visibility of their work to multidisciplinary colleagues. Extensive examples of research dissemination and enrolment in doctoral programmes further confirmed this value. A Community of Practice framework is a powerful model enabling research capacity and productivity evidenced by publication. In developing a solid foundation for a nursing research culture, it should be recognized that research skills, confidence and growth develop over an extended period of time and success depends on skilled coordination and leadership. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  5. Assessment of vegetable production practices in Qwaqwa within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the information such as biographical information of the vegetable farmers, information about the vegetable gardens or farms, the current vegetable farming practices, irrigation practices on the vegetable soil and the farmers' physical and financial records were assessed. The assessment was conducted through ...

  6. Platform driven development of product families : linking theory with practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van W.; Halman, J.I.M.

    2001-01-01

    Firms in most industries increasingly are considering platform-based approaches to reduce complexity and better leverage investments in product design, manufacturing and marketing. Literature addresses a variety of concepts related to platform thinking: component standardization, product

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Hong, Guang; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive. After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control. Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  9. Practical Measurement and Productive Persistence: Strategies for Using Digital Learning System Data to Drive Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Andrew E.; Beattie, Rachel; Takahashi, Sola; D'Angelo, Cynthia; Feng, Mingyu; Cheng, Britte

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of practical measures of productive persistence using digital learning system data. Practical measurement refers to data collection and analysis approaches originating from improvement science; productive persistence refers to the combination of academic and social mindsets as well as learning behaviours that…

  10. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION THE COMBINED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Manzhesov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In work of work the choice of use of lupin’s flour is reasonable, her physical and chemical indicators are studied. The technological scheme of development of the combined meat and cereal products of a functional orientation is developed and proved. The chemical composition of a ready-made product is investigated. Balance of amino-acid structure is noted that allows to carry meat and cereal meatballs «Domashnie obogashhennye» to functional products. Calculation of economic efficiency has shown that production is expedient. The net profit will make 2731,96 rub. Level of profitability has made 17,02%.

  11. 78 FR 4307 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...-2009-N-0435] Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products AGENCY: Food and...) is issuing this regulation on the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) requirements applicable... this subpart? (Sec. 4.2) D. What current good manufacturing practice requirements apply to my...

  12. The Role of Everyday Life Products and Social Practices in Sustainable Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise; Remmen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    and the way we live. When opting for a low carbon society, the innovation dynamics of everyday life products as well as consumption and practice patterns become an important field of investigation. Hence, to approach consumption aspects of using and interacting with energy using products, it is important...... to kill (Røpke, 2009), so in order to make people change practice, alternate routines that work has to be proposed and accepted. Practice theory can help understanding how practices work, and thus clarifying what has to be included in a study of potentials for a sustainable transition. Social practices...... to understand what practices the products are a part of when in use. According to Røpke (2009) “Primarily, people are practitioners who indirectly, through the performance of various practices, draw on resources”. Therefore, in order to make consumers aware of their actions in an environmental perspective...

  13. Needs assessment of cowpea production practices, constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... worsen the limitations to cowpea production in these provinces. Lack of .... avert risk, crop failure and distribution of farm labour. (Singh et al. ... turity groups was based on the length of rainfall. Farmer ... The market potential for bambara groundnut. ... Management of productivity of major cropping system.

  14. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its production is seriously constrained by various diseases including Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot. Surveys were conducted between June 2012 and May 2013 in the main citrus production areas of the country to assess the spread of the disease, and to ...

  15. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Practical dosimetric aspects of blood and blood product irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearon, T.C.; Luban, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    The method of choice to reduce susceptibility to transfusion-transmitted graft-versus-host disease is irradiation of allogenic blood and blood products for transfusion to immunosuppressed recipients. Optimal irradiation requires delivery of a known and homogeneous absorbed dose. The use of absorbed dose in air measured at the center of the irradiation volume without proper compensation for sample absorption can lead to approximately 20 percent underexposure. A lucite cylinder was used to provide the delivery of a homogeneous irradiation dose to blood products of different volumes by allowing rotation of the product

  17. Fieldbook: Developing embedded systems & smart products in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Valentin; Agesen, Mads Kronborg; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias

    practice for udvikling af smarte produkter baseret på erfaringer fra danske virksomheder og universiteter. Fieldbooken giver konkrete input til den ingeniørmæssige realisering af smarte produkter. Den er skrevet til dig, der gør dig overvejelser om, hvordan din virksomhed kommer i gang eller videre med...

  18. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  19. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  20. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent study into the effectiveness of portable air cleaners (PACs), as an infection control measure against TB, delivered unexpectedly low results. That finding initiated a further study to understand the contribution of system...

  1. Comparative analysis of production practices and utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    1Kenyatta University, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, P.O. Box 43844, 00100 GPO. Nairobi,. Kenya. .... the vast potential of pumpkin production and utilization in ..... Poverty Reduction Handbook: Washington D.C:.

  2. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN......This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...

  3. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  4. Expanded function allied dental personnel and dental practice productivity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.

  5. Increased participation among cleaners as a strategy to improve quality and occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrling, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good wo...

  6. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  7. A descriptive study of chiropractors' opinions and practices regarding office-based health product sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Stacey A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sale of non-prescription health products is ubiquitous, the views of health professionals, such as chiropractors, regarding the sale of such products are not well known. Practitioner opinion is important to understand and inform professional practice. The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractors' perspectives and practices on the sale of health care products from practitioners' offices. Methods Chiropractors were invited to provide written comments about health product sales at the end of a fixed choice, mailed survey. Respondents' comments were analyzed using qualitative description. Ethics approval was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary. Results One hundred seven of the 265 respondents (response rate of 51% provided written comments. Approximately 30 pages of double-spaced, typed text were gathered. Respondents did not consistently endorse or condemn health product sales, and engaged in the practice to greater and lesser extents. While some were opposed to health products sales, some accepted the practice with a degree of ambivalence whereas others clearly embraced it. Some respondents acknowledged a professional conflict of interest in such sales and marketing, and described strategies used to mitigate it. Others provided a range of justifications for the practice. Personal integrity and professional standards were discussed and a need for monitoring identified. Conclusions A wide range of opinions and practices were described and this is consistent with resulting variation in practice. In light of this, standards that facilitate consistency in practice may benefit professionals and the public alike.

  8. Pass the Crayons: Leadership, Art Production, and Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Kelehear

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of an arts-based leadership (Kelehear, 2006, 2008 practice at a rural middle school in South Carolina are examined. The school principal and art teacher led a day-long staff development and followed up individually to assist teachers to create art as metaphor for individual growth plans as well as school improvement plans. Specifically, the arts-based initiative sought to invite professional conversations that focused on: 1 personal reflections, 2 multiple perspectives, and 3 art making. Findings suggest that when the art teacher and principal work in collaboration, there is real value in an arts-based leadership practice. Also, when led by the art teacher, teacher reflections suggested that as the principal worked alongside the teachers, they felt valued and supported and viewed the principal as authentic and trusting. Additionally, out of the engendered trust, the teachers were emboldened to consider innovative, arts-based approaches to their teaching. Finally, there was evidence that the art teacher was highly effective in introducing innovative leadership practices as teachers. This study is one of several implementation studies emerging from earlier research on arts-based leadership.

  9. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  10. Methods and practices to diversify cell-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertès, Alain A

    2017-12-15

    Medicinal signaling cell (MSC)-based products represent emerging treatments in various therapeutic areas including cardiometabolic, inflammation, autoimmunity, orthopedics, wound healing and oncology. Exploring innovation beyond minimally manipulated plastic-adherent ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs enables product delineation. Product delineation is on the critical path to maximize clinical benefits and market access. An innovation framework is presented here along various innovation dimensions comprising composition-of-matter by means of positive cell surface markers, formulation varying for example the cell dose or the preservation mode and medium, manufacturing to adapt the secretome of MSCs to the condition of interest, the mode of delivery and corresponding delivery devices, as well as molecular engineering and biomarkers. The rationale of the innovation space thus described applies generally to all cell-based therapies.

  11. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  12. The good laboratory practice and good clinical practice requirements for the production of radiopharmaceuticals in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FJ; De Decker, M; Dierckx, RA

    Radiopharmaceuticals account for more than 95% of the group of sterile pharmaceutical products and should therefore be handled and produced with care. Since the introduction of the European directive, all pharmaceuticals used in clinical studies must be prepared under good manufacturing practice

  13. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  14. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2011-01-01

    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  15. Blood platelet production: a novel approach for practical optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van N.M.; Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of production and inventory management for blood platelets (PLTs) is the requirement to meet highly uncertain demands. Shortages are to be minimized, if not to be avoided at all. Overproduction, in turn, leads to high levels of outdating as PLTs have a limited "shelf life." Outdating

  16. Blood platelet production: a novel approach for practical optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van N.M.; Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.; Smit Sibinga, C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The challenge of production and inventory management for blood platelets (PLTs) is the requirement to meet highly uncertain demands. Shortages are to be minimized, if not to be avoided at all. Overproduction, in turn, leads to high levels of outdating as PLTs have a limited "shelf life."

  17. Best practices guidelines for managing water in bioenergy feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    In the quest to develop renewable energy sources, woody and agricultural crops are being viewed as an important source of low environmental impact feedstocks for electrical generation and biofuels production (Hall and Scrase 1998, Eriksson et al. 2002, Somerville et al. 2010, Berndes and Smith 2013). In countries like the USA, the bioenergy feedstock potential is...

  18. Skeletal Fluorosis Due To Inhalation Abuse of a Difluoroethane-Containing Computer Cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Joseph R; Whitford, Gary M; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Mumm, Steven; Keaveny, Tony M; Whyte, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is endemic in many countries and millions of people are affected worldwide, whereas in the United States SF is rare with occasional descriptions of unique cases. We report a 28-year-old American man who was healthy until 2 years earlier when he gradually experienced difficulty walking and an abnormal gait, left hip pain, loss of mobility in his right wrist and forearm, and progressive deformities including enlargement of the digits of both hands. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of his lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and the one-third forearm revealed bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores of +6.2, +4.8, +3.0, and -0.2, respectively. Serum, urine, and bone fluoride levels were all elevated and ultimately explained by chronic sniffing abuse of a computer cleaner containing 1,1-difluoroethane. Our findings reflect SF due to the unusual cause of inhalation abuse of difluoroethane. Because this practice seems widespread, particularly in the young, there may be many more such cases. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Persuasiveness, Personalization & Productive Workplace Practices with IT-Knowledge Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Harder; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2016-01-01

    work. We see a possible way forward for improving workplace practices with IT-knowledge artefact based applications, by combining new insight of how different personality traits prefer different knowledge sharing processes with new insight on personalizing persuasive technology. We explore new research......The workplace is getting increasingly globalized, virtualized and networked. At the same time, work itself has become discrete, autonomous and complex. In a fast changing world, the individual knowledge worker and his interactions becomes the new locus of value creation. Management promote...

  20. Practical example of game theory application for production route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2017-08-01

    The opportunity which opens before manufacturers on the dynamic market, especially before those from the sector of the small and medium-sized enterprises, is associated with the use of the virtual organizations concept. The planning stage of such organizations could be based on supporting decision-making tasks using the tools and formalisms taken from the game theory. In the paper the model of the virtual manufacturing network, along with the practical example of decision-making situation as two person game and the decision strategies with an analysis of calculation results are presented.

  1. Enhancing engineering practices for productivity and profits in agro-allied industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    The word productivity is a part of everyday vocabulary of industrial engineers and managers. Terms such as optimum utilization of resources, operational efficiency, product competitiveness, maintenance culture, etc., are mentioned with regular frequency. This is healthy, because productivity improvement does not happen by wishing for it or trying harder but by deliberately planning for it. The rewards of higher productivity are immense. At the firm level, such benefit include high production rates, higher profits, better quality products and services, customer satisfaction, higher take home pay for employees and high employee morale. Many of these benefits can be derived through the application of simple potential productivity improvement tools that are hinged on engineering practices

  2. Principles and practices of lean production applied in a metal structures production system

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Rogério; Alves, Anabela Carvalho; Lopes, Isabel da Silva

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a work undertaken in a metal structures production system in a company producing several assorted products for the civil construction. The work aim was to improve the production process, solving several productive problems encountered in the production system, such as: deliveries delays, long lead times, too many material handling, high stocks, errors and defects in metal structures assembly and production, and unnecessary motions. The identified problems were analyzed and...

  3. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Secondary Market Products in the Mortgage System and Global Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Eroğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, the mortgage market has two faces, the primary and the secondary markets. The primary market covers housing mortgage loans. On the other side of the mechanism, these loans are securitized and issued in financial markets with different form of securities in secondary markets. The common name of these instruments is “mortgage backed securities - MBS”. A mortgage backed security is a financial instrument issued in capital markets for investors, derived from either backed by the cash flow of the housing loan repayments (which is called pay-through or backed by directly selling the mortgage pools to the MBS issuers (which is called passthrough. The most trading secondary mortgage market instruments and world practices are explained in this article.

  5. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  6. Contracting for Efficiency: A Best Practices Guide for Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  7. High availability based on production information systems research and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Through the presentation of the production information system application deployment in Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., combined with CEAS failure to deal with, respectively, in the server (operating system), database and application software on-going monitoring and tuning of the actual cases are discussed: For the system to maintain a high availability, performance and security, not only on the server (operating system) for rational allocation and deployment, but also the need for database and application software to optimize the well-designed and sustained. (authors)

  8. Promotion of tobacco products on Facebook: policy versus practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; Li, Vanessa Y; Cardiff, Ryan A L; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-04-05

    Facebook has a comprehensive set of policies intended to inhibit promotion and sales of tobacco products. Their effectiveness has yet to be studied. Leading tobacco brands (388) were identified via Nielsen and Ranker databases and 108 were found to maintain brand-sponsored Facebook pages. Key indicators of alignment with Facebook policy were evaluated. Purchase links (eg, 'shop now' button) on brand-sponsored pages were found for hookah tobaccos (41%), e-cigarettes (74%), smokeless (50%) and cigars (31%). Sales promotions (eg, discount coupons) were present in hookah tobacco (48%), e-cigarette (76%) and cigar (69%) brand-sponsored pages. While conventional cigarettes did not maintain brand-sponsored pages, they were featured in 80% of online tobacco vendors' Facebook pages. The requirement for age gating, to exclude those online tobacco stores which promote leading cigarette brands (eg, Marlboro, Camel). Many of the brand-sponsored tobacco product pages had thousands of 'likes'. It is laudable that Facebook has policies intended to interdict tobacco promotion throughout its platform. Nevertheless, widespread tobacco promotion and sales were found at variance with the company's policies governing advertising, commerce, page content and under age access. Vetting could be improved by automated screening in partnership with human reviewers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Nuclear criticality safety calculations for a K-25 site vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    A modified Nilfisk model GSJ dry vacuum cleaner is used throughout the K-25 Site to collect dry forms of highly enriched uranium (HEU). When vacuuming, solids are collected in a cyclone-type separator vacuum cleaner body. Calculations were done with the SCALE (KENO V.a) computer code to establish conditions at which a nuclear criticality event might occur if the vacuum cleaner was filled with fissile solution. Conditions evaluated included full (12-in. water) reflection and nominal (1-in. water) reflection, and full (100%) and 20% 235 U enrichment. Validation analyses of SCALE/KENO and the SCALE 27-group cross sections for nuclear criticality safety applications indicate that a calculated k eff + 2σ eff + 2σ ≥ 0.9605 is considered unsafe and may be critical. Critical conditions were calculated to be 70 g U/L for 100% 235 U and full 12-in. water reflection. This corresponds to a minimum critical mass of approximately 1,400 g 235 U for the approximate 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. The actual volume of the vacuum cleaner is smaller than the modeled volume because some internal materials of construction were assumed to be fissile solution. The model was an overestimate, for conservatism, of fissile solution occupancy. At nominal reflection conditions, the critical concentration in a vacuum cleaner full of UO 2 F 2 solution was calculated to be 100 g 235 U/L, or 2,000 g mass of 100% 235 U. At 20% 235 U for the 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. At 15% 235 U enrichment and full reflection, critical conditions were not reached at any possible concentration of uranium as a uranyl fluoride solution. At 17.5% 235 U enrichment, criticality was reached at approximately 1,300 g U/L which is beyond saturation at 25 C

  10. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmu, Argaw Tarekegn; Aibinu, Ajibade Ayodeji; Chan, Toong Khuan

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry...

  11. Eco-innovative Practices for Sustainable Consumption and Production: What are the Possible Benefits for Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa De Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present some eco-innovative practices regarding Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP. The study also focuses on potential benefits for the actors who implement these practices, mainly with reference to companies. After a literature review on the actual importance of SCP and on the effects of eco-innovation tools and policies on companies, authors present the developed eco-innovation practices in three focus areas related to sustainable consumption and production. The aim of the study is to contribute to literature studies on SCP with the development of eco-innovative practices resulting by the integration of existing tools, by pointing out and valorizing their potentials and synergies. These practices have been pointing out in the framework of the international European project. Three focus areas are involved by the practices: sustainability of products and services, sustainability of production processes and sustainable management of industrial areas. Authors developed four eco innovative practices resulting from the integration of 15 existing tools. These practices offer many opportunities to many actors, mainly companies and public authorities, in order to achieve environmental and competitive benefits and implement eco-innovation principles with a cooperative and shared approach.

  12. The Contributions of Organisational and Technological Practices to the Speedup of New Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    Based on data from 700 companies in 20 countries, this paper records the research that investigates the contribution of organisational and technological practices to speed up New Product Development (NPD). The organisational practice is found positively correlated with the speed of NPD. However, no significant direct relationship was found between…

  13. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaw Tarekegn Gurmu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry-wide survey to prioritize the best practices. Accordingly, project start-up plan, traffic control plan, machinery positioning strategy, project completion plan, and dynamic site layout plan were shown to be the top five best practices for construction methods. The study also revealed that high levels of implementation of best practices are associated with low levels of project delays. The use of best practices also varied according to the project costs. There were no discernible differences between the top five best practices. The authors suggest that they should be implemented jointly to improve productivity in building projects. Contractors could use the logistic regression model developed, to predict the probability of exceeding a baseline productivity factor and, on that basis, implement corrective actions to achieve the desired level of productivity.

  14. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  15. Material selection and corrosion control practices in petroleum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review briefly the current state of the art and to discuss some of the anticipated future oil and gas drilling and production activities which may challenge the materials selection and corrosion technologies. The current state of art discussions in this paper have been augmented by providing a list of references so that interested engineers may delve into each subject in more detail as desired. The technological areas which appear to require additional input to meet future needs include high strength tubular goods for sour gas service, corrosion resistant high strength alloys, definition of the effects of pressure, temperature, and fluid composition on corrosion behavior, and fatigue properties of various steels in seawater

  16. Radiation protection optimization in practices for radiopharmaceuticals production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Osvaldir Paulo dos

    2004-06-01

    This works has arisen from the need of updating radiological protection procedures, creating new ones and training qualified personnel to perform radiological protection duties in a nuclear facility. The main purpose of the research was to assess and minimize gamma and neutron dose rates emitted during the production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals at IEN/DIRA. A mobile measurements system (SMMG-N) was developed for on-site measurements. This system has proven to be more handy than the equipment formerly used for for this task. It has also proven to reduce the measurements uncertainties and to allow for the standardization of assessment procedures. He dose rates calculated using the data provided by this system have been compared with results obtained otherwise and good agreement was observed between them. This study has confirmed the need to improve the radiation shielding of KIPROS target-chamber and target vault in order to meet the radiological principles of dose rate limitation and optimization. (author)

  17. Radiation protection optimization in practices for radiopharmaceuticals production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P. dos; Delgado, Jose U.; Cardoso, Domingos D'Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This work has arisen from the need of updating radiological protection procedures, creating new ones and training qualified personal to perform radiological protection duties in a nuclear facility. The main purpose of the research was to assess and minimize gamma and neutron dose rates emitted during the production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals at IEN/DIRA. A mobile measurements system (SMMG-N) was developed for on-site measurements. This system has proven to be handier than the equipment formerly used for this task. It has also proven to define the measurements uncertainties and to allow for the standardization of assessment procedures. Here dose rates calculated using the data provided by this system have been compared with results obtained otherwise and good agreement was observed between them. This study has confirmed the need to improve the radiation shielding of target-chamber and target vault in order to meet the radiological principles of dose rate limitation and optimization. (author)

  18. Acoustic noise production of wind turbines in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Vink, P.W.

    1994-10-01

    Within the framework of national and European projects ECN has conducted various acoustic noise measurements on wind turbines. The measurements can be divided into the following two categories: (1) measurements of the total noise emitted by the turbine ('standard measurements') and (2) measurement of the noise emitted by different blades on the same rotor ('research measurements'). The applied procedures for the 'standard measurements' are given in IEA and IEC documents on wind turbine noise measurements. The applied procedures for the 'research measurements' are given in this paper. General results obtained with both kind of measurements are presented. The 'research measurements' have been performed on a limited number of turbines: the UNIWEX turbine in Germany and a commercial turbine in The Netherlands. The turbines were equipped with differently shaped blade tips or trailing edges on the same rotor. The experiments showed no large differences in the sound production of the different blades on the same rotor. The detailed information on the commercial wind turbine in The Netherlands is confidential. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  19. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...... of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high...

  20. The impact of workplaces and self-management practices on the productivity of knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palvalin, M.O.; van der Voordt, Theo; Jylhä, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the impact of workplaces, which support concentration and communication, and self-management practices on individual and team productivity. The underlying hypothesis is that the impact of these variables on the two levels of productivity (individual and team)

  1. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…

  2. Production practices affecting worker task demands in concrete operations: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Babak; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Construction work involves significant physical, mental, and temporal task demands. Excessive task demands can have negative consequences for safety, errors and production. This exploratory study investigates the magnitude and sources of task demands on a concrete operation, and examines the effect of the production practices on the workers' task demands. The NASA Task Load Index was used to measure the perceived task demands of two work crews. The operation involved the construction of a cast-in-place concrete building under high schedule pressures. Interviews with each crew member were used to identify the main sources of the perceived demands. Extensive field observations and interviews with the supervisors and crews identified the production practices. The workers perceived different level of task demands depending on their role. The production practices influenced the task demands in two ways: (1) practices related to work organization, task design, resource management, and crew management mitigated the task demands; and (2) other practices related to work planning and crew management increased the crew's ability to cope with and adapt to high task demands. The findings identify production practices that regulate the workers' task demands. The effect of task demands on performance is mitigated by the ability to cope with high demands.

  3. MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development

    CERN Document Server

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

  4. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-11-18

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  5. Activity Analysis: Bridging the Gap between Production Economics Theory and Practical Farm Management Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Longworth, John W.; Menz, Kenneth M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is addressed to the traditional problem of demonstrating the relevance of production theory to management-oriented people. Activity analysis, it is argued, is the most appropriate pedagogic framework within which to commence either a production economics or a farm management course. Production economics theory has not been widely accepted as a useful method for the analysis of practical management problems. The theory has been traditionally presented in terms of continuous function...

  6. About productive force and labour productivity (questions of the theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik V.I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available the authors consider two intermediaries: the intermediary between the world of the nature and the person – means of work or "fixed capital" of a society as productive force of social activities, and the intermediary inside a society – cost in the form of money without what it is impossible to define labour productivity and structural transformations in a society. The article gives engineering understanding of productive force and productivity of the process equipment by the example of calculation and a choice of the automatic transfer line.

  7. Laser cleaner development for decontamination of the primary water cooling system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2010-01-01

    We recently have performed the feasibility studies to develop laser cleaners utilizing several laser oscillator and amplifier systems like femto-second free-electron lasers, water-jet guided lasers, Q-switched YAG lasers, fiber lasers. Whenever we used to clean the RI-contaminated surface using the lasers, we should focus enough laser power in the surface to evaporate instantly without melting. Therefore, as the contaminated being deeply located into the surface could be removed using any one set of the lasers, we found that every trial of laser cleaning could remove very well the RI contamination being located deeply. Our cold decontamination test using a model sample being Cobalt plated successfully has been performed to show a very high decontamination factor. In order to develop an usable laser cleaner, we plan to develop the prototype laser cleaner next year. (author)

  8. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  9. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  10. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  11. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  12. Increased Participation Among Cleaners as a Strategy to Improve Quality and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Öhrling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good work environment for cleaners can be combined with economical savings for a municipality. Like many other cleaning organizations, both national and international, the present cleaning division has been struggling for a long time with high levels of sick leave and early retirements. After years of unsuccessful attempts to improve the situation by reducing the physical load, cleaning managers made a decision to broaden their strategy by changing the structure of their organization. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to identify and understand the effects of the organizational change, both on an individual level and on an organizational level. The results show that the organizational change, which leads to increased participation and autonomy for the cleaners, in combination with a high degree of social support, had a positive effect on job satisfaction, work motivation, and pride among the cleaners. Sick leave within the division has decreased, and both the quality and efficiency of the cleaning service have increased. It can be concluded that there are other alternative organizational structures that could be applied within the public sector and prove advantageous, both for the individual cleaners and for the municipality. Further research of similar organizational structures within the private cleaning sector is recommended.

  13. Analysis of the effect of risk management practices on the performance of new product development programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehmen, Josef; Olechowski, Alison; Kenley, C. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Risk management is receiving much attention, as it is seen as a method to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance of new product development programs. However, there is a lack of empirical research that investigates the effective integration of specific risk management practices proposed...... skills and resources; (2) Tailor risk management to and integrate it with new product development; (3) Quantify impacts of risks on your main objectives; (4) Support all critical decisions with risk management results; (5) Monitor and review your risks, risk mitigation actions, and risk management...... by various standards with new product development programs and their association with various dimensions of risk management success. Based on a survey of 291 product development programs, this paper investigates the association of risk management practices with five categories of product development program...

  14. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners...

  16. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    -year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard rate...

  17. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  18. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  19. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  20. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  1. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  2. TPM orients enterprises towards production excellence : A Practical Analysis of OEE

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiajia; Liu, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literatures on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and to present an overview of TPM implementation practices initiated in a ‘connecter’ manufacturer in China. It also examines the need to develop, practice and implement such maintenance campaign, which not only reduce unscheduled and scheduled failures in process but also decrease operation and maintenance costs. Design/methodology/approach – A case-based approach in combination with scient...

  3. Best practices for International eSourcing of Software Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Käkölä, Timo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the information and communications technology-supported international eSourcing of software products and services (IeS) can be effectively executed. The extant literature falls short of providing a systematic and detailed enough set of best practices to guide IeS. This paper presents best practices for IeS to facilitate further research, and to help managers and other stakeholders to understand, execute, and proactively improve and manage international eSourcing. The p...

  4. The establishment of good irradiation practice for insect disinfestation of cereal grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yin; Liu Hongyue; Li Xiangling; Shi Peixin

    2001-01-01

    According to the reference data and test results, the parameters and technicality of good irradiation practice (GIP) were established as follows: (1) the moisture level of grain products should be < 12% for pre-irradiation treatment of grains, and pupae and adult stages insects should not exist in the products; (2) grain products should be irradiated immediately after packing; (3) the minimum effective dose for insect disinfestation is 0.3 kGy and the maximum tolerant doses for different cereal grains products are 0.5 ∼ 0.8 kGy. (authors)

  5. The IAEA activities supporting implementation of best practice in uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, J.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Since the International Atomic Energy Agency's foundation in 1957, the Agency has had an increasing interest in uranium production cycle (UPC) developments. Recent activities cover tasks on uranium geology & deposits, exploration, mining & processing including environmental issues. The two projects titles are (1) Updating uranium resources, supply and demand and nuclear fuel cycle databases and (2) Supporting good practices in the UPC in particular for new countries. Based o the recent experience, one of the new activities is focused at human resources development to improve application of best practice called Uranium Production Cycle Network (UPNet). (author)

  6. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...... and combined the results with register data. We found that relational coordination was statistically significant associated with number of consultation per staff per year. We later divided consultations in to three types: Face-to-face, Email and phone consultations. We found a statistically significant...... associating between relational coordination and with number of face-to-face consultation per staff per year....

  7. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  8. Intranet of the future: functional study, comparison of products and practical implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Ribalaygua, Ignasi

    2010-01-01

    Future intranet: functional study, comparison of products and practical implementation 1. Introduction The project has fulfilled three goals: 1) To perform a study of the functionalities which have to be covered in a modern intranet (web 2.0, unified communication, collaboration, etc) 2) To perform a comparison of tools of the market which can be used to implement intranets (commercial and open source products) 3) To test three of these tools (Oracle WebCenter, Liferay Portal and Microsoft Sh...

  9. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  10. How To Compete: The Impact Of Workplace Practices And Information Technology On Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Black; Lisa M. Lynch

    2001-01-01

    Using data from a unique nationally representative sample of businesses, the Educational Quality of the Workforce National Employers Survey (EQW-NES), matched with the Bureau of the Census'' Longitudinal Research Database (LRD), we examine the impact of workplace practices, information technology and human capital investments on productivity. We estimate an augmented Cobb Douglas production function with both cross section and panel data covering the period of 1987 1993 using both within and ...

  11. Exploiting abstract possibilities: a critique of the concept and practice of product patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Developments in biotechnology and genomics have moved the issue of patenting scientific and technological inventions toward the center of interest. In particular, the patentability of genes of plants, animals, or humans and of genetically modified (parts of) living organisms has been discussed, and questioned, from various normative perspectives. This paper aims to contribute to this debate. For this purpose, it first explains a number of relevant aspects of the theory and practice of patenting. The focus is on a special and increasingly significant type of patents, namely product patents. The paper provides three general arguments against the concept and practice of product patenting. The first argument briefly considers the claim that patents are legitimate because they promote socially useful innovation. Against this claim, it is argued that product patents may hamper rather than promote such innovation. The second and main argument concludes that product patents are not adequately based on actual technological inventions, as they should be according to the usual criteria of patentability. The principal moral issue is that product patents tend to reward patentees for inventions they have not really made available. The final argument proposes a method for patenting the heat of the sun. Assuming that granting this patent will be generally considered absurd, the argument exposes a further, fundamental problem of the concept and practice of product patenting.

  12. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  13. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  14. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...

  15. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropa- nol, acetonitrile, and dichloromethane were obtained from Acros Organics (Morris Plains, NJ). Dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) and 1...1. In the following solvents , swelling degree did not change in both heating and cooling processes: water, DMSO , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol...available alkylstyrene copolymer (imbiber beads). The cleaning ability of the gels was compared with the standard solvent cleaner trichloroethylene

  16. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  17. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  18. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  19. General wisdom concerning the factors affecting the adoption of cleaner technologies: a survey 1990-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaner technologies (CT) have recently received much attention in diverse media and policy agendas. This comes out of the clear role they play in environmental protection and sustainability and the large potential to contribute to economic growth and competitiveness. The realization of both

  20. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  1. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo; Woolley, Andrew; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented

  2. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  3. CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-04-07

    Apr 7, 2003 ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu .... Dr Joshi believes that blending science and a recognition of the social ... One example of where AMESH was applied was in analyzing why the ward ...

  4. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  5. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  6. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  7. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  8. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  9. Sound production treatment for acquired apraxia of speech: Effects of blocked and random practice on multisyllabic word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra; Mauszycki, Shannon; DeLong, Catharine

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of practice schedule, blocked vs random, on outcomes of a behavioural treatment for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS), Sound Production Treatment (SPT). SPT was administered to four speakers with chronic AOS and aphasia in the context of multiple baseline designs across behaviours and participants. Treatment was applied to multiple sound errors within three-to-five syllable words. All participants received both practice schedules: SPT-Random (SPT-R) and SPT-Blocked (SPT-B). Improvements in accuracy of word production for trained items were found for both treatment conditions for all participants. One participant demonstrated better maintenance effects associated with SPT-R. Response generalisation to untreated words varied across participants, but was generally modest and unstable. Stimulus generalisation to production of words in sentence completion was positive for three of the participants. Stimulus generalisation to production of phrases was positive for two of the participants. Findings provide additional efficacy data regarding SPT's effects on articulation of treated items and extend knowledge of the treatment's effects when applied to multiple targets within multisyllabic words.

  10. Organisational determinants of production and efficiency in general practice: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark

    2013-01-01

    Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We a...

  11. The added value of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in the production of radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Edwin; Woerdenbag, Herman; Luurtsema, Geert; de Hooge, Marjolijn; Boersma, Hendrikus

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturers of medicinal products including radiopharmaceuticals have to follow regulations from their governmental organizations as well as professional societies to ensure built-in quality combined with patient safety issues. This chapter is a concise review of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

  12. Production-on-the-Go Practice: Storyboarding as a Retrospective and Redundant School Literacy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lynde

    2013-01-01

    Storyboarding is one common strategy used in teaching young people digital media. This paper argues that in adolescents' literacy practices, they engage in production on the go. The metaphor is described in this paper to put forward the argument that storyboarding can be a retrospective and redundant literacy activity in adolescents' school…

  13. 78 FR 16824 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... manufacturing operations. DATES: Submit electronic or written comments on the tobacco companies' recommendations... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0227] Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food...

  14. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  15. Labour productivity and innovation performance: the importance of internal labour flexibility practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vergeer, R.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article develops and examines the idea that internal labour flexibility practices are beneficial for labour productivity and innovation performance of companies. This is tested in two studies using unique company level datasets. In Study 1, results obtained from 377 independent companies

  16. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  17. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  19. Practical Applications for Maintenance of Certification Products in Child and Adolescent Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel L; Sexson, Sandra; Dingle, Arden D; Young-Walker, Laine; John, Nadyah; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The authors evaluated whether Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Performance-in-Practice products in training increases trainee knowledge of MOC processes and is viewed by trainees as a useful activity. Six child and adolescent psychiatry fellowships used MOC products in continuity clinics to assess their usefulness as training tools. Two surveys assessed initial knowledge of MOC and usefulness of the activity. Forty-one fellows completed the initial survey. A majority of first-year fellows indicated lack of awareness of MOC in contrast to a majority of second-year fellows who indicated some awareness. Thirty-five fellows completed the second survey. A majority of first- and second-year fellows found the activity easy to execute and would change something about their practice as a result. Using MOC products in training appears to be a useful activity that may assist training programs in teaching the principles of self- and peer-learning.

  20. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  1. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  3. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  4. Influence of Employee Involvement in Total Productive Maintenance Practices on Job Characteristics: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to examine whether the extent of involvement in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM practices has a positive effect on job characteristics. Data was gathered from a sample of 184 respondents derived from manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Results from the regression analyses revealed that the extent of employee’s involvement in TPM practices is positively related to the five core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Waste reuse and disposal practices in milk production in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Istvan Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six largest producers of milk cow in the world. In 2010, Brazilian milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data from IBGE. As stated by an IPARDES report in 2010, Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for an increased production of 71% between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to verify waste reuse and disposal in dairy cattle farming in Paraná. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, 79.4% of milk producers informed they have day-to-day practices to reuse wastes internally produced in farming. Main practice highlighted was the use of manure waste in agriculture. Only one producer in the sample adopted the use of poultry manure. Considering correct disposal of pesticide packaging, 84.4% of producers are in accordance to legal requirements; 10.1% of total interviewed producers do not follow legal requirement for packaging disposal, and 5% do not use pesticides at all, so not being concerned to that practice. Concerning appropriate disposal of medical

  6. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  7. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  8. Short communication: Effect of on-farm feeding practices on rumen protected lysine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P; Tucker, H A; Clark, R E; Miura, M; Ballard, C S

    2016-02-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to determine whether mechanical mixing of total mixed ration (TMR) or TMR dry matter alters Lys release from 6 rumen-protected Lys (RPL) products (A, B, C, D, E, and F). In the first study, routine mixing procedures were simulated to determine if inclusion of RPL products in TMR altered in situ release of Lys. Following mixing, Dacron bags containing RPL products were ruminally incubated for 0, 6, 12, or 24 h to determine Lys release. The second study occurred independently of the first, in which Lys release from RPL products was evaluated when incorporated into a TMR that differed in dry matter (DM) content. Bags containing TMR and RPL product mixture were stored at room temperature for 0, 6, 18, and 24 h to simulate RPL product exposure to TMR when mixed and delivered once per day. Concentration of free Lys in both studies was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Following mechanical mixing, ruminal Lys release was significantly greater for C and tended to increase for F. Mechanical mixing did not alter ruminal Lys release from other RPL products evaluated. Hours of ruminal incubation significantly altered Lys release for all products evaluated, and a significant interaction of mechanical mixing and hours of ruminal incubation was observed for A and C. Exposure to lower TMR DM (40.5 versus 51.8%) significantly increased Lys release from B but did not alter Lys release from the other RPL products evaluated. Moreover, time of exposure to TMR significantly increased Lys release from all RPL products evaluated, and a significant interaction of TMR DM and time of exposure to TMR was observed for B and E. These data suggest mechanical mixing and variation in TMR DM may compromise the rumen protection of RPL products; therefore, on-farm feeding practices may alter efficacy of RPL products in dairy rations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of material composition disclosure practices in green footwear products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jocelise J; Guimarães, Lia B M

    2012-01-01

    This work is based on the study of pioneering sustainable product development initiatives, and the analysis was guided by the cradle-to-cradle concept, which sees the waste of a given process as raw material for another, just like it happens in nature. Several studies on human factors have focused on factory conditions and workers dealing with product assembly. This research, however, relates more to consumer behavior, product use and end-of-life. The purchase of more environmentally- friendly products, in particular, is heavily influenced by the information made available by the companies. In this scenario, this article discusses three early but notable efforts on green product development, focusing on the disclosure practices adopted by the companies regarding the composition of their products. Research and data collection has focused on the footwear industry, whose products satisfy a basic human need and are ubiquitous worldwide. The use of hazardous materials and chemicals in shoe manufacturing, particularly the use of chromium - a highly toxic element - in addition to toxic solvents and adhesives and non-recyclable synthetic materials can pose serious risks to human health and the environment, even though the consumer usually is not aware of all the relevant characteristics of this kind of product.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN STIMULATING PRODUCT AND PROCESS INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research highlights Quality Management System (QMS has now become a recognizable guarantee of trust in certified business systems. A critical review of the literature reveals that empirical studies conducted to date have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between quality management practices and innovation. This study empirically investigates how quality management principles may act as determinants of product and process innovations. The results show that customer focus and leadership explain a significant amount of product innovation, but not process innovation. Empirical support also finds that people management explains a significant amount of variance in both product innovation and process innovation. The findings highlight the importance of developing formal organisational mechanisms to measure levels of such quality determinants as they are easily overlooked or taken for granted. Moreover, firms need to recognise that innovation is a multi-faceted concept that can be controlled from a process or a product perspective, a distinction which is sometimes blurred.

  11. Review of the Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallings, L.O.

    1967-01-01

    The background of the IAEA recommendations for a Code of Practice is outlined. The possibility of laying down broad safety margins based on scientific foresight and detailed advanced planning will serve to guide the rapidly accelerating acceptance of radiosterilization by industry, especially in those firms producing supplies for use in medicine and surgery. Production control should be attuned to the scientific and technological advances, and it is becoming clear that the focus of control should be moved away from sterility testing of the finished products to hygienic and sterile operations during the manufacturing operations themselves. The contamination of the product before sterilization should already have been kept to a minimum, and this pre-sterilization level of contamination should be regularly recorded using bacteriological tests. The choice of dosage should be based on average pre-sterilization counts and the inactivation factors found desirable for die intended use of the product. On commissioning, or whenever an existing process is altered, the efficiency of the irradiation facility must be tested using microbiological reference standards. The margin of safety should be checked by using deliberately contaminated articles. However, the backbone of the control procedures must still be dosimetry. The preparation of a Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products will constitute a challenge to operators working with other sterilizing procedures. (author)

  12. Neural network-based survey analysis of risk management practices in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampianakis, Andreas N.; Oehmen, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the applicability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to analyse survey data on the effectiveness of risk management practices in product development (PD) projects, and its ability to forecast project outcomes. Moreover, this study presents the relations between risk...... Neural Networks. Dataset used is a filtered survey of 291 product development programs. Answers of this survey are used as training input and target output, in pattern recognition two-layer feed forward networks, using various transfer functions. Using this method, relations among 6 project practices...... and 13 outcome metrics were revealed. Results of this analysis are compared with existent results made through statistical analysis in prior work of one of the authors. Future investigation is needed in order to tackle the lack of data and create an easy to use platform for industrial use....

  13. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  14. Improving email strategies to target stress and productivity in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Melissa J

    2017-12-01

    Physician burnout is gaining increased attention in medicine and neurology and often relates to hours worked and insufficient time. One component of this is administrative burden, which relates to regulatory requirements and electronic health record tasks but may also involve increased time spent processing emails. Research in academic medical centers demonstrates that physicians face increasing inbox sizes related to mass distribution emails from various sources on top of emails required for patient care, research, and teaching. This commentary highlights the contribution of administrative tasks to physician burnout, research to date on email in medical contexts, and corporate strategies for reducing email burden that are applicable to neurology clinical practice. Increased productivity and decreased stress can be achieved by limiting the amount one accesses email, managing inbox size, and utilizing good email etiquette. Department and practice physician leaders have roles in decreasing email volume and modeling good practice.

  15. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  16. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. © 2014 The

  17. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights: a case study of local production in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-06-14

    Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) on local production; a gap analysis from the literature review indicated a need for further research. Over sixty interviews were conducted with people involved in the Nepali pharmaceutical production and distribution chain from 2006 to 2009 on the GMP areas of relevance: regulatory capacity, staffing, funding and training, resourcing of GMP, inspectors' interpretation of the rules and compliance. Although Nepal producers have increased their overall share of the domestic market, only the public manufacturer, Royal Drugs, focuses on medicines for public health programmes; private producers engage mainly in brand competition for private markets, not essential medicines. Nepali regulators and producers state that implementation of GMP standards is hindered by low regulatory capacity, insufficient training of staff in the industry, financial constraints and lack of investment for upgrading capital. The transition period to mandatory compliance with WHO GMP rules is lengthy. Less than half of private producers had WHO GMP in 2013. Producers are not directly affected by international harmonisation of standards as they do not export medicines and the Nepali regulator does not enforce the WHO standards strictly. Without an international GMP certificate they cannot tender for donor dependent health programmes. In Nepal, local private manufacturers focus mainly on brand competition for private consumption not essential medicines, the government preferentially procures essential

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice of blood products prescribers in Niamey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaki, Z; Kabo, R; Moutschen, M; Albert, A; Dardenne, N; Sondag, D; Gérard, C

    2016-05-01

    The lack of traceability and monitoring of blood donors and transfused patients constitute a barrier to the most basic rules of haemovigilance and overall good transfusion practices. This study draws up an inventory of knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice of blood prescribers in Niamey. A questionnaire was administered to 180 prescribers of blood products in Niamey in 2011. Questions were related to basic informations on blood transfusion and clinical use of blood. Analyses were performed using SAS 9.3 version. The sample consisted of 180 respondents from several professional categories: 51 physicians (28.33%), 10 medical students (5.56%), 84 nurses (46.67%), 15 anaesthesiologist assistant (8.33%) and 20 midwives (11.11%). Among these, 22.2% received training in blood transfusion safety. Half of the respondents (50.8%) got between 50 and 75% of correct answers, 45.8% got less than 50% correct while 3.35% scored more than 75% correct answers. The overall quality of responses was higher among physicians compared to other prescribers (Ptransfusion safety (Ptransfusion practices is necessary for prescribers of blood products. Accompanying measures to improve transfusion practice must be considered or strengthened through assessments, knowledge update/upgrade (regular, ongoing training) and establishment of active and motivated hospital transfusion committees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability...

  20. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  1. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...... experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....

  2. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  3. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region......-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes during cleaning tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular distributions were computed to characterize postures and movements. Pain tended to play a significant role on RMS of left/right trapezius and left...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  4. Control and automatic alignment of the output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Degallaix, J; Hewitson, M; Affeldt, C; Leong, J; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Wittel, H; Willke, B; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hild, S; Freise, A, E-mail: mirko.prijatelj@aei.mpg.d [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    The implementation of a mode cleaner at the output port of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector will be part of the upcoming transition from GEO 600 to GEO-HF. Part of the transition will be the move from a heterodyne readout to a DC readout scheme. DC readout performance will be limited by higher order optical modes and control sidebands present at the output port. For optimum performance of DC readout an output mode cleaner (OMC) will clean the output beam of these contributions. Inclusion of an OMC will introduce new noise sources whose magnitudes needed to be estimated and for which new control systems will be needed. In this article we set requirements on the performance of these control systems and investigate the simulated performance of different designs.

  5. Sheep and goat production practice in agroforestry systems of Gedio Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamawit Debele

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practice in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone, southern Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and were 5.63, 6.97 and 3.4 in Wenago, Dilla and Kochera sites, respectively. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%. The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3% kids, young flock (9.64% lambs; 13.24% kids and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1% in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; where the major ones are availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Sheep and goats are very important smallholder producers due to their biological factors such as short generation interval, twinning, have short growth periods and do not require much space. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12658 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 296-307

  6. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  7. Equal-sign lepton pairs: a cleaner W-signal in panti p collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud, M.; Gatto, R.; Savoy, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the observation of the energetic equal-sign dileptons in high-energy panti p colliding beams may provide for a cleaner way of detecting the W. It is assumed that the most energetic dileptons come from the semileptonic decays of the t- and b-quarks. The authors calculate the dilepton signal from weak interaction and compare it with the strong interaction background as predicted by QCD. (Auth.)

  8. Life-History Traits and Population Structure of Pederson Cleaner Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Jessica A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2017-12-01

    Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A. pedersoni under laboratory conditions and their abundance and population size structure on coral reefs in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were fitted to the data to determine age-size relationships, and the Beverton-Holt model was used to estimate mortality rates and size at maximum yield. Individuals grew rapidly when young, then slowed their growth after reaching sexual maturity at ~6 months. Individuals were gonochoric, with males attaining significantly smaller body sizes and shorter life spans than did females. Prior to death at <2 years, members of both genders exhibited senescence during which they ceased reproducing, shrank (females only), and decreased their activity levels over ~1-4 weeks. Field populations were abundant and composed mostly of juveniles during both years examined. Populations appeared to be stable but highly dynamic in terms of individuals, reaching maximum yield at 4 months of age. We conclude that obligate symbiosis with large sea anemones and cleaner mutualism with reef fishes both contribute to explaining aspects of the life history of Pederson shrimps, especially their apparent mating system of pure-search polygynandry. This life-history information also provides a scientific basis for sustainable fishery management and aquaculture of this key coral reef organism.

  9. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  10. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  11. Power ultrasound-assisted cleaner leather dyeing technique: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2004-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound to leather processing has a significant role in the concept of "clean technology" for leather production. The effect of power ultrasound in leather dyeing has been compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound and conventional drumming. The power ultrasound source used in these experiments was ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz). The effect of various process parameters such as amount of dye offer, temperature, and type of dye has been experimentally found out. The effect of presonication of dye solution as well as leather has been studied. Experiments at ultrasonic bath temperature were carried out to find out the combined thermal as well as stirring effects of ultrasound. Dyeing in the presence of ultrasound affords about 37.5 (1.8 times) difference as increase in % dye exhaustion or about 50% decrease in the time required for dyeing compared to dyeing in the absence of ultrasound for 4% acid red dye. About 29 (1.55 times) increase in % dye exhaustion or 30% reduction in time required for dyeing was observed using ultrasound at stationary condition compared with conventional dynamic drumming conditions. The effect of ultrasound at constant temperature conditions with a control experiment has also been studied. The dye exhaustion increases as the temperature increases (30-60 degrees C) and better results are observed at higher temperature due to the use of ultrasound. Presonication of dye solution or crust leather prior to the dyeing process has no significant improvement in dye exhaustion, suggesting ultrasound effect is realized when it is applied during the dyeing process. The results indicate that 1697 and 1416 ppm of dye can be reduced in the spent liquor due to the use of ultrasound for acid red (for 100 min) and acid black (for 3 h) dyes, respectively, thereby reducing the pollution load in the effluent stream. The color yield of the leather as inferred from the reflectance measurement indicates that dye offer can

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  13. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  14. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  15. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  16. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  17. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  18. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  19. A practical comparison of methods to assess sum-of-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauzy, A.; Chatelet, E.; Dutuit, Y.; Berenguer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed in the literature to assess the probability of a sum-of-products. This problem has been shown computationally hard (namely no. P-hard). Therefore, algorithms can be compared only from a practical point of view. In this article, we propose first an efficient implementation of the pivotal decomposition method. This kind of algorithms is widely used in the Artificial Intelligence framework. It is unfortunately almost never considered in the reliability engineering framework, but as a pedagogical tool. We report experimental results that show that this method is in general much more efficient than classical methods that rewrite the sum-of-products under study into an equivalent sum of disjoint products. Then, we derive from our method a factorization algorithm to be used as a preprocessing method for binary decision diagrams. We show by means of experimental results that this latter approach outperforms the formers

  20. Integrating Theory and Practice: Applying the Quality Improvement Paradigm to Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.

  1. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  2. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  3. Ethical, moral and social dimensions in farm production practices: a segmentation study to assess Irish consumers’ perceptions of meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Regan Á.; Henchion M; McIntyre B

    2018-01-01

    Growing consumer concerns with modern farming and food production systems indicate a significant market opportunity for meat production practices that consider ethical, moral and social value traits. In the current study, we aimed to identify and characterise distinct segments of Irish consumers based on their perceptions of the quality of meat from different farm-level production practices (organic farming, high animal welfare standards, free range farming, and “natural”, treatment-free feed...

  4. Richer and cleaner - At others' expense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran; Bruvoll, Annegrete [Statistics Norway, Research Department, PB. 8131 Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    In rich economies emissions of many pollutants tend to grow at a slower rate than GDP. This could be a result of shifting comparative advantages. If so, net imports of dirty products to these economies will increase and rather than reduced, emissions will be relocated to other countries. In this paper we investigate if decoupling in a rich, open economy coincides with such pollution leakages abroad. Based on historical observations and model projections, we find little evidence to support this hypothesis. Historically, decoupling coincides with falling pollution leakages. Projections over a period of decades indicate a weakening of the decoupling, but that leakages will increase. (author)

  5. Simulating and evaluating best management practices for integrated landscape management scenarios in biofuel feedstock production: Evaluating Best Management Practices for Biofuel Feedstock Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Miae [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Wu, May [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2015-09-08

    Sound crop and land management strategies can maintain land productivity and improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural crop and feedstock production. This study evaluates the improvement of water sustainability through an integrated landscaping management strategy, where landscaping design, land management operations, crop systems, and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the watershed of the South Fork Iowa River in Iowa, with a focus on implementing riparian buffers and converting low productivity land to provide cellulosic biomass while benefiting soil and water quality. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to simulate the impact of integrated landscape design on nutrients, suspended sediments, and flow on the watershed and subbasin scales. First, the study evaluated the representation of buffer strip as a vegetative barrier and as a riparian buffer using trapping efficiency and area ratio methods in SWAT. For the riparian buffer, the area ratio method tends to be more conservative, especially in nitrate loadings, while the trapping efficiency method generates more optimistic results. The differences between the two methods increase with buffer width. The two methods may not be comparable for the field-scale vegetative barrier simulation because of limitations in model spatial resolution. Landscape scenarios were developed to quantify water quality under (1) current land use, (2) partial land conversion to switchgrass, and (3) riparian buffer implementation. Results show that when low productivity land (15.2% of total watershed land area) is converted to grow switchgrass, suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrate loadings are reduced by 69.3%, 55.5%, 46.1%, and 13.4%, respectively, in the watershed surface streams. The reduction was less extensive when riparian buffer strips (30 m or 50 m) were applied to the stream network at 1.4% of total land area

  6. Combined exposures to workplace psychosocial stressors: relationships with mental health in a sample of NZ cleaners and clerical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, R; Lamontagne, A D; Firth, H

    2011-05-01

    A combined measure of two common psychosocial stressors, called job pressure has previously been shown to be strongly associated with poor mental health in high status workers. This study tests the generalizability of this association to lower status workers. A national random sample of cleaners and clerical workers was obtained from the New Zealand (NZ) electoral roll by occupational title (n = 596). Cross-sectional data on job stressors, demographics, and mental health (GHQ-12) was collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Combined exposure to low job control, high job demands, and job insecurity (high job pressure) was associated with markedly elevated odds (13-fold or higher) of poor mental health after adjustment for age, sex, occupation, and education. Combined with previous findings this suggests simultaneous exposure to more than one occupational psychosocial stressor may greatly increase the risk of poor mental health among both lower and higher status workers. This report adds to the larger literature in this area, supporting the need for expanded policy and practice intervention to reduce job stressors across the working population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ashraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the leading fruit of Pakistan and famous worldwide especially kinnow cultivar because of its pleasant taste and remarkable quality. The yield of citrus per hectare in Pakistan is almost half of potential due to non-adoption of recommended horticultural practices by citrus growers. Adopting a decision regarding the improvement of practices is usually influenced by various factors including farmers' socio-economic attributes. In order to determine the relationship between socio-economic aspects and the awareness and adoption of recommended citrus production practices the present study was carried out in Sargodha district from central Punjab, Pakistan. The Study was based upon cross sectional survey research design due to availability of sampling frame, probability (random sampling was applied for sample selection. Through random sampling, 120 citrus growers were selected as sample. Structured questionnaire administered through interview was used as a research instrument. Analysis of the data collected from the targeted citrus growers revealed a highly significant influence of education on awareness and adoption. Moreover, significant association was found between citrus cultivation area and awareness and adoption of improved practices. Age also showed significant association with awareness and adoption. Moreover, dominancy of middle aged farmers and illiteracyin the study area strongly point the need of provision of formal and non-formal education and training program for farmers. Young generation needs to be focused and reorientation of youth clubs may help in better way to gain the utmost outcome.

  8. The role of production and teamwork practices in construction safety: a cognitive model and an empirical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Panagiotis Takis; Cupido, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    In construction, the challenge for researchers and practitioners is to develop work systems (production processes and teams) that can achieve high productivity and high safety at the same time. However, construction accident causation models ignore the role of work practices and teamwork. This study investigates the mechanisms by which production and teamwork practices affect the likelihood of accidents. The paper synthesizes a new model for construction safety based on the cognitive perspective (Fuller's Task-Demand-Capability Interface model, 2005) and then presents an exploratory case study. The case study investigates and compares the work practices of two residential framing crews: a 'High Reliability Crew' (HRC)--that is, a crew with exceptional productivity and safety over several years, and an average performing crew from the same company. The model explains how the production and teamwork practices generate the work situations that workers face (the task demands) and affect the workers ability to cope (capabilities). The case study indicates that the work practices of the HRC directly influence the task demands and match them with the applied capabilities. These practices were guided by the 'principle' of avoiding errors and rework and included work planning and preparation, work distribution, managing the production pressures, and quality and behavior monitoring. The Task Demand-Capability model links construction research to a cognitive model of accident causation and provides a new way to conceptualize safety as an emergent property of the production practices and teamwork processes. The empirical evidence indicates that the crews' work practices and team processes strongly affect the task demands, the applied capabilities, and the match between demands and capabilities. The proposed model and the exploratory case study will guide further discovery of work practices and teamwork processes that can increase both productivity and safety in construction

  9. Practical Aspects of CALS in Design and Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shpitalni, Moshe; Alting, Leo; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...... with the design and manufacture of sheet metal parts. It is demonstrated that through implementation of the CALS approach, the overall process can be optimised and products can be manufactured significantly more accurately, faster and less expensively.......The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...

  10. Product Innovation Strategies on Emerging Markets: Bringing Theory and Practice Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Irina POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies present the largest growth in the world, and thus tremendous growth opportunities. Developing products for emerging markets proves to be a difficult task requiring a fundamental shift in thinking, and the present paper aims at investigating the product innovation strategies available on emerging markets, theoretically and practically through examples and a case-study of the Romanian tablet market. At the beginning, the theoretical framework is described through the most relevant contributions to the field of product innovation. Some conceptual clarifications are provided, in the context of a widespread usage of terms in various fields of science. The second part of the paper attempts to define the ‘emerging markets’ and to find distinctive their characteristics, attempt hampered by their great diversity and complexity. The third part provides empirical support for the product innovation strategies used by local tablet producers in Romania. Findings show local tablet producers used the frugal innovation strategy in the first years of operations. Afterwards, the increasingly competitive market and the gradual sophistication of consumers made a shift in strategy, to new product development and innovation strategy, in the context of keeping the low-cost positioning of the locally produced tablets.

  11. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  12. BEST PRACTICES IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: THE ZYRAY WIRELESS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koekemoer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Successful high-tech start-up companies are rare. This case study investigates the New Product Development (NPD process of Zyray Wireless, a very successful startup 3G technology company that originated in South Africa but relocated to California in the USA. The research looked into the differences between generally accepted NPD best practices and those implemented by this start-up company. Zyray Wireless scored above the industry average in the following categories: customer involvement, project selection, product strategy, technological leadership, and product goal. The best practices for metrics, human resource development, documentation, and change control implemented by Zyray Wireless scored at or below the industry average. The best practice results showed that this very successful start-up company focused more on strategy and engineering and less on process control than average.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suksesvolle nuwe hoë-tegnologie maatskappye is skaars. Hierdie gevallestudie het die Nuwe Produk Ontwikkelingproses (NPO ondersoek van Zyray Wireless, ʼn baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy wat in Suid-Afrika ontstaan het maar na Kalifornië in die VSA verskuif is. Die navorsing het na die verskille gekyk tussen algemeen aanvaarde NPO beste praktyke en dié wat deur hierdie maatskappy geïmplementeer is. Zyray Wireless het bo die industriegemiddelde gepresteer in die volgende kategorieë: kliëntbetrokkenheid, projekkeuse, produkstrategie, tegnologiese leierskap, en produkdoelwitte. Die beste praktyke vir maatstawwe, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling, dokumentasie, en veranderingsbeheer wat deur Zyray Wireless geïmplementeer is, het onder die industriegemiddeldes gepresteer. Die beste praktykresultate het getoon dat hierdie baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy meer gefokus het op strategie en ingenieurswese en minder op prosesbeheer as die gemiddelde.

  13. Generative innovation practices, customer creativity, and the adoption of new technology products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Frederiksen, Marianne Harbo

    2014-01-01

    to adopt a new practice. The emphasis on adoption merges together innovation and entrepreneurship by shifting the focus from the inventor and the designer, through the entrepreneur, to the ultimate recipient of the innovative outcomes. Looking at customers as co-creators is critically important......: i) the increasing degree of complexity of everyday technological products requires a higher degree of creativity by customers to adopt; and ii) customer creativity is not only a function of user-technology interaction, it is a function of the various actors in the interactive environment surrounding...

  14. Fueling our future: four steps to a new, reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' This manuscript demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, we look at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. We also examine different Distributed Generation scenarios including distributed generation via fuel cells for automotive applications which may be the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. With 1.3 billion potential customers, P.R. China is one country where such a scenario may fit. The up-and-coming Chinese H2/FC industry deals with applied fundamental research such as advances in Hydrogen production from Natural Gas, Methanol and Gasoline. The current activities in P.R. China certain to further accelerate the trend towards the coming Hydrogen Economy, together with the steps necessary to achieve a new reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are examined. (author)

  15. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  16. Investigating composition and production rate of healthcare waste and associated management practices in Bandar Abbass, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alipoor, Vali; Azizi, Kourosh; Binavapour, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the composition and production rate of healthcare waste and associated management practices in healthcare centres in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. A total of 90 centres, including 30 physician offices, 30 dental offices and 30 clinics were selected in random way. Two samples in summer and two samples in winter were taken and weighed from each selected centre at the end of successive working day on Mondays and Tuesdays. Results showed that the mean of daily production rate for each clinic, dental and physician office were 2125.3, 498.3 and 374.9 g, respectively. Domestic-type and potentially infectious waste had the highest and chemical and pharmaceutical waste and sharps had the lowest percentages in all centres. Questionnaire results indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in healthcare centres and management of sharps, potentially infectious and other hazardous waste was poor.

  17. Opportunistic Market-Driven Regional Shifts of Cropping Practices Reduce Food Production Capacity of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Shuqing; Dong, Wenjie; Tao, Fulu; Chen, Min; Lin, Hui

    2018-04-01

    China is facing the challenge of feeding a growing population with the declining cropland and increasing shortage of water resources under the changing climate. This study identified that the opportunistic profit-driven shifts of planting areas and crop species composition have strongly reduced the food production capacity of China. First, the regional cultivation patterns of major crops in China have substantially shifted during the past five decades. Southeast and South China, the regions with abundant water resources and fewer natural disasters, have lost large planting areas of cropland in order to pursue industry and commerce. Meanwhile, Northeast and Northwest China, the regions with low water resources and frequent natural disasters, have witnessed increases in planting areas. These macroshifts have reduced the national food production by 1.02% per year. The lost grain production would have been enough to feed 13 million people. Second, the spatial shifts have been accompanied by major changes in crop species composition, with substantial increases in planting area and production of maize, due to its low water consumption and high economic returns. Consequently, the stockpile of maize in China has accounted for more than half of global stockpile, and the stock to use ratio of maize in China has exceeded the reliable level. Market-driven regional shifts of cropping practices have resulted in larger irrigation requirements and aggravated environmental stresses. Our results highlighted the need for Chinese food policies to consider the spatial shifts in cultivation, and the planting crop compositions limited by regional water resources and climate change.

  18. Effect of Work-Life Balance Practices on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Japanese firm-level panel data

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how firm practices that could contribute to worker attainment of work-life balance (WLB) affect the total factor productivity (TFP) of a firm, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. We observed a positive correlation between the WLB practices and TFP among sampled firms. However, that correlation vanished when we controlled for unobserved firm heterogeneity, and we found no general causal relationship in which WLB practices increase firm TFP in the medium or...

  19. Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The Effects of Repeated Practice and Rate/Rhythm Control Treatments on Sound Production Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Nessler, Christina; Cameron, Rosalea; Mauszycki, Shannon C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated practice treatment on sound production accuracy in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia. A secondary purpose was to determine if the addition of rate/rhythm control to treatment provided further benefits beyond those achieved with repeated practice.…

  20. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  1. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2{sup nd} BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced.

  2. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon

    2004-01-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2 nd BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced

  3. The hydrodynamic basis of the vacuum cleaner effect in continuous-flow PCNL instruments: an empiric approach and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D

    2016-05-01

    Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.

  4. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a

  5. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...

  6. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  7. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo J.; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  8. Inhaling Difluoroethane Computer Cleaner Resulting in Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Calhoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difluoroethane is the active ingredient in various computer cleaners and is increasingly abused by teenagers due to its ease of access, quick onset of euphoric effects, and lack of detectability on current urine drug screens. The substance has detrimental effects on various organ systems; however, its effects on the kidneys remain largely unreported. The following case report adds new information to the developing topic of acute kidney injury in patients abusing difluoroethane inhalants. In addition, it is one of the first to show a possible relationship between prolonged difluoroethane abuse and the development of chronic kidney disease in the absence of other predisposing risk factors.

  9. Implementation of medical scribes in an academic urology practice: an analysis of productivity, revenue, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Benjamin J; Deal, Allison; Borawski, Kristy M; Raynor, Mathew C; Viprakasit, Davis; Wallen, Eric M; Woods, Michael E; Pruthi, Raj S

    2018-04-10

    Pressure on physicians to increase productivity is rising in parallel with administrative tasks, regulations, and the use of electronic health records (EHRs). Physician extenders and clinical pathways are already in use to increase productivity and reduce costs and burnout, but other strategies are required. We evaluated whether implementation of medical scribes in an academic urology clinic would affect productivity, revenue, and patient/provider satisfaction. Six academic urologists were assigned scribes for 1 clinic day per week for 3 months. Likert-type patient and provider surveys were developed to evaluate satisfaction with and without scribes. Matched clinic days in the year prior were used to evaluate changes in productivity and physician/hospital charges and revenue. After using scribes for 3 months, providers reported increased efficiency (p value = 0.03) and work satisfaction (p value = 0.03), while seeing a mean 2.15 more patients per session (+ 0.96 return visits, + 0.99 new patients, and + 0.22 procedures), contributing to an additional 2.6 wRVUs, $542 in physician charges, and $861 in hospital charges per clinic session. At a gross collection rate of 36%, actual combined revenue was + $506/session, representing a 26% increase in overall revenue. At a cost of $77/session, the net financial impact was + $429 per clinic session, resulting in a return-to-investment ratio greater than 6:1, while having no effect on patient satisfaction scores. Additionally, with scribes, clinic encounters were closed a mean 8.9 days earlier. Implementing medical scribes in academic urology practices may be useful in increasing productivity, revenue, and provider satisfaction, while maintaining high patient satisfaction.

  10. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  11. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...... sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority...... of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher...

  12. Commercial Cleaning Products for Chemical Decontamination: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    and may injure human skin without dilution), although this approach is less favoured in a mass casualty decontamination situation than soap and water...commercial cleaning products, full strength K-O-K® liquid bleach (5.25% aqueous solution of NaOCl), dish-washing detergent Cascade® with Extra...Bleach Action Gel, OxiClean® Versatile Stain Remover Powder, and ZEP® Industrial Purple liquid cleaner (proprietary caustic cleaner containing

  13. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  14. Jewelry cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider.

  15. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  16. New approaches to cleaner production: applying the SASI method to micro-tanneries in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, M.; Siebel, M.A.; Ahlers, R.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    The literature on micro and small sized enterprises in developing countries shows their existential difficulties. This is particularly true for those in marginal areas with multiple challenges including pollution prevention. Environmental agencies tend to require capital intensive end-of-pipe

  17. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable

  18. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Strategic guidance based on the concept of cleaner production to improve the ship recycling industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.; Pruijn, J.F.J.; Hopman, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of international ship recycling regulations and international standards of health, safety and environment on a ship recycling yard improves environmental protection, occupational health and safety of the workers. However, it results in increased costs of the ship recycling

  20. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de

    2014-10-15

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.

  1. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  2. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  4. Health and productivity management: establishing key performance measures, benchmarks, and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, R Z; Guindon, A M; Turshen, I J; Ozminkowski, R J

    2001-01-01

    Major areas considered under the rubric of health and productivity management (HPM) in American business include absenteeism, employee turnover, and the use of medical, disability, and workers' compensation programs. Until recently, few normative data existed for most HPM areas. To meet the need for normative information in HPM, a series of Consortium Benchmarking Studies were conducted. In the most recent application of the study, 1998 HPM costs, incidence, duration, and other program data were collected from 43 employers on almost one million workers. The median HPM costs for these organizations were $9992 per employee, which were distributed among group health (47%), turnover (37%), unscheduled absence (8%), nonoccupational disability (5%), and workers' compensation programs (3%). Achieving "best-practice" levels of performance (operationally defined as the 25th percentile for program expenditures in each HPM area) would realize savings of $2562 per employee (a 26% reduction). The results indicate substantial opportunities for improvement through effective coordination and management of HPM programs. Examples of best-practice activities collated from on-site visits to "benchmark" organizations are also reviewed.

  5. Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, K D; Djordjevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Sofronic, Lj; Savic, M; Djordjevic, M; Damjanovic, S

    2004-09-02

    A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews and investigations on the farm led to the conclusion that the owner had fed the horse food waste in order to condition the horse prior to sale. Further investigations were then carried out to determine the frequency of such practices among horse owners. Based on interviews of horse producers at local horse markets, it was revealed that the feeding of animal products to horses was a common practice. Further, it was alleged that many horses, particularly those in poor nutritional condition would readily consume meat. A subsequent series of trials involving the experimental feeding of 219 horses demonstrated that 32% would consume meat patties. To confirm that horses would eat infected meat under normal farm conditions, three horses were offered infected ground pork balls containing 1100 larvae. All three became infected, and at necropsy at 32 weeks later, were still positive by indirect IFA testing, but not by ELISA using an excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. This result indicates that further study is needed on the nature of the antigen(s) used for potential serological monitoring and surveillance of horse trichinellosis, especially the importance of antigenic diversity. The experimentally-infected horses also had very low infection levels (larvae per gram of muscle) at 32 weeks of infection, and although the public health consequences are unknown, the question of whether current recommended inspection procedures based on pepsin digestion of selected muscle samples require sufficient quantities of muscle should be addressed. It is concluded that horses are more willing to consume

  6. Fueling our future: four steps to a new reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.

    2005-01-01

    In examining various market strategies, this presentation demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, this presentation looks at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. The presentation demonstrates how these models can be applied to our present day situation. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. Due to such strong influence, the consumer will ultimately fuel the future of H2/FC commercialisation by a desire for new and not yet discovered products and services. Examining different Distributed Generation scenarios, the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy may be found through distributed generation via fuel cells. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. The incentive for car owners driving and using these vehicles is twofold: either save (at his own home) or earn (at his office) money while their cars are parked and plugged into buildings via smart docking stations available at key parking sites. Cars parked at home in the garage will supply electricity to the homes and additionally, replace the function of the existing boiler. Car owners can earn money by selling the electricity generated (but not needed at that time) to the utilities and feed it into the existing electricity grid. The inter-dependability between supply and consumer-driven demand (or better, demand and supply) and other examples are explained. The steps necessary to achieve a new, reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are also presented and examined. (author)

  7. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaka Ogbogu

    Full Text Available Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs. The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15 open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68% recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84% recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31% recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we

  8. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace

    Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some

  9. The art of co-production of knowledge in environmental sciences and management: lessons from international practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenontin, Ida Nadia S.; Meadow, Alison M.

    2018-06-01

    This review paper addresses the challenging question of "how to" design and implement co-production of knowledge in climate science and other environmental and agricultural sciences. Based on a grounded theory review of nine (9) published case studies of transdisciplinary and collaborative research projects, the paper offers a set of common themes regarding specific components and processes for the design, implementation, and achievement of co-production of knowledge work, which represent the "Modus Operandi" of knowledge co-production. The analysis focuses on practical methodological guidance based on lessons from how different research teams have approached the challenges of complex collaborative research. We begin by identifying broad factors or actions that inhibit or facilitate the process, then highlight specific practices associated with co-production of knowledge and necessary competencies for undertaking co-production. We provide insights on issues such as the integration of social and professional cultures, gender and social equity, and power dynamics, and illustrate the different ways in which researchers have addressed these issues. By exploring the specific practices involved in knowledge co-production, this paper provides guidance to researchers on how to navigate different possibilities of the process of conducting transdisciplinary and co-production of knowledge research projects that best fit their research context, stakeholder needs, and research team capacities.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  11. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  12. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  14. Establishing Effective Environmental and Safety Performance Indicators: A Best Practice Approach in Uranium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezansoff, D.; White, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco), with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, is the world's largest, low-cost uranium producer, currently supplying sufficient uranium to meet 20% of the world's demand. It is characterized by a diverse range of operations in Canada, the United States and Central Asia, for which Cameco is the majority owner and/or operator, including exploration, mining, milling, refining and conversion. Cameco had four business segments: Uranium; Conversion services; Nuclear energy generation; and Gold Also, in 2002, Cameco revised its vision statement to indicate, 'Cameco will be a dominant nuclear energy company producing uranium fuel and generating clean electricity'. Commensurate with this, Cameco has re-confirmed its overall measures of success as follows: A safe, healthy and rewarding workplace; A clean environment; Supportive communities; and Solid financial performance - all reflected in a growing return to shareholders. Like most organizations, Cameco recognizes the importance of conducting its operations in ways that promote continual improvement in environmental and safety performance. Demonstrating the environmental advantages of nuclear is a vital part of the overall best management practices approach. Detractors often try to point to the uranium production side of the nuclear fuel cycle in pursuit of trying to make the case that the nuclear option does not carry any special environmental advantage. These attempts are mostly based on performance from eras past, not modern performance. The uranium sector must be able to present its case in a modern context, which is largely based on sustainable development principles. This paper focuses on establishing environment and safety performance indicators for the uranium production and conversion aspects of Cameco's business, as well as in support of the environmental advantages of nuclear energy generation

  15. [Practical Use Evaluation of Aluminum Packaging for Medicinal Products Based on Universal Design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Kazuya; Hidaka, Takashi; Marubashi, Koichi; Takagi, Hirokazu; Kamimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have requested optimization of aluminum packaging of medicinal products in terms of usability. To improve operational efficiency of aluminum packaging, we used Universal Design (UD)-based approach, which enables products to be used properly and consistently regardless of users. The UD-pack used in this research is composed of a film that can be easily opened and torn linear. Here, we compared the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging by evaluating the practical use of each under the cooperation of 24 pharmacists. Following opening and removal of contents of one sample for both types of packaging, monitors were asked which type was easier to use in each case. Also, monitors were to repeat the opening and removal of contents of five samples in a row, and were asked the same question. Monitors were recorded by digital camera to measure the time required to finish the procedure for five samples in a row. After opening one sample, approximately 83% of monitors preferred the UD-pack, and after opening five samples, all (100%) preferred the UD-pack. Regarding the time required for opening five samples and removing the contents measured by analyzing the recorded video, the UD-pack significantly reduced the time required for all monitors. The average time ratio of the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging was approximately 59%, and no significant difference was observed between male and female pharmacists. Our results indicate the UD-pack improves ease of opening and removal of contents and increases efficiency of dispensing in a clinical setting compared with conventional aluminum packaging.

  16. An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Sun, Yuexia

    2018-01-01

    was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air......The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat...... Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor...

  17. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  18. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    , and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....... training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction....../elevation. Postural balance was measured on a force platform. Kinesiophobia was measured with Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Test and questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up and analyses followed the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle with last observation carried forward in case of missing...

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...

  20. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  1. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teas, H.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Brown, C.D.; Glenn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  2. Wide variations in blood product transfusion practices among providers who care for patients with acute leukemia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Alexander B; Lee, Eun-Ju; Sekeres, Mikkael; Steensma, David P; Zelterman, Daniel; Prebet, Thomas; DeZern, Amy; Komrokji, Rami; Litzow, Mark; Luger, Selina; Stone, Richard; Erba, Harry P; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Lee, Alfred I; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Barbarotta, Lisa; Kasberg, Stephanie; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M

    2017-02-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a key component of the supportive management in patients with acute leukemia (AL). However high-quality trial evidence and clinical outcome data to support specific transfusion goals for blood products for patients with AL remain limited leading to diverse transfusion practices. The primary objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of transfusion patterns in a variety of care settings among providers who treat AL patients. A 31-question survey queried providers caring for AL patients about the existence of institutional guidelines for transfusion of blood products, transfusion triggers for hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLTs), and fibrinogen in various settings including inpatient and outpatient and before procedures. We analyzed 130 responses and identified divergent transfusion Hb goals in hospitalized and ambulatory patients, fibrinogen goals for cryoprecipitate transfusions, and variation in practice for use of certain PLTs and red blood cell products. The least variable transfusion patterns were reported for PLT goals in thrombocytopenia and in the setting of invasive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy and lumbar punctures. This survey confirmed wide variations in blood product transfusion practices across several clinical scenarios in patients with AL. The findings emphasized the need for large prospective randomized trials to develop standardized evidence-based guidelines for blood product transfusions in patients with AL with the goal of limiting unnecessary transfusions without compromising outcomes. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Highly productive mutant genotypes in barley - direct use in practice and in successive recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Aa.; Lundqvist, U.

    1984-01-01

    Three special cases of induced mutations in barley are discussed in this paper. They are denoted here as the Gunilla, the Pallas and the Mari cases, after the three named varieties to which the original mutants gave rise. The original mutants described represent just a small sample of the induced mutants, many of which have been tested in practice and have been further studied in basic genetics and evolutionary research. The three approved varieties have given rise to further recombination families, which also to some extent have been fused. Two of the mutant cases - Pallas and Mari - were directly useful in practice and officially approved. The third case involved a mutant of special appearance - a ''bushy type'' with an intense blue wax coating and with a supreme lodging resistance. The mutant was used in developing the Gunilla variety, which arose by recombination breeding. This variety has been highly satisfactory in further gene recombination work. A similar situation has prevailed with regard to the Pallas and Mari families arising after gene recombination, too. Up to now, the Gunilla, Pallas and Mari families include a long series of released and officially approved varieties. Several of them represent valuable agricultural contributions with wide areas of cultivation. These three mutants - with their recombination families - led to greatly increased straw stiffness and high grain production. Their phenotypic expression often corresponds to a dwarf or semidwarf description. One of the mutants - the Mari genotype - represents a group of genes and alleles which give rise to profound changes in the photoperiod (and partially also in the thermoperiod) behaviour. In fact, often even such small changes have a fundamental influence on adaptation and distribution. Data are presented analysing the property of lodging resistance with the background of plant, tiller and internode structure. A method of partial back-mutation was worked out in separating traits generally

  4. Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning…

  5. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  6. The Development of Productivity Practical Management Model at Automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program in Semarang Vocational Schools, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadromi; Rachman, Maman; Soesanto; Kartana, Tri Jaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program (TMO) in Vocational School. The Research and Development (R&D) object was done in SMK 1, 4 and 7 Semarang, Indonesia. The result was achieved productivity Practical Management Final Model at TMO skill Program in Vocational school named momanticproter.…

  7. Development of a good agricultural practice to improve food safety and product quality in Indonesian vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asandhi, A.A.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Dibyantori, L.; Voort, van der M.P.J.; Sulastrini, N.; Sulastrini, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hortin-Quality project a Good Agricultural Practice (Hortin-GAP) is developed in close cooperation with Indonesian farmers, trade companies and the indonesian government. This Hortin-GAP has a close relation to the international standards like HACCP and Eurep-GAP.

  8. The Mianhuakeng deposit no. 9 with -50 m to -150 m middle production prospecting practice some understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Yide; Tan Zhongyin; Kuang Zhengping; Hou Zhiyong; Qiu Huiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The production prospecting is an extension of prospecting, it can identify deposits occurrence conditions in the main deposits mined, geological factors, ore grade distribution characteristics of type and So on, it can provide a reliable geological data for the development plan of the section and the quasi - Design in order to reduce mining costs and improve economic benef. This article through to the Mianhuakeng Deposit No. 9 with -50 m to -150 m middle production prospecting practice some understanding, sum up the metallogenic conditions, ore controlling factors, ore characteristics, to realize the optimization of production prospecting, so as to lower the cost for the better prospecting effect. (authors)

  9. Present practices of the Department of National Health and Welfare for the area monitoring of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The present practices of the Radiation Protection Bureau for the measurement of radon and daughter products have been briefly described. For radon gas, the Lucas chamber method is in use. Short-lived radon daughter products are determined by the modified Kusnetz method. These field methods are supported by radioanalytical procedures carried out at the environmental radioactivity laboratory. Some recent studies using these methods have been briefly summarized. Concentrations of daughter products up to 29 WL were found in a columbium mine and 63 WL in a tin mine under development. The level of radon daughters in some homes in a uranium mining community ranged up to 2 WL

  10. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  11. Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption practices and to evaluate the impact of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their practices, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption practices. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters.

  12. Scholarly work products of the doctor of nursing practice: one approach to evaluating scholarship, rigour, impact and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhaar, Mary F; Sylvia, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate, monitor and manage the quality of projects conducted and work produced as evidence of scholarship upon completion of Doctor of Nursing Practice education. The Doctor of Nursing Practice is a relatively new degree which prepares nurses for high impact careers in diverse practice settings around the globe. Considerable variation characterises curricula across schools preparing Doctors of Nursing Practice. Accreditation assures curricula are focused on attainment of the Doctor of Nursing Practice essentials, yet outcomes have not been reported to help educators engage in programme improvement. This work has implications for nursing globally because translating strong evidence into practice is key to improving outcomes in direct care, leadership, management and education. The Doctor of Nursing Practice student learns to accomplish translation through the conduct of projects. Evaluating the rigour and results of these projects is essential to improving the quality, safety and efficacy of translation, improvements in care and overall system performance. A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the scholarly products of Doctor of Nursing Practice education in one programme across four graduating classes. A total of 80 projects, conducted across the USA and around the globe, are described using a modification of the Uncertainty, Pace, Complexity Model. The per cent of students considered to have produced high quality work in relation to target expectations as well as the per cent that conducted means testing increased over the four study years. Evaluation of scope, complexity and rigour of scholarly work products has driven improvements in the curriculum and informed the work of faculty and advisors. Methods, evaluation and outcomes conformed around a set of expectations for scholarship and rigour have resulted in measurable outcomes, and quality publications have increased over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Research productivity in Australian general practice: what has changed since the 1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Schluter, Philip J; Gunn, Jane M

    2008-07-21

    The Primary Health Care Research, Evaluation and Development (PHCRED) Strategy aims to improve Australia's output of high-quality research from primary care. We compared publication rates from general practice, medicine and surgery for the period 2000-2007, and found that general practice publications increased since 1990-1999 from 1.0 to 3.0 publications per 1000 general practitioners per year. However, general practice publication rates have plateaued since 2000, and represent only 2%-5% of the equivalent rates for medicine and surgery. This finding suggests that more time and sustained investment in PHCRED are essential to see tangible outputs from funded research in general practice.

  14. China and Cleaner Coal. A marriage of necessity destined for failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, John

    2012-04-01

    For China, coal is a crucial source of abundant, indigenous and affordable energy and is a pillar of economic and social stability. From a logic of energy security, and because the industry itself maintains a formidable political presence through the sheer fact of its history and size, this resource will continue to play a central role in the country's energy mix. But in order to respond to the growing need to reduce the burden of coal use on the environment and the Chinese population, and to prevent catastrophic climate change, both Chinese leaders and the industry itself have faced a certain reality - coal must become cleaner. This has led to a tenuous compromise between those in China advocating for the use of coal as a matter of economic necessity and social stability (security of supply, reliable and cheap electricity, and indigenous energy technologies) and those who strive for more environmentally sustainable growth (and thus emphasize 'clean' coal). The convergence of these two concepts has spurred a major shift towards newer, more efficient, though still highly polluting technologies - notably larger scale, hotter burning supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired plants. But it has also spawned a number of demonstration-scale projects in various cutting-edge technologies to include coal gasification and carbon capture and storage (CCS), which promise vast improvements in CO_2 and other, toxic emissions if widely adopted. Indeed, mitigating climate change while continuing to rely heavily on coal will only be possible if carbon can successfully be captured and stored on a broad scale. The push to develop new coal technologies opens doors for both foreign and Chinese businesses to work together, potentially creating new market opportunities at home and abroad. Chinese companies can receive much-needed capital and expertise, while foreign companies and researchers are given the chance to test and develop technologies at a level of speed and scale that

  15. THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalova OV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays the problem of bovine leukemia (EBL effective diagnosis in countries where EBL is registered and the disease-free areas remains actual. The main diagnostic tests are immunodiffusion reaction (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, which allow the identification of infected animals by the presence of antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV both in serum and in milk samples. The effectiveness of these methods depends on the quality of diagnostic test systems used and determines by the cultural and recombinant virus antigens specificity. EBL recombinant antigens have certain advantages as they are more active and cheap. Purpose of the work. The analysis of theoretical and practical approaches in the bovine leukemia virus recombinant antigens development and its diagnostic potential evaluation. The article contains data from the literature on the recombinant antigens of bovine leukemia virus construction and use. Analysis of the literature showed that the recombinant proteins are widely used in the serological diagnosis of bovine leukemia. Numerous protocols of BLV gp51 and p24 immunodominant antigens preparation has been developed in heterologous systems (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, E. coli, vaccinia virus, baculovirus. In order to obtain recombinant antigens, the BLV provirus genome regions isolated from FLK-BLV cell culture, lymphocytes or tumor cells from naturally infected cattle are typically used. For the recombinant antigens labeled by hexahistidine or Srept II purification one-step immobilized-metal affinity chromatography IMAC and highly selective Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography methods are carried out. The end products activity and specificity are studied in the immunoblotting, ELISA and AGID diagnostic reactions. The ukrainian scientists’ publications are devoted to the clone E. coli HB101-2 transformed by the recombinant plasmid containing fully functional BLV env and gag genes nucleotide

  16. PRÁTICAS DE PRODUÇÃO DE TEXTOS. TEXT PRODUCTION PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piffer, Maristela Gatti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o trabalho com a produção de textos escritos em uma instituição de educação infantil, a partir dos resultados de uma pesquisa de mestrado, realizada pela abordagem metodológica do estudo de caso do tipo etnográfico. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante o ano de 2005, em uma turma de crianças na faixa de seis a sete anos de idade. As análises, sustentadas na perspectiva dialógica de linguagem de Mikhail Bakhtin, focaram as práticas de produção de textos com os gêneros textuais que foram recorrentes na sala de aula: as histórias em quadrinhos e os textos de opinião. Além da leitura e dos conhecimentos sobre o sistema de escrita da língua portuguesa, a produção de textos escritos é considerada, neste artigo, como uma dimensão importante na alfabetização e, por isso, ela é enfatizada neste trabalho. A investigação da prática educativa evidenciou que as professoras envolvidas no estudo se preocuparam em desenvolver propostas em relação a esse tipo de trabalho, mas apontou também a necessidade de criação de condições apropriadas para que as crianças tenham o que dizer e se sintam, dessa forma, motivadas a escrever textos.This paper results from a research that aims at analyzing the work of written text production at an educational institution for children. The research was based on an ethnographic case study and was developed during a year at a school for children from zero to six years old. The class involved in the work included six and seven-year-old children. In order to carry out the analysis, we evoked the studies of Bakhtin and Geraldi, among other authors who gave us support to understanding text production at school. Thereby, this article aims at analyzing the work carried out by teachers and children, in that specific class, with comics and opinionated texts. Besides the reading and the knowledge on Portuguese language system, the production of written texts is considered, in this

  17. Product Development Categorized as Independent Strategic and Innovative Practice: Case from Indian Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Dutt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, Indian manufacturing has seen technologically intensive and resource optimization based initiatives to satisfy competitive urge and to build or sustain market position. This they do by developing products either strategically or innovatively, but that is hardly distinguished or seen as a separate approach to product development. Strategically, product development is resource optimization based while innovatively, it is product differentiation focused. This paper outlines the strategic and innovative approach to product development and analyzes sector specific role of each in product development. The study is undertaken with nine product development team-leaders and resource-heads, three of each from automobile, steel and textile. It is concluded that textile is strategically skewed toward product development whereas automobile is inclined towards innovative orientation. The biggest limitation of this study is smaller sample-size because respondents are reluctant to disclose new technical initiatives and composition of product development.

  18. CONSOLIDATED COST ACCOUNTING AT MEAT AND FAT PRODUCTION: METHODOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is to study and improve methods of consolidated cost accounting at meat and fat production to obtain detailed information about production costs and to find ways to reduce the cost of meat production. It is offered to account expenses at meat and fat department for individual production areas that will receive detailed information for the purposes of control, analysis, calculation and reporting. For expedient budgeting activities of each structural unit of meat and fat production and for needs to saving production is proposed to reflect the costs of each production plant to separate groups of analytical accounts. Key words: consolidated accounting, production costs of meat and fat production, cost accounting.

  19. Unexpected emergence of a Community of Practice when implementing Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møldrup, Morten

    2004-01-01

    of products. Sales staff copes by specializing in particular products and becomes increasingly fragmented. Product configuration systems (PCS) are a technology, which is designed to manage product variety by automating parts of the work performed by sales staff. PCS is also seen by management as a tool......Customers are increasingly demanding customised products tailored to their specific needs, and many firms are faced with the challenge of delivering such goods. Over time the number of product variants increases with consequences for sales staff, as they must know an increasingly larger number...

  20. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (Phygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.