WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaner production minimizing

  1. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  2. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    systematic process, which is not applied once, but permanently, in each one of the phases of the cycle of life. In this context, the cleanest technology is only an integral, but partial element, inside the concept of cleaner production, since this includes other elements like the attitudes and practical managerial of continuous improvement of the environmental administration. In other words it is looked for to prevent and to minimize the impacts and risks efficiently to the human beings and the environment, guaranteeing the environmental protection, the economic growth, the social well-being and the managerial competitiveness, starting from introducing the environmental dimension in the productive sectors, as an it challenged of long term. Inside the limits related with mining the politics of cleaner production is contemplated that seeks to give a mark not directed toward the rational and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources renewable with the reinforcement and articulation of the tools and instruments of sectoral character. The cleanest production has been able to be internalized in the new Mines Code, that establishes the objective in its first article it contemplates that its use (of minerals) it is not carried out in form harmonica with the principles and norms of rational exploitation of the natural resources renewable and of the atmosphere, inside an integral concept of sustainable development and of the economic and social invigoration of the country. In the politics' s of cleaner production development it has occurred special impulse to the development of the environmental centers miner as a half appropriate of technological transfer that with investigation, development and diffusion of technical and technologies of clean production, mainly in the auriferous mining that they can enlarge their services to other minerals, they look for to diminish the technical and technological limitations that have made of the exploitation of the mineral resources, a

  3. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald; Borup, Mads; Leskinen, Arto

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  4. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  5. Cleaner Production Assessment in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zong; LU Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Cleaner Production focuses on environmental improvement with economic benefits. Based on the benefit assessment home and abroad, the assessment method and wocess in textile industry is discussed, including maneuverable indicator system, mathematics model. According to corresponding principles of Cleaner Production, representative problems are mentioned. With Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Mathematics, some enterprise is collected to attain the economic, environmental and social benefit of Cleaner Production. The results show that Cleaner Production improves utilization efficiency of resources, energy sources even waste, and creates conditions of Sustainable Development in textile industry.

  6. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study on...... Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  7. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    In connection with the establishment of the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative, the Environmental Protection Agency wished to undertake a subevaluation of the projects initiated under the cleaner technology action plan in relation to the sectors and areas which have been initially under fo...... Cleaner Technology. Experience with cleaner technologies has been evaluated in these three sectors: The textiles and clothing industry, The electronics industry, The transport industry, The projects evaluated completely cover the period 1993-97 in these three sectors....

  8. Sustainable technology as a basis of cleaner production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present work is characterization of the clean technology and cleaner production inrelation to sustainable development and environmental requirements.Design/methodology/approach: The paper desrcibes the general cleaner production aims, which are correspondto the prevention criteria of the IPPC-Directive. It presents cleaner production practises and technologies andexamines the methods of successful application of cleaner production practises in companies, which want torealize proecological targets.Findings: The minimization of waste and reductions in material and energy inputs are the most importantenvironmental aims. Sustainable technological development and innovations do not automatically lead to totalreduction of environmental burden of industrial production. However, technological innovation is an importantfactor and seems to play a central role in the long-term initiation of cleaner production.Practical implications: Sustainable technology is usually connected with the design and analysis of complex,integrated management systems and sustainable development and it is a central target in environmental scienceand growth of global economies.Originality/value: Environmental improvement of companies strategy by application the idea of cleanerproduction linked with sustainable technologies leads to produce environmentally friendly products and leadsto increas the position of company on the market.

  9. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula is...

  10. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow...

  11. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  12. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  13. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  14. Identification of cleaner production benefits and difficulties in industrial enterprises of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production is gaining increasing acceptance by companies due the capacity that this strategy presents to proactive minimization of environmental impacts and to the rational use of inputs and reduce the generation of waste and emissions. This practice creates environmental and economic benefits for businesses. Thus, the measurement of the benefits earned by the Cleaner Production in companies that adopt this environmental strategy is of paramount importance to its promotion in business and for society in general. In addition to this information, there is a need for greater appreciation of the environmental benefits against the economic. In this context, this research aims to identify the benefits and the difficulties generated for Cleaner Production in four industrial companies located in the state of São Paulo through case studies. It was possible to identify significant environmental benefits, especially in the aspect of reducing the use of production inputs, i.e., extraction of natural resources and disposal of waste production. Moreover, the preventive strategy of Cleaner Production allwoed economic gains to organizations , supported by rational management of their production processes. As a major difficulty highlight the economic aspects for the implementation of projects Cleaner Production.

  15. Floating faeces for a cleaner fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, Julia; Schumann, Mark; Brinker, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in European recirculating aquaculture systems suggest expanding potential for this extremely water-efficient technique. However, the technology still faces challenges due to concerns over economic efficiency and system stability - both essential in minimizing the risk of financially and environmentally expensive failures. One key factor in maintaining stable production conditions in a recirculation loop is the effective removal of solid waste, i.e. fish faeces. This study ...

  16. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  17. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  19. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  20. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  1. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  2. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  3. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto; Nivaldo Palmeri Palmeri; Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto; Osvaldo D'Angelo Perreti

    2010-01-01

    Cleaner Production (CP) is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, ac...

  4. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies are ...... was introduced to a Waste Minimization Club. It is argued that cost-savings arguments are too simplistic. They ignore both scarcity of managerial attention and opportunity costs, and cannot explain the behaviour of small companies....

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEANER PRODUCTION STRATEGIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and growing size of cities will have an increasing impact on the global environment in the 21 st century.As an engine of urban development to drive economic growth and technological innovations,industry has moved its focus from controlling environmental hazards to stimulating sustainable industrial development throughout the entire product lifecycle.These process- and technology-driven innovations for industrial production are prerequisites for enhancement of urban environment and sustainable development of cities.In this review,problems of environment and resources scarcity associated with rapid urbanization are demonstrated.And,on the basis of expatiations on the concepts and policies of the cleaner production (CP) and other similar initiatives with the goal of preventing pollution at the source and of managing the raw material more efficiently,two different ways to link the practice of cleaner production in industrial sector with performance of urban environment are discussed in detail.Then,the introduction,practice and legislation of CP strategies in China are outlined,and possibility for China to develop CPC (Cleaner Practices for Cities) approaches in the demonstration cities is discussed.Finally,some suggestions on implementation of CPC strategies are put forward.

  6. The Role of Cleaner-Production in Ensuring a Cleaner Processing and Mining Environment in a Developing African Country. Case of a Midlands Steel Smelting Plant in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chinguwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mines and Mineral Processing Plants are major contributors to high dust emission. This paper explores Cleaner Production Opportunities, to ensure lower risk of dust explosion, minimum health & safety risks, reduction in environmental issues, operations closer to urban areas, reduction in maintenance and cleaning costs, minimum product shrinkage, load trucks and rail cars faster and to load stockpiles cleanly. The green methods will involve a walk through processing plant and identifying cleaner production opportunities. Characterisation of dust was also done. Dust Control Methods are going to be reviewed with the aim of minimizing dust-raising, containing it, suppressing it or extracting and collecting the dust eventually. The paper will also design and recommend specific methods of dust reduction for specific operations.

  7. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  8. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    and dyehouse technologists Dennis Robertson and Barry Gatenby • From Pollution Research Group, Natal University, Durban: Mr. Zsig Schneider • From Institute for Product Development, Denmark: Mr. Henrik Wenzel This team of people collected information on recipes and flow schematics on the various wet...... treatment operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority projects including milestone...

  9. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  10. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  11. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the fp increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  12. Design of policy mechanism to promote cleaner production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to promote cleaner production in China, a package of policy options was presented based on the identification of the barriers encountered in the CP demonstration project and the effectiveness and feasibility of policy options for the CP implementation were analyzed.Furthermore, the policy mechanism framework was giyen, which composes of compulsory, economic incentive, social pressure and supportive function. Finally, the implementation strategy of the policy mechanism, in which the emphasis will be changed from compulsory Policy options towards economic and social pressure policy options, was proposed.

  13. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  14. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  15. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry. PMID:27054882

  16. A Brief Discussion on the Application of the Ideas of Cleaner Production to the Dispose of Waste Materials Containing Zine%浅谈"清洁生产"思维在含锌废料处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德华; 魏昶; 戴永年

    2000-01-01

    The cleaner production is applied to quantitatively investigate the situation of pollution and waste materials produced by every procedure in whole production of enterprise in order to find out the reasons of high consumption and pollution discharge and the treatment program,The destination goal of cleaner production is to optimize the usage of resource minimize the discharge of waste materials and upgrade the capability of treatment of pollution of the enterprise.The technical principle are produced to dispose the waste material containing zinc using cleaner production,After the materials containing zinc can be recovered,therefore the amount of waste materials discharge can be decreased greatly.

  17. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded by the Departm......This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  18. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  19. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...

  20. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    OpenAIRE

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel; Lúcia Santana de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP), based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b). As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of prod...

  1. The Role of Cleaner-Production in Ensuring a Cleaner Processing and Mining Environment in a Developing African Country. Case of a Midlands Steel Smelting Plant in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Chinguwa; Tauyanashe Chikuku; TinasheMandikwaza

    2012-01-01

    Mines and Mineral Processing Plants are major contributors to high dust emission. This paper explores Cleaner Production Opportunities, to ensure lower risk of dust explosion, minimum health & safety risks, reduction in environmental issues, operations closer to urban areas, reduction in maintenance and cleaning costs, minimum product shrinkage, load trucks and rail cars faster and to load stockpiles cleanly. The green methods will involve a walk through processing plant and identifying clean...

  2. Sustainability and cleaner production: a study on the implications competitive advantage in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the adoption of environmental management system in the business and the competitive advantages that can result from this process. Therefore, the effects are discussed the emergence of a model of sustainable development and the role and opportunities of the company that perspective. Being theoretical, the aim of this paper is to discuss the potential contributions that the implementation of cleaner production technology can offer to the enterprise competitive strategy. To elucidate these relationships are discussed concepts relating to the introduction of an environmental management system, which emphasized the use of environmental measures, specifically the inherent Cleaner Production that aim to reduce the environmental impacts of industrial production, eliminating waste and reducing costs. Moreover, the concept of competitive advantage is crafted light of assumptions Porter on profitability from cost reduction and product differentiation. The findings indicate that the introduction of the Cleaner Production to reduce costs and add value to the image of the product, is an instrument of competitiveness that allows the company to differentiate and gain competitive advantage.

  3. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  4. Selecting Evaluation Indices for Cleaner Production of Plantation Logging in Southern China with Fuzzy Clustering Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Aihua; Gallagher, Tom; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, China has shown a significant reduction in natural forest resources, while the increasing area of plantations has made greater contributions to the huge demand for wood. In southern China, these new plantations have produced some problems such as environmental hazards of logging operations and the most reasonable use of forest resources. A new management process called »cleaner production« is defined as reducing pollution from its source, increasing the rate of utilization of ...

  5. Choosing Cleaner and Safer Production Practices through a Multi-criteria Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Valérie; Raymond, Gaëlle; Piatyszek, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Through the international (Convention) and European (Industrial Emissions Directive) legislations, industries have to apply preventive measures according to the Best Available Technique (BAT) concept or cleaner production (CP) strategies. Many technical solutions exist to conform, but the major stake is to assess the overall effect or impact of the implementation of a technique on the installation. Several methods have been developed based on LCA or carbon balance methodologies, but they lack...

  6. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  7. Relationship between ecological economics and circular economy,eco-industry,cleaner production,and other relevant categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chuandong

    2006-01-01

    Eco-industry, circular economy, cleaner production, industrial ecology or industrial ecosystem and other subjects are all categories related to sustainable development. This paper studies the relations and differences between the four categories and sustainable development as well as ecological economics. Circular economy, eco-industry,industrial ecosystem and cleaner production were put forward during the revolution in "end treatment pattern" of traditional industrial society. Industrial ecology, eco-indtustry and circular economy theory are three content expansions of cleaner production. Ecological economics is of instructive function theoretically and methodologically for circular economy, eco-industrial, cleaner production and industrial ecology. Circular economy theory is easier to be accepted,compared with ecological economics theory. And circular economy in nature is the complete application of ecological economics theory.

  8. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  9. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  10. Local Governments’ Behaviors Study on the Improvement for Farmers’ Cleaner Production in Factor Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong CHEN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available
    Both in developed and developing countries, governments of all levels pay much attention to the weak industry----agriculture and try their best to find out the effective way to develop it. Cleaner production in agriculture is the effective way to realize sustainable development in China. According to the behavioral features of local governments and the actuality of agriculture development, the thesis holds that the realization of agricultural cleaner production depends on the interest games between economic bodies and perfect market system. Besides, set up the operation mechanism for agricultural products and factor markets will help the development of cleaner production. Local governments allocate the resources by controlling all kinds of markets. The thesis mainly discusses the local governments’ behavior models based on factor markets. Adjust the farmers’ production behaviors with the constraints of capital, lands, labor and so on. Optimize combination between multi-items. Local governments will influence farmers’ choice by changing their production functions. The thesis also analyzes how can local governments accelerate the process of agricultural cleaner production and improve competitive power in local areas by influencing the management environment of agricultural products’ producers.
    Key words: Local governments, Factor markets, Target functions
    Résumé: Tant dans les pays développés que dans les pays en développement, les gouvernement de toutes les échelles prêtent attention à l’industrie faible --- agriculture, et font leur possible pour trouver le moyen efficace du développement agricole. La production propre dans l’agriculture est une voie efficace pour réaliser le développement durable en Chine. Selon les caractéristiques comportementales des gouvernements locaux et l’actualité du développement agricole, le present essai pense que la réalisation de production propre agricole dépend du

  11. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produce large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the model and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. A model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-niche count is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem. A new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester,this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality constant.

  12. Guidelines for the integration of EMS based in ISO 14001 with Cleaner Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to propose guidelines for the integration of the Environmental Management System (EMS based on ISO 14001 with the Cleaner Production (CP. For this, a systematic review was applied and five case studies have been carried out in industrial companies with considerable environmental performance. Located in the state of São Paulo, the researched companies have got CP projects to ensure environmental and economic gains and shown prominent compatibilities with the EMS based on ISO 14001. The proposed guidelines were performed in three parts: the planning stage, the integration stage and the stage of evaluation and analysis. The main compatibilities include dissemination of the environmental culture, synergy between some specific requirements of the standard and the CP, as the general requirements, legal requirements, environmental policy, training, qualification and monitoring. The guidelines can increase operational efficiency and strategic environmental management in enterprises.

  13. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  14. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  15. Phase relationship of complex multi-component system in chromate cleaner production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Xinlei; Wang Xidong; Zheng Shili; Zhang Mei; Zhang Yi

    2007-01-01

    The phase relationships of the complex multi-component systems in the liquid-phase oxidization and separation process related with the chromate cleaner production are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phase diagram of main system Fe-Cr2O4-KOH-O2 of oxidization process and the relationship of its standard Gibbs free energy change with temperature are calculated. A series of phase diagrams of the separation process at different temperatures, such as K(Na)OH-K (Na)2CrO4-H2O, KOH-KAlO2-H2O,K(Na)OH- K(Na)2CO3-H2O, K(Na)OH-K(Na)HCO3-H2O and K(Na)HCO3-K(Na)2CrO4-H2O have also been calculated. Some experiments are carried out to verify the calculated results. Our results showed that the sub-molten salt media are suitable for the oxidization and separation processes; FeCr2O4 can be oxidized across a wide range of temperature; K (Na)2CrO4 can be separated from K(Na) AlO2 system at appropriate temperature and proper concentration; the crystallization of carbonate is easier than that of K(Na)2CrO4.

  16. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  17. The Integration of Cleaner Production Indicators on the Environmental Performance Measurement System for the Indonesian Natural Rubber Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the priority of the cleaner production implementation and integrate it in the design of a comprehensive environmental performance measurement system for natural rubber industry in Indonesia. Prioritizing the cleaner production on the production process of natural rubber is based on the case of 10 Indonesian crumb rubber companies using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The comprehensive environmental performance measurement system in natural rubber industry, i.e. in crumb rubber industry, starts from the selection of key environmental performance indicators (KEPI using the fuzzy independent preference evaluation method. The environmental performance measurement model is developed to assist users in evaluating the comprehensive environmental performance and condition of the key indicators. The weighting for each of the KEPI is performed by means of the expert choice software. The environmental performance measurement model is designed in the form of a environmental scorecard with traffic light facilities which can provide recommendations based on the performance achievement status of each KEPI. From the results of the model verification in the case of crumb rubber industry, several indicator statuses were found "not good", i.e. on the index of raw materials, solid waste load, water conservation, energy conservation, and environmental innovation indicators. The environmental performance ranking model is designed to evaluate the comprehensive environmental performance in different companies or at different assessment periods.

  18. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  19. Suppressed black hole production from minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large extra dimensions lower the Planck scale to values soon accessible. Motivated by string theory, the models of large extra dimensions predict a vast number of new effects in the energy range of the lowered Planck scale, among them the production of TeV-mass black holes. But not only is the Planck scale the energy scale at which effects of modified gravity become important. String theory as well as non-commutative quantum mechanics suggest that the Planck length acts a minimal length in nature, providing a natural ultraviolet cutoff and a limit to the possible resolution of spacetime. The minimal length effects thus become important in the same energy range in which the black holes are expected to form. In this Letter we examine the influence of the minimal length on the expected production rate of the black holes

  20. Biotechnology in Biofuels-A Cleaner Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly becoming one of the major technological, as well as and also important societal and political challenges. With increasing gap between the energy requirement of the industrialized world and inability to replenish such needs from the limited sources of energy like fossil fuels, ever increasing levels of greenhouse pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels in turn aggravate the perils of global warming and energy crisis. One quarter of the world's CO2 emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.

  1. 钼酸铵的清洁生产工艺%Cleaner Production Process for Ammonium Molybdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 张建洲; 刘彩霞

    2011-01-01

    The acid-salt pretreatment-ion exchange combined process for cleaner production of ammonium molybdate from MO3 and NH3 is put forward to substitute the traditional process. In the new process, the liquid-slag dual-cycle is used instead of the liquid single-cycle, and the electric boiler is used instead of the coal-fired boiler; The NH3-containing waste gas is treated by acidic wastewater absorption, and the high-concentration NH3 waste liquid is treated by steam stripping; The separated NH3 is recycled into the production, and the treated waste liquid and waste gas can meet the discharge standards. With this process, the cleaner production of ammonium molybdate can be realized. 0. 24 t of NH3 can be recovered from the waste liquid generated for 1 t of ammonium molybdate. According to 187 t/a of NH3 recovery, the production cost can be saved by about 562 000 Yuan/a.%以酸-盐预处理-离子交换组合工艺替代传统工艺,提出了氧化钼、氨生产钼酸铵清洁生产工艺.该工艺采用液、渣双循环代替液单循环,以电锅炉替换燃煤锅炉.含氨废气采用酸性生产废水吸收,产生的高浓度含氨废液进行汽提处理,分离出的氨回用于生产,废液和含氨废气处理后均达标排放,基本实现了钼酸铵的清洁生产.采用该清洁生产工艺生产钼酸铵,每生产1t产品可从废液中回收氨0.24t,按氨回收量187 t/a计算,可节约资金约56.2万元/a.

  2. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  3. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  4. 涂料行业清洁生产审核实例研究%A Case Study of Cleaner Production Audit of Paint Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂雪涛; 罗冬梅; 杨恒学; 袁熙志; 张永红

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese paint industry,the serious environmental issues has restricted its further development.This paper studied a cleaner production audit case of paint industry.The practice proved that speeding up the research and development of cleaner production technology and carrying out cleaner production audit would effectively reduce the pollution caused by paint industry.This is important for sustained development of paint industry in china.%我国涂料行业高速发展的同时,严峻的行业环境问题严重限制了我国涂料行业的进一步发展.本文进行了涂料行业清洁生产审核实例研究.实践表明,加快我国涂料行业清洁生产技术的研究与开发,推进涂料企业清洁生产审核工作,可有效地减少涂料生产带来的环境污染,对我国涂料行业的可持续发展具有重要意义.

  5. Creating a Window Cleaner Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides a description of a project used in the Cool Science and Technology Camps in which campers are presented with the challenge of developing and marketing their own brand of window cleaner. Topics such as chemistry, marketing, and cost analysis are intertwined as students prepare and plan their approach to product development. (DDR)

  6. ENTROPY PRODUCTION RATE OF THE MINIMAL DIFFUSION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The entropy production rate of stationary minimal diffusion processes with smooth coefficients is calculated. As a byproduct, the continuity of paths of the minimal diffusion processes is discussed, and that the point at infinity is absorbing is proved.

  7. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs; Ren, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly. PMID:27044552

  11. Minimization of Heat Energy Intensity in Food Production Companies Applying Sustainable Industrial Development Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kliopova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian food and drink sector of industry is characterized by high energy intensity, which is 29% higher than the EU average. At the confectionary plant chosen for the experiment, an environmental impact has been controlled and its maximum managed by creating different procedures to reduce pollution. Assessment of the plant's environmental costs has revealed that the energy costs amount to main part of the environmental ones (up to 55.4%. In recent years several energy efficiency projects have been implemented allowing minimizing the plant's energy intensity up to 15%. An algorithm of feasibility analysis of increasing thermal energy efficiency of the plant was suggested which could also be applied to other food industry plants. Demand for heat energy within the plant was evaluated for each technological process; the fuel and energy balance of the plant boiler-house was drawn up. It was revealed that huge heat energy losses were made during heat energy production and usage. During the research period a control system of significant environmental aspects was suggested, its objective function was estimated. Several environmental alternatives were suggested for optimization of the heat energy production processes. Three projects were chosen for the feasibility analysis. Results of technical, economic and environmental evaluations of Cleaner Production (CP innovations as well as conclusions made are presented in this article.

  12. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  13. A case study on cleaner production audit in oil field enterprise%油田企业清洁生产审核实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红旭; 李梦隐; 张文俊; 马勤学; 师庆东

    2012-01-01

    Oil field enterprises provide rich oil for the country, at the same time they become a big source of environmental pollution. Since cleaner production was carried out, the oil companies have achieved sound performance in clean production processes, energy.saving, environmental protection and other aspects. A case study was made on an oil company in this paper. The company has put forward and carried out a number of cleaner production programs with the idea of the cleaner production "energy conservation, energy consumption reduction, pollution reduction, efficiency increase". It has saved electricity 20.74×10^4 kW.h/a, gas 52×10^4 ma/a, water 2.80×10^4 m3/a, and reduced oil pollution emission 1.50 t/a by improving gas injection gate filler, recycling car wash water, setting oil recovery tank in laboratory, etc. It has achieved a win-win situation between economic benefits and environmental benefits.%油田企业在为国家提供丰富石油资源的同时也成为环境污染的大户。自推行清洁生产以来,我国油田企业在清洁生产审核过程、节能降耗、环境保护等方面取得了较好成绩。以某油田企业为例,根据清洁生产"节能、降耗、减污、增效"的思路,以企业能源、资源利用情况的分析为基础,提出和实施了多项清洁生产方案。通过注气闸门填料改进、洗车用水回收再利用、化验室增加回收罐回收污油等方案的实施,同比可节电:20.74×104kW.h/a、节气:52×104m3/a、节水:2.80×104m3/a、减少污油排放:1.50 t/a左右,实现了经济效益和环境效益的双赢。

  14. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Augusto; Rui Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    Minimally processed products (MP) are one of the major growing food product segments due to an increasing demand from consumers for innovative, convenient and healthy products. Shelf-life of MP is compromised mostly by enzymatic browning that causes excessive tissue softening and superficial browning. As the farm to fork path gets longer new techniques to maintain the quality throughout all stages of the production chain and distribution of MP without compromising their healthy and fresh-like...

  15. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean multiple common household surfaces. This designated item does not include products that...

  16. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit. The...... structure of the book is fragmented and ambiguous, thus reflects the way one ‘reads’ the dry cleaner itself. It contains coded messages in 3 columns (dictionary entries, quotations and narratives) and from the friction of those meaning appears. The costumers found their way into the book - and the writing...

  17. The Research on the Situation and Perfection of Chinese Cleaner Production Legislation%清洁生产的立法现状及完善对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任英欣

    2015-01-01

    清洁生产是实现环境、经济、社会可持续发展的重要途径。2012年修订的《清洁生产促进法》是中国目前清洁生产领域最重要的专门立法,国家就此颁布了一系列配套规范性文件。2014年新修订的《环境保护法》更以基本法形式重申清洁生产之重要。通过对《清洁生产促进法》的内容进行剖析,指出相关规定应更明确、更具有操作性,强化清洁生产行政问责制的基础上,对企业应赏罚分明、科以严格法律责任的同时建立有效的激励机制。%Cleaner production is an important way to achieve the sustainable development of environmental, economic and society. In 2012 the newly revised“Cleaner Production Promotion Law” is the most important legislation in the field of cleaner production. The nation promulgated a series of regulatory documents. In the newly revised basic law “Environmental Protection Law”(2014), its importance is reaffirmed. Cleaner production legal system in our country is maturing. It points out that the relevant provisions should be more specific and operable. The law should strengthen the administrative accountability system and establish strict liability and effective incentive mechanism in the enterprises’ practice of clean production on the basis of research of the“Cleaner Production Promotion Law”.

  18. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean and/or prevent deposits on surfaces found in bathrooms and spas including, but not necessarily limited to,...

  19. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  20. Linhuan Coke oven Cleaner Production 6m Comprehensiv%临涣焦化6m焦炉清洁生产的综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2011-01-01

    The company adopts the new type JN60 6 m coke oven,the production task more nervous,smoke control in the production of absence of difficulty is large.According to the coke oven cleaner production requirements,the company put forward for clean,coking coal "smoke-free,purification tasteless",establishing comprehensive environmental protection to the new concept.First through the search the problems that exist,according to establish management plan,problems with close the technical innovation,to adjust,and the comprehensive management measures,coke oven management to a large volume of coke oven secondary standard.%我公司采用新型JN60型6 m焦炉,生产任务比较紧张,生产中的烟尘逸散控制难度较大。根据焦炉清洁生产要求,公司提出了"备煤无尘、炼焦无烟、净化无味",创建全方位环保新概念。首先通过查找存在的问题,根据问题确立治理方案,装满拉平、技改创新、以调代修等措施综合治理,焦炉管理达到大容积焦炉二级标准。

  1. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  2. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  3. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  4. Promoting the Development of Titanium Dioxide Industry in China with Cleaner Production Theory%以清洁生产理念促进我国钛白粉产业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 吴笛; 张健; 赵玙瑶

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of titanium dioxide industry in China is introduced. The importance of cleaner production to titanium dioxide industry is expounded, and the problems and causes affecting the sustainable development of titanium dioxide industry in China are analyzed. It is pointed out that cleaner production is very important to accelerating technical progress, readjusting industrial structure and promoting the upgrade of titanium dioxide industry in China.%介绍了我国钛白粉产业的现状,阐述了钛白粉产业清洁生产的重要性,分析了影响我国钛白粉产业可持续发展的问题及原因.指出施行清洁生产对钛白粉产业加快技术进步、调整产业结构、促进产业升级具有重要意义.

  5. Minimizing Entropy Production Rate in Binary Tray Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Kjelstrup

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this work we increase the second law efficiency in an ideal binary tray distillation column by allowing heat exchangers on all trays. We find by numerical optimization, the duties of the heat exchangers that give the highest second law efficiency of the column. The entropy production rate was reduced by 30-50% compared to adiabatic operation for two different columns. The numerical optimum was in agreement with the result of an Euler-Lagrange minimization in which the total entropy production rate was described by irreversible thermodynamics. The minimum was not characterized by equipartition of forces.

    • This paper was presented at ECOS'00, Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 

  6. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO x abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station

  7. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammelis, P. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece) and Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: pgra@central.ntua.gr; Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Skodras, G. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Tumanovsky, A. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Kotler, V. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO {sub x} abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station.

  8. Characterization of Occupational Exposures to Cleaning Products Used for Common Cleaning Tasks-A Pilot Study of Hospital Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Melissa J; Quinn Margaret M; Bello Anila; Milton Donald K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there is a need for systematic evaluation of cleaning products ingred...

  9. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  10. Primary and secondary consequences of indoor air cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J A

    2016-02-01

    Air cleaning is broadly applied to reduce contaminant concentrations in many buildings. Although diverse in underlying technology, mode of application, target contaminants, and effectiveness, there are also commonalities in the framework for understanding their primary impact (i.e. concentration reductions) and secondary impacts (e.g. energy use and by-product production). Furthermore, both primary and secondary impacts are moderated by the specific indoor context in which an air cleaner is used. This investigation explores the dynamics of removal efficiency in a variety of air cleaners and combines efficiency and flow rate to put air cleaning in the context of real indoor environments. This allows for the direct comparison to other indoor pollutant loss mechanisms (ventilation and deposition) and further suggests that effective air cleaner use is context and contaminant specific. The concentration reduction impacts of air cleaning need to be contrasted with the secondary consequences that arise from the use of air cleaners. This study emphasizes two important secondary consequences: energy use of the air cleaning process and primary and secondary emissions from air cleaners. This study also identifies current research challenges and areas for large leaps in our understanding of the role of air cleaners in improving indoor environmental quality. PMID:25689321

  11. Minimization of the formation of disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; Ali, Mohamed E M; Yoon, Yeoman

    2012-09-01

    The drinking water industry is required to minimize DBPs levels while ensuring adequate disinfection. In this study, efficient and appropriate treatment scheme for the reduction of disinfection by-product (DBPs) formation in drinking water containing natural organic matter has been established. This was carried out by the investigation of different treatment schemes consisting of enhanced coagulation, sedimentation, disinfection by using chlorine dioxide/ozone, filtration by sand filter, or granular activated carbon (GAC). Bench scale treatment schemes were applied on actual samples from different selected sites to identify the best conditions for the treatment of water. Samples were collected from effluent of each step in the treatment train in order to analyze pH, UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). The obtained results indicated that using pre-ozonation/enhanced coagulation/activated carbon filtration treatment train appears to be the most effective method for reducing DBPs precursors in drinking water treatment. PMID:22591848

  12. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This overview compiles the on-going research in Europe to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the reaction mechanisms and pathways associated with the combustion of an increased range of fuels. Focus is given to the formation of a large number of hazardous minor pollutants and the inability of current combustion models to predict the  formation of minor products such as alkenes, dienes, aromatics, aldehydes and soot nano-particles which have a deleterious impact on both the environment and on human health. Cleaner Combustion describes, at a fundamental level, the reactive chemistry of min

  13. REDUCTION OF LINT CLEANER NOISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard, fan-type doffing brush cylinders in three Continental Eagle Model 24D lint cleaners were replaced with experimental solid-wound brush cylinders at a commercial gin in Marked Tree, AR, in order to evaluate their capability to reduce noise and to survive in the rigorous commercial enviro...

  14. CO{sub 2}-minimized iron and steel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepplinger, W.L. [Univ. of Leoben, Inst. for Process Engineering, Leoben (Austria); Millner, R.; Schrey, G. [VOEST-ALPINE Industrienanlagenbau GmbH, Dept. of Corex(R) and Direct Reduction Integration, Linz (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    General issues concerning carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector are discussed, and the relevance of the COREX(R) process to steelmaking using the COREX(R)/DR/EAF route in comparison with the COREX(R)/BOF route is described. Results show that the COREX(R) process is a new approach to clean iron making and a new way of contributing to the progress in minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. Using the COREX(R)/BOF steelmaking route carbon dioxide emissions reductions of as much as 1,134 kg per ton of liquid steel can be achieved. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. PMID:25898079

  16. Application of random variable fuzzy recognition model in cleaner production assessment%随机可变模糊识别模型在清洁生产评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 刘保东

    2013-01-01

    The random variable fuzzy recognition model was established for the coexistence of randomness and fuzziness in cleaner production assessment. A random term obeying normal distribution was introduced to the variable fuzzy recognition model, so the randomness and fuzziness could be studied simultaneously. Four random fuzzy recognition submodels were generated by controlling the distance parameter p and the optimization parameter a, and then according to the 3σ principle of normal distribution, after choosing a reasonable confidence, the grade was identified by the confidence interval of grade feature value. Compared with the scoring model of centesimal system, this model could cut down the effect of subjective preference on assessment results, and could improve the maneuverability and accuracy in evaluation process. The experimental results showed that the random variable fuzzy recognition model could evaluate the cleaner production level accurately, which could also provide a reference for cleaner production assessment.%针对清洁生产评价中模糊性与随机性并存的问题,建立随机可变模糊识别模型.向可变模糊识别模型中引入一个服从正态分布的随机项,同步研究模糊性和随机性.通过控制模型中距离参数p和优化准则参数α,得到4个随机模糊识别子模型,随后根据正态分布3σ原则,选择合理的置信度,得到级别特征值的置信区间,以此判断隶属级别.该模型与传统百分制评分模型相比削减了主观偏好对评价结果的影响,提高了评价的可操作性和准确性.实例结果证明随机可变模糊识别模型能准确评价清洁生产水平,为清洁生产评价工作提供参考.

  17. Experimental Study on Minimization of Sludge Production by Ozonation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何圣兵; 薛罡; 王宝贞; 王琳

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis of reducing sludge production under cryptic growth conditions, ozone was used as cell lysis agent to treat excess sludge,and then the ozonated supernatant was returned to the aeration tank. The results show that COD and NH+4-N removal efficiencies in ozonation process were 87.96% and 84.42%, respectively. Meanwhile, a low excess sludge yield coefficient of 0. 113 ( g SS/g COD removed) was obtained. Compared with that of the control test, the process configuration decreased the excess sludge production by 51.3%.

  18. Nanostructured intense-laser cleaner

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiao Feng; Kong, Qing; Wang, Ping Xiao; Yu, Qin; Gu, Yan Jan; Qu, Jun Fan

    2016-01-01

    A nanostructured target is proposed to enhance an intense-laser contrast: when a laser prepulse is injected on a nanostructured solid target surface, the prepulse is absorbed effectively by the nanostructured surface. The nanostructure size should be less than the laser wavelength. After the prepulse absorption, the front part of the main pulse destroys the microstructure and makes the surface a flat plasma mirror. The body of the main pulse is reflected almost perfectly. Compared with the plasma mirrors, the nanostructured surface is effective for the absorption of the intense laser prepulse, higher than 10^14 W/cm2. By the nanostructured laser cleaner, the laser pulse contrast increases about a hundredfold. The nanostructured laser cleaner works well for near-future intense lasers.

  19. Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

  20. Successes emerge in search for cleaner processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with mounting public and regulatory pressures, many chemical producers have long adopted pollution reduction efforts. But increasingly, firms are eyeing fundamental process changes to achieve cleaner technologies. In addition to environmental benefits, the promised economic payoffs are clear: higher yields and an escape from soaring waste treatment and disposal costs. Having such technologies, says Paolo Galli, Montecatini's (Milan) director/corporate research, is a tremendous tool. It's becoming an increasingly important competitive element. Indeed, suggests David Hyde, ICI's (London) manager/environmental technology, everyone is looking to use cleaner technologies for a competitive advantage. A number of leading technology groups, including UOP (Des Plaines, IL), are working on replacing hydrofluoric acid (HF) with solid catalysts in alkylation processes. Although it is technologically tough to replace HF or alternative sulfuric acid technology, the rewards could be huge in producing high-octane fuel additives. Catalytica (Mountain View, CA), for one, is building a pilot plant with partners Neste (Helsinki) and Du Pont's Conoco. The company has developed a process to manufacture high-purity DMC by direct synthesis from carbom monoxide, methanol, and oxygen. The medium-pressure process uses a copper salts catalyst system; EniChem says the only significant by-product is carbon dioxide, and there are no chlorinated impurities

  1. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canevari, G.P. [Canevari (Gerard P.), Cranford, NJ (United States); Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States); Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  2. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  3. Design of Wireless Remote Control Solar Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhicai; Li Ling; Fu Yanliang; Tao Shaoshu; Cui Zhenyue; Bi Lulu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the operation principle and the hardware composition of the wireless remote control cleaner by adopting solar panel power supply mode in detail. The experimental circuit is designed and on based on the designed experimental circuit the wireless remote control solar cleaner is made. The experimental results show that it is feasible that the combination of solar panels and wireless remote control cleaner.

  4. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sabaliauskaitė; Kliaugaitė, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC) production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and materi...

  5. Single top production at HERA in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H1 Collaboration at the DESY electron-proton collider HERA has observed, in photoproduction and neutral-current deep-inelastic scattering, an unexpected excess of events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum, especially at large values of hadronic transverse momentum - a signature typical for single top-quark production. This observation is being substantiated in the HERA II run. Motivated by this, we evaluate the cross section of single top-quark photo- and electroproduction both in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, considering both minimal and non-minimal flavour-violation scenarios in the latter case. (Orig.)

  6. A produção mais limpa como ferramenta da sustentabilidade empresarial: um estudo no estado do Rio Grande do Norte Cleaner production as corporate sustainability tool: a study within companies from Rio Grande do Norte State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handson Claudio Dias Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção mais limpa - PmL como ferramenta da sustentabilidade empresarial através de uma série de estudos de múltiplos casos em empresas do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Para tanto, foi aplicada a metodologia de PmL modelo SEBRAE (2005 em três empresas: uma indústria de alimentos (empresa 1, uma indústria de confecções (empresa 2 e uma concessionária de veículos (empresa 3. Pelos resultados, destacam-se, na empresa 1, ações de substituição de matéria-prima, otimização do uso de água e energia. Na empresa 2, otimização do uso de tecido e modificação tecnológica. Por fim, na empresa 3, as medidas de segregação na fonte e reciclagem externa de resíduos. Contudo, foram evidenciadas melhorias nas vertentes ambiental, social e econômica, preconizadas pela sustentabilidade empresarial. Entretanto, faz-se necessário mais transparência da alta administração no comprometimento com a continuidade das ações para, diante disto, melhor enquadrar a PmL como uma ferramenta da sustentabilidade.The purpose of this stydy was to assess the Cleaner Production - CP as a corporate sustainability tool, through a multiple case study in companies from the State of Rio Grande do Norte. To this end, our research methodology approach used the CP methodology from SEBRAE (2005 and applied it to the food industry (Company 1, the textile industry (Company 2 and to a car dealer (Company 3. Results highlighted, among other variables, the specific sustainability focus of any observed cleaner production activity. In company 1, raw material substitution, optimization of water and energy usage were the main foci. In Company 2, the foci were the optimization of fabric usage and technological modification (installation of washing equipment for the printing plates; before that, there was not control of water usage in this process, resulting in increased water consumption and disposal of waste. Company 3

  7. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  8. Minimizing the Entropy Production of the Methanol Producing Reaction in a Methanol Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelstrup, Signe; Bedeaux, Dick; Johannessen, Eivind; Rosjorde, Audun; Nummedal, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The entropy production of the reaction that produces methanol in a methanol reactor, has been minimized. The results show that the entropy production of the reaction can be reduced by more than 70%. The optimal path through the reactor is characterized by a driving force for the chemical reaction that is close to constant. The entropy production due to heat transfer across the reactor walls in this state is large, however. Variations of the reactor design show that it is possible to accomplis...

  9. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  10. 中马村矿开展清洁生产审核的实践与探索%Practice and Exploration of Cleaner Production Audit in Zhongmacun Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳新建

    2014-01-01

    院节能、降耗、减污、增效是清洁生产的目标,通过采用技术和管理,通过排污审核、筛选等对生产的全过程进行管理,同时采取积极的污染防治措施,进而在一定程度上达到防治工业污染、提高经济效益的目的。中马村矿通过实施清洁生产审核,提高了资源利用率,减少了污染物的排放量,创造出良好的经济、环境效益和社会效益,实现了可持续发展。%Energy conservation, consumption reduction, pollution reduction and efficiency increase are the goal of clean production. Through the use of technology and management, Zhongmacun Mine tried to manage the whole process of production through sewage audit and screening, at the same time took active pollution prevention measures, thus to prevent and control the industrial pollution and improve economic efficiency to a certain extent. Through the implementation of cleaner production audit in Zhongmacun mine, the resource utilization is improved, the pollutant emissions are reduced, and good economic, environmental and social benefits are created, so that the sustainable development is achieved.

  11. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G;

    2011-01-01

    ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work...

  12. Actual problems of municipal cleaners waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-01-01

    In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaners waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  13. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis L.; Bshary R.

    2010-01-01

    Signals increase the fitness of a sender by altering the behaviour of receivers. For cooperative interactions biological market theory proposes that signalling strength may be linked to supply and demand. In this context, a recent laboratory experiment demonstrated that cleaner shrimps may advertise their service to client reef fish and that the advertisement is linked to hunger levels. We investigated signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus in the field to test more detaile...

  14. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  15. A BACKLOG REDUCTION METHOD BY MINIMIZING TOTAL WEIGHTED TARDINESS IN CONWIP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER TAHERIAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the number of backlogs in a MTO production system is very vital in a competitive market. This article tries to develop a method to find appropriate weights for a scheduling oriented objective function and improve a method to minimize the backlog quantities in a make to order production system and CONWIP controlled production considering a scheduling oriented method. This method can be applied to minimize the backlog area by changing the delivery sequences of orders. When the sequences are changed, it causes changes in some order delivery specifications, such delivery lead time of a customer order that can prevent the tardiness in delivery lead time. Studying the statistical behavior of customer orders we will analyze the effect of applying this method on backlog quantities. Using a multi criteria weighting calculation method, Shannon’s Entropy Method, we will calculate the appropriate weights to apply in minimizing the weighted scheduling objective function. A case study has represented in last section of the paper that is suitable to execute in firms with CONWIP production system and for each product.

  16. Queensland releases Cleaner Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Queensland Government is committed to developing gas and electricity markets to deliver lower energy prices and greater choice to consumers. The key features of the 'Cleaner Energy Policy are: 1. facilitate the development of a base-load gas-fired power station in the Townsville region; 2. work with the developers of the PNG gas pipeline to advance the construction of the Townsville to Gladstone section of the pipeline; 3. require energy retailers in Queensland to source 13 percent of their electricity from gas-fired generation as from 1 January 2005. Also, a number of new initiatives have been taken to help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by more than 30 million tonnes over ten years. Considering that in the future will be a world of price penalties for greenhouse gas emissions, this new energy policy could save the State economy around $80 million per year by 2008, totalling $320 million by the end of the first assessment period in 2012

  17. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... specifically address children's toy laser products. FDA recently issued a proposed rule (78 FR 37723) that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft... availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products.'' This...

  18. Minimization of environmental risk by optimization of the end-of-pipe processes

    OpenAIRE

    T. Karkoszka

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper has been an attainment of the thesis that efficient minimization of environmental risk of processes can be realised not only by usage of new technologies creating no contaminants, but also by - fulfilling cleaner production requirements - the ‘end-off-pipe’ solutions. Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has covered optimization of hydrocarbon degradation as the ‘end-of-pipe’ process by determination of the efficiency of hydrocarbons chemical and biologica...

  19. Minimizing the Entropy Production of the Methanol Producing Reaction in a Methanol Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dick Bedeaux; Lars Nummedal; Audun Rosjorde; Eivind Johannessen; Signe Kjelstrup

    2000-01-01

    The entropy production of the reaction that produces methanol in a methanol reactor, has been minimized. The results show that the entropy production of the reaction can be reduced by more than 70%. The optimal path through the reactor is characterized by a driving force for the chemical reaction that is close to constant. The entropy production due to heat transfer across the reactor walls in this state is large, however. Variations of the reactor design show that it is possible to ...

  20. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  1. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  2. Productivity benefits of minimally invasive surgery in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Saavoss JD; Koenig L; Cher DJ

    2016-01-01

    Josh D Saavoss,1 Lane Koenig,1 Daniel J Cher2 1KNG Health Consulting, LLC, Rockville, MD, 2SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA Introduction: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is associated with a marked decrease in quality of life. Increasing evidence supports minimally invasive SIJ fusion as a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. The impact of SIJ fusion on worker productivity is not known. Methods: Regression modeling using data from the National Health ...

  3. A flexible multi-reference perturbation theory by minimizing the Hylleraas functional with matrix product states

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sandeep; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    We describe a formulation of multi-reference perturbation theory that obtains a rigorous upper bound to the second order energy by minimizing the Hylleraas functional in the space of matrix product states (MPS). The first order wavefunctions so obtained can also be used to compute the third order energy with little overhead. Our formulation has several advantages including (i) flexibility with respect to the choice of zeroth order Hamiltonian, (ii) recovery of the exact uncontracted multi-ref...

  4. Metabolites production improvement by identifying minimal genomes and essential genes using flux balance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Abdul Hakim Mohamed; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli Md

    2015-01-01

    With the advancement in metabolic engineering technologies, reconstruction of the genome of host organisms to achieve desired phenotypes can be made. However, due to the complexity and size of the genome scale metabolic network, significant components tend to be invisible. We proposed an approach to improve metabolite production that consists of two steps. First, we find the essential genes and identify the minimal genome by a single gene deletion process using Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and second by identifying the significant pathway for the metabolite production using gene expression data. A genome scale model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of vanillin and acetate is used to test this approach. The result has shown the reliability of this approach to find essential genes, reduce genome size and identify production pathway that can further optimise the production yield. The identified genes and pathways can be extendable to other applications especially in strain optimisation. PMID:26489144

  5. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  6. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  7. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process

  8. Production of liquid wastes by WWER-440 type nuclear power plants and possible minimization thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main sources are given of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and tabulated are the contributions of these sources to the total production of liquid radioactive wastes. The chemical composition of these wastes is given by the consumption of the main types of chemicals. Primary liquid radioactive wastes are processed by a system of waste treatment plants which use ion exchange filters or evaporators with supplementary treatment on ion exchange filters. The possibilities are summed up of the minimization of liquid radioactive waste production. (E.S.)

  9. The Minimal Model of a Diphoton Resonance: Production without Gluon Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Terning, John

    2015-01-01

    We consider the phenomenology of a resonance that couples to photons but not gluons, and estimate its production rate at the LHC from photon-photon fusion in elastic pp scattering using the effective photon and narrow width approximations. The rate is sensitive only to the mass, the spin, the total width of the resonance, and its branching fraction to photons. Production cross sections of 5-10 fb at 13 TeV can be easily accommodated for a 750 GeV resonance with partial photon width of 15 GeV. This provides the minimal explanation of the reported diphoton anomaly in the early LHC Run II data.

  10. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  11. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge;

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  12. Study on cleaner production process for bisphenol fluorene acrylate%双酚芴丙烯酸酯清洁生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国强; 陈昕; 沈力; 胡春青

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol fluorene acrylate plays an important role in the synthesis of the optical resin material. In this study,9,9'-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene (bisphenol fluorene, I ) is synthesized with fluorenone and phenol as raw material. 9,9-Bis(4-oxiranylmethoxyphenyl) fluorene (bisphenol fluorene diglycidyl ether epoxy resin, II ) is prepared by the reaction of I with epichlorohudrin. Finally, II reacts with acrylic acid to get 9,9-bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3acryloyloxy-propoxy)phenyl] fluorene (Bisphenol fluorene acrylic resin, HI). The results indicate that the yield of I is more than 95. 6% and the purity is up to 99. 0% when using the acid catalyzed process and the weak base in the post-process. Moreover,in the presence of dimethylimidazole, the yield of II is up to 92. 8% and the purity is more than 96. 5%. Finally,when using tetrabutylammonium bromide as the catalyst and methoxyphenol as the inhibitor agent,the purity of HI is 96. 0% and the yield is 93. 0%. The total yield of three steps is 83. 0%. The clean production technology is optimized by studying the main factors affecting the reactions.%双酚芴丙烯酸酯是合成光学树脂材料的重要单体,以芴酮和苯酚为起始原料,经缩合反应生成9,9-双(4-羟苯基)芴(双酚芴,Ⅰ);Ⅰ与环氧氯丙烷经醚化、消除反应制得9,9-双[4-(2,3-环氧丙氧基)苯基]芴(双酚芴二缩水甘油醚环氧树脂,Ⅱ);Ⅱ与丙烯酸经亲核加成制得9,9-双[4-(2 '-羟基-3'-丙烯酰-丙氧基)苯基]芴(双酚芴丙烯酸树脂,Ⅲ).研究结果表明:采用强酸催化工艺和弱碱中和的后处理方法,可高收率(>95.6%)、高纯度(>99.0%)和无污染的得到Ⅰ;以二甲基咪唑为催化剂合成Ⅱ,产物纯度>96.5%,收率可达92.8%;以四丁基溴化铵为催化剂,对甲氧基苯酚为阻聚剂合成产品Ⅲ,产品纯度达96.0%,收率为93.0%.三步反应的总收率可达83.0%.通过考察影响各步反应的主要因素,获得了较佳的工艺

  13. Measures to minimize cross-contamination risks in Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Roseti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current European regulations define in vitro expanded cells for clinical purposes as substantially manipulated and include them in the class of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products to be manufactured in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice. These quality requirements are generally thought to be elaborate and costly. However, they ensure three main product characteristics: safety, consistency, and absence of cross-contamination. The term crosscontamination is used to indicate misidentification of one cell line or culture by another. The Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines suggest some recommendations in order to prevent cross-contaminations and require a demonstration that the implemented actions are effective. Here we report some practical examples useful both to minimize crosscontamination risks in an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products production process and to evaluate the efficacy of the adopted measures.

  14. USE OF IMPORT REVOLVING LEVERAGE LEASING IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE RISKS IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Muftahova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the financing form in case of import revolving leverage leasing is described to modernize of fixed assets.In the research process the methods of mathematical modeling are applied.The mathematical model of the generalized method of calculation leasing payments proposed by the authors is represented according to the results of the research.The presented method includes several forms of leasing utilized both in the domestic and in the foreign practice.The novelty of this method consists in the fact that on the basis of the proposed forms of leasing is calculated the sum of leasing payment, which considers with the calculation insu-rance, financial and currency component to minimize losses from downtime due to the limited using of basic production assets of the enterprise in the organization of the production process.The method presented by authors is intended to minimize the risk of downtime of production equipment. This fact will enable us to provide high qualitative and quantitative indicators of the enterprise, stability and continuity of the production process.

  15. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  16. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  17. Combination of decentralized waste drying and SSF techniques for household biowaste minimization and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Vourka, I; Erotokritou, A; Novakovic, J; Panaretou, V; Vakalis, S; Thanos, T; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D

    2016-06-01

    The results of the demonstration of an innovative household biowaste management and treatment scheme established in two Greek Municipalities for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol using dehydrated household biowaste as a substrate, are presented within this research. This is the first time that biowaste drying was tested at a decentralized level for the production of ethanol using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process, at a pilot scale in Greece. The decentralized biowaste drying method proved that the household biowaste mass and volume reduction may reach 80% through the dehydration process used. The chemical characteristics related to lignocellulosic ethanol production have proved to differ substantially between seasons thus; special attention should be given to the process applied for ethanol production mainly regarding the enzyme quality and quantity used during the pretreatment stage. The maximum ethanol production achieved was 29.12g/L, approximately 60% of the maximum theoretical yield based on the substrate's sugar content. The use of the decentralized waste drying as an alternative approach for household biowaste minimization and the production of second generation ethanol is considered to be a promising approach for efficient biowaste management and treatment in the future. PMID:27084105

  18. Pattern recognition minimizes entropy production in a neural network of electrical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the physical principle driving pattern recognition in a previously introduced Hopfield-like neural network circuit (Hölzel and Krischer, 2011 [13]). Effectively, this system is a network of Kuramoto oscillators with a coupling matrix defined by the Hebbian rule. We calculate the average entropy production 〈dS/dt〉 of all neurons in the network for an arbitrary network state and show that the obtained expression for 〈dS/dt〉 is a potential function for the dynamics of the network. Therefore, pattern recognition in a Hebbian network of Kuramoto oscillators is equivalent to the minimization of entropy production for the implementation at hand. Moreover, it is likely that all Hopfield-like networks implemented as open systems follow this mechanism.

  19. Double Higgs production at TeV Colliders in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lafaye, R; Mühlleitner, M M; Moretti, S

    2000-01-01

    The reconstruction of the Higgs potential in the Minimal SupersymmetricStandard Model (MSSM) requires the measurement of the trilinear Higgsself-couplings. The `double Higgs production' subgroup has been investigatingthe possibility of detecting signatures of processes carrying a dependence onthese vertices at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future Linear Colliders(LCs). As reference reactions, we have chosen $gg\\to hh$ and $e^+e^-\\to h h Z$,respectively, where $h$ is the lightest of the MSSM Higgs bosons. In bothcases, the $Hhh$ interaction is involved. For $m_H>2m_h$, the two reactions areresonant in the $H\\to hh$ mode, providing cross sections which are detectableat both accelerators and strongly sensitive to the strength of the trilinearcoupling involved. We explore this mass regime of the MSSM in the $h\\to b\\barb$ decay channel, also accounting for irreducible background effects.

  20. A flexible multi-reference perturbation theory by minimizing the Hylleraas functional with matrix product states

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    We describe a formulation of multi-reference perturbation theory that obtains a rigorous upper bound to the second order energy by minimizing the Hylleraas functional in the space of matrix product states (MPS). The first order wavefunctions so obtained can also be used to compute the third order energy with little overhead. Our formulation has several advantages including (i) flexibility with respect to the choice of zeroth order Hamiltonian, (ii) recovery of the exact uncontracted multi-reference perturbation theory energies in the limit of large MPS bond dimension, (iii) no requirement to compute high body density matrices, (iv) an embarrassingly parallel algorithm (scaling up to the number of virtual orbitals, squared, processors). Preliminary numerical examples show that the MPS bond dimension required for accurate first order wavefunctions scales sub-linearly with the size of the basis.

  1. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end-of-life management. PMID:27060658

  2. Engineering the productivity of recombinant Escherichia coli for limonene formation from glycerol in minimal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willrodt, Christian; David, Christian; Cornelissen, Sjef; Bühler, Bruno; Julsing, Mattijs K; Schmid, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency and productivity of cellular biocatalysts play a key role in the industrial synthesis of fine and bulk chemicals. This study focuses on optimizing the synthesis of (S)-limonene from glycerol and glucose as carbon sources using recombinant Escherichia coli. The cyclic monoterpene limonene is extensively used in the fragrance, food, and cosmetic industries. Recently, limonene also gained interest as alternative jet fuel of biological origin. Key parameters that limit the (S)-limonene yield, related to genetics, physiology, and reaction engineering, were identified. The growth-dependent production of (S)-limonene was shown for the first time in minimal media. E. coli BL21 (DE3) was chosen as the preferred host strain, as it showed low acetate formation, fast growth, and high productivity. A two-liquid phase fed-batch fermentation with glucose as the sole carbon and energy source resulted in the formation of 700 mg L(org) (-1) (S)-limonene. Specific activities of 75 mU g(cdw) (-1) were reached, but decreased relatively quickly. The use of glycerol as a carbon source resulted in a prolonged growth and production phase (specific activities of ≥50 mU g(cdw) (-1) ) leading to a final (S)-limonene concentration of 2,700 mg L(org) (-1) . Although geranyl diphosphate (GPP) synthase had a low solubility, its availability appeared not to limit (S)-limonene formation in vivo under the conditions investigated. GPP rerouting towards endogenous farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) formation also did not limit (S)-limonene production. The two-liquid phase fed-batch setup led to the highest monoterpene concentration obtained with a recombinant microbial biocatalyst to date. PMID:24756896

  3. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes. PMID:27440049

  4. An air cleaner for road tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    an air cleaner employing pulse induced plasma chemical process to remove dust and carbon monoxide (CO) in road tunnels is presented, which is composed of mainly a precipitator, a reactor, a flow control system, a power supply and a measurement system. Its performances are studied in simulated air conditions. It is found that the rate of dust removal is dependent on the voltage of the pulse power, the distance between the two dust collecting plates of the electrostatic precipitator,the effective length of the precipitator and the air flow rate in the precipitator, and that of CO removal is affected by the voltage and frequency of the super pulse power, the air flow rate in the reactor and the relative humidity of air. Applying such an cleaner of a proper design to the treatment of polluted air at a flow rate of 7 m/s can achieve the rate of dust removal up to 93 % and that of CO removal up to 72.6 %, which efficiently controls the concentrations of CO and dust under allowable limits. It is implied that the proposed air cleaner is a potential solution to air control in road tunnels, and is prominent for its performances and saving the huge cost of longitudinal ventilation tunnel or vertical vent and ventilation facilities.

  5. Minimization of total overlay errors on product wafers using an advanced optimization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Preil, Moshe E.; Lord, Patrick J.

    1997-07-01

    The matching of wafer steppers is accomplished typically by patterning two successive layers, using different steppers of interest for each layer, and measuring the overlay at many points in the exposure field. Matching is considered to be optimized when some metric, such the sum-of-squares of overlay errors, is minimized over all measured points within the field. This is to be contrasted to the situation which arises during the in-line measurement of overlay errors in production, where a far more limited sampling of points is involved. There are several consequences to limited sampling. Adjustable intrafield overlay components, such as magnification, may appear to vary up to several parts-per- million as a consequence of varying chip size. These variations are substantially larger than the normal variations of these components for fixed field sizes, and so have significant consequences for the application of statistical methodologies to the control of overlay components. The width of the distribution of overlay errors across the field may typically increase between 10 to 20 nm (3(sigma) ), with even larger increases in mean shifts, all varying with field size. Reticles may also introduce similar variations, both random and systematic. Reticle beam-writer errors lead to systematic intrafield errors, particularly asymmetric field magnification and field skew. Steppers may compensate for these systematic reticle errors, and step- and-scan systems are more effective at this compensation than step-and-repeat machines. For steppers which have process dependent alignment, this compensation must be determined on products, which leads back to the problems associated with limited sampling. Correction for the overlay errors induced by limited sampling may be accomplished by look-up tables incorporated into the overlay analysis software. For each pair of steppers and each sampling plan, corrections can be applied at each measurement point in order to bring the full field and

  6. On bandlimited signals with minimal product of effective spatial and spectral widths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Venkatesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that signals (which could be functions of space or time belonging to 𝕃2-space cannot be localized simultaneously in space/time and frequency domains. Alternatively, signals have a positive lower bound on the product of their effective spatial andeffective spectral widths, for simplicity, hereafter called the effective space-bandwidthproduct (ESBP. This is the classical uncertainty inequality (UI, attributed to many, but, from a signal processing perspective, to Gabor who, in his seminal paper, established the uncertainty relation and proposed a joint time-frequency representation in which the basis functions have minimal ESBP. It is found that the Gaussian function is the only signal that has the lowest ESBP. Since the Gaussian function is not bandlimited, no bandlimited signal can have the lowest ESBP. We deal with the problem of determining finite-energy, bandlimited signals which have the lowest ESBP. The main result is as follows. By choosing the convolution product of a Gaussian signal (with σ as the variance parameter and a bandlimited filter with a continuous spectrum, we demonstrate that there exists a finite-energy, bandlimited signal whose ESBP can be made to be arbitrarily close (dependent on the choice of σ to the optimal value specified by the UI.

  7. Development of minimal fermentation media supplementation for ethanol production using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Alessia; Wilson, David; Cicero, Nicola; Potortì, Angela G; La Torre, Giovanna L; Dugo, Giacomo; Richardson, David; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    Ethanol production by fermentation is strongly dependent on media composition. Specific nutrients, such as trace elements, vitamins and nitrogen will affect the physiological state and, consequently, the fermentation performance of the micro-organism employed. The purpose of this study has been to assess the highest ethanol production by a minimal medium, instead of the more complex nutrients supplementation used during alcoholic fermentation. All fermentation tests were carried out using a microwell plate reader to monitor the processes. Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (NCYC 2826 and NCYC 3445) were tested using three nitrogen sources, supplied with different vitamin and salts. The results show that solutions made of urea phosphate, KCl, MgSO4·7H2O, Ca-panthothenate, biotin allowed an ethanol yield of 22.9 and 23.4 g/L for strain NCYC 2826 and NCYC 3445, respectively, representing 90 and 92% of the theoretical yield. All tests were carried out using glucose as common reference carbon source. PMID:26469871

  8. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended. PMID:24865435

  9. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same...... social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment....

  10. Thermodynamic length, time, speed, and optimum path to minimize entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diósi, L.; Kulacsy, K.; Lukács, B.; Rácz, A.

    1996-12-01

    In addition to the Riemannian metricization of the thermodynamic state space, local relaxation times offer a natural time scale, too. Generalizing existing proposals, we relate a thermodynamic time scale to the standard kinetic coefficients of irreversible thermodynamics. The notion of thermodynamic speed is generalized to higher dimensions. Criteria for minimum entropy production in slow, slightly irreversible processes are discussed. Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for optimum thermodynamic control for fixed clock time period as well as for fixed thermodynamic time period. It is emphasized that the correct derivation of the principle of constant thermodynamic speed, proposed earlier by others, requires the entropy minimization at fixed thermodynamic time instead of clock-time. Most remarkably, optimum paths are Riemannian geodesics which would not be the case had we used ordinary time. To interpret thermodynamic time, an easy-to-implement stepwise algorithm is constructed to realize control at constant thermodynamic speed. Thermodynamic time is shown to correspond to the number of steps, and the sophisticated task of determining thermodynamic time in real control problems is achieved by measuring ordinary intensive variables.

  11. Minimal Degrees of Faithful Quasi-Permutation Representations for Direct Products of -Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghodrat Ghaffarzadeh; Mohammad Hassan Abbaspour

    2012-08-01

    In [2], the algorithms of $c(G), q(G)$ and $p(G)$, the minimal degrees of faithful quasi-permutation and permutation representations of a finite group are given. The main purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between these minimal degrees of non-trivial -groups and with the group × .

  12. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  13. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr-1. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr-1. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  14. Estrutura organizacional para a difusão da produção mais limpa: uma contribuição da metodologia seis sigma na constituição de redes intra-organizacionais Organizational structure for cleaner production diffusion: a contribution of the six sigma methodology to the creation of intra-organizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Cerávolo Calia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A "Produção Mais Limpa" é uma metodologia criada para aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental das manufaturas. Devido a sua importância para o desenvolvimento sustentável, a Produção Mais Limpa foi amplamente promovida pela Organização das Nações Unidas e por diversas redes de organizações visando à difusão desta metodologia. No entanto, após mais de dez anos de atuação, estas redes para a difusão da Produção Mais Limpa têm se confrontado com significativas e recorrentes barreiras organizacionais que limitam seu desempenho. Utilizando-se do referencial teórico de "organizações em rede" no contexto da inovação, este artigo se baseia num aprofundado estudo de caso sobre uma estrutura organizacional em rede dentro de uma empresa multinacional que opera dezenas de manufaturas em diversos países. Esta empresa triplicou o desempenho ambiental em toneladas de poluição prevenidas e multiplicou em oito vezes o número de projetos de Produção Mais Limpa bem sucedidos, após ter implementado uma estrutura organizacional em rede para aumentar sua capacidade de gerenciar projetos para a melhoria de processos. Para explicar os motivos de tal aumento de desempenho ambiental, o artigo utiliza a metodologia de modelagem organizacional Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD para descrever as interações entre os objetivos, regras e processos do Programa de Produção Mais Limpa desta corporação, assim como as suas estruturas de relacionamento entre os atores que viabilizaram a integração das competências necessárias para a geração de uma maior capacidade de inovação ambientalmente sustentável nas manufaturas.Cleaner Production is a methodology to improve environmental sustainability in manufacturers. Due to its importance for sustainable development, the United Nations and many regional networks have taken on the responsibility to diffuse Cleaner Production methodology. After more than ten years of activity, however, these

  15. Auto Disinfectant Cleaner using AVR microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huned

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The trend of microcontroller in industrial as well as domestic application is increasing now-a-days. The use of microcontroller is increasing due to the following advantages/features of controller such as Processor reset, Device clocking, central processor, RAM, I/O pins and Instruction cycle timers. There are two types ofmicrocontroller available. They are- Embedded (8,16,32-bit and Digital Signal Processors. Now-a-days advanced controllers such as PIC, ARM and AVR are widely used in which AVR is used mostly due to several advantages. The disinfectant cleaner used by doctors to clean the medical instruments specially used in Endoscopy are very large in size, bulky and costly. The design of Disinfectant Cleaner is cost effective, light in weight, mobile and user friendly. Atmel AVR 8- and 32-bit microcontrollers deliver a unique combination of performance, power efficiency, and design flexibility. Optimized to speed time to market, they are based on the industry's most code-efficient architecture for C and assembly programming. No other microcontrollers deliver more computing performance with better power efficiency.

  16. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    The CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory* initiative is a distributed network for research on complex environmental systems that focuses on the intersecting water-related issues of both the CUAHSI and CLEANER communities. It emphasizes research on the nation's water resources related to human-dominated natural and built environments. The network will be comprised of: interacting field sites with an integrated cyberinfrastructure; a centralized technical resource staff and management infrastructure to support interdisciplinary research through data collection from advanced sensor systems, data mining and aggregation from multiple sources and databases; cyber-tools for analysis, visualization, and predictive multi-scale modeling that is dynamically driven. As such, the network will transform 21st century workforce development in the water-related intersection of environmental science and engineering, as well as enable substantial educational and engagement opportunities for all age levels. The scientific goal and strategic intent of the CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Network is to transform our understanding of the earth's water cycle and associated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporal scales-enabling quantitative forecasts of critical water-related processes, especially those that affect and are affected by human activities. This strategy will develop scientific and engineering tools that will enable more effective adaptive approaches for resource management. The need for the network is based on three critical deficiencies in current abilities to understand large-scale environmental processes and thereby develop more effective management strategies. First we lack basic data and the infrastructure to collect them at the needed resolution. Second, we lack the means to integrate data across scales from different media (paper records, electronic worksheets, web-based) and sources (observations, experiments, simulations). Third, we lack sufficiently accurate

  17. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  18. Pipe-cleaner Model of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Eve

    2016-01-01

    We present a functional model of neuronal network connectivity in which the single architectural element is the object commonly known in handicraft circles as a pipe cleaner. We argue that the dual nature of a neuronal circuit - that it be at times highly robust to external manipulation and yet sufficiently flexible to allow for learning and adaptation - is embodied in the pipe cleaner, and thus that a pipe cleaner framework serves as an instructive scaffold in which to examine network dynamics. Regarding the dynamics themselves: as pipe cleaners possess no intrinsic dynamics, in our model we attribute the emergent circuit dynamics to magic. Magic is a strategy that has been largely neglected in the neuroscience community, and may serve as an illuminating comparison to the common physics-based approaches. This model makes predictions that it would be really awesome to test experimentally. Moreover, the relative simplicity of the pipe cleaner - setting aside the fact that it comes in an overwhelming variety of...

  19. Simultaneous determination of preventive maintenance and replacement policies in a queue-like production system with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the joint effects of preventive maintenance and replacement policies on a queue-like production system with minimal repair at failures. We consider a policy which calls for a preventive maintenance operation whenever N parts have been processed. If a failure occurs and at least K preventive maintenance operations have been carried out, the system is replaced by a new one. Otherwise, a failure is handled by minimal repair. An analytical model is developed and the argument of renewal-reward theory is used to provide long-run expected profit per unit time for a given maintenance and replacement policy. Numerical examples are given to provide some managerial insights

  20. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  1. Risk Minimization for Insurance Products via F-Doubly Stochastic Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Biagini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study risk-minimization for a large class of insurance contracts. Given that the individual progress in time of visiting an insurance policy’s states follows an F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we describe different state-dependent types of insurance benefits. These cover single payments at maturity, annuity-type payments and payments at the time of a transition. Based on the intensity of the F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we provide the Galtchouk-Kunita-Watanabe decomposition for a general insurance contract and specify risk-minimizing strategies in a Brownian financial market setting. The results are further illustrated explicitly within an affine structure for the intensity.

  2. Effects of noncontact cleaners on transparent solar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, H.L.; Lind, M.A.

    1979-04-01

    A brief study has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of noncontact cleaning agents for use on solar collectors. Several techniques are used to compare cleansing agents which have been recommended by their respective manufacturers for cleaning solar mirrors. Wetting and residue buildup properties are evaluated for over 50 of these commercially available cleaners. The wetting properties of each cleaner are evaluated by measuring the growth of the contact area of a constant volume drop as a function of time. Losses due to residue buildup are solar weighted and considered equally with the wetting parameters and cost figures to construct a figure of merit for cleaner comparison.

  3. The Right Choice for Production Patterns to Minimize Cost of Incremental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Wijaya

    2011-04-01

    of 3,330,267,500 IDR. For Constant production patterns can lead to costs amounting to 3,696,317,500 IDR whereas if the company uses pattern Moderate production costs to be incurred amounted to 3,289,417,500 IDR. From the results of this study showed that moderate production patterns have the smallest Incremental costs compared to the wavy or constant patterns of production.

  4. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The...... reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no...

  5. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. PMID:25837297

  6. Minimization of environmental risk by optimization of the end-of-pipe processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karkoszka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper has been an attainment of the thesis that efficient minimization of environmental risk of processes can be realised not only by usage of new technologies creating no contaminants, but also by - fulfilling cleaner production requirements - the ‘end-off-pipe’ solutions. Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has covered optimization of hydrocarbon degradation as the ‘end-of-pipe’ process by determination of the efficiency of hydrocarbons chemical and biological degradation and evaluation of the effect of the initial content of the hydrogen peroxide on alkanes biodegradation.Findings: of analysis are as follows: both chemical and biological oxidation is a straight forward method for decreasing hydrocarbon concentration in the production wastewater, so - the possibility of optimization of the ‘end-of-pipe’ process.Practical implications: can be applied in case of any organisation, which, because of financial or technological reasons, minimizes the concentration of hydrocarbons draining off to the environment by the ‘end-off-pipe’ technologies.Originality/value: of the presented paper has been created by confirmation that application of the best available technologies is not the only way for efficient fulfilling legal requirements of integrated pollution prevention and control directive and cleaner production strategy assumptions.

  7. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in...

  8. Roving and Service Quality in the Cleaner Wrasse Labroides bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, Jennifer; Manica, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus occupies fixed ‘cleaning stations’ on coral reefs, which ‘client’ reef fish visit repeatedly to have parasites removed. Conflict arises because cleaners prefer to cheat by feeding on client mucus instead of parasites. Clients can prevent L. dimidiatus from always cheating using control mechanisms such as chasing and partner switching, which depend on repeated interactions. These control mechanisms would be undermined in the absence of frequent repeated ...

  9. Radioiodination of human growth hormone with characterization and minimization of the commonly defined 'damaged products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodination and chromatographic purification of human growth hormone (hGH) has been studied in order to better define and control the so-called 'preparation damage', which is often a cause of interferences, loss in specific activity and sensitivity, misclassification errors in radioligand assays, and a source of misinterpretation when the tracer is used in receptors or in vivo studies. A series of labelings and false labelings, with and without protein carrier in the buffer used for Sephadex purification, indicate that the 'preparation damage' peak is made up of two components: aggregated 125I-hGH and BSA-carried radioactivity. The former can be minimized by the use of recently extracted non-lyophilized hGH, and the latter by enzymatic labeling. Both components can be better resolved, and thus eliminated, when Sephadex G-100 is employed rather than G-75. (Auth.)

  10. Entropy generation minimization for a packed bed reactor in nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a promising method to produce hydrogen with nuclear energy. In this paper, the fluid flow and heat transfer processes are examined for a packed bed chemical reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle. The heat transfer rate is predicted by a heat-momentum analogy for external flow over a particle, using the friction factor and Reynolds number. The Nusselt number correlation compares well against three prior methods to predict the Nusselt number in a packed bed (for various combinations of the void fraction, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers). The analysis is extended to minimize the entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid flow irreversibilities in the packed bed reactor. (author)

  11. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Padmanaba; Corlett, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical prod...

  12. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  13. Implementation of a Gibbs energy minimizer in a fission-product release computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOURCE 2.0 is the Canadian computer program for calculating fractional release of fission products from the UO2 fuel matrix. In nuclear accidents, fission-product release from fuel is one of the physical steps required before radiation dose from fission products can affect the public. Fission-product release calculations are a step in the analysis path to calculating dose consequences to the public from postulated nuclear accidents. SOURCE 2.0 contains a 1997 model of fission-product vaporization by B.J. Corse et al. based on lookup tables generated with the FACT computer program. That model was tractable on computers of that day. However, the understanding of fuel thermochemistry has advanced since that time. Additionally, computational resources have significantly improved since the time of the development of the Corse model and now allow incorporation of the more-rigorous thermodynamic treatment. Combining the newer Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) thermodynamic model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel, a new model for fission-product vaporization from the fuel surface, a commercial user-callable thermodynamics subroutine library (ChemApp), an updated nuclide list, and updated nuclear physics data, a prototype computer program based on SOURCE IST 2.0P11 has been created that performs thermodynamic calculations internally. The resulting prototype code (with updated and revised data) provides estimates of 140La releases that are in better agreement with experiments than the original code version and data. The improvement can be quantified by a reduction in the mean difference between experimental and calculated release fractions from 0.70 to 0.07. 140La is taken to be representative of “low-volatile” fission products. To ensure that the existing acceptable performance for noble gases and volatile fission products is not adversely affected by the changes, comparisons were also made for a representative noble gas, 85Kr, and a representative volatile

  14. The NNSA global threat reduction initiative's efforts to minimize the use of highly enriched uranium for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) is to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. GTRI is a key organization for supporting domestic and global efforts to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications. GTRI implements the following activities in order to achieve its threat reduction and HEU minimization objectives: Converting domestic and international civilian research reactors and isotope production facilities from the use of HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU); Demonstrating the viability of medical isotope production technologies that do not use HEU; Removing or disposing excess nuclear and radiological materials from civilian sites worldwide; and Protecting high-priority nuclear and radiological materials worldwide from theft and sabotage. This paper provides a brief overview on the recent developments and priorities for GTRI program activities in 2010, with a particular focus on GTRI's efforts to demonstrate the viability of non-HEU based medical isotope production technologies. (author)

  15. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2)L quintuplet and a scalar SU(2)L septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations

  16. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Mayumi [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS - UMR 8627, Université de Paris-Sud 11,F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vicente, Avelino [IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège,Bat B5, Sart-Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València,Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-09-29

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2){sub L} quintuplet and a scalar SU(2){sub L} septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations.

  17. Benchmarking a fission-product release computer program containing a Gibbs energy minimizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program SOURCE IST 2.0 contains a 1997 model of fission-product vaporization, developed by B.J. Corse et al. That model was tractable on computers of that day. However, the understanding of fuel thermochemistry has advanced since that time. A new prototype computer program was developed with: a) newer Royal Military College of Canada thermodynamic model of uranium dioxide fuel, b) new model for fission-product vaporization from the fuel surface, c) a user-callable thermodynamics subroutine library, d) an updated nuclear data library, and e) an updated nuclide generation and depletion algorithm. The prototype has been benchmarked against experimental results. (author)

  18. Minimizing the environmental footprint of livestock production: which measure to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing and wealthier human population implies an increase in demand for their needs, such as housing, infrastructure, energy and food, including animal-source food. Current animal production levels, however, already pose severe pressure on the environment, via their emissions to air, water and so

  19. INTERIM REPORT ON PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) MINIMIZATION IN A RESEARCH COMBUSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of five organic compounds (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, Freon-113, carbon tetrachloride and chlorobenzene) were burned in heptane in a 100,000 Btu/hour water-jacketed research combustor in order to determine what, if any, PICs (Products of Incomplete Com...

  20. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Single top and Higgs associated production in the minimal $B-L$ model at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bingfang; Han, Jinzhong; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the single top production in association with a Higgs boson in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of the Standard Model at the LHC. We calculate the production cross sections of the processes $pp\\rightarrow thX(h=H_{1},H_{2};X=j,b,W)$ in this model. Then we further study the observability of the process $pp\\rightarrow tH_{2}j$ through $pp\\rightarrow t(\\rightarrow q\\bar{q'} b)H_{2}(\\rightarrow 4\\ell)j$. We find that the systematic significance can be improved obviously, but it is still challenging for the 14 TeV LHC with high-luminosity to detect this signal.

  2. Single and double production of the Higgs boson at hadron and lepton colliders in minimal composite Higgs models

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.

  3. Single and double production of the Higgs boson at hadron and lepton colliders in minimal composite Higgs models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Kaneta, Kunio; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at the LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.

  4. Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

    2013-02-01

    Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 × 10-6 and 4.04 × 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

  5. Integrated side-stream reactor for biological nutrient removal and minimization of sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, M; Rovira, S; Canals, J; Colprim, J

    2015-01-01

    Integrated processes to reduce in situ the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants are gaining attention in order to facilitate excess sludge management. In contrast to post-treatments, such as anaerobic digestion which is placed between the activated sludge system and dewatering processes, integrated technologies are placed in the sludge return line. This study evaluates the application of an anoxic side-stream reactor (SSR) which creates a physiological shock and uncouples the biomass metabolism and diverts the activity from assimilation for biosynthesis to non-growth activities. The effect of this system in biological nutrient removal for both nitrogen and phosphorus was evaluated for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic reactors. The RedOx potential within the SSR was maintained at -150 mV while the sludge loading rate was modified by increasing the percentage of recycled activated sludge feed to the SSR (0 and 40% at laboratory scale and 0, 10, 50 and 100% at pilot scale). The use of the SSR presented a slight reduction of phosphorus removal but maintained the effluent quality to the required discharge values. Nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 75 to 86% while reducing the sludge production rate by 18.3%. PMID:25860709

  6. Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2006-06-22

    Humans are highly social animals and often help unrelated individuals that may never reciprocate the altruist's favour. This apparent evolutionary puzzle may be explained by the altruist's gain in social image: image-scoring bystanders, also known as eavesdroppers, notice the altruistic act and therefore are more likely to help the altruist in the future. Such complex indirect reciprocity based on altruistic acts may evolve only after simple indirect reciprocity has been established, which requires two steps. First, image scoring evolves when bystanders gain personal benefits from information gathered, for example, by finding cooperative partners. Second, altruistic behaviour in the presence of such bystanders may evolve if altruists benefit from access to the bystanders. Here, we provide experimental evidence for both of the requirements in a cleaning mutualism involving the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners may cooperate and remove ectoparasites from clients or they may cheat by feeding on client mucus. As mucus may be preferred over typical client ectoparasites, clients must make cleaners feed against their preference to obtain a cooperative service. We found that eavesdropping clients spent more time next to 'cooperative' than 'unknown cooperative level' cleaners, which shows that clients engage in image-scoring behaviour. Furthermore, trained cleaners learned to feed more cooperatively when in an 'image-scoring' than in a 'non-image-scoring' situation. PMID:16791194

  7. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning......Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... on the impact category. The largest potential of the technology is observed for high-ash lignites, with initial ash content above 30%, for which the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal can outweigh the environmental burden of cleaning for some impact categories. Overall, we recommend to policy...

  8. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L.; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a “local noun” (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an “attractor”) within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with “rich” inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that

  9. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a "local noun" (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an "attractor") within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with "rich" inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that proximity to a

  10. Minimal resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenbach, C.

    1994-01-01

    Minimal resolution restricts the applicability of resolution and factorization to minimal literals. Minimality is an abstract criterion. It is shown that if the minimality criterion satisfies certain properties minimal resolution is sound and complete. Hyper resolution, ordered resolution and lock resolution are known instances of minimal resolution. We also introduce new instances of the general completeness result, correct some mistakes in existing literature and give some general redundanc...

  11. ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product 99Mo acid waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program is to limit the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors by substituting low-enriched uranium (LEU) wherever possible. The work reported here documents technical progress in our partnership with MDS Nordion (MSDN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN of France to convert the 99Mo production in the MAPLE reactors and the New Processing Facility at AECL Chalk River Laboratories from the use of HEU targets to LEU targets. The role of Argonne National Laboratory and the Chemical Engineering Division in the program is to work with MDSN to minimize the impact of conversion on the efficiency and reliability of their production effort. The primary concern with the conversion to LEU from HEU targets is that it would result in a five fold increase in the total uranium. This increase is likely to result in more liquid waste from the process. We have been working with MDSN/AECL/SGN to minimize liquid waste volume and the effects of 5 times more uranium on waste treatment and storage. The planned process for solidifying high level fissile waste from the processing of HEU targets in the New Processing Facility will use calcination of the uranium waste solution. This method generates NO2 gas and UO3 solid. We have studied two processes for treating the uranium-rich liquid waste from a LEU-based process for MDSN: (1) an optimized direct calcination process that is similar to the planned process, and (2), a calcination of uranyl oxalate precipitate. The specific goal of the work reported here was to characterize the chemical reactions that occur during these two processes. In particular, the compositions of the gaseous and solid products were of interest. A series of experiments was carried out to show the effects of temperature and the redox potential of the reaction atmosphere. The primary products of the direct calcination process were mixtures of U3O8 and UO3 solids

  12. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  13. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  14. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  15. Simulation of particle distribution in a room with air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2012-01-01

    Ventilation is one of the ways that humans can keep the indoor air quality at the proper level. Portable air cleaners have been developed to improve indoor air quality while reducing the energy consumption of the ventilation system. The aim of this study is to find the correct turbulence model an...

  16. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when ozone is expected to be high: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperature. Choose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when possible. Refuel cars ...

  17. Dynamic monitoring of the dust pickup efficiency of vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Trakumas, Saulius; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a new method that uses an optical aerosol photometer for dynamically monitoring dust pickup efficiency during vacuuming. In the first stage of this study the new method was compared with built-in dirt sensors installed by vacuum cleaner manufacturers. Through parallel testing it has been shown that the widely available built-in dirt sensors are not sensitive enough to register small (vinyl sheet flooring. This method also was used to monitor dust pickup efficiency when vacuuming carpets originating from lead-contaminated homes. The dust pickup efficiencies obtained with the optical aerosol photometer have been compared with the surface lead concentrations found during different stages of cleaning. Results indicate that the dust mass concentration registered with the optical aerosol photometer at the nozzle outlet correlates well with the dust mass collected in the vacuum cleaner filter bag and with the surface lead level. Therefore, dynamic dust pickup monitoring can provide valuable information about the efficiency of cleaning when a vacuum cleaner is used. This suggests that a small aerosol photometer similar to a light-scattering smoke detector would be beneficial in vacuum cleaners used for cleaning surfaces contaminated with leaded dust and biological particles (including allergens). PMID:12570075

  18. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    OpenAIRE

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  19. Trade Growth, Production Fragmentation, and China's Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Judith M.; Lovely, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Trade growth for a relatively poor country is thought to shift the composition of industrial output towards dirtier products, aggravating environmental damage. China's rapidly growing trade and serious environmental degradation appear to be no exception. However, much of China's trade growth is attributable to the international fragmentation of production. This kind of trade could be cleaner, if fragmented production occurs in cleaner goods, or if China specializes in cleaner stages of produc...

  20. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  1. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit; Munch, Kris

    developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model is to...... results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution to the...... regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  2. Fuel cells for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells offer one of the most promising technologies for the production of clean energy, both for transportation and for stationary production of electricity and heating. Currently, more than 100 billion m3 gas are flared each year because it has no market. If this gas were converted to methanol, the emission of greenhouse gases would be substantially reduced. Methanol is produced and distributed all over the globe and 99% of the infrastructure is present. Thus, if used as energy source for fuel cells, this may be the optimum solution for a clean environment. Although the concept is simple, a transition from a hydrocarbon-based economy to one based on hydrogen is a great technological and financial challenge. For the fuel cell technology to play an important role in energy production, it must be introduced on a large scale. This can be done by means of methanol

  3. Investment in biogas for energy purposes to promote cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Cuba, by the characteristics of a developing country characteristics, formulation and evaluation of projects is a critical task, since the decision to invest means sacrificing the opportunity to meet current needs for different and long-term alternatives. The assessment prior to the execution of a project is proposed as the aim of the present study, as a crucial task that contributes to amendments or self-definition. The results should be directed to the analysis of development trends in the energy environment which indicates the increase of the contribution of renewable energy sources as a viable to meet global demand for energy efficient and sustainable way. For that reason, it has encouraged the use of biogas as the most important fuel of the future, since the materials required for processing and construction of the necessary facilities are within reach of many first-world economies as countries developmental. History: Specific methods of pollution trends in the province; Description: Evaluation of investment within the life cycle of the investment project. Techniques and instruments: Direct observation; Structured surveys and use of specialized software: Excel, QSB, Statgraphics. The research is justified and concludes that the project Swine Genetics UEB Cienfuegos achieved energy independence, as well as sales to 13.7 MW annual energy electro National System (SEN). (full text)

  4. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able to...

  5. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak; Rafał L. Górny; Anna Ławniczek-Wałczyk; Marcin Cyprowski; Agata Stobnicka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during...

  6. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  7. Review of the minimal SU(3)C x SU(3)L x U(1)N model and production of single charged bilepton in e- γcollisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the production of new gauge bosons of lepton number two (bileptons) in the minimal 3-3-1 models in high energy e- γ collisions. If mass of the bileptons is in a range of 300 GeV the reaction will give observable cross-sections in the future colliders. (Author)

  8. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.R. [University of Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Biology; DeLaune, R.D.; Jugsujinda, A. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute

    2001-07-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m{sup 2} plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled+cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled+cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO{sub 2} fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled+cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia. (Author)

  9. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  10. Low-Pressure Generator Makes Cleanrooms Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Kennedy Space Center work in cleanrooms: laboratories with high degrees of cleanliness provided by strict control of particles such as dust, lint, or human skin. They are contaminant-free facilities, where the air is repeatedly filtered, and surfaces are smooth to prevent particles from getting lodged. Technicians working in these environments wear specially designed cleanroom "bunny suits" and booties over their street clothes, as well as gloves and face masks to avoid any contamination that may be imparted from the outside world. Even normal paper is not allowed in cleanrooms, only cleanroom low-particulate paper. These are sensitive environments where precision work, like the production of silicon chips or hard disk drives, is performed. Often in cleanrooms, positive air pressure is used to force particles outside of the isolated area. The air pressure in the Kennedy cleanrooms is monitored using high-accuracy, low-differential pressure transducers that require periodic calibration. Calibration of the transducers is a tricky business. In prior years, the analysis was performed by sending the transducers to the Kennedy Standards Laboratory, where a very expensive cross-floated, labor- intensive, dead-weight test was conducted. In the early 1990s, scientists at Kennedy determined to develop a technique and find equipment to perform qualification testing on new low-differential pressure transducers in an accurate, cost-effective manner onsite, without requiring an environmentally controlled room. They decided to use the highly accurate, cost-effective Setra Model C264 as the test transducer. For qualification testing of the Setra, though, a portable, lower-cost calibrator was needed that could control the differential pressure to a high degree of resolution and transfer the accuracy of the Standards Laboratory testing to the qualification testing. The researchers decided that, to generate the low-differential pressure setpoints needed for

  11. 75 FR 447 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2007. 73 FR 2276 (Jan. 14, 2008). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... it determined to review, and on remedy, the public interest and bonding. 74 FR 57192 (Nov. 4, 2009... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and...

  12. Standard Practice for Effects of Cleaners on Unpainted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the procedure used to determine the effect of cleaners on unpainted aircraft surfaces. Visual observation is used for determining streaking or permanent stains which require polishing to remove. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  14. Intelligent Product: Mobile Agent Architecture Integrating the End of Life Cycle (EOL) For minimizing the lunch phase PLM

    OpenAIRE

    Boulaalam, Abdelhak; Nfaoui, El Habib; beqqali, Omar El

    2014-01-01

    To improve the increasingly demands products that are customized, all business activities performed along the product life cycle must be coordinated and efficiently managed along the extended enterprise. For this, enterprise had wanted to retain control over the whole product lifecycle especially when the product is in use/recycling (End Of Life phase). Although there have been many previous research works about product lifecycle management in the beginning of life (BOL) and middle of life (M...

  15. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bing-hui; FAN Bin; PENG Xian-jia; LUAN Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products,wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests.

  16. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bing-hui; Fan, Bin; Peng, Xian-jia; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products, wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests. PMID:16313006

  17. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai; Mariana Rangel Alves de Souza; Natalia Vinhosa Bruno; Édira Castello Branco de Andrade Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Bett...

  18. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  19. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo, Shang-Lien, E-mail: sllo@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tyrone T. [Department of International Business, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Road, Shou-Feng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO{sub 2} emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: > Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. > Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. > Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. > Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  20. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  1. Survival and stress responses of E. coli exposed to alkaline cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of alkaline cleaners commonly used in food processing environments on survival and stress responses of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Alkaline cleaners containing either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and hypochlorite had gre...

  2. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and...

  3. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  4. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;

    2009-01-01

    of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...

  5. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  6. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...... cleaners. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment was...... assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. RESULTS: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed...

  7. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Better performance was obtained for coated carrots, which exhibited a tendency to have lower whiteness index than uncoated counterparts and enhanced overall quality. Despite a drop in color saturation expressed by chroma values (varying from 59 to 46 was observed, color index presented a positive value for all samples (varying from 13 to 15 indicating orange color preservation throughout storage. Although color parameter was influenced by coating treatment, minor modifications occur over storage concerning weight loss, pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. Results obtained demonstrated the potential of the fruit and vegetable residues flour for edible coatings formulation. Practical application on minimally processed carrots supported its suitability to be used as an alternative coating material and constitute a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this alternative preservation technique.

  8. QCD-resummation and non-minimal flavour-violation for supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders; Resommation des corrections radiatives QCD et violation de la saveur non-minimale pour la production de particules supersymetriques aupres des collisionneurs hadroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, B

    2007-06-15

    Cross sections for supersymmetric particles production at hadron colliders have been extensively studied in the past at leading order and also at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD. The radiative corrections include large logarithms which have to be re-summed to all orders in the strong coupling constant in order to get reliable perturbative results. In this work, we perform a first and extensive study of the resummation effects for supersymmetric particle pair production at hadron colliders. We focus on Drell-Yan like slepton-pair and slepton-sneutrino associated production in minimal supergravity and gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking scenarios, and present accurate transverse-momentum and invariant-mass distributions, as well as total cross sections. In non-minimal supersymmetric models, novel effects of flavour violation may occur. In this case, the flavour structure in the squark sector cannot be directly deduced from the trilinear Yukawa couplings of the fermion and Higgs supermultiplets. We perform a precise numerical analysis of the experimentally allowed parameter space in the case of minimal supergravity scenarios with non-minimal flavour violation, looking for regions allowed by low-energy, electroweak precision, and cosmological data. Leading order cross sections for the production of squarks and gauginos at hadron colliders are implemented in a flexible computer program, allowing us to study in detail the dependence of these cross sections on flavour violation. (author)

  9. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or meat food product, as defined by FSIS in 9 CFR 301.2—that those terms as applied to bison shall... Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000; and (2) The SRMs of the bovines were removed at slaughter. (c) Meat, meat..., or meat food product, as defined by FSIS in 9 CFR 301.2, is derived from ovines or caprines that...

  10. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    are relevant issues to save energy and avoid greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions. This work compares the operating performance of 3 types of biomass stoves used in Europe in their interaction with dwellings. Field studies were conducted in 24 houses in Portugal and Denmark to analyse wood......In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs......-burning behaviours and their contribution to residential heating. Laboratory and energy simulations were performed to study their thermal efficiency, PM2.5 emissions and the influence of their usage on the indoor climate. This work shows that the operation of enclosed stoves in uninsulated Iberian homes emit more PM...

  11. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  12. A hybrid of ant colony optimization and minimization of metabolic adjustment to improve the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiue Kee; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mohamed Salleh, Abdul Hakim; Choon, Yee Wen; Chong, Chuii Khim; Deris, Safaai

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study on gene knockout strategies to identify candidate genes to be knocked out for improving the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli. Succinic acid is widely used as a precursor for many chemicals, for example production of antibiotics, therapeutic proteins and food. However, the chemical syntheses of succinic acid using the traditional methods usually result in the production that is far below their theoretical maximums. In silico gene knockout strategies are commonly implemented to delete the gene in E. coli to overcome this problem. In this paper, a hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment (MoMA) is proposed to identify gene knockout strategies to improve the production of succinic acid in E. coli. As a result, the hybrid algorithm generated a list of knockout genes, succinic acid production rate and growth rate for E. coli after gene knockout. The results of the hybrid algorithm were compared with the previous methods, OptKnock and MOMAKnock. It was found that the hybrid algorithm performed better than OptKnock and MOMAKnock in terms of the production rate. The information from the results produced from the hybrid algorithm can be used in wet laboratory experiments to increase the production of succinic acid in E. coli. PMID:24763079

  13. Harm minimization in tan seekers: an exploration of tanning behaviour and the potential for substitutional use of sunless tanning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Paras, Lorraine; Harper, Ainsley; Coppa, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or solaria is a major contributor to high rates of skin cancer. The study aimed to explore the intentions of active tan seekers in relation to the substitutional use of sunless tanning products. Participants were reluctant to reduce UV exposure in favour of using sunless tanning products, which were considered to be another tanning method rather than an avenue for reducing skin cancer risk. The 'sunless tan' approach is unlikely to reduce UV exposure in the majority of tan seekers, but may be valuable in targeting women with fairer skin. PMID:21441364

  14. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed [GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO] 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The...... clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection will be...

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria......: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12...

  17. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  18. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  19. Combined Water-Fertilizer Management to Minimize Non-Point Water Pollution While Achieving High Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Letey, John; Jarrell, Wesley M

    1983-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to characterize relationships between fertilizer and water management in irrigated vegetable production in California. Greenhouse trials were conducted both in hydroponic solution culture and in soil culture, with tomatoes and lettuce, to establish functional relationships between nitrogen and water uptake by single plants, and nitrogen recovery efficiency as a function of method and rate of application and placement for a simulated drip irrigat...

  20. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P2O5, and K2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt(-1) on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198-205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and decreasing GHG

  1. Evaluation of Post-Harvest Organic Carbon Amendments as a Strategy to Minimize Nitrogen Losses in Cole Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Van Eerd

    2013-02-01

    the CRN-control. Therefore, in areas with a high risk of environmental N contamination, growers should consider the OCA-oil practice after cole crop harvest to minimize the risk of N losses.

  2. Minimal leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel leptogenesis scenario at the reheating era. Our setup is minimal in the sense that, in addition to the standard model Lagrangian, we only consider an inflaton and higher dimensional operators. The lepton number asymmetry is produced not by the decay of a heavy particle, but by the scattering between the standard model particles. After the decay of an inflaton, the model is described within the standard model with higher dimensional operators. The Sakharov's three conditions are satisfied by the following way. The violation of the lepton number is realized by the dimension-5 operator. The complex phase comes from the dimension-6 four lepton operator. The universe is out of equilibrium before the reheating is completed. It is found that the successful baryogenesis is realized for the wide range of parameters, the inflaton mass and reheating temperature, depending on the cutoff scale. Since we only rely on the effective Lagrangian, our scenario can be applicable to all mechanisms to generate n...

  3. Minimal cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography - a nondynamical description of the universe - is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and timelike geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a w...

  4. Minimal cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  5. Household Products Database: Personal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand moisturizer, antibact. bubble bath care giving cleaner clipper lubricant cologne/fragrance concealer conditioner conditioner, dandruff contact ... lipcolor remover liquid mascara Mens products moisturizing mouthwash nail polish/enamel nappies night cream/lotion pain relief/ ...

  6. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    ideal reactor types, i.e. batch, continuous stirred, and plug-flow, is illustrated quantitatively by modeling different extents of cellulose conversion at different reaction conditions. The main operational challenges of membrane reactors for lignocellulose conversion are highlighted. Key membrane...... of the available literature data for glucose removal by membranes and for cellulose enzyme stability in membrane reactors are given. The treatise clearly shows that membrane reactors allowing continuous, complete, glucose removal during enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, can provide for both higher cellulose...... hydrolysis rates and higher enzyme usage efficiency (kg(product/)kg(enzyme)). Current membrane reactor designs are however not feasible for large scale operations. The report emphasizes that the industrial realization of cellulosic ethanol requires more focus on the operational feasibility within...

  7. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  8. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10-3 for ±10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler

  9. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  10. Adhesion Performance of Solid Film Lubricants on Substrates Cleaned With Environmentally Compliant Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P. B.; Thom, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Solid film adhesion testing was used to determine the effect different environmentally compliant cleaners have on the adhesion properties of solid film lubricants used for several NASA programs. In an action to remove ozone depleting chemicals from aerospace processes, a replacement cleaner must be identified that does not affect the adhesion of solid film lubricants used on flight critical NASA hardware. ASTM D251083 Standard Test Method for Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants was used to evaluate the cleaners. Two different lubricants - Inlox 88 and Boosterlube - were tested using various commercially available cleaners. Inlox 88 is produced by E/M Corporation and is a liquid oxygen compatible lubricant used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine, and Boosterlube is a new lubricant being implemented for use on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. These lubricants were selected because of their specific use on flight critical NASA components. Results of this testing are presented in the paper.

  11. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, P.; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2006-03-01

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5×10-3 for ±10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  12. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  13. Typical household vacuum cleaners: the collection efficiency and emissions characteristics for fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, P J; Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Goldsmith, S

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM2.5) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KCl) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130 A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 micrograms/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 micron in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KCl particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KCl

  14. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    OpenAIRE

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries includingDenmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles andgases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermalplasma, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafineparticles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a cleanroom. It was found that...

  15. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis, Lucille; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Signals increase the fitness of a sender by altering the behaviour of receivers. For cooperative interactions biological market theory proposes that signalling strength may be linked to supply and demand. In this context, a recent laboratory experiment demonstrated that cleaner shrimps may advertise their service to client reef fish and that the advertisement is linked to hunger levels. We investigated signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus in the field to test more detaile...

  16. A fibre-optic UV system for H(2)SO(4) production in aerosol chambers causing minimal thermal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kupc, A; Onnela, A; Duplissy, J; Mathot, S; Danielczok, A; Walther, H; Minginette, P; Rondo, L; Ickes, L; Curtius, J; Wagner, P E; Amorim, A; Lima, J M; Ehrhart, S; Kurten, A

    2011-01-01

    A novel fibre-optic UV illumination system for sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) production has been developed. The illumination system described in this paper provides sufficient ultraviolet light (UV) power while causing practically no thermal effect on the aerosol chamber (temperature variation <0.005 degrees C at full UV illumination). A similar thermal stability has not been achieved in other comparable experimental set-ups so far. The spectrum provided by the fibre-optic UV system corresponds to the UVB region, illuminates the chamber in a reasonably uniform way and is comparable to the ground level actinic flux. The UV system has been installed for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber experiments at CERN. Precise, easily-adjustable and reproducible concentrations of H(2)SO(4) were generated by adjusting the UV light intensity. This paper gives an overview on the design of this new system as well as insights on its performance and application. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Progress in Minimizing Effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission product 99Mo acid waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes. (author)

  18. A design of experiments test to define critical spray cleaning parameters for Brulin 815 GD and Jettacin cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Evans, Kurt B.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Deweese, C. Darrell; Prince, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental design testing was conducted to identify critical parameters of an aqueous spray process intended for cleaning solid rocket motor metal components (steel and aluminum). A two-level, six-parameter, fractional factorial matrix was constructed and conducted for two cleaners, Brulin 815 GD and Diversey Jettacin. The matrix parameters included cleaner temperature and concentration, wash density, wash pressure, rinse pressure, and dishwasher type. Other spray parameters: nozzle stand-off, rinse water temperature, wash and rinse time, dry conditions, and type of rinse water (deionized) were held constant. Matrix response testing utilized discriminating bond specimens (fracture energy and tensile adhesion strength) which represent critical production bond lines. Overall, Jettacin spray cleaning was insensitive to the range of conditions tested for all parameters and exhibited bond strengths significantly above the TCA test baseline for all bond lines tested. Brulin 815 was sensitive to cleaning temperature, but produced bond strengths above the TCA test baseline even at the lower temperatures. Ultimately, the experimental design database was utilized to recommend process parameter settings for future aqueous spray cleaning characterization work.

  19. The use of natural products to minimize and or counter act the risk of exposure to environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kevin P.

    Essential oils have been studied for their unique ability to act as antioxidants. There is a large pool of publications describing the antioxidant activity of essential oils, however they all present results of research that was performed on a small number of oils and at most an individual botanical family or related species Antioxidant activities of 423 essential oils of 48 different botanical families were evaluated for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavenging agents using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryihydrazyl method. The EC50 of the 84 most active oils ranged from 4 to 2000 microg/mL. Oils having an EC50 of less than 300 mug/mL, (20 selected samples) were subjected to beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity test. Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the U.S.A and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold milk thistle, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities and anti-HCV activity. Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L. of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. There are few phytochemical studies found in the literature describing the chemical constituents of the two described species. Their lipoid constituents were examined to determine their essential oil and fatty acid composition. Both extracts were also tested for their radical scavenging activity. We investigated three groups of natural herbal antioxidants . One group related to essential oils showed the active antioxidant is mostly related to monoterpenes (or phenolic compounds) and ciscoterpenes. With silymarin , the active antioxidant chemicals are polyphenolic compounds. With the Rumnex , they showed the possibility of significant antioxidant activity and

  20. 基于过氧化氢制备生产二氧化氯的过程开发研究%Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  1. 几类两个矩阵广义逆乘积秩的最小值%Minimal Ranks of the Product of Generalized Inverses of Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春林; 郭文彬; 孙庆娟; 祝国豪

    2011-01-01

    应用矩阵秩等式的方法,研究了几类含有广义逆矩阵B(1,3)或A(1,4)矩阵广义逆乘积秩的最小值问题,通过对公式的证明得到了一系列统一的结果.%The minimal ranks of the product of generalized inverses of matrices are studied by using matrix rank methods in this paper.By proofing formula of containing g-inverse B(1,3) or g-inverse A(1,4) some interesting results are given.

  2. 饮料企业清洁生产与审核%Cleaner Productio and Audit of Bererage Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦人伟

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the production processes and pollutants generation of bererage, lists some typical and advanced cleaner production technology, some key points had also been addressed during the audit, to achieve the purposes of energy saving, exhausation decline, pollutants reduction, and profit increase.%本文分析了饮料企业的生产与污染物状况,列出了一批典型的、先进的清洁生产技术,并总结出在清洁生产审核中需注意的关键点,如让其真正发挥作用,则能达到节能、降耗、减污、增效的目的。

  3. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  4. Effect of an Air Cleaner with Electrostatic Filter on the Removal of Airborne House Dust Mite Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. Materials and Methods A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recor...

  5. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Marie B; Faber Anne; Hansen Jørgen V; Holtermann Andreas; Søgaard Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination tra...

  6. Towards cleaner and more efficient coal use technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the public concern over energy/environment issues has been focused upon coal, even though this fuel has been responsible for almost 60% of the beneficial effects of electricity available in the United States, and similar percentages in a number of other major countries. Successes in overcoming some of coal's environmental problems have been accompanied by identification of new environmental issues, often less obvious and more intractable as to their solution. The picture is complicated by the arrival on the political scene of severe new coal-related environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, air toxics, and the impending shortage of waste disposal sites in many areas. However coal, which provides 90% of U.S. and 80% of the world's fossil energy reserves, will be needed well into, possibly through the 21 Century, barring global calamities, and unless an unexpected breakthrough in energy conversion brings to an early end the age of fossil fuels. Much of the increase will take place in the newly industrializing countries as they emerge to claim their share of prosperity. The environmental issue is technological and economic - in what ways and at what cost can this complex substance be transformed into useful energy (and possibly useful materials) while reducing its environmental impact to a level acceptable to society in the long? This paper will discuss technological capabilities for coal use in electricity generation today, as well as research, development and demonstration in progress to provide cleaner and more efficient coal technologies for the 21st century. It will address the implications for reduction of the environmental impacts of conventional pollutants and for coal's contribution to greenhouse gas mitigation, should this be required in the future. (author) 15 figs., refs

  7. New photo-thermal-synthesized polymer for self-compacting concrete to increase productivity, minimize pollution,and eliminate steam curing in precast concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. C.Lai; M. F.Mohd Zain; WANG Bao-min; K. C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The objective in this study is to apply the sustainable chemistry and photo-thermal synthesis technology to produce the sustainable eco-superplasticiser for the sustainable high performance SCC concrete especially in hot tropical countries. A photo-thermal synthesized eco-superplasticiser (PSES) was produced by using photo-thermal catalyst in a solar chemical reactor. In this preliminary study, an unique high early strength of SCC concrete has been successfully produced by imposing an unique proportion of the photo-thermal-synthesized ecoSuperplasticiser (PSES), local fly ash, sand and aggregate. The SCC concrete is preliminary tried in the precast concrete product to produce the complicated geometries as Tunnel segment, U-shape beam, and Box girder which have the critical reinforcement and thin section concrete. Surprisingly, this SCC provide the benefits as eliminating steaming energy, increased productivity, and minimize pollution. These unique properties of sustainable SCC concrete can not be achieved by the convention concrete by using ligno, naphthalene and melamine base superplasticiser. The synthesized sustainable eco-superplasticiser is a perfect choice to fully utilized the renewable energy and improve the concrete working environment.

  8. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...

  9. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  10. A novel cleaner for colloidal silica abrasive removal in post-Cu CMP cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cleaning solution, named FA/O alkaline cleaner, was proposed and demonstrated in the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. In order to remove both the chemical and physical absorbed colloidal silica abrasives, an FA/OII chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant were added into the cleaner. By varying the concentration of chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant, a series of experiments were performed to determine the best cleaning results. This paper discusses the mechanism of the removal of colloidal silica abrasives with a FA/O alkaline cleaner. Based on the experiment results, it is concluded that both the FA/OII chelating and non-ionic surfactant could benefit the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. When the concentration of FA/OII chelating agent and FA/O non-ionic surfactant reached the optima value, it was demonstrated that silica abrasives could be removed efficiently by this novel cleaning solution. (paper)

  11. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H; Hansen, K; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial...

  12. Chip cleaner system failure's diagnosis and maintenance of DMG NC turning machine%德马吉数控车床排屑系统故障的诊断与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦红卫; 纪琳

    2012-01-01

    According to the failure phenomena in CTX400 DMG NC turning machine that the chip cleaner system does not work and no CRT alarm, we find that the fault is caused by the damage of the chip cleaner's input chip. Because this chip has suspended production, we refit the chip cleaner's electrical control circuit, nip the input chip off and ensure the chip cleaner system's normal work. It's a beneficial reference for such kind of machine tools' maintenance.%针对CTX400德马吉数控车床排屑系统不工作、CRT无报警的故障现象,确定故障原因为排屑输送机输入芯片已损坏造成.由于该芯片已停产,便对排屑输送机电气控制线路进行了改造,短接了输入芯片回路,确保了排屑系统正常工作,为此类机床的维修提供了有益的参考.

  13. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  14. Mist control at a machining center, Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacher, J M; Heitbrink, W A; Burroughs, G E

    2000-01-01

    At a machining center used to produce transaxle and transmission parts, aerosol instrumentation was used to quantitatively evaluate size-dependent mist generation of a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA). This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist. During most machining operations, the MWF was flooded over the part. These machining operations were performed in a nearly complete enclosure that was exhausted to an air cleaner consisting of three sections: a fall-out chamber, a trifilter section to capture metal chips and mist, and a 1.13 m3/sec (2400 ft3/min) blower. The partnering company requested that National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers perform an evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercially available air cleaner. After NIOSH researchers characterized mist generation at the machining centers and found that performance of a test air cleaner appeared to be suitable, the company installed more than 25 air cleaners on different machining centers in this plant and enclosed the corresponding fluid filtration unit. The facility also has implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involves regularly scheduled filter changes; performance is ensured by monitoring static pressure. A NIOSH-conducted air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3. Personal total particulate concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation, and filtration to greatly reduce the exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centers. PMID:10782201

  15. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter; Krause, Niklas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  16. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two‐channel based independent vector analysis (IVA) on a home‐robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at...

  17. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2011-01-01

    was to evaluate the effects of a 3-month workplace trial with interventions to improve physical or cognitive behavioural resources among cleaners. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners from 9 workplaces. The participants were allocated to three groups: Physical...... coordination training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder...

  18. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. PMID:21237482

  19. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Hunter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health.Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused.Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group.Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  20. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    suppress elevated AGE production in vegetarians. Thus, a taurine supplemented low-fat vegan diet may be recommended as a strategy for minimizing AGE-mediated complications in diabetics and in patients with renal failure. PMID:15607576

  1. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  2. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  3. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  4. Cost minimization and asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; John Quiggin

    2005-01-01

    A cost-based approach to asset-pricing equilibrium relationships is developed. A cost function induces a stochastic discount factor (pricing kernel) that is a function of random output, prices, and capital stockt. By eliminating opportunities for arbitrage between financial markets and the production technology, firms minimize the current cost of future consumption. The first-order conditions for this cost minimization problem generate the stochastic discount factor. The cost-based approach i...

  5. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  6. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  7. Thoron (220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the 'electrical' filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny 'depleted' air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored. (orig.)

  8. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  9. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented

  10. Study about anti-request design of transmission mechanism in job device of colliery sump cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德玉; 王汉军; 步秀军

    2001-01-01

    The paper takes reversal hexagon connecting bar mechanism which uses in colliery sump cleaner as research object, takes main performance of reversal hexagon connecting bar in loader as target and uses the idea of anti-request project and modern design, raises a new method of engineering design. It has proved that the method is feasibility and correct by practice.

  11. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.; Sulaiman, S.M.; Daffalla, A.A.; Ghalib, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection was...

  12. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  13. ASBESTOS FIBER RELEASE DURING CHANGE-OUT OF FILTER BAGS FROM HEPA-FILTERED VACUUM CLEANERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are the primary tool used to clean up asbestos containing material during operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. he change-out of vacuum bags is a potential source of airborne asbestos contamination. n 1989 and...

  14. [Case of dyspnea due to toilet cleaner containing nitric acid for household use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirano, Yohei; Ri, Tetsunari; Aihara, Koichiro; Iba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    A 40-year-old male tried to clean a urinal at his home storing 900 mL of a toilet cleaner containing 9.8% nitric acid to remove calcium deposit, and clean the toilet floor for twenty minutes. Immediately after using the cleaner, he experienced eye irritation. He washed out the toilet cleaner. However, he thereafter experienced dyspnea, a compressive sensation in his chest, and chest and back pain about 40 minutes after the cleaning the toilet. He monitored his symptoms overnight and found them to gradually improve. However, the symptoms still remained the next morning and therefore he came to our department on foot. He had no particular past or family history. On arrival, his physiological findings and chest computed tomography scan were negative for any abnormalities. His arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild abnormality of oxygenation. Observation without any drugs revealed that a complete remission of his symptoms occurred after approximately 4 weeks. Based on the results of the experiments, contact with the mucosal membrane and nitric acid gas produced by any accidentally coexisting metals or contact with moisture, including nitric acid produced by a reaction between CaCO3 and cleaner, may have been the mechanism of occurrence for the symptoms observed in this case. This is the first reported case of nitric acid poisoning due to the use of a toilet cleanser intended for household use. PMID:24224389

  15. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  16. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  17. Review of the minimal SU(3) sub C x SU(3) sub L x U(1) sub N model and production of single charged bilepton in e sup - gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dinh Phan Khoi

    2003-01-01

    We consider the production of new gauge bosons of lepton number two (bileptons) in the minimal 3-3-1 models in high energy e sup - gamma collisions. If mass of the bileptons is in a range of 300 GeV the reaction will give observable cross-sections in the future colliders. (Author)

  18. Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low

  19. Virtual design and performance prediction of a silencing air cleaner used in an I.C. engine intake system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of the authors' studies on the virtual design method used in the development of low noise intake system of I.C. engine. The resulting high pass-by noise at level above the legislative target at full throttle when engine speed was around 5200 r/min necessitated a BEM-aided redesign task, following the typical process of design and development of an intake system. During the initial design, based on the acoustic theory and the requirements (1. The air flux of the redesigned should equal to or exceed the value of the original flux; 2. The filtering area must not be degraded), and considering the constraint of space in the engine compartment, total volume and rough internal dimensions were determined. During the detailed design, the exact internal dimensions of the air cleaner were determined, and an effective method was applied to improve the acoustic performance at low frequency. The predicted sound power of the intake system indicated that the objective of reducing the overall engine noise by minimizing intake system noise was achieved.

  20. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou [China Technical Consultants, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  1. The Cooperative Cleaners Problem in Stochastic Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Regev, Eyal; Bruckstein, Alfred M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the strengths and limitations of collaborative teams of simple agents. In particular, we discuss the efficient use of "ant robots" for covering a connected region on the $Z^{2}$ grid, whose area is unknown in advance and which expands stochastically. Specifically, we discuss the problem where an initial connected region of $S_0$ boundary tiles expand outward with probability $p$ at every time step. On this grid region a group of $k$ limited and simple agents operate, in order to clean the unmapped and dynamically expanding region. A preliminary version of this problem was discussed in [1],[2] involving a deterministic expansion of a region in the grid.In this work we extend the model and examine cases where the spread of the region is done stochastically, where each tile has some probability $p$ to expand, at every time step. For this extended model we obtain an analytic probabilistic lower bounds for the minimal number of agents and minimal time required to enable a collaborative cover...

  2. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minimally invasive approach in terms of, you know, effectiveness of treating lumbar herniations? 2 Well, the minimally ... think it’s important to stress here that the effectiveness of this procedure is about the same as ...

  3. Minimal Surfaces for Stereo

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Michael F.; Buehler, Chris; Gortler, Steven; Mcmillan, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    Determining shape from stereo has often been posed as a global minimization problem. Once formulated, the minimization problems are then solved with a variety of algorithmic approaches. These approaches include techniques such as dynamic programming min-cut and alpha-expansion. In this paper we show how an algorithmic technique that constructs a discrete spatial minimal cost surface can be brought to bear on stereo global minimization problems. This problem can then be reduced to a single min...

  4. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct. The...... increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation that...

  5. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  6. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Hviid; Louise Hardman Smith; Karen Bo Frydendall; Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  7. Green Chemistry: Innovations for a Cleaner World. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This video was developed through a cooperative agreement between the American Chemical Society (ACS)'s Education and International Activities Division and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Chemistry Program, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. "Green Chemistry" focuses on chemical products and processes that reduce or…

  8. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Joseph G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  9. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    OpenAIRE

    Atoun Ehud; Rath Ehud; Van Tongel Alexander; Narvani Ali; Sforza Giusseppe; Levy Ofer

    2012-01-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a “Hoover” (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resec...

  10. Pneumatic colon injury following high pressure blow gun dust cleaner spray to the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Sy, Edgar D.; Chiu, Yin-I.; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ong, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A pneumatic tool or air tool such as blow gun dust cleaner is a tool driven by compressed air and spraying of the perineum can insufflate the colon due to its high pressure and high flow rate. Presentation of case We present a case of 4 year old boy who developed sudden onset of tense abdominal distention and developed peritonitis. Patient’s family initially denied a history of trauma. Radiologic examination showed pneumoperitoneum and colon dilatation. Exploratory laparotomy rev...

  11. A Control Strategy for an Autonomous Robotic Vacuum Cleaner for Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, G; Gautham, Vasan; Kumar, T. S. B Gowtham; Naresh, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of dust on the surface of solar panels reduces the amount of radiation reaching it. This leads to loss in generated electric power and formation of hotspots which would permanently damage the solar panel. This project aims at developing an autonomous vacuum cleaning method which can be used on a regular basis to maximize the lifetime and efficiency of a solar panel. This system is implemented using two subsystems namely a Robotic Vacuum Cleaner and a Docking Station. The Robotic ...

  12. Analysis of Incomplete Filling Defect for Injection-Molded Air Cleaner Cover Using Moldflow Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeyoung Shin; Eun-Soo Park

    2013-01-01

    A large-sized cover part for air cleaner was injection molded with ABS resin, and its incomplete filling defect was analyzed using commercial Moldflow software. To investigate the effect of processing temperature on incomplete filling defect, tensile properties, weight loss, and phase separation behavior of ABS resin were evaluated. The tensile properties of dumbbell samples were not changed up to 250°C and decreased significantly thereafter. SEM micrographs indicated no significant changes ...

  13. Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Mirja; Schlicht, Anastasija; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Kampf, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without common types of multidrug resistance. Methods Bacteria species used were ATCC strains; clinical isolates classified as antib...

  14. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  16. A novel cleaner for colloidal silica abrasive removal in post-Cu CMP cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiwen, Deng; Baimei, Tan; Baohong, Gao; Chenwei, Wang; Zhangbing, Gu; Yan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A novel cleaning solution, named FA/O alkaline cleaner, was proposed and demonstrated in the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. In order to remove both the chemical and physical absorbed colloidal silica abrasives, an FA/OII chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant were added into the cleaner. By varying the concentration of chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant, a series of experiments were performed to determine the best cleaning results. This paper discusses the mechanism of the removal of colloidal silica abrasives with a FA/O alkaline cleaner. Based on the experiment results, it is concluded that both the FA/OII chelating and non-ionic surfactant could benefit the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. When the concentration of FA/OII chelating agent and FA/O non-ionic surfactant reached the optima value, it was demonstrated that silica abrasives could be removed efficiently by this novel cleaning solution. Project supported by the Specific Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009zx02308-003) and the Hebei Province Department of Education Fund (No. QN2014208).

  17. TagCleaner: Identification and removal of tag sequences from genomic and metagenomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data. Results TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different filter parameters according to their own preferences. Conclusions TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner.

  18. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two‐channel based independent vector analysis (IVA on a home‐robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at any time and at any location, even while a robot cleaner is moving. Thus, the system should always be in a recognition‐ready state to promptly recognize a spoken word at any time, and the false acceptance rate should be lower. To cope with these issues, the keyword spotting technique is applied. In addition, a microphone alignment method and a model‐based real‐time IVA approach are proposed to effectively and simultaneously process the speech and noise sources, as well as to cover 360‐degree directions irrespective of distance. From the experimental evaluations, we show that the proposed method is robust in terms of speech recognition accuracy, even when the speaker location is unfixed and changes all the time. In addition, the proposed method shows good performance in severely noisy environments.

  19. Stimulation of dopamine D₁ receptor improves learning capacity in cooperating cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, João P M; Santos, Teresa P; Pinto, Maria; Soares, Marta C

    2016-01-27

    Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context. The Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is a highly social teleost fish species with a complex network of interactions with its 'client' reef fish. We asked if changes in DA signalling would affect individual learning ability by presenting cleaner fish two ecologically different tasks that simulated a natural situation requiring accurate decision-making. We demonstrate that there is an involvement of the DA system and D1 receptor pathways on cleaners' natural abilities to learn both tasks. Our results add significantly to the growing literature on the physiological mechanisms that underlie and facilitate the expression of cooperative abilities. PMID:26791613

  20. Generalized rule application in bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus): using predator species as social tools to reduce punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, Sharon; Grutter, Alexandra; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-07-01

    Generalized rule application promotes flexible behavior by allowing individuals to adjust quickly to environmental changes through generalization of previous learning. Here, we show that bluestreak 'cleaner' wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) uses generalized rule application in their use of predators as social tools against punishing reef fish clients. Punishment occurs as cleaners do not only remove ectoparasites from clients, but prefer to feed on client mucus (constituting cheating). We tested for generalized rule application in a series of experiments, starting by training cleaners to approach one of two fish models in order to evade punishment (by chasing) from a 'cheated' client model. Cleaners learned this task only if the safe haven was a predator model. During consecutive exposure to pairs of novel species, including exotic models, cleaners demonstrated generalization of the 'predators-are-safe-havens' rule by rapidly satisfying learning criteria. However, cleaners were not able to generalize to a 'one-of-two-stimuli-presents-a-safe-haven' rule, as they failed to solve the task when confronted with either two harmless fish models or two predator models. Our results emphasize the importance of ecologically relevant experiments to uncover complex cognitive processes in non-human animals, like generalized rule learning in the context of social tool use in a fish. PMID:27016339

  1. Fiscal Reform for a Stronger Fairer and Cleaner Mexican Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Brandt; Rodrigo Paillacar

    2011-01-01

    With slow growth and high inequality Mexico needs investments in infrastructure, education and social policies. Mexico has increased spending in all of these areas. This was easily financed thanks to fiscal reforms in 2007 and 2009 as well as high oil prices in recent years. Oil revenues, which account for around one third of budgetary receipts, are highly volatile, especially due to price movements, and the prospects for production are uncertain, even though less so than in previous years. M...

  2. Materials balance on an oil washed from a sandy substrate using shoreline cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Fuller, C.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. Civil Engineering; Bonner, J.; Louchouarn, P.; Tissot, P.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Conrad Blucher Inst.

    2000-07-01

    Texas has 2360 miles of shoreline and two very busy ports, Houston and Corpus Christi, which handle 50 per cent of the crude oil import for the country. Approximately 80 per cent of the commerce at Corpus Christi is related to petroleum. Oil spills could cause damage to marine ecosystems, wetlands, loss of habitat and could prove to be very expensive to clean up. A test was performed at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas, to examine shoreline cleaners use on oiled sandy substrates. The test involved the configuration of a beach in different tanks, where wave and tidal cycles were simulated with longshore currents using influent/effluent flow ports. This paper presented oiled-control treatments as well as oil-plus Corexit 9580, and oil-plus-CytoSol treatments. Before the beginning of the experiment, oil was applied to the beaches and left to weather for 24 hours. The spraying of the beaches with a cleaner followed. The beach was allowed to soak, and was then sprayed with seawater. Projected airstreams contained the oil spills in the center of each tank. Periodical sampling occurred in the beach sediments, water column, tank walls, surface oil spill and tank effluent. When the experiment was completed, a surface skimmer was used to collect the spill. Oil mass estimates were used to determine the materials balance of oil for each sample. Unexpected beach erosion in the oiled-control tank and in the CytoSol tank rendered the comparisons between treatments difficult. It seemed that both shoreline cleaners allowed the oil to percolate down into the beach substrates. Some oil was flushed from the beach sediments from the wave action causing floating oil slicks. Large percentages of oil remained in the beach sediments for both cleaners at the end of the experiment, which only lasted 10.5 hours. The authors concluded that a longer study period is required to investigate the full benefits of the cleaners using identical protocols

  3. Materials balance on an oil washed from a sandy substrate using shoreline cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas has 2360 miles of shoreline and two very busy ports, Houston and Corpus Christi, which handle 50 per cent of the crude oil import for the country. Approximately 80 per cent of the commerce at Corpus Christi is related to petroleum. Oil spills could cause damage to marine ecosystems, wetlands, loss of habitat and could prove to be very expensive to clean up. A test was performed at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas, to examine shoreline cleaners use on oiled sandy substrates. The test involved the configuration of a beach in different tanks, where wave and tidal cycles were simulated with longshore currents using influent/effluent flow ports. This paper presented oiled-control treatments as well as oil-plus Corexit 9580, and oil-plus-CytoSol treatments. Before the beginning of the experiment, oil was applied to the beaches and left to weather for 24 hours. The spraying of the beaches with a cleaner followed. The beach was allowed to soak, and was then sprayed with seawater. Projected airstreams contained the oil spills in the center of each tank. Periodical sampling occurred in the beach sediments, water column, tank walls, surface oil spill and tank effluent. When the experiment was completed, a surface skimmer was used to collect the spill. Oil mass estimates were used to determine the materials balance of oil for each sample. Unexpected beach erosion in the oiled-control tank and in the CytoSol tank rendered the comparisons between treatments difficult. It seemed that both shoreline cleaners allowed the oil to percolate down into the beach substrates. Some oil was flushed from the beach sediments from the wave action causing floating oil slicks. Large percentages of oil remained in the beach sediments for both cleaners at the end of the experiment, which only lasted 10.5 hours. The authors concluded that a longer study period is required to investigate the full benefits of the cleaners using identical protocols

  4. Blood Donors on Medication - an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian D K; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Wichmann, Michael G; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. RESULTS: For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of t(max) + 5 t(1/2) were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of t(max) + 24 t(1/2) is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. CONCLUSION: Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  5. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the esophagus -esophagectomy - ...

  6. Minimal Distances Between SCFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For N=1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from N=2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full N=2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows...

  7. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  8. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University,Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For N=1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from N=2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full N=2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break N=2→N=1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  9. Fueling our future: four steps to a new, reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' This manuscript demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, we look at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. We also examine different Distributed Generation scenarios including distributed generation via fuel cells for automotive applications which may be the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. With 1.3 billion potential customers, P.R. China is one country where such a scenario may fit. The up-and-coming Chinese H2/FC industry deals with applied fundamental research such as advances in Hydrogen production from Natural Gas, Methanol and Gasoline. The current activities in P.R. China certain to further accelerate the trend towards the coming Hydrogen Economy, together with the steps necessary to achieve a new reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are examined. (author)

  10. Diethylene glycol mono butyl ether concentrations in room air from application of cleaner formulations to hard surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W B; Keller, P R; Foltz, D J; Harvey, G J

    1991-07-01

    Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) is a solvent used in some liquid hard surface cleaners. We evaluated the inhalation component of consumer exposure in the home to DGBE from the use of cleaning products containing up to 9% DGBE. Several experiments were conducted with restricted room air flow, exaggerated amounts of cleaning solutions, and no rinsing in order to develop an exposure scenario that would exceed exposures likely encountered by consumers. DGBE vapors in the air were monitored by collection on charcoal tubes, followed by desorption and quantitation by gas chromatography. Air was collected from the centre of the room and from the breathing zone of the person doing the washing task. Room air concentrations of DGBE showed peak values between one and three hours after task initiation; DGBE concentrations then gradually decreased with time. Peak concentrations did not exceed 1.6 ppmv. The total DGBE in the air at the time of maximum air concentrations accounted for only 1 to 3% of the DGBE on the washed surfaces. The person doing the washing task was exposed to average DGBE concentrations in the breathing zone below 0.8 ppmv in all experiments. The methods described for measuring DGBE concentrations in air are generally applicable to other solvents and easily adaptable to various experimental situations. PMID:1824325

  11. Why people drink shampoo? Food imitating products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related pho...

  12. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  13. Pollution minimizing at traditional craft village by micro-credit program - case study from Tan Phu Dong rice flour production village

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Vo Chau Ngan; Huynh, Thi Ngoc Luu; Le, Hoang Viet; Do, Ngoc Quynh; Nguyen, Ngoc Em

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the results of a project initiated by Cantho University (CTU) on the introduction of micro-credits for addressing the environmental pollution in Vietnam’s craft villages. At Tan Phu Dong, a traditional rice powder production village in Sa Dec, Dong Thap, all wastes from domestic and production activities and animal husbandry were freely disposed into open water sources. This practice led to a negative impact on the local environment. With the financial support provided b...

  14. Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øistein Svanes

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking's detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure.In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning's unhealthy effects.The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent´s educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection 35 years was investigated.Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6, adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2-1.8] and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3-2.2] were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: ≤1 year 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; 1-4 years 1.5 [1.1-2.0]; ≥4 years 1.6 [1.2-2.1]. The association of wheeze with cleaning activity ≥4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5-2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96-1.8]; pinteraction 0.035.Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life.

  15. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  16. The Optimal Minimum Wage for Poverty Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a minimum wage on employment and on poverty have been studied in the literature. This paper characterizes the poverty minimizing minimum wage, and shows how it depends on productivity, inequality and the degree of labor market competitiveness.

  17. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoun Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resection of the major deposits. The use of this technique resulted in good clinical outcome with improved post operative pain.

  18. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  19. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  20. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  1. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  2. Maximizing photosynthetic productivity and solar conversion efficiency in microalgae by minimizing the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, A.; Neidhardt, J.; Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1998-08-01

    The solar conversion efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in light-acclimated Dunaliella salina (green algae) were analyzed. Cells were grown under continuous low-light (LL; 100 {micro}mol photons/m{sup 2} s) or high-light (HL; 2,000 {micro}mol photons/m{sup 2} s) conditions. HL-grown cells exhibited signs of chronic photoinhibition, i.e., a lower pigment content, a highly truncated chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size for the photosystems, and accumulation of photodamaged photosystem-II (PSII) reaction centers in the chloroplast thylakoids. In spite of these deficiencies, high-light-grown cells showed photosynthetic productivity (300 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s) that was {approximately} 3 times greater than that of the normally pigmented LL-grown cells ({approximately} 100 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s). Recovery from photoinhibition in the HL-grown cells, induced in the absence of a light-harvesting Chl antenna size enlargement, increased photosynthetic productivity further to {approximately} 650 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s. It is shown that, under moderate to high light conditions, D. salina with a highly truncated Chl antenna size will display superior photosynthetic productivity, solar conversion efficiency and H{sub 2} production when compared to the normally pigmented control cells. Estimates of H{sub 2} production in mass culture suggest an average of 200 L H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} d for the cells with the truncated Chl antenna, and less than 50 L H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} d for the normally pigmented cells.

  3. Metabolic engineering of a laboratory-evolved Thermobifida fusca muC strain for malic acid production on cellulose and minimal treated lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-01

    Malic acid is mainly used as an acidulant and taste enhancer in the beverage and food industry. Previously, a mutant strain Thermobifida fusca muC, obtained by adaptive evolution was found to accumulate malic acid on cellulose with low yield. In this study, the malic acid synthesis pathway in T. fusca muC was confirmed to be from phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. To increase the yield of malic acid by the muC strain significantly, the carbon flux from pyruvate was redirected to oxaloacetate by expressing an exogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PCx) gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 in the chromosome of T. fusca muC-16. The yield of malic acid in the engineered strain muC-16 was increased by 47.9% compared to the parent strain muC. The muC-16 strain was then grown on ∼100 g/L cellulose and the highest titer of malic acid was 62.76 g/L by batch fermentation. T. fusca muC-16 strain converted milled corn stover to malic acid with the highest titer of 21.47 g/L with minimal treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:14-20, 2016. PMID:26439318

  4. NATO COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES TO MODERN SOCIETY PILOT STUDY: CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promote cooperation for improving the common pollution landscape by stimulating cross-national dialogues and collaboration. Share knowledge on the methods, tools, and technologies for making cleaner products and processes possible.

  5. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possible incision to minimize the injury to the tissues, particularly the muscles, the skin, and the ligaments, ... easier, and it limits the damage to the tissues around. So it’s a much safer procedure for ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... neurosurgeon going with that, or should patients be seeking out versed in the minimally invasive procedures? The ... right. 16 Okay. And the studies, do they support that, do they show that quicker recovery times, ...

  7. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because obviously the surgeon is sort of the person that everybody focuses on. But minimally invasive surgery ... on a regular basis, you should sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You ...

  9. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  10. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the smallest possible incision to minimize the injury to the tissues, particularly the muscles, the skin, ... the world. It’s one of the most common injuries and one of the most common causes of ...

  11. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minimize the injury to the tissues, particularly the muscles, the skin, and the ligaments, to get to ... But rather using their backs regularly so the muscles heal with normal movement. Now the traditional discectomy ...

  12. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  13. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because obviously the surgeon is sort of the person that everybody focuses on. But minimally invasive surgery ... can do to safeguard. Probably the biggest risk factor, although we see plenty of these problems in ...

  14. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach. The word that we put in the operative record is minimal. We’re talking about maybe ... we’re looking at 20-times magnification. The operative area, the field that they’re working is ...

  15. Out of Minimalism

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlin Hayden, Malin

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation involves a threefold investigation of sculpture. Firstly, the interpretations are focused on particular artworks by three British sculptors: Antony Gormley (b. 1950), Anish Kapoor (b. 1954), and Rachel Whiteread (b. 1963), respectively. The notion of applied minimalism is tentatively applied to their sculptures. A primary argument is that these works are idiomatically, thematically, and theoretically founded on the heritage of American Minimalism from the 1960s. The sculpture...

  16. Minimalism at War

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2004-01-01

    When national security conflicts with individual liberty, reviewing courts might adopt one of three general orientations: National Security Maximalism, Liberty Maximalism, and minimalism. National Security Maximalism calls for a great deal of deference to the President, above all because of his authority as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Liberty Maximalism asks courts to assume the same liberty-protecting posture in times of war as in times of peace. Minimalism asks courts to follow ...

  17. Studies of b-associated production and muonic decays of neutral Higgs bosons at the ATLAS experiment within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsinsky, Markus

    2008-09-15

    This thesis presents a Monte Carlo study of neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) decaying into muons at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Signal and background processes are simulated using novel Monte Carlo generators that incorporate parts of higher order corrections and are expected to give a more accurate prediction than previous programs. The SHERPA Monte Carlo generator is validated for its use in the analysis and compared to results obtained with other programs. Where possible, the Monte Carlo event samples are normalized to higher order calculations. To increase the available Monte Carlo statistics, this study is based on the ATLAS fast detector simulation ATLFAST. Differences between ATLFAST and the detailed detector simulation of ATLAS are examined, and, where possible, correction procedures are devised. A cut based analysis is performed assuming an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1}, and optimized with respect to the discovery potential for MSSM Higgs bosons. The systematic uncertainties of the event selection and the Monte Carlo predictions are estimated. A method that can be used to estimate the background from data is presented and evaluated. Last, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment in the CP conserving benchmark scenarios of the MSSM is evaluated. One or more of the neutral Higgs bosons of the MSSM can be discovered in the muonic decay mode using 30 fb{sup -1} of data for low masses of the pseudoscalar boson A{sup 0}, if the model parameter tan {beta} is at least 20. For higher masses of the A{sup 0}, tan {beta} would need to be significantly higher to ensure a discovery in the studied decay channel. The sensitivity of ATLAS to MSSM Higgs bosons is multiple times larger than the one of previous and currently running experiments. (orig.)

  18. Studies of b-associated production and muonic decays of neutral Higgs bosons at the ATLAS experiment within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a Monte Carlo study of neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) decaying into muons at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Signal and background processes are simulated using novel Monte Carlo generators that incorporate parts of higher order corrections and are expected to give a more accurate prediction than previous programs. The SHERPA Monte Carlo generator is validated for its use in the analysis and compared to results obtained with other programs. Where possible, the Monte Carlo event samples are normalized to higher order calculations. To increase the available Monte Carlo statistics, this study is based on the ATLAS fast detector simulation ATLFAST. Differences between ATLFAST and the detailed detector simulation of ATLAS are examined, and, where possible, correction procedures are devised. A cut based analysis is performed assuming an integrated luminosity of 30 fb-1, and optimized with respect to the discovery potential for MSSM Higgs bosons. The systematic uncertainties of the event selection and the Monte Carlo predictions are estimated. A method that can be used to estimate the background from data is presented and evaluated. Last, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment in the CP conserving benchmark scenarios of the MSSM is evaluated. One or more of the neutral Higgs bosons of the MSSM can be discovered in the muonic decay mode using 30 fb-1 of data for low masses of the pseudoscalar boson A0, if the model parameter tan β is at least 20. For higher masses of the A0, tan β would need to be significantly higher to ensure a discovery in the studied decay channel. The sensitivity of ATLAS to MSSM Higgs bosons is multiple times larger than the one of previous and currently running experiments. (orig.)

  19. A high-copy T7 Escherichia coli expression vector for the production of recombinant proteins with a minimal N-terminal His-tagged fusion peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.R. Ramos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the construction of a vector derived from pET3-His and pRSET plasmids for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli based on T7 phage RNA polymerase. The resulting pAE plasmid combined the advantages of both vectors: small size (pRSET, expression of a short 6XHis tag at N-terminus (pET3-His and a high copy number of plasmid (pRSET. The small size of the vector (2.8 kb and the high copy number/cell (200-250 copies facilitate the subcloning and sequencing procedures when compared to the pET system (pET3-His, 4.6 kb and 40-50 copies and also result in high level expression of recombinant proteins (20 mg purified protein/liter of culture. In addition, the vector pAE enables the expression of a fusion protein with a minimal amino-terminal hexa-histidine affinity tag (a tag of 9 amino acids using XhoI restriction enzyme for the 5'cloning site as in the case of pET3-His plasmid and in contrast to proteins expressed by pRSET plasmids (a tag of 36 amino acids using BamHI restriction enzyme for the 5'cloning site. Thus, although proteins expressed by pRSET plasmids also have a hexa-histidine tag, the fusion peptide is much longer and may represent a problem for some recombinant proteins.

  20. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.;

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT). No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT...

  1. Effect Of Sub-Minimal Concentrations Of Ampicillin, Gentamicin, And Nalidixic Acid On Growth, Ammonium Production And Urease Activity Of Proteus Mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabal Amely F

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vivo, after administration of treatment, concentrations of anti¬microbial agents will reduce to sub-inhibitory levels (sub-MIC and may therefore affect the properties of target bacteria. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC of ampicillin, gentamicin and nalidixin acid on morphology, growth, ammonium production and urease activity of proteus mirabilis. Proteus mirabilis is well recognized as an important urinary tract pathogen."nMaterials and Methods: Several of its properties have been studied in relation to pathogenesis manifested in urinary tract such as urease activity."nResults: In the presence of ampicillin, long filamenteous cells was produced and the length of the cells was increased at the higher concentration of ampicillin. Sub-MIC of ampicillin and gentamicin affected the growth pattern and prolonged the lag-phase of growth. This affected was significant when gentamicin was used. Nalidixic"nacid of 1/2 MIC greatly reduced the growth rate, while the lag phase was not"nchanged. In the presence of sub-MICs of ampicillin and gentamicin, the amount of"nammonium production increased. In medium with 1/2 MIC of ampicillin, the"nammonium production was 30 times of control, while the urease specific activity of sonicated cells did not show any significant changes."nConclusion: It seemed that the antibiotics enhanced the cell membrane permeability for substrate and enzyme. Nalidixic acid didn't show any significant effect on ammonia production, and urease specific activity of proteus mirabilis. The results indicate that the sub-MIC of antibiotics can effect virulence factors of proteus mirabilis.

  2. Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, Beatriz; Méndez, Ranón; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

    2004-06-01

    A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

  3. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...

  4. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  5. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  6. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  7. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selectivetechnology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from2-methyl-benzene-l,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The productstructure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept ofenvironmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  8. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  9. Building the Petascale National Environmental Research Interoperability Data Platform (NERDIP): Minimizing the 'Trough of Disillusionment' and Accelerating Pathways to the 'Plateau of Productivity'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has evolved to become Australia's peak computing centre for national computational and Data-intensive Earth system science. More recently NCI collocated 10 Petabytes of 34 major national and international environmental, climate, earth system, geophysics and astronomy data collections to create the National Environmental Research Interoperability Data Platform (NERDIP). Spatial scales of the collections range from global to local ultra-high resolution, whilst sizes range from 3PB down to a few GB. The data is highly connected to both NCI HPC and cloud resources via low latency internal networks with massive bandwidth. Now that the collections are collocated on a single data platform, the 'Hype' and expectations around potential use cases for the NERDIP are high. Not unexpected issues are emerging such as access, licensing issues, ownership, and incompatible data standards. Many communities are standardised within their domain, but achieving true interdisciplinary science will require all communities to move towards open interoperable data formats such as NetCDF4/HDF5. This transition will impact on software using proprietary or non-open standards. But before we reach the 'Plateau of Productivity', there needs to be greater 'Enlightenment' of users to encourage them to realise that this unprecedented Earth system science platform provides a rich mine of opportunities for discovery and innovation for a diverse range of both domain-specific and interdisciplinary investigations including climate and weather research, impact analysis, environment, remote sensing and geophysics and develop new and innovative interdisciplinary use cases that will guide those architecting the system and help minimise the amplitude of the 'Trough of Disillusionment' and ensure greater productivity and uptake of the collections that make NERDIP unique in the next generation of Data-intensive Science.

  10. Minimal gaugino mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose minimal gaugino mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultrahigh energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. We show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the μ problem. We briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of minimal gaugino mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  11. Minimal Gaugino Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose Minimal Gaugino Mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultra-high energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. The authors show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the mu problem. The authors briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of Minimal Gaugino Mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  12. Minimal Genus One Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...

  13. Minimalism and Speakers’ Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gariazzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclusion that minimalism has not successfully answered the above-mentioned challenge.

  14. Fueling our future: four steps to a new reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In examining various market strategies, this presentation demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, this presentation looks at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. The presentation demonstrates how these models can be applied to our present day situation. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. Due to such strong influence, the consumer will ultimately fuel the future of H2/FC commercialisation by a desire for new and not yet discovered products and services. Examining different Distributed Generation scenarios, the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy may be found through distributed generation via fuel cells. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. The incentive for car owners driving and using these vehicles is twofold: either save (at his own home) or earn (at his office) money while their cars are parked and plugged into buildings via smart docking stations available at key parking sites. Cars parked at home in the garage will supply electricity to the homes and additionally, replace the function of the existing boiler. Car owners can earn money by selling the electricity generated (but not needed at that time) to the utilities and feed it into the existing electricity grid. The inter-dependability between supply and consumer-driven demand (or better, demand and supply) and other examples are explained. The steps necessary to achieve a new, reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are also presented and examined. (author)

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  16. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old ... L-5, S-1. So that’s why she’s having this procedure. The man who is doing the procedure ...

  17. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of the sciatic nerve. You know one good important thing to talk about is the concept of “I ... in the minimally invasive procedures? The most important thing is to have a good trusting relationship between your surgeon and yourself, and ...

  18. Minimally Invasive Stomas

    OpenAIRE

    Hellinger, Michael D.; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and...

  19. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  20. Minimal DBM Substraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Håkansson, John; G. Larsen, Kim; Pettersson, Paul

    In this paper we present an algorithm to compute DBM substractions with a guaranteed minimal number of splits and disjoint DBMs to avoid any redundance. The substraction is one of the few operations that result in a non-convex zone, and thus, requires splitting. It is of prime importance to reduce...

  1. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal

    2007-01-01

    I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the...

  2. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Miami’s Baptist Hospital. You’re going to be a seeing a procedure called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old woman who ...

  3. Logarithmic Superconformal Minimal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A; Tartaglia, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models LM(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets (A_1^{(1)})_k oplus (A_1^{(1)})_n / (A_1^{(1)})_{k+n} where n>0 is an integer fusion level and k=nP/(P'-P)-2 is a fractional level. For n=1, these are the logarithmic minimal models LM(P,P'). For n>1, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n x n fusion of the n=1 models. For n=2, we call them logarithmic superconformal minimal models LSM(p,p') where P=|2p-p'|, P'=p' and p,p' are coprime, and they share the central charges of the rational superconformal minimal models SM(P,P'). Their mathematical description entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 BMW tangle algebra with loop fugacity beta_2=x^2+1+x^{-2} and twist omega=x^4 where x=e^{i(p'-p)pi/p'}. Examples are superconformal dense polymers LSM(2,3) with c=-5/2, beta_2=0 and superconformal percolation LSM(3,4) with c=0, beta_2=1. We calculate the free energies analytically. By numerical...

  4. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. RESULTS: For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly...

  5. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marie B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT, cognitive behavioural training (CBTr or a reference group (REF. Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT. Results No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT or CBTr compared with REF was found in conservative ITT analyses. However, explorative analyses revealed a treatment effect for musculoskeletal pain of the PCT. People with chronic neck/shoulder pain at baseline were more frequently non-chronic at follow-up after PCT compared with REF (p = 0.05. Conclusions The PCT intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability and sickness absence. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN96241850

  6. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  7. NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Replacement Effort for Oxygen System Cleaner - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt Burns, H.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.; Farner, Bruce R.; Ross, H. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid oxygen are extremely reactive materials used in bipropellant propulsion systems. Both flight and ground oxygen systems require a high level of cleanliness to support engine performance, testing, and prevent mishaps. Solvents used to clean and verify the cleanliness of oxygen systems and supporting test hardware must be compatible with the system's materials of construction and effective at removing or reducing expected contaminants to an acceptable level. This paper will define the philosophy and test approach used for evaluating replacement solvents for the current Marshall Space Flight Center/Stennis Space Center baseline HCFC-225 material that will no longer be available for purchase after 2014. MSFC/SSC applications in cleaning / sampling oxygen propulsion components, support equipment, and test system were reviewed then candidate replacement cleaners and test methods selected. All of these factors as well as testing results will be discussed.

  8. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  9. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  10. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Eckes, Maxi J; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  11. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  12. Minimization of social and environmental risks of biodiesel production companies in Brazil: one step in the search for corporate social responsibility; Minimizacao do risco socioambiental para empresas produtoras de biodiesel no Brasil: um passo na busca da responsabilidade social corporativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffel, Silvia Blajberg; Sousa, Denise da Silva [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA); La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The National Biodiesel Production and Use Program and the Social Fuel Seal were developed to stimulate the family farmer's inclusion in the new productive chain of biodiesel, based on the basic principles of social inclusion promotion, job and income generation and the attenuation of the regional disparities, producing oilseeds suitable to each region of the country. Great challenges are in place for each stakeholder, like government, biodiesel producing companies, family farmers, syndicates and social movements, evidencing that the Seal is important, but not enough to assure the sustainable inclusion of family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel. This paper presents some social and environmental risks that emerge for the producing companies, followed by management proposals. The Corporate Social Responsibility concept is evoked, in a sense that the producing companies not only control its social and environmental risks, but not only minimizing its negative impacts and its negative externalities that results from its operations on the environment, society and stakeholders. But that they create and aggregate value, maximizing its positive impacts in the communities where they actuate, experiencing new business models and creating new institutional shapes. (author)

  13. STRONGLY MINIMAL g* -CONTINUOUS MAPS AND STRONGLY MINIMAL g** -CONTINUOUS MAPS IN MINIMAL SPACES

    OpenAIRE

    E.Subha,; A.Pushpalatha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of a new class of maps, namely strongly minimal continuous maps, strongly minimal g*-continuous maps, strongly minimal g**-continuous maps which includes the class of continuous maps.

  14. The Minimal R$\

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating neutrino mass generation and a dark matter candidate in a unified model has always been intriguing. We present the minimal model to realize the dual-task procedure based on the one-loop ultraviolet completion of the Weinberg operator, in the framework of minimal dark matter and radiative neutrino mass generation. In addition to the Standard Model particles, the model consists of a real scalar quintuplet, a pair of vector-like quadruplet fermions and a fermionic quintuplet. The neutral component of the fermionic quintuplet serves as a good dark matter candidate which can be tested by the future direct and indirect detection experiments. The constraints from flavor physics and electroweak-scale naturalness are also discussed.

  15. Minimalism and speakers’ intuitions

    OpenAIRE

    Matías Gariazzo

    2012-01-01

    Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclu...

  16. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, P. Michael

    2000-01-01

    To reduce the risk, trauma, and expense of intrathoracic surgical treatments, minimally invasive procedures performed with the assistance of fiberoptic video technology have been developed for thoracic and bronchial surgeries. The surgical treatment of nearly every intrathoracic condition can benefit from a video-assisted approach performed through a few small incisions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic and rigid-bronchoscopic surgery have improved the results of thoracic procedures by decreasing...

  17. Minimal Composite Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the...... underlying dynamics is preferred to be near conformal. We discover that the compositeness scale of inflation is of the order of the grand unified energy scale....

  18. Improving Connectionist Energy Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkas, G.; Dechter, R

    1995-01-01

    Symmetric networks designed for energy minimization such as Boltzman machines and Hopfield nets are frequently investigated for use in optimization, constraint satisfaction and approximation of NP-hard problems. Nevertheless, finding a global solution (i.e., a global minimum for the energy function) is not guaranteed and even a local solution may take an exponential number of steps. We propose an improvement to the standard local activation function used for such networks. The improved algori...

  19. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  20. Minimally entangled typical thermal state algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a method based on sampling minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS) that can simulate finite temperature quantum systems with a computational cost comparable to the ground state density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Detailed implementation of each step of the method is presented, along with efficient algorithms for working with matrix product states and matrix product operators. Furthermore, we explore how the properties of METTS can reveal characteristic order and excitations of systems and discuss why METTS form an efficient basis for sampling. Finally, we explore the extent to which the average entanglement of a METTS ensemble is minimal.

  1. Avaliação física e química de produtos minimamente processados de abacaxi-'Pérola' Physical and chemical study of minimally processed products of 'Pérola' pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SARZI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, física e quimicamente, produtos minimamente processados de abacaxi-'Pérola', "rodelas" e "metades", armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas (3ºC, 6ºC e 9ºC. Frutos selecionados, quanto ao grau de maturação e ausência de danos, foram lavados, desinfeccionados com cloro (200 mg.L-1 e armazenados a 10ºC, por 12 horas, antes do processamento. O produto minimamente processado foi embalado em bandejas de isopor recobertas com filme de PVC esticável ("metades" ou bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno ("rodelas" e armazenado sob refrigeraç ;ão, com avaliação a cada 3 dias, quanto à textura, coloração, pH, e conteúdos de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico e de açúcares, solúveis e redutores. Durante o armazenamento, o produto tornou-se menos firme, e sua polpa apresentou escurecimento. Os conteúdos de açúcares solúveis e redutores e de sólidos solúveis totais não foram afetados pelo tipo de preparo, temperatura ou embalagem. Os teores de acidez total titulável aumentaram e foram influenciados pela temperatura, sendo que os mantidos a 9ºC apresentaram os maiores teores, havendo, como conseqüência, decréscimo no pH. Os produtos armazenados a 9ºC também apresentaram evolução mais rápida no escurecimento, na redução do teor de ácido ascórbico e menor vida útil (6 dias, enquanto, para os armazenados a 3ºC e 6ºC, este período foi de 9 dias. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a temperatura de armazenamento foi o fator limitante para a vida útil destes produtos.The aim of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of minimally processed products of 'Pérola' pineapples, "roundels" and "halves," stored under different temperatures (3ºC, 6ºC and 9ºC. The fruits, selected according to degree of maturation and absence of injury, were washed, disinfected with chlorine (200 mg.L-1 and stored at 10º

  2. Minimal noncanonical cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate how much it is possible to deviate from the standard cosmological paradigm of inflation-assisted ΛCDM, keeping within current observational constraints, and without adding to or modifying any theoretical assumptions. We show that within a minimal framework there are many new possibilities, some of them wildly different from the standard picture. We present three illustrative examples of new models, described phenomenologically by a noncanonical scalar field coupled to radiation and matter. These models have interesting implications for inflation, quintessence, reheating, electroweak baryogenesis, and the relic densities of WIMPs and other exotics

  3. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  4. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  5. Minimal Higgs inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose two simple minimal Higgs inflation scenarios through a simple modification of the Higgs potential, as opposed to the usual non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling prescription. The modification is done in such a way that it creates a flat plateau for a huge range of field values at the inflationary energy scale $\\mu \\simeq (\\lambda)^{1/4} \\alpha$. Assuming the perturbative Higgs quartic coupling, $\\lambda \\simeq {\\cal O}(1)$, for both the models inflation energy scale turned out to be $\\mu \\simeq (10^{14}, 10^{15})$ GeV, and prediction of all the cosmologically relevant quantities, $(n_s,r,dn_s^k)$, fit extremely well with observations made by PLANCK. Considering observed central value of the scalar spectral index, $n_s= 0.968$, our two models predict efolding number, $N = (52,47)$. Within a wide range of viable parameter space, we found that the prediction of tensor to scalar ratio $r (\\leq 10^{-5})$ is far below the current experimental sensitivity to be observed in the near future. The ...

  6. Linear Superposition of Minimal Surfaces: Generalized Helicoids and Minimal Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Observing a linear superposition principle, a family of new minimal hypersurfaces in Euclidean space is found, as well as that linear combinations of generalized helicoids induce new algebraic minimal cones of arbitrarily high degree.

  7. Beyond the Symbolic: A Relational Approach to Dirty Work through a Study of Refuse Collectors and Street Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, RC; Hughes, J.; Slutskaya, N; Simpson, A.; Hughes, K

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a relational approach and based on an ethnographic study of street cleaners and refuse collectors, we redress a tendency towards an over-emphasis on the discursive by exploring the co-constitution of the material and symbolic dynamics of dirt. We show how esteem-enhancing strategies that draw on the symbolic can be both supported and undermined by the physicality of dirt, and how relations of power are rooted in subordinating material conditions. Through employing Hardy and Thomas’...

  8. Vacuum-Cleaner Noise and Acute Stress Responses in Female C57BL/6 Mice (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D.

    2010-01-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of lab...

  9. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  10. Study about anti-request design of transmission mechanism in job devic e of colliery sump cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG De-yu; WANG Han-jun; BU Xiu-jun

    2001-01-01

    The paper takes reversal hexagon connecting bar mechanism which us es in colliery sump cleaner as research object, takes main performance of rever sal hexagon connecting bar in loader as target and uses the idea of anti-reque s t project and modern design, raises a new method of engineering design. It has p roved that the method is feasibility and correct by practice.

  11. Effectiveness of Air Filters and Air Cleaners in Allergic Respiratory Diseases: A Review of the Recent Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sublett, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Air filtration is frequently recommended as a component of environmental control measures for patients with allergic respiratory disease. Residential air filtration can be provided by whole house filtration via the home’s heating, ventilation, or air conditioning system, by portable room air cleaners, or a combination of the two. Appliances to filter the sleep breathing zone also have been developed. High-efficiency whole house filtration, high-efficiency particulate air sleep zone air filtra...

  12. Eco-friendly and cleaner process for isolation of essential oil using microwave energy. Experimental and theoretical study

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Asma; Ginies, Christian; Romdhane, Mehrez; CHEMAT, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Microwave steam diffusion (MSD) was developed as a cleaner and new process design and operation for isolation of essentials oils and was compared to conventional steam diffusion (SD). The essential oils extracted by MSD for 3 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional steam diffusion for 20 min. In addition, an optimal operating steam flow rate of 25 g min―1 and microwave power 200W were found to ensure complete extraction yi...

  13. Membrane reactor technology for ultrapure hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Charudatta Subhash

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for stationary and vehicular applications because of its low operating temperatures, compactness, higher power density, cleaner exhausts and higher efficiencies compared to conventional internal combustion engines and gas turbines adds to the already soaring demand for hydrogen production for refinery and petrochemical applications.

  14. Asbestos-fiber release during change-out of filter bags from HEPA-filtered vacuum cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Hollett, B.A.; Clark, P.J.; Brackett, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are the primary tool used to clean up asbestos containing material during operations and maintenance (O M) activities. The change-out of vacuum bags is a potential source of airborne asbestos contamination. In 1989 and 1990 the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a series of controlled tests to determine airborne asbestos fiber levels during change-out of filters bags used in HEPA-filtered vacuum cleaners. Five different HEPA-filtered vacuums of varying brands and capacities were tested. The study was conducted at EPA's controlled asbestos test (CAT) facility. The data from two studies indicates that airborne asbestos levels can increase significantly during normal bag change-out operations and that these increases vary with the configuration of the vacuum cleaner. The primary potential point of fiber release during each bag change-out occurred when the paper bag was separated from the intake tube. The use of a glove-box enclosure significantly reduced the increase in airborne asbestos concentrations during bag change-out.

  15. Rancang Bangun Vacuum Cleaner Dengan Pengendali Nirkabel Menggunakan Modul Rf Data Transceiver Ys-1020ub Berbasis Mikrokontroler At89s52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAP Raka Agung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menjaga kesehatan kita, khususnya kebersihan rumah. Rumah yang bersih sangat mempengaruhi kesehatan para penghuninya. Debu adalah kotoran yang paling sering mengotori rumah kita terutama pada bagian lantai. Setiap hari kita harus membersihkan rumah dari debu yang ada pada lantai untuk menjaga kebersihan sekaligus kesehatan kita. Dalam membersihkan lantai rumah dari  debu sering menyita banyak waktu dan tenaga. Vacuum cleaner terkendali nirkabel menggunakan Modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 merupakan salah satu solusi untuk membersihkan lantai rumah dari kotoran debu.  Vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan enam buah motor DC yaitu dua motor DC penyedot debu, dua motor DC penentu arah maju, mundur, belok kanan, dan belok kiri, serta dua motor DC penentu arah geser kanan dan geser kiri.  Vacuum cleaner ini dapat dikendalikan dengan dua mode operasi yaitu mode manual dan otomatis. Pada mode manual vacuum cleaner ini dikendalikan menggunakan remote control, dengan tranmisi nirkabel memakai transceiver YS-1020UB. Sedangkan pada mode otomatis  vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan empat buah sensor jarak untuk menghindari tabrakan pada dinding.  Vacuum cleaner dengan pengendali nirkabel menggunakan modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 sudah bisa membersihkan debu lantai sehingga lantai bersih dari debu.

  16. Aeromonas salmonicida infection levels in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish assessed by culture and an amended qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulla, S; Duodu, S; Nilsen, A; Fossen, I; Colquhoun, D J

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded. PMID:26514414

  17. Use of GC/MS and Microtome Techniques as Methods to Evaluate ODC Free Cleaner Diffusion and Evaporation in Insulation and Phenolic Case Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) many chlorinated solvents used in the aerospace industry are being phased out. Replacement of the ODC (ozone-depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past seven years at Thiokol Propulsion, a Division of Cordant Technologies, Inc. The down selection of ODC replacement cleaners has been based on several factors including the diffusion evaporation of the cleaners in selected substrates. Methodologies were developed to evaluate the cleaner content in substrates. Methods of cutting thin slices of material (microtoming) were combined with GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) analysis. Substrates evaluated in this study include potential solid rocket motor materials: ASNBR (asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber) and CFEPDM (carbon-filled ethylene propylene dimonomer) insulation and glass (GCP), carbon (CCP) and silica (SCP) cloth phenolic substrates with fibers either parallel (0 deg) or perpendicular (90 deg) to the surface. Residue profiles indicate both cleaner and substrate composition affect the diffusion and subsequent evaporation of the cleaner from the substrate surface.

  18. 免洗快干织物除圬剂的研制%The Development of Quick-dry Fabric Dry Cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠莹

    2011-01-01

    The convenient quick-dry fabric aerosol dry cleaner was developed to meet the deverisiform cleaning demands.Choosing suitable grease sorbent,degreaser,propellant and powder valve,the formulation system and manufacturing technique were studied.The product formulation passed the application test and stable test.This product had broad market prospect.%为了满足人们多元化的洗衣洁衣需要,开发了便利的免洗快干织物除污气雾剂产品。通过挑选油脂吸附剂、去污剂和抛射剂,筛选粉末阀门,研究调整了配方体系和生产工艺。经过一系列的试验,该产品通过了相关应用测试及稳定性试验,具有广阔的市场前景。

  19. Minimal ambient nuclear C*-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    We provide examples of ambient nuclear C*-algebras of non-nuclear C*-algebras with no proper intermediate C*-algebras. In particular this gives the first examples of minimal ambient nuclear C*-algebras of non-nuclear C*-algebras. For this purpose, we study generic Cantor systems of infinite free product groups.

  20. Ecological evaluation of shoreline cleaners used on oiled mesocosm sandy beaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, C.; Bonner, J.; Dellamea, S.; Ussery, S.; Tissot, P.; Louchouarn, P. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Page, C.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Significant environmental impacts result from most landfall of an oil spill. The fate and environmental effects of shoreline cleaners Corexit 9580 and CytoSol were studied in the mesocosm beaches located at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas. The biological effects to the immediate treatment areas and water columns were studied by performing bioassays in-situ and ex-situ. Organisms used for the in-situ tests were fiddler crabs and oysters, among others. They were exposed to the immediate treatment areas and the sub-tidal water columns respectively. Guidelines issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were followed to expose sheepshead minnows to tank effluent samples. The protocols issued by Environment Canada were respected for the evaluation of beach sediment core samples with amphipods. Microbics Microtox was used to evaluate the sediment elutriate toxicity. This test showed an accelerated toxicity reduction. The amphipod study and the fiddler crab exposures did not expose a reduction in beach substrate toxicity. The sheepshead minnows and the oysters did not show water column toxicity. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Waste pyrolysis project in Romania - way to success for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a waste pyrolysis project in progress in Romania. Authors are energy and environmental experts of Politehnica University of Bucharest. January 4th 2010 is the starting point of the project and the aim of the work is to present how the planned activities have been achieved at the presentation moment. A short description of the targeted wasted to be gasified in the reactor will be included. The plant will treat about 86 t/day wastes from two regions in Romania, producing heat and electricity for near residential area. Presenters will insist on the reference plans to develop the project, with focus on the obstacles and problems to be solved during commissioning. The project economy and financing will be widely explained for sharing our experience to the interested audience. Gant diagrams in terms of licenses and approvals, waste contracting, human resources is shown. Authors will draw their expectations on the project development till the dead-line. An important part of the plan is the Community involvement on the project through an EU project called ELENA. In this respect, a monitoring unit for the cycle waste from community - energy to community will be created. Our success would be a useful lesson for the conference's participants in their fight for a cleaner environment. (author)

  2. Ecological evaluation of shoreline cleaners used on oiled mesocosm sandy beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant environmental impacts result from most landfall of an oil spill. The fate and environmental effects of shoreline cleaners Corexit 9580 and CytoSol were studied in the mesocosm beaches located at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas. The biological effects to the immediate treatment areas and water columns were studied by performing bioassays in-situ and ex-situ. Organisms used for the in-situ tests were fiddler crabs and oysters, among others. They were exposed to the immediate treatment areas and the sub-tidal water columns respectively. Guidelines issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were followed to expose sheepshead minnows to tank effluent samples. The protocols issued by Environment Canada were respected for the evaluation of beach sediment core samples with amphipods. Microbics Microtox was used to evaluate the sediment elutriate toxicity. This test showed an accelerated toxicity reduction. The amphipod study and the fiddler crab exposures did not expose a reduction in beach substrate toxicity. The sheepshead minnows and the oysters did not show water column toxicity. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  4. Analysis of Incomplete Filling Defect for Injection-Molded Air Cleaner Cover Using Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeyoung Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-sized cover part for air cleaner was injection molded with ABS resin, and its incomplete filling defect was analyzed using commercial Moldflow software. To investigate the effect of processing temperature on incomplete filling defect, tensile properties, weight loss, and phase separation behavior of ABS resin were evaluated. The tensile properties of dumbbell samples were not changed up to 250°C and decreased significantly thereafter. SEM micrographs indicated no significant changes in the status of polybutadiene rubber phase below 250°C. These different test results indicated that ABS resin little affected the thermal decomposition in processing temperature range. The Moldflow simulation was performed using measured thickness of molded cover and actual mold design with the defects. As expected, the cover part showed unbalanced filling and incomplete sections. To improve these defects, two possible cases of hot runner system have been simulated. When applying modified 5-gate system, the maximum injection pressure was decreased approximately 5.5% more than that of actual gate system. In case of 6-gate system, the maximum injection pressure reduced by 23%, and the injection pressure required to fill is well within the range of the molding equipment. The maximum clamping force of 6-gate system was also significantly reduced than that of actual and 5-gate system.

  5. Minimal Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  6. Minimal Higgs inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Oda, Kin-ya

    2014-01-01

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale \\Lambda, which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above \\Lambda. Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(10^4), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that \\Lambda must be less than 5*10^{17}GeV in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above \\Lambda. The scale 10^{17}GeV coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with the string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171GeV, with which \\Lambda can exceed 10^{17}GeV. As a concrete example of the potential above \\Lambda, we propose a simple log type potential. The predi...

  7. Minimal Higgs inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ, which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above Λ. Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(104), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that Λ must be less than 5×1017 GeV in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above Λ. The scale 1017 GeV coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171 GeV, with which Λ can exceed 1017 GeV. As a concrete example of the potential above Λ, we propose a simple log-type potential. The predictions of this specific model for the e-foldings N∗=50–60 are consistent with the current observation, namely, the scalar spectral index is ns=0.977--0.983 and the tensor to scalar ratio 0

  8. Minimal dilaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Kin-ya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have reported the observation of the particle of mass around 125 GeV which is consistent to the Standard Model (SM Higgs boson, but with an excess of events beyond the SM expectation in the diphoton decay channel at each of them. There still remains room for a logical possibility that we are not seeing the SM Higgs but something else. Here we introduce the minimal dilaton model in which the LHC signals are explained by an extra singlet scalar of the mass around 125 GeV that slightly mixes with the SM Higgs heavier than 600 GeV. When this scalar has a vacuum expectation value well beyond the electroweak scale, it can be identified as a linearly realized version of a dilaton field. Though the current experimental constraints from the Higgs search disfavors such a region, the singlet scalar model itself still provides a viable alternative to the SM Higgs in interpreting its search results.

  9. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  10. 用户行为对家用吸尘器造型设计的影响%Users Behavior’s Impact on Modeling Design of Household Vacuum Cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田美玲; 杨松; 赵莹; 赵新军

    2014-01-01

    随着生活水平的不断提高,居民要求改善居住环境,改变传统的打扫方式,吸尘器的需求量必然会有一个新的突破。用户行为对家用吸尘器造型设计的影响研究以美国IIT设计学院Whitney教授建立的POEM (People,Objects,Environments,Mes⁃sages)分析框架为基础,从行为的主要因素出发,深入理解用户行为的内涵及其对产品造型设计的影响,从而期望从另一个角度挖掘产品造型设计的规律,摆脱形式化的造型缺陷,为吸尘器造型设计的改良寻找了一个更准确的视角,做出“易用的、实用的”产品,从而提升产品的认知度,为企业带来更大的收益。%With the living standards of residents improving constantly,it requires to improve the living environment and to change the way of traditional cleaning methods. Therefore, the demands for cleaner will have a new breakthrough. Based on the POEM (People, Objects,Environments,Messages) analytical framework established by Professor Whitney who comes from American College of Design IIT, the research of user behavior impact on household cleaner form design proceeds from the research of major behavioral factors, understands the connotation of user behavior and influence on product design deeply. By digging product design rules from another perspective and avoiding of defects of the formalization, find a more accurate perspective for the improved design of vacuum cleaner and design the functional and easy-to-use product. Thus the design will enhance product awareness and bring more benefits for enterprises.

  11. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-01-01

    The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title) reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, h...

  12. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  13. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides economics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an obje ctive in designing chemical processes, and usually leads to high costs of invest ment and operation. An attempt was made to minimize waste discharged from chemic al reaction processes during the design and modification process while the opera tion conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and e conomics. Multiobjectives decision nonlinear programming (NLP) was employed to o ptimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste . A modeling language package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process. This p aper presents a case study of the benzene production process. The flowsheet factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined. Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations e asily. After comparisons of all possible solutions, best-compromise approach wa s applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  14. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides econormics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an objective in designing chemical processes,and usually leads to high costs of investment and operation.An attempt was mede to minimize waste discharged from chemical reaction processes during the design and modification process while the operation conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and economics.Multiob-jectives decision nonlinear programming(NLP) was emplyed optimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste. A modeling package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process.This paper presents a case study of the benzenc production process.The flowsheer factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined.Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations easily.After comparisons of all possiblle solutions,best-compromise approach was applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  15. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  16. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (p0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. PMID:26190059

  17. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  18. Improving the analysis of small precipitates in HSLA steels using a plasma cleaner and ELNES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Craven, A J

    2003-04-01

    The change from producing high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sheet by conventional thick slab casting to producing it by direct charged thin slab casting causes a major change in the evolution of the precipitation. A key area of interest is the composition of the sub-10nm precipitates used to produce dispersion hardening. Carbon extraction replicas are frequently used to study precipitates in steels and other metals. When used with annular dark field imaging, this technique gives high contrast images of the precipitates while the thin carbon film adds little background or additional characteristic signals to either electron energy loss spectra or energy dispersive X-ray spectra. The method has the additional major advantage of removing the ferromagnetic matrix when studying HSLA steels. However, when the precipitates contain carbon, the C K-edge is dominated by the contribution from the amorphous carbon film. A plasma cleaner can be used to thin this carbon film to approximately 0.5 nm or less and then the contribution from the carbon in the precipitate can be separated from that in the carbon film using the electron energy loss near edge structure. A similar approach can be taken to separate the oxygen content of the precipitate from that of oxides formed from low-level impurities in the amorphous carbon during the plasma thinning process. In most cases, the precipitate studied here contained little or no oxygen even for the smallest sizes examined (approximately 4 nm). The precipitates contain mainly nitrogen with little carbon. For some compositions, the precipitates are clearly sub-stoichiometric. PMID:12524190

  19. A NEW CASE FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING LOGIC FUNCTION MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zolfaghari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sum of minterms is a canonical form for representing logic functions. There are classical methods such as Karnaugh map or Quine–McCluskey tabulation for minimizing a sum of products. This minimization reduces the minterms to smaller products called implicants. If minterms are represented by bit strings, the bit strings shrink through the minimization process. This can be considered as a kind of data compression provided that there is a way for retrieving the original bit strings from the compressed strings. This paper proposes implements and evaluates an image compression method called YALMIC (Yet Another Logic Minimization Based Image Compression which depends on logic function minimization. This method considers adjacent pixels of the image as disjointed minterms constructing a logic function and compresses the 24-bit color images through minimizing the function. We compare the compression ratio of the proposed method to those of existing methods and show that YALMIC improves the compression ratio by about 25% on average.

  20. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    OpenAIRE

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional appro...

  1. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  2. Minimal surfaces for architectural constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimirović Ljubica S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal surfaces are the surfaces of the smallest area spanned by a given boundary. The equivalent is the definition that it is the surface of vanishing mean curvature. Minimal surface theory is rapidly developed at recent time. Many new examples are constructed and old altered. Minimal area property makes this surface suitable for application in architecture. The main reasons for application are: weight and amount of material are reduced on minimum. Famous architects like Otto Frei created this new trend in architecture. In recent years it becomes possible to enlarge the family of minimal surfaces by constructing new surfaces.

  3. Preservation of minimally processed 'aurora-1' peaches using additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins; Ben-Hur Mattiuz; Leandra Oliveira Santos; Cristiane Maria Ascari Morgado; Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz

    2011-01-01

    'Aurora-1' peaches establishes an interesting alternative as a minimally processed product, due to its characteristics like flavor, color, smell, and also because of its handling resistance. However, it has a short shelf life after a fresh-cut due to enzymatic browning and stone cavity collapse. The main purpose of this research was to test the additive with antioxidant effect to prevent browning in minimally processed 'Aurora-1' peaches. The minimal processing consists of washing, sanitizing...

  4. Temperatura e tipo de preparo na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola' Temperature and method of preparation in preservation of the minimally processed product of Pérola pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SARZI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tipo de preparo ("rodelas" e "metades" e da temperatura de armazenamento (3ºC, 6ºC e 9ºC na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola'. Os frutos, depois de selecionados, lavados e desinfectados com cloro, foram armazenados por 12 horas a 10ºC, antes de serem processados sob condições higiênicas, embalados em contentores de polietileno tereftalatado ("rodelas" ou bandeja de isopor recoberta com filme de cloreto de polivinila esticável ("metades" e armazenados por até 12 dias. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto à evolução da atmosfera interna na embalagem, respiração, quantidade de suco drenado e evolução da massa fresca e da aparência. Foram testadas, durante o período de armazenamento, a aceitabilidade pelos consumidores, no início do experimento e enquanto a aparência e a análise microbiológica permitiram. A presença de bactérias mesofílicas e coliformes totais e fecais foi avaliada a cada três dias. Durante o armazenamento, a porcentagem de O2 nas embalagens apresentou decréscimo, enquanto a de CO2 aumentou até 20% para as "metades" e até 1,86% para as "rodelas". A intensidade dos cortes no preparo teve influência direta na respiração, assim como nas perdas de suco e de massa fresca. A temperatura influenciou na respiração e foi fator limitante à vida de prateleira do produto, pois os produtos armazenados a 9ºC, conservaram-se por 6 dias, enquanto os mantidos a 3ºC e 6ºC, por até 9 dias.The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of two types of preparation ("roundels" and "halves" and of different storages temperatures (3ºC, 6ºC and 9ºC on the preservation of the minimally processed product of 'Pérola' pineapples. The fruits, after being selected, washed and disinfected with chlorine, were stored for 12 h at 10ºC, before being processed under hygienic conditions, packaged in polyethylene terephthalate

  5. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  6. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  7. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'

  8. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  9. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  10. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  11. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which are...... of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the...... divergence theorems together with the comparison techniques for distance functions in Riemannian geometry and obtain bounds for the first Dirichlet eigenvalues, the exit times and the capacities as well as isoperimetric type inequalities for so-called extrinsic $R-$webs of minimal webs in ambient Riemannian...

  12. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  13. HEAVY OIL UPGRADING WITH MINIMAL INVESTMENT COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By making best use of the low value by-products and maximum utilization of the existed processing units to minimize the investment cost,several heavy oil upgrading processes have been developed and put into practice in China.For domestic sweet crudes,RFCC combined with decanted oil coking or deasphalting has been selected.By RFCC-coking or deasphalting synergy,inferior quality feedstock can be accepted and needle coke and paving asphalt are produced.For imported sulfur crudes,high vacuum distillation combined with asphalt production and combined coking with the use of coke in cement industry and Fluidized Bed Combustion are recommend.

  14. Minimal flows and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, J

    1988-01-01

    This monograph presents developments in the abstract theory of topological dynamics, concentrating on the internal structure of minimal flows (actions of groups on compact Hausdorff spaces for which every orbit is dense) and their homomorphisms (continuous equivariant maps). Various classes of minimal flows (equicontinuous, distal, point distal) are intensively studied, and a general structure theorem is obtained. Another theme is the ``universal'' approach - entire classes of minimal flows are studied, rather than flows in isolation. This leads to the consideration of disjointness of flows, w

  15. Long term effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease after 12-months of aerobic exercise intervention - A worksite RCT among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    -months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min...... evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12...

  16. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for new nanotec...

  17. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... his choice. Tariq asks, can we see one day that minimally invasive techniques to replace conventional heart ... rarely need those pacemaker wires after the first day after surgery. Okay, we have another question from ...

  18. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to minimize their symptoms, but that doesn't impact the course of the disease itself. When I' ... echocardiography is? Echocardiography is the use of ultrasound technology. Ultrasound technology is a form of the same ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to minimize their symptoms, but that doesn't impact the course of the disease itself. When I' ... more likely we see aortic stenosis. Again, patient education is part of the evaluation and management of ...

  20. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see aortic stenosis in patients younger, in their 40s and 50s, if they have congenitally bicuspid, or ... a year and, you know, probably 30 to 40 minimally invasive aortic valve replacements a year. So ...

  1. $\\alpha$-minimal Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendal, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A Banach space with a Schauder basis is said to be $\\alpha$-minimal for some countable ordinal $\\alpha$ if, for any two block subspaces, the Bourgain embeddability index of one into the other is at least $\\alpha$. We prove a dichotomy that characterises when a Banach space has an $\\alpha$-minimal subspace, which contributes to the ongoing project, initiated by W. T. Gowers, of classifying separable Banach spaces by identifying characteristic subspaces.

  2. Minimal universal quantum heat machine

    OpenAIRE

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Alicki, Robert; Kurizki, Gershon

    2012-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally-separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows to compute the stationary power and heat...

  3. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) with the same "minimal" bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new "minimal massive gravity" has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  4. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal, Cécilia; Rousselle, Christophe; Mandin, Corinne; Manel, Jacques; Maupetit, François

    2008-01-01

    Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning products. All experiment...

  5. Ocean Environmental Assessment and Adaptive Resource Management within the Framework of IOOS and CLEANER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J.; Brezonik, P.; Clesceri, N.; Gouldman, C.; Jamail, R.; Zilkoski, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), established through the efforts of the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations (Oceans.US) provides quality controlled data and information on a routine and continuous basis regarding current and future states of the oceans and Great Lakes at scales from global ocean basins to coastal ecosystems. The seven societal goals of IOOS are outlined in this paper. The Engineering and Geosciences Directorates at the National Science Foundation (NSF) are collaborating in planning the WATERS (WATer Environmental Research System) Network, an outgrowth of earlier, separate initiatives of the two directorates: CLEANER (Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research) and Hydrologic Observatories. WATERS Network is being developed by engineers and scientists in the academic community who recognize the need for an observation and research network to enable better understanding of human-dominated water-environments, their stressors, and the links between them. The WATERS Network model is based on a research framework anchored in a distributed, cyber-based network supporting: 1) data collection; 2) data aggregation; 3) analytical and exploratory tools; and 4) a computational environment supporting predictive modeling and policy analysis on water resource systems. Within IOOS, the U.S. coastal margin is divided into Regional Associations (RAs), organizational units that are conceptually linked through planned data collection and analysis activities for resolving fundamental coastal margin ecosystem questions and addressing RA concerns. Under the WATERS Network scheme, a Coastal Margin Regional Environmental System (RES) for coastal areas would be defined conceptually based on geomorphologic considerations of four major water bodies; Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, and Laurentian Great Lakes. Within this framework, each coastal margin would operate one or more local

  6. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Marzola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the r\\^ole of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\approx 10^{-3}$, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index $n_s \\simeq 0.97$ which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  7. An Approach to Composition Based on a Minimal Techno Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bougaïeff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines key issues relating to minimal techno, a sub-genre of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in the early 1990s. These key issues are the aesthetics, composition, performance, and technology of minimal techno, as well as the economics of EDM production. The study aims to answer the following question. What is the musical and social significance of minimal techno production and performance? The study is conducted in two parts. The history of minimal music is ...

  8. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  9. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...' consumer products and AIM rules into the State's SIP (77 FR 33659). In our June 7, 2012, rulemaking, we... Cleaners, Footwear or leather Care Products, General Purpose Degreasers, and Graffiti Removers'' to the... that were affected by the rule as approved by EPA at 77 FR 33659), and July 1, 2012 (for...

  10. The relationship between low back pain and leisure time physical activity in a working population of cleaners - a study with weekly follow-ups for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Tobias; Jorgensen, Marie B; Hansen, Jorgen V;

    2012-01-01

    intensity in the subsequent 4 weeks. METHODS: 188 cleaners consented to participate in a 52-week text message survey about hours of LTPA and intensity of LBP (from 0 to 9) over the previous 7 days. The correlation between LBP and LTPA was calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient. During an episode of...

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE HARMFUL FACTORS OF MANUFACTURE OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS ON THE CLINICAL-FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE ORAL CAVITIES IN THE WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimova, Feruza; Jumatov, Urozmat; Idiev, Gayrat

    2014-01-01

    It is established, that under the conditions of manufacture of the synthetic detergents and cleaners among working there are observed decrease in enamel acid-resistence, increase in electroconductivity of the teeth dense tissues and decrease of capillary stability in the gingival in comparison with control group of the studied subjects which precede to development of caries of the teeth and parodontium diseases.

  12. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  13. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  14. How to distinguish between the vacuum cleaner and flippase mechanisms of the LmrA multi-drug transporter in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyr, JHS; Rohwer, JM; Snoep, JL; Westerhoff, HV; Konings, WN

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the LmrA multi-drug transport system of Lactococcus lactis is used to explore the possibility of distinguishing experimentally between two putative transport mechanisms, i.e., the vacuum-cleaner and the flippase mechanisms. This comparative model also serves as an example of num

  15. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  16. Novel air cleaners and their evaluation methods%新型空气净化器及其评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路丽; 贺军辉; 田华; 何溥; 杨巧文

    2015-01-01

    随着雾霾天气日益频繁,室内空气质量备受关注,传统的室内空气净化器已不能满足室内空气净化的要求,研发新型多功能空气净化器及复合空气净化技术已成为净化器发展的主要方向.本文总结近年来国内外对室内空气净化器的相关研究,综述当前应用最广泛的几种新型室内空气净化器(包括新型吸附材料、低温等离子体、光催化、催化氧化、复合式空气净化器)的研发进展,分析各净化器的优势与不足,总结新型空气净化器的主要评价指标及评价方法,分析其气体污染物、固体颗粒物、微生物污染物进行单一评价的方法,并展望室内空气净化器的研发方向.%More and more frequent haze days increase the concern over indoor air quality.Traditional indoor air cleaners no longer satisfy the requirements of indoor air purification.Thus,development of novel multifunctional air cleaners and comprehensive air purification technologies become a major research direction toward improving indoor air quality and meeting new needs of current market.By summarizing recent researches on indoor air cleaners of both at home and abroad,herein we review several novel indoor air cleaners,including new adsorption materials,non-thermal plasma,photocatalytic,catalytic oxidation and multifunctional air cleaners,and analyze their advantages and disadvantages.The main evaluation indexes and methods of novel air cleaners are also summarized,including the evaluation methods for gas pollutants,solid particles and microbial contaminants.An outlook is also made toward the future research directions of indoor air cleaners.

  17. Algebraic analysis of minimal representations

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Small representations of a group bring us to large symmetries in a representation space. Analysis on minimal representations utilises large symmetries in their geometric models, and serves as a driving force in creating new interesting problems that interact with other branches of mathematics. This article discusses the following three topics that arise from minimal representations of the indefinite orthogonal group: 1. construction of conservative quantities for ultra-hyperbolic equations, 2. quantative discrete branching laws, 3. deformation of the Fourier transform with emphasis on the prominent roles of Sato's idea on algebraic analysis.

  18. A Qualitative Exploration of Less Acculturated Mexican Mothers' Safety Perceptions of Herbs, Medicines, and Cleaners in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosslin, Katie; Tsai, Ray; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2016-04-01

    Childhood poisoning is a leading public health concern in our society. The death rate from unintentional poisonings among children has increased by 80% from 2000 to 2009. Immigrant children are also at-risk. A qualitative study, consisting of a pile sort, was conducted among immigrant Mexican mothers to determine their safety perceptions of commonly used medicines, herbs, and cleaners. Participants (N = 35) were selected for semi-structured interviews from a pediatric primary care clinic in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Some mothers over-estimated their children's ability to discern the dangers of substances, relied heavily on sensory skills of children, and perceived a medicine as safe after successful use in the past. Other mothers were more cognizant of allergic reactions, ingestion, and the need to store substances carefully. Brief interventions that incorporate culturally-appropriate safety messages are needed to assist Mexican mothers in creating a safe home environment. PMID:25801449

  19. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  20. Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MCFA) into Corporate Management System

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Michiyasu; 中嶌, 道靖

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the structure of a management system which supports countermeasures for the environment in the manufacturing process by Environmental Management Accounting and particularly by Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) and the features of its management system.

  1. CHALLENGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN INTERNATIONAL MANUFACTURING SUBCONTRACTING: THE CASE OF THE MAQUILADORA INDUSTRY IN NORTHERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montalvo Corral

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito global, las autoridades nacionales y locales enfrentan nuevas formas de organización industrial que hacen más difícil la regulación ambiental de estas actividades. Después de la última oleada de privatizaciones acompañadas de concentración económica en diversos sectores y de la maduración de la manufactura globalizada, se puede esperar que los organismos encargados de regular la actividad industrial tengan poca independencia y poder para diseñar y aplicar esquemas regulatorios. Éste es particularmente el caso en la promoción de innovación tecnológica encaminada a proteger el medio ambiente. Este artículo argumenta la tesis de que el ciclo de negocios en la industria maquiladora y la carencia de capacidad institucional de las autoridades ambientales regionales son las limitantes estructurales directas en la promoción de la produción limpia en la región fronteriza de Estados Unidos y México.

  2. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  3. Minimization and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report will serve as one of a series of technical manuals providing reference material and direct know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in Member States without nuclear power and the associated range of complex waste management operations. Considerations are limited to the minimization and segregation of wastes, these being initial steps on which the efficiency of the whole waste management system depends. The minimization and segregation operations are examined in the context of the restricted quantities and predominantly shorter lived activities of wastes from nuclear research, production and usage of radioisotopes. Liquid and solid wastes only are considered in the report. Gaseous waste minimization and treatment are specialized subjects and are not examined in this document. Gaseous effluent treatment in facilities handling low and intermediate level radioactive materials has been already the subject of a detailed IAEA report. Management of spent sealed sources has specifically been covered in a previous manual. Conditioned sealed sources must be taken into account in segregation arrangements for interim storage and disposal where there are exceptional long lived highly radiotoxic isotopes, particularly radium or americium. These are unlikely ever to be suitable for shallow land burial along with the remaining wastes. 30 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

  5. Minimal quantization of linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimal quantization method is applied to the linearized Einstein theory in the weak-field approximation. By solving exactly the constraint equation for the Newton component one gets convinced that its interaction with gravitational waves may disturb their propagation. 23 refs

  6. Hollow vortices and minimal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Traizet, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We consider an overdetermined elliptic problem known as the hollow vortex problem. We prove that the solutions to this problem are in 1:1 correspondence with minimal graphs bounded by horizontal symmetry lines. We use this correspondence to give various examples of domains with hollow vortices.

  7. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Minimal surfaces in Riemannian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple solution to the Plateau problem in a Riemannian manifold is established. In Sn, the existence of two solutions to this problem is obtained. The Morse-Tompkins-Shiffman theorem is extended to the case when the ambient space admits no minimal sphere. (author). 20 refs

  9. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and...

  10. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  11. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  12. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  14. INSURANCE IN AGRICULTURE OF SERBIA AS PRECONDITION OF RISK MINIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljevic, Zorica; Zaric, Vlade; Sevic, Dunja

    2013-01-01

    Due to its specific nature agriculture is exposed to a number of risks, whose emergence could lead to the losses in production as well as volatility in the business. The risks can not be completely eliminated, but they can be managed and their impacts can be minimized. Insurance could have the most important role in minimization of risk. Insurance is a form of risk management used to limit potential losses. Insurance in agriculture includes crop and fruit insurance, but also insurance of live...

  15. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means of...... three examples, a vacuum cleaner, two sweaters and a passenger car. The quality of the results is compared with two other methods for environmental evaluation....

  16. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  17. A Minimally Symmetric Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized SU(2)xU(1) electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal in all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB). Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  18. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed. PMID:23410316

  19. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  20. Minimal type II seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a minimal type II seesaw model by introducing only one right-handed neutrino besides the SU(2)L triplet Higgs to the standard model. In the usual type II seesaw models with several right-handed neutrinos, the contributions of the right-handed neutrinos and the triplet Higgs to the CP asymmetry, which stems from the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino, are proportional to their respective contributions to the light neutrino mass matrix. However, in our minimal type II seesaw model, this CP asymmetry is just given by the one-loop vertex correction involving the triplet Higgs, even though the contribution of the triplet Higgs does not dominate the light neutrino masses. For illustration, the Fritzsch-type lepton mass matrices are considered