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Sample records for cleaner production minimizing

  1. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  2. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    systematic process, which is not applied once, but permanently, in each one of the phases of the cycle of life. In this context, the cleanest technology is only an integral, but partial element, inside the concept of cleaner production, since this includes other elements like the attitudes and practical managerial of continuous improvement of the environmental administration. In other words it is looked for to prevent and to minimize the impacts and risks efficiently to the human beings and the environment, guaranteeing the environmental protection, the economic growth, the social well-being and the managerial competitiveness, starting from introducing the environmental dimension in the productive sectors, as an it challenged of long term. Inside the limits related with mining the politics of cleaner production is contemplated that seeks to give a mark not directed toward the rational and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources renewable with the reinforcement and articulation of the tools and instruments of sectoral character. The cleanest production has been able to be internalized in the new Mines Code, that establishes the objective in its first article it contemplates that its use (of minerals) it is not carried out in form harmonica with the principles and norms of rational exploitation of the natural resources renewable and of the atmosphere, inside an integral concept of sustainable development and of the economic and social invigoration of the country. In the politics' s of cleaner production development it has occurred special impulse to the development of the environmental centers miner as a half appropriate of technological transfer that with investigation, development and diffusion of technical and technologies of clean production, mainly in the auriferous mining that they can enlarge their services to other minerals, they look for to diminish the technical and technological limitations that have made of the exploitation of the mineral resources, a

  3. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald;

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  4. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  5. Cleaner Production Assessment in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zong; LU Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Cleaner Production focuses on environmental improvement with economic benefits. Based on the benefit assessment home and abroad, the assessment method and wocess in textile industry is discussed, including maneuverable indicator system, mathematics model. According to corresponding principles of Cleaner Production, representative problems are mentioned. With Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Mathematics, some enterprise is collected to attain the economic, environmental and social benefit of Cleaner Production. The results show that Cleaner Production improves utilization efficiency of resources, energy sources even waste, and creates conditions of Sustainable Development in textile industry.

  6. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  7. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    In connection with the establishment of the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative, the Environmental Protection Agency wished to undertake a subevaluation of the projects initiated under the cleaner technology action plan in relation to the sectors and areas which have been initially under...... focus in the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative. The purpose of this evaluation has been to assess experience from the initiatives to date against the intentions of the action plan, and to provide constructive input to help flesh out a future product-oriented initiative, including the activities...... linked to the new programme for cleaner products. The evaluation has focused on three selected sectors and on inter-sector product-oriented projects carried out under the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1993-97. The investigation has been carried out at the request of the Council for Recycling...

  8. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Union Spinning Mills and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project. Project participants from USM were: • From USM: Operations Director Johan Ferreira, Finishing Manager Anrico (Andrej) Kritzinger...

  9. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...

  10. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow...

  11. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  12. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian SME-sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development...... (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen...

  13. Identification of cleaner production benefits and difficulties in industrial enterprises of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production is gaining increasing acceptance by companies due the capacity that this strategy presents to proactive minimization of environmental impacts and to the rational use of inputs and reduce the generation of waste and emissions. This practice creates environmental and economic benefits for businesses. Thus, the measurement of the benefits earned by the Cleaner Production in companies that adopt this environmental strategy is of paramount importance to its promotion in business and for society in general. In addition to this information, there is a need for greater appreciation of the environmental benefits against the economic. In this context, this research aims to identify the benefits and the difficulties generated for Cleaner Production in four industrial companies located in the state of São Paulo through case studies. It was possible to identify significant environmental benefits, especially in the aspect of reducing the use of production inputs, i.e., extraction of natural resources and disposal of waste production. Moreover, the preventive strategy of Cleaner Production allwoed economic gains to organizations , supported by rational management of their production processes. As a major difficulty highlight the economic aspects for the implementation of projects Cleaner Production.

  14. Floating faeces for a cleaner fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, Julia; Schumann, Mark; Brinker, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in European recirculating aquaculture systems suggest expanding potential for this extremely water-efficient technique. However, the technology still faces challenges due to concerns over economic efficiency and system stability - both essential in minimizing the risk of financially and environmentally expensive failures. One key factor in maintaining stable production conditions in a recirculation loop is the effective removal of solid waste, i.e. fish faeces. This study ...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  16. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  17. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  18. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  19. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto; Nivaldo Palmeri Palmeri; Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto; Osvaldo D'Angelo Perreti

    2010-01-01

    Cleaner Production (CP) is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, ac...

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEANER PRODUCTION STRATEGIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and growing size of cities will have an increasing impact on the global environment in the 21 st century.As an engine of urban development to drive economic growth and technological innovations,industry has moved its focus from controlling environmental hazards to stimulating sustainable industrial development throughout the entire product lifecycle.These process- and technology-driven innovations for industrial production are prerequisites for enhancement of urban environment and sustainable development of cities.In this review,problems of environment and resources scarcity associated with rapid urbanization are demonstrated.And,on the basis of expatiations on the concepts and policies of the cleaner production (CP) and other similar initiatives with the goal of preventing pollution at the source and of managing the raw material more efficiently,two different ways to link the practice of cleaner production in industrial sector with performance of urban environment are discussed in detail.Then,the introduction,practice and legislation of CP strategies in China are outlined,and possibility for China to develop CPC (Cleaner Practices for Cities) approaches in the demonstration cities is discussed.Finally,some suggestions on implementation of CPC strategies are put forward.

  1. The Role of Cleaner-Production in Ensuring a Cleaner Processing and Mining Environment in a Developing African Country. Case of a Midlands Steel Smelting Plant in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chinguwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mines and Mineral Processing Plants are major contributors to high dust emission. This paper explores Cleaner Production Opportunities, to ensure lower risk of dust explosion, minimum health & safety risks, reduction in environmental issues, operations closer to urban areas, reduction in maintenance and cleaning costs, minimum product shrinkage, load trucks and rail cars faster and to load stockpiles cleanly. The green methods will involve a walk through processing plant and identifying cleaner production opportunities. Characterisation of dust was also done. Dust Control Methods are going to be reviewed with the aim of minimizing dust-raising, containing it, suppressing it or extracting and collecting the dust eventually. The paper will also design and recommend specific methods of dust reduction for specific operations.

  2. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  3. Sinopec Commits to Cleaner Production and Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaocheng

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation, or Sinopec, has issued a report on its efforts at environmental protection - a first for a Chinese company. The report cites strategies of China's biggest oil refiner by capacity to reduce environmental impact, as well as implementation of lower-carbon fuels and less-polluting production methods.

  4. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  5. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  6. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the fp increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  7. Design of policy mechanism to promote cleaner production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to promote cleaner production in China, a package of policy options was presented based on the identification of the barriers encountered in the CP demonstration project and the effectiveness and feasibility of policy options for the CP implementation were analyzed.Furthermore, the policy mechanism framework was giyen, which composes of compulsory, economic incentive, social pressure and supportive function. Finally, the implementation strategy of the policy mechanism, in which the emphasis will be changed from compulsory Policy options towards economic and social pressure policy options, was proposed.

  8. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  9. Study on the evaluation system for the cleaner production of the mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianhong; Wang Bin

    2007-01-01

    It is important to establish the evaluation system of the cleaner production of the mining enterprise,which can provide the technical support and guidance for the cleaner production evaluation and facilitating the promotion of cleaner productive techniques so as to realize the integration of economic development and environmental protection.This paper,according to the characteristic of mining and Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP),establishes the evaluation index system,puts forward the overall quantitative evaluation method based on Fuzzy Mathematics and the experts'experience,and establishes the evaluation system of cleaner production.The main problems in cleaner production of the mine are analyzed by calculation,and some countermeasures and suggestions are proposed.

  10. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  11. Cleaner Production Assessment of Fast Bordeaux GP Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilot plant study of cleaner production (CP process of a dyes intermediate, Fast Bordeaux GP Base (2-nitro-p-anisidine, is presented in this work. The existing production process with acetic anhydride as raw material generates highly polluting (high chemical oxygen demand, huge-volume effluent, and thus the treatment is expensive. In the proposed process, raw material acetic anhydride in acetylation step is replaced with acetic acid. The reaction conditions like reaction time (3 h, temperature (120∘C and molar ratio of p-anisidine and acetic acid (1 : 3.58 are optimized in the laboratory scale and implemented in pilot plant. The extent of conversion has been monitored by nitrite value test, and purity of product mixture is measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The acidic wastewater quantity is dramatically reduced by incorporating recycling in washing scheme, and thus water consumption is reduced. Reduction in wastewater generation and reduction/elimination of treatment cost is also observed. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of the effluent stream is reduced by the recovery of by-products sodium acetate and spent acid. The technoeconomical feasibility studies show that the proposed CP options are highly economical and environmental friendly.

  12. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  13. A Brief Discussion on the Application of the Ideas of Cleaner Production to the Dispose of Waste Materials Containing Zine%浅谈"清洁生产"思维在含锌废料处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德华; 魏昶; 戴永年

    2000-01-01

    The cleaner production is applied to quantitatively investigate the situation of pollution and waste materials produced by every procedure in whole production of enterprise in order to find out the reasons of high consumption and pollution discharge and the treatment program,The destination goal of cleaner production is to optimize the usage of resource minimize the discharge of waste materials and upgrade the capability of treatment of pollution of the enterprise.The technical principle are produced to dispose the waste material containing zinc using cleaner production,After the materials containing zinc can be recovered,therefore the amount of waste materials discharge can be decreased greatly.

  14. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  15. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...... by the Department of Environment, Malaysia...

  16. The Development of A Sustainability Policy Model for Promoting Cleaner Production: a Special Focus on Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCleaner Production (CP) can be a necessary condition for societies to establish and maintain sustainable production systems. Based upon the significant challenges for making progress toward sustainability and the currently stagnated situation of CP implementation, this thesis author q

  17. A cleaner production approach to urban water management: potential for application in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, Innocent; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Water quality is an urgent problem in the Lake Chivero catchment, Zimbabwe, whilst water scarcity will be a problem soon. This study focused on assessing the potential impacts of the application of cleaner production principles in urban water supply and sanitation in the context of sustainable management of water resources. The cleaner production principles are explained together with how they can be applied to urban water management. Data from City of Harare and previous studies were collected and analysed. The study focused mainly on water, nitrogen and phosphorus. About 304,000 m 3/d of wastewater, containing 30,000 kg/d TN and 3600 kg/d TP are currently produced and treated at five sewage treatment works in Harare. Water conservation, treatment and reuse strategies were developed for different land uses starting from water-saving devices, regulation, leak detection and repair, to wastewater treatment and reuse. This study showed that the application of the cleaner production principles would reduce total wastewater production from 487,000 m 3/d to 379,000 m 3/d (a 27% reduction) based on year 2015 projections. A very large investment in treatment infrastructure can be postponed for about 10 years. In terms of amounts treated and discharged at central level this translates to reductions of 47% on flows, 34% on TN, and 44% on TP. River discharges can be eliminated. It was concluded that a cleaner production approach could substantially reduce current water pollution and long-term scarcity problems in Harare.

  18. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...

  19. 清洁生产标准指标体系在审核中的作用%Function of Cleaner Production Standard Index System in Cleaner Production Audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒学; 张建强; 赵希锦

    2012-01-01

    清洁生产审核已成为企业实施清洁生产的有效手段,清洁生产标准指标体系在审核工作中具有举足轻重的作用。文章分析了清洁生产标准指标体系在审核中的作用:判断企业清洁生产潜力,确定审核重点;设置科学合理的清洁生产目标;对审核产生的绩效进行评估;建立长期持续的清洁生产计划。同时,以某制革企业为例,说明清洁生产标准体系的具体应用。%Cleaner production audit has become an effective tool to implement cleaner production. Cleaner production stand- ard indicator system plays an important role in the audit process. This paper analyzes four functions of cleaner production stand- ards in the audit process: diagnose cleaner production potentials and determine audit priorities, set up scientific and reasonable au- dit objectives, assess the performance after auditing and establish long - term sustainable cleaner production plan. The application of cleaner production standard system is illustrated by taking a tannery as example.

  20. Jewelry cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the harmful effects that can occur from swallowing jewelry cleaner or breathing in its fumes. This article ... Jewelry cleaners and polishes are sold under various brand names. Some include: Goddard's Jewelry Cleaner Goddard's Silver ...

  1. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    OpenAIRE

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel; Lúcia Santana de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP), based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b). As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of prod...

  2. The Role of Cleaner-Production in Ensuring a Cleaner Processing and Mining Environment in a Developing African Country. Case of a Midlands Steel Smelting Plant in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Chinguwa; Tauyanashe Chikuku; TinasheMandikwaza

    2012-01-01

    Mines and Mineral Processing Plants are major contributors to high dust emission. This paper explores Cleaner Production Opportunities, to ensure lower risk of dust explosion, minimum health & safety risks, reduction in environmental issues, operations closer to urban areas, reduction in maintenance and cleaning costs, minimum product shrinkage, load trucks and rail cars faster and to load stockpiles cleanly. The green methods will involve a walk through processing plant and identifying clean...

  3. Sustainability and cleaner production: a study on the implications competitive advantage in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the adoption of environmental management system in the business and the competitive advantages that can result from this process. Therefore, the effects are discussed the emergence of a model of sustainable development and the role and opportunities of the company that perspective. Being theoretical, the aim of this paper is to discuss the potential contributions that the implementation of cleaner production technology can offer to the enterprise competitive strategy. To elucidate these relationships are discussed concepts relating to the introduction of an environmental management system, which emphasized the use of environmental measures, specifically the inherent Cleaner Production that aim to reduce the environmental impacts of industrial production, eliminating waste and reducing costs. Moreover, the concept of competitive advantage is crafted light of assumptions Porter on profitability from cost reduction and product differentiation. The findings indicate that the introduction of the Cleaner Production to reduce costs and add value to the image of the product, is an instrument of competitiveness that allows the company to differentiate and gain competitive advantage.

  4. The Integration of Cleaner Production Indicators on the Environmental Performance Measurement System for the Indonesian Natural Rubber Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sawarni Hasibuan; E. Gumbira-Sa’id; Eriyatno Eriyatno; Illah Saillah; Suharto Honggokusumo; M. Romli

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify the priority of the cleaner production implementation and integrate it in the design of a comprehensive environmental performance measurement system for natural rubber industry in Indonesia. Prioritizing the cleaner production on the production process of natural rubber is based on the case of 10 Indonesian crumb rubber companies using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The comprehensive environmental performance measurement system in natural rubber industry, i.e. i...

  5. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  6. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  7. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  8. Relationship between ecological economics and circular economy,eco-industry,cleaner production,and other relevant categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chuandong

    2006-01-01

    Eco-industry, circular economy, cleaner production, industrial ecology or industrial ecosystem and other subjects are all categories related to sustainable development. This paper studies the relations and differences between the four categories and sustainable development as well as ecological economics. Circular economy, eco-industry,industrial ecosystem and cleaner production were put forward during the revolution in "end treatment pattern" of traditional industrial society. Industrial ecology, eco-indtustry and circular economy theory are three content expansions of cleaner production. Ecological economics is of instructive function theoretically and methodologically for circular economy, eco-industrial, cleaner production and industrial ecology. Circular economy theory is easier to be accepted,compared with ecological economics theory. And circular economy in nature is the complete application of ecological economics theory.

  9. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  10. Brief Discussion on Cleaner Production of Beer%略论啤酒清洁生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 张雁秋; 阚久方

    2001-01-01

    介绍了我国啤酒废水的来源和污染强度,从改革啤酒生产工艺、回收利用废酵母、加强管理、降低酒损等方面论述了啤酒清洁生产的可行性。通过环境和经济效益分析可以看出,上述措施将在啤酒清洁生产中起到重要作用。%Introduction on the sources and pollution degree of wastewaterfrom chinas brewery was presented.By innovating production process,re-utilizing used yeast,strengthening management,reducing beer loss,the paper discussed the feasibility of cleaner production of the beer,It can be made a conclusion that these measures will play important roles on cleaner production of the beer by analyzing environmental and economic benefits.

  11. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  12. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produce large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the model and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. A model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-niche count is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem. A new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester,this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality constant.

  13. Biotechnology in biofuels -- a cleaner technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, K.R.; Chan, E.S.; Ravindra, P. [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). Centre of Materials and Minerals

    2011-07-01

    One quarter of the world's CO{sub 2} emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.

  14. Guidelines for the integration of EMS based in ISO 14001 with Cleaner Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to propose guidelines for the integration of the Environmental Management System (EMS based on ISO 14001 with the Cleaner Production (CP. For this, a systematic review was applied and five case studies have been carried out in industrial companies with considerable environmental performance. Located in the state of São Paulo, the researched companies have got CP projects to ensure environmental and economic gains and shown prominent compatibilities with the EMS based on ISO 14001. The proposed guidelines were performed in three parts: the planning stage, the integration stage and the stage of evaluation and analysis. The main compatibilities include dissemination of the environmental culture, synergy between some specific requirements of the standard and the CP, as the general requirements, legal requirements, environmental policy, training, qualification and monitoring. The guidelines can increase operational efficiency and strategic environmental management in enterprises.

  15. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  16. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process.

  17. Phase relationship of complex multi-component system in chromate cleaner production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Xinlei; Wang Xidong; Zheng Shili; Zhang Mei; Zhang Yi

    2007-01-01

    The phase relationships of the complex multi-component systems in the liquid-phase oxidization and separation process related with the chromate cleaner production are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phase diagram of main system Fe-Cr2O4-KOH-O2 of oxidization process and the relationship of its standard Gibbs free energy change with temperature are calculated. A series of phase diagrams of the separation process at different temperatures, such as K(Na)OH-K (Na)2CrO4-H2O, KOH-KAlO2-H2O,K(Na)OH- K(Na)2CO3-H2O, K(Na)OH-K(Na)HCO3-H2O and K(Na)HCO3-K(Na)2CrO4-H2O have also been calculated. Some experiments are carried out to verify the calculated results. Our results showed that the sub-molten salt media are suitable for the oxidization and separation processes; FeCr2O4 can be oxidized across a wide range of temperature; K (Na)2CrO4 can be separated from K(Na) AlO2 system at appropriate temperature and proper concentration; the crystallization of carbonate is easier than that of K(Na)2CrO4.

  18. How to Launch Cleaner Production Auditing of Paper Industrial Enterprise%造纸企业如何进行清洁生产审核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱梅; 伍安国

    2011-01-01

    工业企业是实施清洁生产审核的主体。本文从造纸企业的角度分析开展清洁生产审核的必要性,并对审核过程中的若干工作要点进行讨论,阐明造纸企业实施清洁生产审核时需注意的问题,为企业开展清洁生产审核提供借鉴。%Enterprise is the main body to implement cleaner production auditing, the necessity of cleaner production auditing of paper industrial enterprise was introduced, the several working key points in auditing process were discussed. In order to hold a mirror to paper industrial enterprise in cleaner production auditing, what we should pay attention in cleaner production auditing was discussed.

  19. Research on the Audit for Cleaner Production of Lead and Zinc Metallurgical Enterprise%铅锌冶炼企业清洁生产审核研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维维; 栾景丽; 何艳明; 杨勇

    2012-01-01

    通过参与铅锌冶炼行业清洁生产审核指南的编写,分析铅锌冶炼企业开展清洁生产审核的意义,审核过程存在的障碍及克服办法,总结铅锌冶炼企业常见的清洁生产方案,为企业开展清洁生产审核提供指导意见.%The significance, barriers and their countermeasures for lead and zinc metallurgical enterprises to develop cleaner production audit is analyzed in this paper via participating in writing of the cleaner production audit guidance for lead and zinc metallurgical industry, and the common cleaner production scheme is summarized in lead and zinc metallurgy, which can supply the guidance for enter-prises to develop cleaner production audit.

  20. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  1. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  2. Suppressed black hole production from minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large extra dimensions lower the Planck scale to values soon accessible. Motivated by string theory, the models of large extra dimensions predict a vast number of new effects in the energy range of the lowered Planck scale, among them the production of TeV-mass black holes. But not only is the Planck scale the energy scale at which effects of modified gravity become important. String theory as well as non-commutative quantum mechanics suggest that the Planck length acts a minimal length in nature, providing a natural ultraviolet cutoff and a limit to the possible resolution of spacetime. The minimal length effects thus become important in the same energy range in which the black holes are expected to form. In this Letter we examine the influence of the minimal length on the expected production rate of the black holes

  3. Cleaner Production Management and Promote%企业清洁生产的管理与推进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子龙

    2016-01-01

    In this stage,mainly through domestic business units to carry out cleaning work and in business background,the implementation of cleaner production,bound to be some problems,such as the high cost of funds and the capacity is limited,Unable to deal with the problem to achieve a comprehensive and thorough and systematic,is not conducive to the further promotion of research results,etc.these problems are to some extent on cleaner production management and promote the work caused some obstacles, therefore,the relevant departments must be given appropriate support and guidance through the standardization of management tools to further promote the development of cleaner production management and promote the work.The following systematic research on issues related to cleaner production management and propulsion,for reference.%现阶段,国内主要以企业为单位进行清洁工作的开展,而在企业背景下,实施清洁生产问题,必然会出现一些问题,比如,对于过高的费用和资金的承受能力是有限的,无法实现全面透彻系统化的处理问题,不利于研究成果的的进一步推广等等,这些问题在一定程度上都对清洁生产的管理与推进工作造成了一定的阻碍。因此,相关部门必须给予相应的支持和引导,通过规范化、标准化的管理手段,进一步推动企业清洁生产管理与推进工作的开展。针对企业清洁生产的管理与推进的相关问题进行系统的研究,以供参考。

  4. Study on Surface Treatment Cleaner Production Plan and Feasibility%表面处理清洁生产方案及可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习海滨; 蒋钧涛; 游晓文; 胡琦

    2014-01-01

    Do a good job of cleaner production work the key is to determine the clean production management and technical scheme and implement step by step. Based on a firm surface treatment plant cleaner production audit instance, cleaner production audit program for the profile, and the high fee proposal from the technical, environmental and financial feasibility was analyzed, and the cleaner production audit for enterprises to carry out the surface treatment technology provides a good example, emphasizes the implementation of cleaner production plan.%做好清洁生产工作关键是确定好清洁生产管理及技术方案并逐步实施,结合某公司表面处理厂房清洁生产审核实例,对清洁生产审核的程序进行了概要论述,并对中高费方案从技术、环境及财务可行性进行了分析,为企业开展表面处理工艺的清洁生产审核提供了良好的范例,强调企业实施清洁生产方案的成效。

  5. The Integration of Cleaner Production Indicators on the Environmental Performance Measurement System for the Indonesian Natural Rubber Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the priority of the cleaner production implementation and integrate it in the design of a comprehensive environmental performance measurement system for natural rubber industry in Indonesia. Prioritizing the cleaner production on the production process of natural rubber is based on the case of 10 Indonesian crumb rubber companies using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The comprehensive environmental performance measurement system in natural rubber industry, i.e. in crumb rubber industry, starts from the selection of key environmental performance indicators (KEPI using the fuzzy independent preference evaluation method. The environmental performance measurement model is developed to assist users in evaluating the comprehensive environmental performance and condition of the key indicators. The weighting for each of the KEPI is performed by means of the expert choice software. The environmental performance measurement model is designed in the form of a environmental scorecard with traffic light facilities which can provide recommendations based on the performance achievement status of each KEPI. From the results of the model verification in the case of crumb rubber industry, several indicator statuses were found "not good", i.e. on the index of raw materials, solid waste load, water conservation, energy conservation, and environmental innovation indicators. The environmental performance ranking model is designed to evaluate the comprehensive environmental performance in different companies or at different assessment periods.

  6. 我国味精行业清洁生产技术的应用∗%Application of Cleaner Production Technology in China Monosodium Glutamate Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄毅梅; 邓丰; 李静

    2015-01-01

    The paper was introduced the development present situation of monosodium glutamate industry and the concept of cleaner production, described the current cleaner production technologies commonly used in monosodium glutamate industry through the analysis of the production process, sewage and energy situation of monosodium glutamate. Then finally, some suggestions was put forward about future work of cleaner production in monosodium glutamate industry.%简述了味精行业发展现状和清洁生产概念的提出,通过分析味精生产工艺流程、产排污情况和用能情况,介绍了目前味精行业常用的清洁生产技术。最后,对今后味精行业清洁生产工作的重点提出了建议。

  7. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  8. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  9. 浅谈清洁生产审核目标的设置%Discussion on Setting Cleaner Production Audit Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾蕾; 庄琳; 于瀚洋; 林卓; 孙大光

    2011-01-01

    在对现有清洁生产审核设置方法进行归纳汇总的基础上,对各种方法的利弊进行了剖析,进而提出设置清洁生产审核目标的基本原则和正确方法,为科学合理设置清洁生产审核目标提供参考和借鉴.%This paper summarized the existing setting methods of cleaner production audit, analyzed the pros and cons, then proposed basic principles and proper methods to set cleaner production audit target,which would provide reference for setting cleaner production audit target scientifically and rationally.

  10. 燃煤电厂清洁生产审核应用探讨%Application and Discussion of Cleaner Production Audit in Coal-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴瑜

    2014-01-01

    As one of the industries required explicitly to carry out cleaner production audit by China’ s Govern-ment,coal-fired power plants need to implement cleaner production from eight aspects including raw materials and energy,technology,processcontrol,equipment,management,employees,products,and wastes according to the audit guideline.The audit has to follow a seven-steps procedure of preparing for the audit,pre-auditing,audi-ting,forming the draft of audit proposal,completing the audit final proposal,implementing the audit,and sustain-able cleaner production.A coal-fired power plant as a case applied the whole process of cleaner production.The cleaner production goals have been reached after the audit was done.Furthermore,obvious environmental and eco-nomic benefits have been achieved as well.%作为国家明确要求开展清洁生产审核行业之一,某燃煤电厂依据清洁生产审核思路,从原辅料和能源、技术工艺、过程控制、设备、管理、员工、产品、废物生产过程的八个方面,按照审核准备、预审核、审核、方案产生和筛选、方案确定、方案实施、持续清洁生产七个实施阶段在企业内部开展清洁生产审核工作,实现了本轮清洁生产目标,并取得了显著的环境效益和经济效益。

  11. 柠檬酸清洁生产工艺的研究%Study on Cleaner Production Process for Citric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘碌亭; 肖锦

    2001-01-01

    The various pollution problems of the traditional production process for citric acid are analyzed and various ways for applying cleaner production process in production of citric acid are proposed.%分析了传统柠檬酸生产工艺存在的污染问题,提出了在柠檬酸生产过程中采用清洁生产技术的各种途径.

  12. 钼酸铵的清洁生产工艺%Cleaner Production Process for Ammonium Molybdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 张建洲; 刘彩霞

    2011-01-01

    The acid-salt pretreatment-ion exchange combined process for cleaner production of ammonium molybdate from MO3 and NH3 is put forward to substitute the traditional process. In the new process, the liquid-slag dual-cycle is used instead of the liquid single-cycle, and the electric boiler is used instead of the coal-fired boiler; The NH3-containing waste gas is treated by acidic wastewater absorption, and the high-concentration NH3 waste liquid is treated by steam stripping; The separated NH3 is recycled into the production, and the treated waste liquid and waste gas can meet the discharge standards. With this process, the cleaner production of ammonium molybdate can be realized. 0. 24 t of NH3 can be recovered from the waste liquid generated for 1 t of ammonium molybdate. According to 187 t/a of NH3 recovery, the production cost can be saved by about 562 000 Yuan/a.%以酸-盐预处理-离子交换组合工艺替代传统工艺,提出了氧化钼、氨生产钼酸铵清洁生产工艺.该工艺采用液、渣双循环代替液单循环,以电锅炉替换燃煤锅炉.含氨废气采用酸性生产废水吸收,产生的高浓度含氨废液进行汽提处理,分离出的氨回用于生产,废液和含氨废气处理后均达标排放,基本实现了钼酸铵的清洁生产.采用该清洁生产工艺生产钼酸铵,每生产1t产品可从废液中回收氨0.24t,按氨回收量187 t/a计算,可节约资金约56.2万元/a.

  13. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  14. ENTROPY PRODUCTION RATE OF THE MINIMAL DIFFUSION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The entropy production rate of stationary minimal diffusion processes with smooth coefficients is calculated. As a byproduct, the continuity of paths of the minimal diffusion processes is discussed, and that the point at infinity is absorbing is proved.

  15. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS.

  16. Water Pollution Control Technologies and Cleaner Production%水污染控制技术与清洁生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庄泉; 姜玲玲

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了目前我国污水排放及治理现状,介绍了几种常见工艺及其特点,分别分析了农村和工业的水污染状况,针对性地提出了各自的水污染控制对策,最后还介绍了评估污水处理工艺清洁性的方法,从水资源可持续发展的高度,提出了从源头控制到推广清洁生产的全过程控制的污水治理模式.%The condition of sewage discharging and treatment in Our country, some normal treatment processes and their characteristics were introduced.The situation of water pollution in countryside and industry was analyzed, and the respective water pollution control measurements were put forward.In the last, the methods of assessing the cleanness of water treatment process were introduced, moreover, the mode of water treatment from source control to carrying out cleaner production was put forward.

  17. Cleaner Production Audit of Hazardous Waste Management Enterprises%危险废物经营企业的清洁生产审核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴华

    2011-01-01

    The focused points and standards of were introduced based on the related rules and cleaner production audit for hazardous waste management enterprises regulations combining with the practical work experience.%依据现行相关规定,结合清洁生产审核工作实践,就危险废物经营企业清洁生产审核中的关注重点及执行规范做了介绍。

  18. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit...

  19. 涂料行业清洁生产审核实例研究%A Case Study of Cleaner Production Audit of Paint Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂雪涛; 罗冬梅; 杨恒学; 袁熙志; 张永红

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese paint industry,the serious environmental issues has restricted its further development.This paper studied a cleaner production audit case of paint industry.The practice proved that speeding up the research and development of cleaner production technology and carrying out cleaner production audit would effectively reduce the pollution caused by paint industry.This is important for sustained development of paint industry in china.%我国涂料行业高速发展的同时,严峻的行业环境问题严重限制了我国涂料行业的进一步发展.本文进行了涂料行业清洁生产审核实例研究.实践表明,加快我国涂料行业清洁生产技术的研究与开发,推进涂料企业清洁生产审核工作,可有效地减少涂料生产带来的环境污染,对我国涂料行业的可持续发展具有重要意义.

  20. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Application of cleaner production auditing to electroplating workshop%清洁生产审核在电镀车间的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚会来; 张雷; 陈龙; 张静蓉

    2012-01-01

    The cleaner production auditing has a significant effect for constructing modern enterprise and promoting enterprise in realizing the goals of scientific management as well as energy saving, consumption reducing, pollution reducing, and efficiency increasing, which is an effective measure for achieving social, environmental, and economic benefits in electroplating industry. In this article, the course of implementation of cleaner production auditing in an electroplating workshop was introduced, involving the aspects of auditing preparation, pre-auditing (including pollution source investigation, auditing key points such as chromium plating, cadmium plating, and nickel plating, auditing goal, etc), establishment of material balance for chromium and cadmium, analysis of waste production, establishment and selection of cleaner production projects (as evaluated from three aspects of technology, environment, and economic feasibility), etc. Practice proved that the cleaner production auditing brings with the electroplating workshop a total economic benefit of 1 025 770.00 RMB per year, and enables the enterprise to realize the change from end-treatment to pollution prevention and control, and to fulfill the expected goals.%清洁生产审核对建设现代企业,促进企业实现科学管理和节能、降耗、减污、增效等目标效果显著,是电镀企业实现社会、环境与经济效益相统一的有效措施.介绍了某电镀车间实施清洁生产审核的过程,涉及审核准备,预审核(包括污染源调查,审核重点如镀铬、镀镉和镀镍,以及审核目标的确定等),铬和镍物料平衡的建立,废弃物产生的原因分析,清洁生产方案的建立和筛选(从技术、环境、经济可行性等3个方面进行评估)等方面.实践证明,清洁生产审核的实施使该电镀车间总计产生102.577万元/a的经济效益,实现了由末端治理向污染预防和控制的转变,达到了预期目的.

  3. Minimization of Heat Energy Intensity in Food Production Companies Applying Sustainable Industrial Development Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kliopova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian food and drink sector of industry is characterized by high energy intensity, which is 29% higher than the EU average. At the confectionary plant chosen for the experiment, an environmental impact has been controlled and its maximum managed by creating different procedures to reduce pollution. Assessment of the plant's environmental costs has revealed that the energy costs amount to main part of the environmental ones (up to 55.4%. In recent years several energy efficiency projects have been implemented allowing minimizing the plant's energy intensity up to 15%. An algorithm of feasibility analysis of increasing thermal energy efficiency of the plant was suggested which could also be applied to other food industry plants. Demand for heat energy within the plant was evaluated for each technological process; the fuel and energy balance of the plant boiler-house was drawn up. It was revealed that huge heat energy losses were made during heat energy production and usage. During the research period a control system of significant environmental aspects was suggested, its objective function was estimated. Several environmental alternatives were suggested for optimization of the heat energy production processes. Three projects were chosen for the feasibility analysis. Results of technical, economic and environmental evaluations of Cleaner Production (CP innovations as well as conclusions made are presented in this article.

  4. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  5. 电镀行业清洁生产审核中的物料平衡%Material balance for cleaner production audit in electroplating industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克和; 乔万久; 邱培勋; 杜广玉

    2012-01-01

    The material balance diagrams for surface treatment processes such as electroplating, hot-dip galvanizing, phosphating, electrophoresis, pickling, and anodization were summarized based on years of practice in cleaner production audit. The method for establishing material balance was introduced with zinc electroplating as example. How to propose a cleaner production scheme through material balance analysis was explained by taking a chromium electroplating bath in a plant as an example.%根据多年的清洁生产审核实践,总结了电镀、热浸镀、磷化、电泳、酸洗、阳极氧化等表面处理工艺的物料平衡图.以电镀锌为例,介绍了建立物料平衡的操作方法.以某厂的镀铬槽为例,通过实际计算,讲解了如何根据物料平衡分析来提出清洁生产方案.

  6. A case study on cleaner production audit in oil field enterprise%油田企业清洁生产审核实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红旭; 李梦隐; 张文俊; 马勤学; 师庆东

    2012-01-01

    Oil field enterprises provide rich oil for the country, at the same time they become a big source of environmental pollution. Since cleaner production was carried out, the oil companies have achieved sound performance in clean production processes, energy.saving, environmental protection and other aspects. A case study was made on an oil company in this paper. The company has put forward and carried out a number of cleaner production programs with the idea of the cleaner production "energy conservation, energy consumption reduction, pollution reduction, efficiency increase". It has saved electricity 20.74×10^4 kW.h/a, gas 52×10^4 ma/a, water 2.80×10^4 m3/a, and reduced oil pollution emission 1.50 t/a by improving gas injection gate filler, recycling car wash water, setting oil recovery tank in laboratory, etc. It has achieved a win-win situation between economic benefits and environmental benefits.%油田企业在为国家提供丰富石油资源的同时也成为环境污染的大户。自推行清洁生产以来,我国油田企业在清洁生产审核过程、节能降耗、环境保护等方面取得了较好成绩。以某油田企业为例,根据清洁生产"节能、降耗、减污、增效"的思路,以企业能源、资源利用情况的分析为基础,提出和实施了多项清洁生产方案。通过注气闸门填料改进、洗车用水回收再利用、化验室增加回收罐回收污油等方案的实施,同比可节电:20.74×104kW.h/a、节气:52×104m3/a、节水:2.80×104m3/a、减少污油排放:1.50 t/a左右,实现了经济效益和环境效益的双赢。

  7. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean multiple common household surfaces. This designated item does not include products that...

  8. The Research on the Situation and Perfection of Chinese Cleaner Production Legislation%清洁生产的立法现状及完善对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任英欣

    2015-01-01

    清洁生产是实现环境、经济、社会可持续发展的重要途径。2012年修订的《清洁生产促进法》是中国目前清洁生产领域最重要的专门立法,国家就此颁布了一系列配套规范性文件。2014年新修订的《环境保护法》更以基本法形式重申清洁生产之重要。通过对《清洁生产促进法》的内容进行剖析,指出相关规定应更明确、更具有操作性,强化清洁生产行政问责制的基础上,对企业应赏罚分明、科以严格法律责任的同时建立有效的激励机制。%Cleaner production is an important way to achieve the sustainable development of environmental, economic and society. In 2012 the newly revised“Cleaner Production Promotion Law” is the most important legislation in the field of cleaner production. The nation promulgated a series of regulatory documents. In the newly revised basic law “Environmental Protection Law”(2014), its importance is reaffirmed. Cleaner production legal system in our country is maturing. It points out that the relevant provisions should be more specific and operable. The law should strengthen the administrative accountability system and establish strict liability and effective incentive mechanism in the enterprises’ practice of clean production on the basis of research of the“Cleaner Production Promotion Law”.

  9. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as adhesives, inks, paint, dirt, soil, and grease, from parts, products, tools, machinery, equipment, vessels... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  10. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean and/or prevent deposits on surfaces found in bathrooms and spas including, but not necessarily limited to,...

  11. Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, R; Berglund, B; Berglund, U; Lindvall, T; Wennberg, A

    1986-12-01

    The olfactory perception of 20 men (tank cleaners) exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). They were matched with regard to sex, age, and smoking habits. Odor detection thresholds and the perceived odor intensity of four odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapor (gas phase of heating oil heated to +40 degrees C), were determined. The results suggested that the tank cleaners had higher absolute odor thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapor than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odor intensity. The tank cleaners displayed an odor deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment," ie, normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odor deficit was therefore named "odor intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleaners, to be associated with occupational exposure to oil vapor.

  12. 技术性清洁生产在保温材料制造业的实践%Case study of technical cleaner production in insulation materials industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐鑫; 于宏兵

    2013-01-01

    现阶段,在工业企业推行清洁生产的过程中十分有必要重视技术性清洁生产.技术性清洁生产对工业生产过程中污染物的减产甚至彻底消除某种污染物具有直接面快速的效果.此外,技术性清洁生产以改进企业主体生产工艺及装备技术水平和实现废弃物回收利用为主要切入点,具有提高产品质量、降低能耗、提高利润及全面优化生产过程等多方面的综合效益,这对工艺设备未达到较先进水平的企业尤为重要.分析了技术性清洁生产在现阶段工业企业推行清洁生产过程中的重要作用,并以某保温材料制造企业为例,介绍了该企业进行清洁生产技术改造的具体实施方案和取得的效益.%At present,it is necessary to pay attention to technical cleaner production for carrying out cleaner pro duction in industrial enterprise.A direct and rapid effect for reducing or even eliminating pollutants production during industrial production process could be achieved by technical cleaner production.In addition,regarding the improvement of main production technology,the promotion of equipment and technical level,and the recycling of waste as the cutting point,technical cleaner production achieved better comprehensive benefits in raising product quality,saving energy sources,optimizing production process and improving economic benefit.This is a particularly important point for industrial enterprises whose technology and equipment did not reach advanced level.Based on the analysis of the important role of technical cleaner production for the industrial enterprises,an enterprise for manufacturing insulation materials was induced as example for analyzing the detailed implementation programs and the benefits obtained by implementing technical cleaner production.

  13. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  14. Linhuan Coke oven Cleaner Production 6m Comprehensiv%临涣焦化6m焦炉清洁生产的综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2011-01-01

    The company adopts the new type JN60 6 m coke oven,the production task more nervous,smoke control in the production of absence of difficulty is large.According to the coke oven cleaner production requirements,the company put forward for clean,coking coal "smoke-free,purification tasteless",establishing comprehensive environmental protection to the new concept.First through the search the problems that exist,according to establish management plan,problems with close the technical innovation,to adjust,and the comprehensive management measures,coke oven management to a large volume of coke oven secondary standard.%我公司采用新型JN60型6 m焦炉,生产任务比较紧张,生产中的烟尘逸散控制难度较大。根据焦炉清洁生产要求,公司提出了"备煤无尘、炼焦无烟、净化无味",创建全方位环保新概念。首先通过查找存在的问题,根据问题确立治理方案,装满拉平、技改创新、以调代修等措施综合治理,焦炉管理达到大容积焦炉二级标准。

  15. Case Analysis and Study on Cleaner Production Auditing in Rare Earth Processing Plant%稀土加工企业清洁生产审核案例分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文震林; 桂双林

    2014-01-01

    以某稀土加工企业清洁生产审核为案例,对其生产过程进行调查和诊断,找出稀土加工企业生产过程中能耗高、物耗高、污染重的原因,提出降低能耗、物耗及废物产生的方案,进而选定技术、经济及环境可行的清洁生产方案,并对清洁生产审核过程及其实施效果进行分析,为今后稀土加工企业实施清洁生产审核积累经验。%Investigation and diagnosis to the production process with a rare earth processing plant cleaner production audit cases, to find a rare earth processing plant production process of high energy consumption, high material consumptions and heavy pollution reasons, put forward to reduce material consumptions of energy consumption and waste generation, and then selected technical, economic and environmental feasible project, and the cleaner production audit process and its effect are analyzed, to provide experience for the other rare earth processing enterprises to implement cleaner production audit.

  16. Analysis of Achieving Cleaner Production in Guangdong Province Cotton Printing and Dyeing Enterprises%广东省棉印染企业实现清洁生产途径浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文哲

    2016-01-01

    印染加工作为纺织产业链中提高附加值的关键,由于其资源消耗量大及环境污染严重的特点,大大限制了印染行业的可持续发展,因此,随着近年来国家及广东省不断推行印染行业的清洁生产。通过分析棉印染企业的污染和清洁生产内涵,本文认为广东省棉印染企业应从使用清洁能源、清洁生产工艺、先进生产设备、环保原料与包装、节约用水、强化污染防治、制定产品回收机制和加强管理等方面实现清洁生产,从而得到可持续发展。%Printing and dyeing processing is the key of increasing the additional value in the textile industry chain, however, generous consumption of natural resources and serious environmental pollution greatly limit the sustainable development of printing and dyeing industry, therefore the national and Guangdong province constantly pursue cleaner production of printing and dyeing industry in recent years. Through analyzing pollutions of cotton printing and dyeing enterprises and connotation of cleaner production, tit was protested that Guangdong province cotton printing and dyeing enterprises should adopt clean energy, cleaner production process, advanced equipments, environmental raw materials and packaging, saving water, strengthening pollution control, formulating products recovery mechanism and strengthening administration in order to achieve cleaner production and sustainable development.

  17. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  18. Promoting the Development of Titanium Dioxide Industry in China with Cleaner Production Theory%以清洁生产理念促进我国钛白粉产业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 吴笛; 张健; 赵玙瑶

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of titanium dioxide industry in China is introduced. The importance of cleaner production to titanium dioxide industry is expounded, and the problems and causes affecting the sustainable development of titanium dioxide industry in China are analyzed. It is pointed out that cleaner production is very important to accelerating technical progress, readjusting industrial structure and promoting the upgrade of titanium dioxide industry in China.%介绍了我国钛白粉产业的现状,阐述了钛白粉产业清洁生产的重要性,分析了影响我国钛白粉产业可持续发展的问题及原因.指出施行清洁生产对钛白粉产业加快技术进步、调整产业结构、促进产业升级具有重要意义.

  19. Characterization of occupational exposures to cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks-a pilot study of hospital cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Melissa J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there is a need for systematic evaluation of cleaning products ingredients and their exposures in the workplace. The objectives of this work were to: a identify cleaning products' ingredients of concern with respect to respiratory and skin irritation and sensitization; and b assess the potential for inhalation and dermal exposures to these ingredients during common cleaning tasks. Methods We prioritized ingredients of concern in cleaning products commonly used in several hospitals in Massachusetts. Methods included workplace interviews, reviews of product Materials Safety Data Sheets and the scientific literature on adverse health effects to humans, reviews of physico-chemical properties of cleaning ingredients, and occupational hygiene observational analyses. Furthermore, the potential for exposure in the workplace was assessed by conducting qualitative assessment of airborne exposures and semi-quantitative assessment of dermal exposures. Results Cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks were mixtures of many chemicals, including respiratory and dermal irritants and sensitizers. Examples of ingredients of concern include quaternary ammonium compounds, 2-butoxyethanol, and ethanolamines. Cleaning workers are at risk of acute and chronic inhalation exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOC vapors and aerosols generated from product spraying, and dermal exposures mostly through hands. Conclusion Cleaning products are mixtures of many chemical ingredients that may impact workers' health through air and dermal exposures

  20. Minimal inflationary cosmologies and production of heavy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing one of the author's recent paper on minimal Higgs inflation, we proposed and analyzed a large class of inflationary models with non-polynomial modification of the potential. The modification is done by introducing a single scale creating an infinite plateau for large inflaton field value. One can identify those class of potentials as a small dip at the origin of a constant one dimensional field space. Because of this large flat plateau, we find all the predictions are fitting extremely well with the recent observations made by PLANCK. We have extensively studied perturbative reheating phenomena specifically focusing on the production of dark matter heavier than the reheating temperature. We generalize the well known analysis of heavy dark matter production for general equation of state $w$ of the oscillating inflaton field. However, at the end we consider effective equation of state $w = (n-2)/(n+2)$ emerging form our model. Where, $n$ is the index of the power law potential during late time osci...

  1. Characterization of Occupational Exposures to Cleaning Products Used for Common Cleaning Tasks-A Pilot Study of Hospital Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Melissa J; Quinn Margaret M; Bello Anila; Milton Donald K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there is a need for systematic evaluation of cleaning products ingred...

  2. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  3. 钢铁材料表面酸洗清洁生产展望%Prospect of the Cleaner Production of Steel Surface Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰伟; 汤兵

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry, the demand of steel products is increasing. Due to the active nature of steel surface, the formation of rust layers is inevitable during surface treatment, transportation and storage. However, the cor-rosion of steel had negative effects on the performance and service lifetime for the steel materials, and caused huge waste of re-sources. In order to enhance the performance of steel products and prolong their service lifetime, surface treatment and protec-tion should be considered. However, before surface treatment and protection, the rust layer should be cleaned out. Industrial pickling is one of the common methods for rust removing. Due to the corrosive characteristic of the used pickling liquors, the phenomenon of over-pickling is inevitable, which may cause the waste of metallic matrix and generate pollutants, including acid mist and pickling waste liquor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the origin of pollution, the methods to enhance cleaner pickling level in industry were discussed and summarized, from three aspects of addition of corrosion inhibitors, selection of the suitable technological parameters and improvement of pickling facilities. Additionally, the factors influencing the above three aspects were also discussed. Aiming at enhancing the effect of whole process of pickling industry, the concept of cleaner pick-ling was proposed, furthermore, the problems which needed to be considered in the future were indicated.%随着现代工业的发展,钢铁构件的需求日益增大。钢铁构件由于自身表面性质活跃,在加工、运输及储存过程中不可避免地形成锈蚀层。钢铁材料的锈蚀既对材料的使用性能及寿命造成不良影响,又导致材料的巨大浪费。为了提高钢铁构件的使用性能及寿命,需要进行表面处理及防护,但处理之前必须清除表面锈蚀层。工业酸洗是清除锈蚀层的重要方法之

  4. 清洁生产审核方法在工艺改进中的应用%On the Application of Cleaner Production Audit Methods to Improve the Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智

    2015-01-01

    Searching the identify problems and deficiencies that exist in Honghe Industry Co.,Ltd.ar-senic chemical plant by application of cleaner production audit methods was introduced.Development of ef-fective measures and programs to reduce waste of raw materials,to save energy and to reduce production costs were formulated.%介绍了红河砷业有限责任公司砷化学品车间利用清洁生产审核方法查找生产工艺中存在的问题和不足,制定切实有效的措施和方案,达到减少原料和能源浪费,降低生产成本的目的。

  5. Minimization of the formation of disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; Ali, Mohamed E M; Yoon, Yeoman

    2012-09-01

    The drinking water industry is required to minimize DBPs levels while ensuring adequate disinfection. In this study, efficient and appropriate treatment scheme for the reduction of disinfection by-product (DBPs) formation in drinking water containing natural organic matter has been established. This was carried out by the investigation of different treatment schemes consisting of enhanced coagulation, sedimentation, disinfection by using chlorine dioxide/ozone, filtration by sand filter, or granular activated carbon (GAC). Bench scale treatment schemes were applied on actual samples from different selected sites to identify the best conditions for the treatment of water. Samples were collected from effluent of each step in the treatment train in order to analyze pH, UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). The obtained results indicated that using pre-ozonation/enhanced coagulation/activated carbon filtration treatment train appears to be the most effective method for reducing DBPs precursors in drinking water treatment.

  6. Primary and secondary consequences of indoor air cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J A

    2016-02-01

    Air cleaning is broadly applied to reduce contaminant concentrations in many buildings. Although diverse in underlying technology, mode of application, target contaminants, and effectiveness, there are also commonalities in the framework for understanding their primary impact (i.e. concentration reductions) and secondary impacts (e.g. energy use and by-product production). Furthermore, both primary and secondary impacts are moderated by the specific indoor context in which an air cleaner is used. This investigation explores the dynamics of removal efficiency in a variety of air cleaners and combines efficiency and flow rate to put air cleaning in the context of real indoor environments. This allows for the direct comparison to other indoor pollutant loss mechanisms (ventilation and deposition) and further suggests that effective air cleaner use is context and contaminant specific. The concentration reduction impacts of air cleaning need to be contrasted with the secondary consequences that arise from the use of air cleaners. This study emphasizes two important secondary consequences: energy use of the air cleaning process and primary and secondary emissions from air cleaners. This study also identifies current research challenges and areas for large leaps in our understanding of the role of air cleaners in improving indoor environmental quality. PMID:25689321

  7. 矿山企业清洁生产实践--以某铁矿清洁生产审核为例%Cleaner Production Audit Practices of Mine Company by a case of Iron Mine Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玲

    2015-01-01

    An iron mine company was taken as an example to introduce the cleaner production audit practices.The environmental protection situation of the company before audit was analyzed.Its cleaner production level was as-sessed.On the basis of the assessment,thirty -six measures were put forward to address the problems.The eco-nomic benefit reached 4325.1 thousands RMB in the year of 2011.The water was saved 1342.2 thousands of cu-bic.The electricity was saved to 258.5 thousands of kWh.The tailings were reduced 71.71 thousands of tons in the same year.%以某矿山企业为例,介绍了矿山清洁生产实践。分析了矿山企业审核前环保状况,根据审核前清洁生产水平评价结果,提出问题,针对问题,实施了36项清洁生产方案,2011年取得经济效益432.51万元,节水134.22万 m3,节电25.85万 kWh,实际年减少尾矿排放7.171万 t。

  8. CO{sub 2}-minimized iron and steel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepplinger, W.L. [Univ. of Leoben, Inst. for Process Engineering, Leoben (Austria); Millner, R.; Schrey, G. [VOEST-ALPINE Industrienanlagenbau GmbH, Dept. of Corex(R) and Direct Reduction Integration, Linz (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    General issues concerning carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector are discussed, and the relevance of the COREX(R) process to steelmaking using the COREX(R)/DR/EAF route in comparison with the COREX(R)/BOF route is described. Results show that the COREX(R) process is a new approach to clean iron making and a new way of contributing to the progress in minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. Using the COREX(R)/BOF steelmaking route carbon dioxide emissions reductions of as much as 1,134 kg per ton of liquid steel can be achieved. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. 云南农垦集团孟连橡胶有限责任公司孟连制胶厂重点企业清洁生产审核实践%Practices of Cleaner Production Audit of Key Enterprises in Menglian Rubber Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嫔; 郝金儒; 李立坤; 张逸庭

    2016-01-01

    详细介绍了云南农垦集团孟连橡胶有限责任公司孟连制胶厂清洁生产审核实践成果,说明认真的清洁生产审核会为审核企业带来实在的环境效益和经济效益。%The practices of cleaner production audit of Menglian rubber plant were presented in detail.The real environmental benefits and economic benefits to the enterprise due to serious cleaner production audit were intro-duced as well.

  10. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This overview compiles the on-going research in Europe to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the reaction mechanisms and pathways associated with the combustion of an increased range of fuels. Focus is given to the formation of a large number of hazardous minor pollutants and the inability of current combustion models to predict the  formation of minor products such as alkenes, dienes, aromatics, aldehydes and soot nano-particles which have a deleterious impact on both the environment and on human health. Cleaner Combustion describes, at a fundamental level, the reactive chemistry of min

  11. Experimental Study on Minimization of Sludge Production by Ozonation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何圣兵; 薛罡; 王宝贞; 王琳

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis of reducing sludge production under cryptic growth conditions, ozone was used as cell lysis agent to treat excess sludge,and then the ozonated supernatant was returned to the aeration tank. The results show that COD and NH+4-N removal efficiencies in ozonation process were 87.96% and 84.42%, respectively. Meanwhile, a low excess sludge yield coefficient of 0. 113 ( g SS/g COD removed) was obtained. Compared with that of the control test, the process configuration decreased the excess sludge production by 51.3%.

  12. Mechanism of dehumidification and reduction for cleaner production of ammonium phosphate exhaust gases%磷铵工业尾气脱湿减排机理及清洁工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马空军; 朱家骅; 李剑琦

    2014-01-01

    The numerical simulation on the process of condensation dehumidifying of ammonium phosphate exhausts reveals a co-existed mechanism of both fogging and film condensation for the heat and mass transfer process of DAP exhausts.Based on simulation analysis,the processes of condensation dehumidifying of ammonium phosphate exhausts were proposed. An unique technique was developed to make full use of the cleaner process for monoammonium phosphate (MAP)production combined with recycling of exhaust gases from DAP production.The feasibility of integrating the processes of partial condensation of tail gas with falling film evaporation of raw phosphoric acid was demonstrated by the pilot experiments.The experimental results could be used to substitute as much as 45%of the heat energy consumption for a 240 kt/a MAP production line.A very promising future application for the cleaner process of MAP production combined with recirculation of DAP exhaust gases was displayed.%对磷铵(DAP)尾气冷凝脱湿数值模拟,揭示了DAP尾气传热传质过程为雾冷凝和膜冷凝共存的机理。基于模拟分析,提出了利用DAP尾气资源化循环生产磷酸一铵(MAP)的清洁工艺,现场实验证明了DAP尾气部分冷凝-磷酸降膜蒸发过程耦合技术的可行性。实验结果表明:DAP尾气能量的消减量可替代24万t/a MAP生产装置热能消耗的45%以上,展示了利用DAP尾气资源化循环生产MAP清洁生产技术的前景。

  13. Application of random variable fuzzy recognition model in cleaner production assessment%随机可变模糊识别模型在清洁生产评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 刘保东

    2013-01-01

    The random variable fuzzy recognition model was established for the coexistence of randomness and fuzziness in cleaner production assessment. A random term obeying normal distribution was introduced to the variable fuzzy recognition model, so the randomness and fuzziness could be studied simultaneously. Four random fuzzy recognition submodels were generated by controlling the distance parameter p and the optimization parameter a, and then according to the 3σ principle of normal distribution, after choosing a reasonable confidence, the grade was identified by the confidence interval of grade feature value. Compared with the scoring model of centesimal system, this model could cut down the effect of subjective preference on assessment results, and could improve the maneuverability and accuracy in evaluation process. The experimental results showed that the random variable fuzzy recognition model could evaluate the cleaner production level accurately, which could also provide a reference for cleaner production assessment.%针对清洁生产评价中模糊性与随机性并存的问题,建立随机可变模糊识别模型.向可变模糊识别模型中引入一个服从正态分布的随机项,同步研究模糊性和随机性.通过控制模型中距离参数p和优化准则参数α,得到4个随机模糊识别子模型,随后根据正态分布3σ原则,选择合理的置信度,得到级别特征值的置信区间,以此判断隶属级别.该模型与传统百分制评分模型相比削减了主观偏好对评价结果的影响,提高了评价的可操作性和准确性.实例结果证明随机可变模糊识别模型能准确评价清洁生产水平,为清洁生产评价工作提供参考.

  14. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  15. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. PMID:25898079

  16. Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

  17. Topologically stratified energy minimizers in a product Abelian field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaosen; Yang, Yisong

    2015-09-01

    We study a recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities. We first obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution realizing such impurities in the form of multiple vortices. We next reformulate the theory into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from Ns vortices and Ps anti-vortices (s = 1, 2) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface S which states that a solution with prescribed N1, N2 vortices and P1, P2 anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities

  18. Topologically Stratified Energy Minimizers in a Product Abelian Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Xiaosen

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities is reformulated into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from $N_s$ vortices and $P_s$ anti-vortices ($s=1,2$) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface $S$ which states that a solution with prescribed $N_1, N_2$ vortices and $P_1,P_2$ anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities \\[ \\left|N_1+N_2-(P_1+P_2)\\right|<\\frac{|S|}{\\pi},\\quad \\left|N_1+2N_2-(P_1+2P_2)\\right|<\\frac{|S|}{\\pi}, \\] hold simultaneously, which give bounds for the `differences' of the vortex and anti-vortex numbers in terms of the total surface area of $S$. The minimum energy of these solutions is shown to assume the explicit value \\...

  19. Topologically stratified energy minimizers in a product Abelian field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosen Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities. We first obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution realizing such impurities in the form of multiple vortices. We next reformulate the theory into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from Ns vortices and Ps anti-vortices (s=1,2 realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface S which states that a solution with prescribed N1, N2 vortices and P1,P2 anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities |N1+N2−(P1+P2|<|S|π,|N1+2N2−(P1+2P2|<|S|π, hold simultaneously, which give bounds for the ‘differences’ of the vortex and anti-vortex numbers in terms of the total surface area of S. The minimum energy of these solutions is shown to assume the explicit value E=4π(N1+N2+P1+P2, given in terms of several topological invariants, measuring the total tension of the vortex-lines.

  20. The Role of Local Environmental Protection Bureau on Forced Cleaner Production Audit%基层环境保护局在强制性清洁生产审核工作中的作用浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂萍; 张逸庭

    2015-01-01

    The significant role of local environmental protection bureau on forced cleaner production audit has been neglected.It was summarized based on the practices in Yimen County.%基层环境保护局在强制性清洁生产审核中有着非常重要的作用,但是这一点并没有得到应有的重视,从易门县强制性清洁生产审核工作中总结出基层环境保护局在强制性清洁生产审核中的作用。

  1. Nanostructured intense-laser cleaner

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiao Feng; Kong, Qing; Wang, Ping Xiao; Yu, Qin; Gu, Yan Jan; Qu, Jun Fan

    2016-01-01

    A nanostructured target is proposed to enhance an intense-laser contrast: when a laser prepulse is injected on a nanostructured solid target surface, the prepulse is absorbed effectively by the nanostructured surface. The nanostructure size should be less than the laser wavelength. After the prepulse absorption, the front part of the main pulse destroys the microstructure and makes the surface a flat plasma mirror. The body of the main pulse is reflected almost perfectly. Compared with the plasma mirrors, the nanostructured surface is effective for the absorption of the intense laser prepulse, higher than 10^14 W/cm2. By the nanostructured laser cleaner, the laser pulse contrast increases about a hundredfold. The nanostructured laser cleaner works well for near-future intense lasers.

  2. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sabaliauskaitė; Kliaugaitė, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC) production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and materi...

  3. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canevari, G.P. [Canevari (Gerard P.), Cranford, NJ (United States); Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States); Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  4. Design of Wireless Remote Control Solar Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhicai; Li Ling; Fu Yanliang; Tao Shaoshu; Cui Zhenyue; Bi Lulu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the operation principle and the hardware composition of the wireless remote control cleaner by adopting solar panel power supply mode in detail. The experimental circuit is designed and on based on the designed experimental circuit the wireless remote control solar cleaner is made. The experimental results show that it is feasible that the combination of solar panels and wireless remote control cleaner.

  5. The development study of cleaner production evaluation system of oil drilling industry%石油钻井行业清洁生产评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娜; 李梦隐

    2012-01-01

    新疆地处干旱区,生态环境脆弱,就油田开发生产而言,会产生污水、废渣、落地油处理和原油回收等技术问题。钻井过程为整个石油开发过程中最重要、最复杂、施工作业时间较长、能耗最大的关键生产环节,使用的钻井液和产生的泥浆都会对环境产生污染。选取钻井作业进行分析,建立一套适合油田钻井行业特点,具有科学性、系统性、激励性、规范性,且符合当前环境管理水平的清洁生产评估指标体系,对于当前石油勘探开发行业推进实施清洁生产具有十分重要的意义。%Xinjiang located in arid areas, ecological environment is fragile. As to the development and production of oil, it will produce sewage, sludge, and processing and recycling technology of landed crude oil. Oil drilling industry is the most important and most complicated, a longer period of construction, the biggest key to energy production processes of drilling in the process of developing the whole process of oil, the use of drilling liquid and the mud will pollute the environment. This paper take drilling to analysis, It is significant to establish a suitable cleaner production evaluation index system of drilling industry of oil field, which has the characteristics of the scientific, systematic, incentives, regulatory and )n accordance with the current levelof environmental management for the current oil exploration and development industry promoting the implementation of cleaner production.

  6. Minimizing the Entropy Production of the Methanol Producing Reaction in a Methanol Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelstrup, Signe; Bedeaux, Dick; Johannessen, Eivind; Rosjorde, Audun; Nummedal, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The entropy production of the reaction that produces methanol in a methanol reactor, has been minimized. The results show that the entropy production of the reaction can be reduced by more than 70%. The optimal path through the reactor is characterized by a driving force for the chemical reaction that is close to constant. The entropy production due to heat transfer across the reactor walls in this state is large, however. Variations of the reactor design show that it is possible to accomplis...

  7. A produção mais limpa como ferramenta da sustentabilidade empresarial: um estudo no estado do Rio Grande do Norte Cleaner production as corporate sustainability tool: a study within companies from Rio Grande do Norte State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handson Claudio Dias Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção mais limpa - PmL como ferramenta da sustentabilidade empresarial através de uma série de estudos de múltiplos casos em empresas do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Para tanto, foi aplicada a metodologia de PmL modelo SEBRAE (2005 em três empresas: uma indústria de alimentos (empresa 1, uma indústria de confecções (empresa 2 e uma concessionária de veículos (empresa 3. Pelos resultados, destacam-se, na empresa 1, ações de substituição de matéria-prima, otimização do uso de água e energia. Na empresa 2, otimização do uso de tecido e modificação tecnológica. Por fim, na empresa 3, as medidas de segregação na fonte e reciclagem externa de resíduos. Contudo, foram evidenciadas melhorias nas vertentes ambiental, social e econômica, preconizadas pela sustentabilidade empresarial. Entretanto, faz-se necessário mais transparência da alta administração no comprometimento com a continuidade das ações para, diante disto, melhor enquadrar a PmL como uma ferramenta da sustentabilidade.The purpose of this stydy was to assess the Cleaner Production - CP as a corporate sustainability tool, through a multiple case study in companies from the State of Rio Grande do Norte. To this end, our research methodology approach used the CP methodology from SEBRAE (2005 and applied it to the food industry (Company 1, the textile industry (Company 2 and to a car dealer (Company 3. Results highlighted, among other variables, the specific sustainability focus of any observed cleaner production activity. In company 1, raw material substitution, optimization of water and energy usage were the main foci. In Company 2, the foci were the optimization of fabric usage and technological modification (installation of washing equipment for the printing plates; before that, there was not control of water usage in this process, resulting in increased water consumption and disposal of waste. Company 3

  8. 78 FR 34867 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... development of new technologies, creating business and employment opportunities that enhance local, regional... corrosion removers product category, the subcategories are: stainless steel cleaners; other metal cleaners.... These are: Composite Panels--Countertops, Metal Cleaners and Corrosion Removers--Stainless...

  9. A BACKLOG REDUCTION METHOD BY MINIMIZING TOTAL WEIGHTED TARDINESS IN CONWIP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER TAHERIAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the number of backlogs in a MTO production system is very vital in a competitive market. This article tries to develop a method to find appropriate weights for a scheduling oriented objective function and improve a method to minimize the backlog quantities in a make to order production system and CONWIP controlled production considering a scheduling oriented method. This method can be applied to minimize the backlog area by changing the delivery sequences of orders. When the sequences are changed, it causes changes in some order delivery specifications, such delivery lead time of a customer order that can prevent the tardiness in delivery lead time. Studying the statistical behavior of customer orders we will analyze the effect of applying this method on backlog quantities. Using a multi criteria weighting calculation method, Shannon’s Entropy Method, we will calculate the appropriate weights to apply in minimizing the weighted scheduling objective function. A case study has represented in last section of the paper that is suitable to execute in firms with CONWIP production system and for each product.

  10. Minimizing the Entropy Production of the Methanol Producing Reaction in a Methanol Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dick Bedeaux; Lars Nummedal; Audun Rosjorde; Eivind Johannessen; Signe Kjelstrup

    2000-01-01

    The entropy production of the reaction that produces methanol in a methanol reactor, has been minimized. The results show that the entropy production of the reaction can be reduced by more than 70%. The optimal path through the reactor is characterized by a driving force for the chemical reaction that is close to constant. The entropy production due to heat transfer across the reactor walls in this state is large, however. Variations of the reactor design show that it is possible to ...

  11. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work...

  12. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  13. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  14. 中马村矿开展清洁生产审核的实践与探索%Practice and Exploration of Cleaner Production Audit in Zhongmacun Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳新建

    2014-01-01

    院节能、降耗、减污、增效是清洁生产的目标,通过采用技术和管理,通过排污审核、筛选等对生产的全过程进行管理,同时采取积极的污染防治措施,进而在一定程度上达到防治工业污染、提高经济效益的目的。中马村矿通过实施清洁生产审核,提高了资源利用率,减少了污染物的排放量,创造出良好的经济、环境效益和社会效益,实现了可持续发展。%Energy conservation, consumption reduction, pollution reduction and efficiency increase are the goal of clean production. Through the use of technology and management, Zhongmacun Mine tried to manage the whole process of production through sewage audit and screening, at the same time took active pollution prevention measures, thus to prevent and control the industrial pollution and improve economic efficiency to a certain extent. Through the implementation of cleaner production audit in Zhongmacun mine, the resource utilization is improved, the pollutant emissions are reduced, and good economic, environmental and social benefits are created, so that the sustainable development is achieved.

  15. Minimization of environmental risk by optimization of the end-of-pipe processes

    OpenAIRE

    T. Karkoszka

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper has been an attainment of the thesis that efficient minimization of environmental risk of processes can be realised not only by usage of new technologies creating no contaminants, but also by - fulfilling cleaner production requirements - the ‘end-off-pipe’ solutions. Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has covered optimization of hydrocarbon degradation as the ‘end-of-pipe’ process by determination of the efficiency of hydrocarbons chemical and biologica...

  16. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  17. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  18. HISTORIC ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  19. Computer-controlled Sophisticated Ultrasonic Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Muthurajan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The significant advantage of ultrasonic cleaning technique is the abilities to clean the delicateand complex shape materials without damaging their surfaces quickly. Ultrasonic cleaners havefound increasing applications in a variety of industries because these offer an environmentallygood alternative to ozone-depleting compounds and hazardous solvents. Also, ultrasonicvibration is one of the methods for chemical synthesis (chemical reaction and of yieldenhancement of chemical engineering process. Consequently, there is a need to developmultipurpose ultrasonic cleaner/vibrator using computer control, which can be used to set thevarious performance parameter of ultrasonic vibrator such as frequency, duty cycle, continuous/pulsed mode, duration of operation, and thermal profile of tank during the process. An ultrasoniccleaner was developed using an oscillator circuit and the duration of oscillator circuit functioningcan be set through the computer. Computerised ultrasonic cleaner using indigenously madepiezoceramic transducers and their advantages over the conventional ultrasonic cleaners are discussed.

  20. Metabolites production improvement by identifying minimal genomes and essential genes using flux balance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Abdul Hakim Mohamed; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli Md

    2015-01-01

    With the advancement in metabolic engineering technologies, reconstruction of the genome of host organisms to achieve desired phenotypes can be made. However, due to the complexity and size of the genome scale metabolic network, significant components tend to be invisible. We proposed an approach to improve metabolite production that consists of two steps. First, we find the essential genes and identify the minimal genome by a single gene deletion process using Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and second by identifying the significant pathway for the metabolite production using gene expression data. A genome scale model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of vanillin and acetate is used to test this approach. The result has shown the reliability of this approach to find essential genes, reduce genome size and identify production pathway that can further optimise the production yield. The identified genes and pathways can be extendable to other applications especially in strain optimisation. PMID:26489144

  1. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis L.; Bshary R.

    2010-01-01

    Signals increase the fitness of a sender by altering the behaviour of receivers. For cooperative interactions biological market theory proposes that signalling strength may be linked to supply and demand. In this context, a recent laboratory experiment demonstrated that cleaner shrimps may advertise their service to client reef fish and that the advertisement is linked to hunger levels. We investigated signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus in the field to test more detaile...

  2. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  3. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  4. Queensland releases Cleaner Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Queensland Government is committed to developing gas and electricity markets to deliver lower energy prices and greater choice to consumers. The key features of the 'Cleaner Energy Policy are: 1. facilitate the development of a base-load gas-fired power station in the Townsville region; 2. work with the developers of the PNG gas pipeline to advance the construction of the Townsville to Gladstone section of the pipeline; 3. require energy retailers in Queensland to source 13 percent of their electricity from gas-fired generation as from 1 January 2005. Also, a number of new initiatives have been taken to help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by more than 30 million tonnes over ten years. Considering that in the future will be a world of price penalties for greenhouse gas emissions, this new energy policy could save the State economy around $80 million per year by 2008, totalling $320 million by the end of the first assessment period in 2012

  5. Measures to minimize cross-contamination risks in Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Roseti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current European regulations define in vitro expanded cells for clinical purposes as substantially manipulated and include them in the class of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products to be manufactured in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice. These quality requirements are generally thought to be elaborate and costly. However, they ensure three main product characteristics: safety, consistency, and absence of cross-contamination. The term crosscontamination is used to indicate misidentification of one cell line or culture by another. The Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines suggest some recommendations in order to prevent cross-contaminations and require a demonstration that the implemented actions are effective. Here we report some practical examples useful both to minimize crosscontamination risks in an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products production process and to evaluate the efficacy of the adopted measures.

  6. Evaluation Method of Best Available Cleaner Production Technology Based on Emission Reduction of Ammonia in Nitrogen Fertilizer Industry%基于氨氮减排的氮肥行业清洁生产技术评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆其金; 谌建宇; 王振兴; 庞志华; 叶万生

    2014-01-01

    The current environmental technologies evaluation methods are mainly based on experts 'qualitative estimation and lack of comprehensive evaluation methods .Aiming at this problem and combined with the total ammonia discharge control requested by National Economic and Social Development Plan in 2011-2015 and the ammonia discharge reduction demand of nitrogen fertilizer industry , the index system and an integrated evaluation method for cleaner production technology evaluation based on ammonia discharge reduction was built .The weight of each index was obtained with analytic hierarchy process ( AHP ) , and the discharge reduction technologies evaluated using grey correlation analysis method .The modeling process of the mathematical model of the integrated evaluation method was provided with an application example analyzed .%针对国内环境技术评估以定性判断为主,缺乏综合评估方法的问题,结合国家“十二五”规划纲要对氨氮排放总量控制和氮肥工业氨氮减排的需求,构建了基于氨氮减排的氮肥行业清洁生产技术评估指标体系和综合评估方法。利用层次分析法确定各指标的权重,利用灰色关联度法对氨氮减排技术进行评估,同时给出了该评估方法数学模型的建模过程,并进行了实例应用分析。

  7. USE OF IMPORT REVOLVING LEVERAGE LEASING IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE RISKS IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Muftahova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the financing form in case of import revolving leverage leasing is described to modernize of fixed assets.In the research process the methods of mathematical modeling are applied.The mathematical model of the generalized method of calculation leasing payments proposed by the authors is represented according to the results of the research.The presented method includes several forms of leasing utilized both in the domestic and in the foreign practice.The novelty of this method consists in the fact that on the basis of the proposed forms of leasing is calculated the sum of leasing payment, which considers with the calculation insu-rance, financial and currency component to minimize losses from downtime due to the limited using of basic production assets of the enterprise in the organization of the production process.The method presented by authors is intended to minimize the risk of downtime of production equipment. This fact will enable us to provide high qualitative and quantitative indicators of the enterprise, stability and continuity of the production process.

  8. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  9. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  10. Productivity benefits of minimally invasive surgery in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavoss JD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Josh D Saavoss,1 Lane Koenig,1 Daniel J Cher2 1KNG Health Consulting, LLC, Rockville, MD, 2SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA Introduction: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction is associated with a marked decrease in quality of life. Increasing evidence supports minimally invasive SIJ fusion as a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. The impact of SIJ fusion on worker productivity is not known. Methods: Regression modeling using data from the National Health Interview Survey was applied to determine the relationship between responses to selected interview questions related to function and economic outcomes. Regression coefficients were then applied to prospectively collected, individual patient data in a randomized trial of SIJ fusion (INSITE, NCT01681004 to estimate expected differences in economic outcomes across treatments. Results: Patients who receive SIJ fusion using iFuse Implant System® have an expected increase in the probability of working of 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11%–21% relative to nonsurgical patients. The expected change in earnings across groups was US $3,128 (not statistically significant. Combining the two metrics, the annual increase in worker productivity given surgical vs nonsurgical care was $6,924 (95% CI $1,890–$11,945. Conclusion: For employees with chronic, severe SIJ dysfunction, minimally invasive SIJ fusion may improve worker productivity compared to nonsurgical treatment. Keywords: sacroiliac joint fusion, low back pain, sacroiliac joint pain, clinical trial, health care costs, indirect costs

  11. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  12. Study on cleaner production process for bisphenol fluorene acrylate%双酚芴丙烯酸酯清洁生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国强; 陈昕; 沈力; 胡春青

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol fluorene acrylate plays an important role in the synthesis of the optical resin material. In this study,9,9'-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene (bisphenol fluorene, I ) is synthesized with fluorenone and phenol as raw material. 9,9-Bis(4-oxiranylmethoxyphenyl) fluorene (bisphenol fluorene diglycidyl ether epoxy resin, II ) is prepared by the reaction of I with epichlorohudrin. Finally, II reacts with acrylic acid to get 9,9-bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3acryloyloxy-propoxy)phenyl] fluorene (Bisphenol fluorene acrylic resin, HI). The results indicate that the yield of I is more than 95. 6% and the purity is up to 99. 0% when using the acid catalyzed process and the weak base in the post-process. Moreover,in the presence of dimethylimidazole, the yield of II is up to 92. 8% and the purity is more than 96. 5%. Finally,when using tetrabutylammonium bromide as the catalyst and methoxyphenol as the inhibitor agent,the purity of HI is 96. 0% and the yield is 93. 0%. The total yield of three steps is 83. 0%. The clean production technology is optimized by studying the main factors affecting the reactions.%双酚芴丙烯酸酯是合成光学树脂材料的重要单体,以芴酮和苯酚为起始原料,经缩合反应生成9,9-双(4-羟苯基)芴(双酚芴,Ⅰ);Ⅰ与环氧氯丙烷经醚化、消除反应制得9,9-双[4-(2,3-环氧丙氧基)苯基]芴(双酚芴二缩水甘油醚环氧树脂,Ⅱ);Ⅱ与丙烯酸经亲核加成制得9,9-双[4-(2 '-羟基-3'-丙烯酰-丙氧基)苯基]芴(双酚芴丙烯酸树脂,Ⅲ).研究结果表明:采用强酸催化工艺和弱碱中和的后处理方法,可高收率(>95.6%)、高纯度(>99.0%)和无污染的得到Ⅰ;以二甲基咪唑为催化剂合成Ⅱ,产物纯度>96.5%,收率可达92.8%;以四丁基溴化铵为催化剂,对甲氧基苯酚为阻聚剂合成产品Ⅲ,产品纯度达96.0%,收率为93.0%.三步反应的总收率可达83.0%.通过考察影响各步反应的主要因素,获得了较佳的工艺

  13. Combination of decentralized waste drying and SSF techniques for household biowaste minimization and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Vourka, I; Erotokritou, A; Novakovic, J; Panaretou, V; Vakalis, S; Thanos, T; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D

    2016-06-01

    The results of the demonstration of an innovative household biowaste management and treatment scheme established in two Greek Municipalities for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol using dehydrated household biowaste as a substrate, are presented within this research. This is the first time that biowaste drying was tested at a decentralized level for the production of ethanol using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process, at a pilot scale in Greece. The decentralized biowaste drying method proved that the household biowaste mass and volume reduction may reach 80% through the dehydration process used. The chemical characteristics related to lignocellulosic ethanol production have proved to differ substantially between seasons thus; special attention should be given to the process applied for ethanol production mainly regarding the enzyme quality and quantity used during the pretreatment stage. The maximum ethanol production achieved was 29.12g/L, approximately 60% of the maximum theoretical yield based on the substrate's sugar content. The use of the decentralized waste drying as an alternative approach for household biowaste minimization and the production of second generation ethanol is considered to be a promising approach for efficient biowaste management and treatment in the future. PMID:27084105

  14. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  15. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  16. Double Higgs production at TeV Colliders in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lafaye, R; Mühlleitner, M M; Moretti, S

    2000-01-01

    The reconstruction of the Higgs potential in the Minimal SupersymmetricStandard Model (MSSM) requires the measurement of the trilinear Higgsself-couplings. The `double Higgs production' subgroup has been investigatingthe possibility of detecting signatures of processes carrying a dependence onthese vertices at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future Linear Colliders(LCs). As reference reactions, we have chosen $gg\\to hh$ and $e^+e^-\\to h h Z$,respectively, where $h$ is the lightest of the MSSM Higgs bosons. In bothcases, the $Hhh$ interaction is involved. For $m_H>2m_h$, the two reactions areresonant in the $H\\to hh$ mode, providing cross sections which are detectableat both accelerators and strongly sensitive to the strength of the trilinearcoupling involved. We explore this mass regime of the MSSM in the $h\\to b\\barb$ decay channel, also accounting for irreducible background effects.

  17. (L)-Valine production with minimization of by-products' synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohu; Chen, Xinde; Zhang, Yue; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 and Brevibacterium flavum JV16 were engineered for L-valine production by over-expressing ilvEBN ( r ) C genes at 31 °C in 72 h fermentation. Different strategies were carried out to reduce the by-products' accumulation in L-valine fermentation and also to increase the availability of precursor for L-valine biosynthesis. The native promoter of ilvA of C. glutamicum was replaced with a weak promoter MPilvA (P-ilvAM1CG) to reduce the biosynthetic rate of L-isoleucine. Effect of different relative dissolved oxygen on L-valine production and by-products' formation was recorded, indicating that 15 % saturation may be the most appropriate relative dissolved oxygen for L-valine fermentation with almost no L-lactic acid and L-glutamate formed. To minimize L-alanine accumulation, alaT and/or avtA was inactivated in C. glutamicum and B. flavum, respectively. Compared to high concentration of L-alanine accumulated by alaT inactivated strains harboring ilvEBN ( r ) C genes, L-alanine concentration was reduced to 0.18 g/L by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, and 0.22 g/L by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. Meanwhile, L-valine production and conversion efficiency were enhanced to 31.15 g/L and 0.173 g/g by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, 38.82 g/L and 0.252 g/g by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. This study provides combined strategies to improve L-valine yield by minimization of by-products' production.

  18. On bandlimited signals with minimal product of effective spatial and spectral widths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Venkatesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that signals (which could be functions of space or time belonging to 𝕃2-space cannot be localized simultaneously in space/time and frequency domains. Alternatively, signals have a positive lower bound on the product of their effective spatial andeffective spectral widths, for simplicity, hereafter called the effective space-bandwidthproduct (ESBP. This is the classical uncertainty inequality (UI, attributed to many, but, from a signal processing perspective, to Gabor who, in his seminal paper, established the uncertainty relation and proposed a joint time-frequency representation in which the basis functions have minimal ESBP. It is found that the Gaussian function is the only signal that has the lowest ESBP. Since the Gaussian function is not bandlimited, no bandlimited signal can have the lowest ESBP. We deal with the problem of determining finite-energy, bandlimited signals which have the lowest ESBP. The main result is as follows. By choosing the convolution product of a Gaussian signal (with σ as the variance parameter and a bandlimited filter with a continuous spectrum, we demonstrate that there exists a finite-energy, bandlimited signal whose ESBP can be made to be arbitrarily close (dependent on the choice of σ to the optimal value specified by the UI.

  19. Fundamentals of cleaner technology in the chemicals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, W

    1982-10-01

    Basic synthetic processes start with more or less inert material of natural origin, both inorganic and organic matter. Process energy is the agent for converting starting material of low reactivity into highly reactive derivatives or elements. The principles of chemical reactions as first steps of synthesis are explained along with the formation of by-products. The second steps of applying separation techniques for purposes of concentration and purification of products desired and of extracting unwanted and harmful products to be reused or eliminated are presented as critical examples. Reuse of by-products within the limits of chemical recycling, as well as degradation or final waste disposal, are shown as third steps. A concept of cleaner technology is outlined as an unachievable aim due to natural limitations of both entropy and energy. PMID:7169033

  20. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge;

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies.......The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  1. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... specifically address children's toy laser products. FDA recently issued a proposed rule (78 FR 37723)...

  2. A Case of Material Balance Analysis the Cleaner Product Audit Using Material Flow Cost Accounting%物质流成本分析在清洁生产审核物料平衡分析中的案例实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 郝莉莉; 杨光辉

    2011-01-01

    Using the method of material flow cost accounting to account and analysis the costs of materials in the material balance of cleaner product audit, it is certain that the material flow cost accounting has been of great value in the cleaner product audit. T%运用物质流成本分析对清洁生产审核物料平衡中各物质流成本进行了核算与分析,确认了物质流成本分析在清洁生产审核中的应用价值。案例研究表明:清洁生产疗案的实施不仅有助于实现“降耗”、“减污”、“增效”,而且可为管理层决策实施清洁生产方案提供依据。

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end-of-life management. PMID:27060658

  4. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes.

  5. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes. PMID:27440049

  6. An air cleaner for road tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    an air cleaner employing pulse induced plasma chemical process to remove dust and carbon monoxide (CO) in road tunnels is presented, which is composed of mainly a precipitator, a reactor, a flow control system, a power supply and a measurement system. Its performances are studied in simulated air conditions. It is found that the rate of dust removal is dependent on the voltage of the pulse power, the distance between the two dust collecting plates of the electrostatic precipitator,the effective length of the precipitator and the air flow rate in the precipitator, and that of CO removal is affected by the voltage and frequency of the super pulse power, the air flow rate in the reactor and the relative humidity of air. Applying such an cleaner of a proper design to the treatment of polluted air at a flow rate of 7 m/s can achieve the rate of dust removal up to 93 % and that of CO removal up to 72.6 %, which efficiently controls the concentrations of CO and dust under allowable limits. It is implied that the proposed air cleaner is a potential solution to air control in road tunnels, and is prominent for its performances and saving the huge cost of longitudinal ventilation tunnel or vertical vent and ventilation facilities.

  7. Minimal Degrees of Faithful Quasi-Permutation Representations for Direct Products of -Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghodrat Ghaffarzadeh; Mohammad Hassan Abbaspour

    2012-08-01

    In [2], the algorithms of $c(G), q(G)$ and $p(G)$, the minimal degrees of faithful quasi-permutation and permutation representations of a finite group are given. The main purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between these minimal degrees of non-trivial -groups and with the group × .

  8. Techno-economic and carbon footprint assessment of methyl crotonate and methyl acrylate production from wastewater-based polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, C.; Posada, John A.; Ramirez, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a cleaner and more sustainable production of the chemical building blocks methyl crotonate (MC) and methyl acrylate (MA) can be obtained in an innovative process in which resource consumption, waste generation and environmental impacts are minimized by using polyhydroxybu

  9. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended. PMID:24865435

  10. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Thane A Militz; Kate S Hutson

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Sh...

  11. Simultaneous determination of preventive maintenance and replacement policies in a queue-like production system with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the joint effects of preventive maintenance and replacement policies on a queue-like production system with minimal repair at failures. We consider a policy which calls for a preventive maintenance operation whenever N parts have been processed. If a failure occurs and at least K preventive maintenance operations have been carried out, the system is replaced by a new one. Otherwise, a failure is handled by minimal repair. An analytical model is developed and the argument of renewal-reward theory is used to provide long-run expected profit per unit time for a given maintenance and replacement policy. Numerical examples are given to provide some managerial insights

  12. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  13. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr-1. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr-1. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  14. Estrutura organizacional para a difusão da produção mais limpa: uma contribuição da metodologia seis sigma na constituição de redes intra-organizacionais Organizational structure for cleaner production diffusion: a contribution of the six sigma methodology to the creation of intra-organizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Cerávolo Calia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A "Produção Mais Limpa" é uma metodologia criada para aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental das manufaturas. Devido a sua importância para o desenvolvimento sustentável, a Produção Mais Limpa foi amplamente promovida pela Organização das Nações Unidas e por diversas redes de organizações visando à difusão desta metodologia. No entanto, após mais de dez anos de atuação, estas redes para a difusão da Produção Mais Limpa têm se confrontado com significativas e recorrentes barreiras organizacionais que limitam seu desempenho. Utilizando-se do referencial teórico de "organizações em rede" no contexto da inovação, este artigo se baseia num aprofundado estudo de caso sobre uma estrutura organizacional em rede dentro de uma empresa multinacional que opera dezenas de manufaturas em diversos países. Esta empresa triplicou o desempenho ambiental em toneladas de poluição prevenidas e multiplicou em oito vezes o número de projetos de Produção Mais Limpa bem sucedidos, após ter implementado uma estrutura organizacional em rede para aumentar sua capacidade de gerenciar projetos para a melhoria de processos. Para explicar os motivos de tal aumento de desempenho ambiental, o artigo utiliza a metodologia de modelagem organizacional Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD para descrever as interações entre os objetivos, regras e processos do Programa de Produção Mais Limpa desta corporação, assim como as suas estruturas de relacionamento entre os atores que viabilizaram a integração das competências necessárias para a geração de uma maior capacidade de inovação ambientalmente sustentável nas manufaturas.Cleaner Production is a methodology to improve environmental sustainability in manufacturers. Due to its importance for sustainable development, the United Nations and many regional networks have taken on the responsibility to diffuse Cleaner Production methodology. After more than ten years of activity, however, these

  15. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    The CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory* initiative is a distributed network for research on complex environmental systems that focuses on the intersecting water-related issues of both the CUAHSI and CLEANER communities. It emphasizes research on the nation's water resources related to human-dominated natural and built environments. The network will be comprised of: interacting field sites with an integrated cyberinfrastructure; a centralized technical resource staff and management infrastructure to support interdisciplinary research through data collection from advanced sensor systems, data mining and aggregation from multiple sources and databases; cyber-tools for analysis, visualization, and predictive multi-scale modeling that is dynamically driven. As such, the network will transform 21st century workforce development in the water-related intersection of environmental science and engineering, as well as enable substantial educational and engagement opportunities for all age levels. The scientific goal and strategic intent of the CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Network is to transform our understanding of the earth's water cycle and associated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporal scales-enabling quantitative forecasts of critical water-related processes, especially those that affect and are affected by human activities. This strategy will develop scientific and engineering tools that will enable more effective adaptive approaches for resource management. The need for the network is based on three critical deficiencies in current abilities to understand large-scale environmental processes and thereby develop more effective management strategies. First we lack basic data and the infrastructure to collect them at the needed resolution. Second, we lack the means to integrate data across scales from different media (paper records, electronic worksheets, web-based) and sources (observations, experiments, simulations). Third, we lack sufficiently accurate

  16. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  17. "The governance and practice of change of sustainable consumption and production." Introduction to the ideas and recommendations presented in the articles in this special issue of the journal of cleaner production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Sto, E.; Vezzoli, C.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue is a result of work of Sustainable Consumption Research Exchanges (SCORE!). This EU supported network project under the 6th Framework Program engaged a few hundred professionals interested in sustainable consumption and production (SCP) in Europe and beyond. A key goal of the netw

  18. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  19. Pipe-cleaner Model of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Eve

    2016-01-01

    We present a functional model of neuronal network connectivity in which the single architectural element is the object commonly known in handicraft circles as a pipe cleaner. We argue that the dual nature of a neuronal circuit - that it be at times highly robust to external manipulation and yet sufficiently flexible to allow for learning and adaptation - is embodied in the pipe cleaner, and thus that a pipe cleaner framework serves as an instructive scaffold in which to examine network dynamics. Regarding the dynamics themselves: as pipe cleaners possess no intrinsic dynamics, in our model we attribute the emergent circuit dynamics to magic. Magic is a strategy that has been largely neglected in the neuroscience community, and may serve as an illuminating comparison to the common physics-based approaches. This model makes predictions that it would be really awesome to test experimentally. Moreover, the relative simplicity of the pipe cleaner - setting aside the fact that it comes in an overwhelming variety of...

  20. Risk Minimization for Insurance Products via F-Doubly Stochastic Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Biagini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study risk-minimization for a large class of insurance contracts. Given that the individual progress in time of visiting an insurance policy’s states follows an F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we describe different state-dependent types of insurance benefits. These cover single payments at maturity, annuity-type payments and payments at the time of a transition. Based on the intensity of the F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we provide the Galtchouk-Kunita-Watanabe decomposition for a general insurance contract and specify risk-minimizing strategies in a Brownian financial market setting. The results are further illustrated explicitly within an affine structure for the intensity.

  1. The Right Choice for Production Patterns to Minimize Cost of Incremental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Wijaya

    2011-04-01

    of 3,330,267,500 IDR. For Constant production patterns can lead to costs amounting to 3,696,317,500 IDR whereas if the company uses pattern Moderate production costs to be incurred amounted to 3,289,417,500 IDR. From the results of this study showed that moderate production patterns have the smallest Incremental costs compared to the wavy or constant patterns of production.

  2. Use of excel worksheets with user-friendly interface to minimize the makespan in a permutation flow shop production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Peterson da Rocha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research addresses the Permutation Flow Shop scheduling problem, characterized as Production Scheduling in Batch Process (PSBP to minimize total time to complete the schedule (Makespan. A method to approach the problem of production scheduling is to turn it into Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP and to solve it by using commercial mathematical programming packages. An electronic spreadsheet with user-friendly interface (ESUFI was developed in Microsoft Excel. Results showed that it is possible to use ESUFI to solve small problems.

  3. Driving towards a cleaner environment : a healthier future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flewelling, D. [Canadian Automobile Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Ogilvie, K. [Pollution Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    This report presents a practical approach to environmentally progressive choices for mobility. The approach engages individual consumers, governments and automakers to contribute to a healthier environment. It presents a plan that integrates motorists, the road system and the vehicle into a solution for cleaner air and reduced emissions. It was noted that in order to resolve the need to take action on climate change with our reliance on automobiles, personal mobility habits must be changed and the emissions produced by automobiles must be reduced by minimizing the amount of fuel they burn. This report addresses the 3 key factors that govern fuel consumption, including automobile fuel efficiency; road conditions; and automobile use and the use of transportation alternatives. As a starting point, the Canadian Automobile Association and Pollution Probe propose that the federal government implement a three-point plan for eco-mobility to meets society's changing transportation and environmental needs. The plan consists of: (1) eco-driving which includes consumer support programs that promote fuel conservation through choosing fuel efficient automobiles, better driving and maintenance practices, and using energy efficient transportation options, (2) better and safer roads to support smoother traffic flow and reduce congestion, (3) improved automobile fuel efficiency by developing and implementing effective fuel efficiency standards for automobiles sold in Canada. refs., figs.

  4. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thane A Militz

    Full Text Available Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol, it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63% and nocturnal (14% conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia diurnally (26%. Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp. Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  5. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  6. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (reinforces the potentially important role of mutualism during the processes of settlement and recruitment of young reef fishes.

  7. Minimization of environmental risk by optimization of the end-of-pipe processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karkoszka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper has been an attainment of the thesis that efficient minimization of environmental risk of processes can be realised not only by usage of new technologies creating no contaminants, but also by - fulfilling cleaner production requirements - the ‘end-off-pipe’ solutions. Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has covered optimization of hydrocarbon degradation as the ‘end-of-pipe’ process by determination of the efficiency of hydrocarbons chemical and biological degradation and evaluation of the effect of the initial content of the hydrogen peroxide on alkanes biodegradation.Findings: of analysis are as follows: both chemical and biological oxidation is a straight forward method for decreasing hydrocarbon concentration in the production wastewater, so - the possibility of optimization of the ‘end-of-pipe’ process.Practical implications: can be applied in case of any organisation, which, because of financial or technological reasons, minimizes the concentration of hydrocarbons draining off to the environment by the ‘end-off-pipe’ technologies.Originality/value: of the presented paper has been created by confirmation that application of the best available technologies is not the only way for efficient fulfilling legal requirements of integrated pollution prevention and control directive and cleaner production strategy assumptions.

  8. Radioiodination of human growth hormone with characterization and minimization of the commonly defined 'damaged products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodination and chromatographic purification of human growth hormone (hGH) has been studied in order to better define and control the so-called 'preparation damage', which is often a cause of interferences, loss in specific activity and sensitivity, misclassification errors in radioligand assays, and a source of misinterpretation when the tracer is used in receptors or in vivo studies. A series of labelings and false labelings, with and without protein carrier in the buffer used for Sephadex purification, indicate that the 'preparation damage' peak is made up of two components: aggregated 125I-hGH and BSA-carried radioactivity. The former can be minimized by the use of recently extracted non-lyophilized hGH, and the latter by enzymatic labeling. Both components can be better resolved, and thus eliminated, when Sephadex G-100 is employed rather than G-75. (Auth.)

  9. Effects of noncontact cleaners on transparent solar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, H.L.; Lind, M.A.

    1979-04-01

    A brief study has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of noncontact cleaning agents for use on solar collectors. Several techniques are used to compare cleansing agents which have been recommended by their respective manufacturers for cleaning solar mirrors. Wetting and residue buildup properties are evaluated for over 50 of these commercially available cleaners. The wetting properties of each cleaner are evaluated by measuring the growth of the contact area of a constant volume drop as a function of time. Losses due to residue buildup are solar weighted and considered equally with the wetting parameters and cost figures to construct a figure of merit for cleaner comparison.

  10. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Padmanaba; Corlett, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical prod...

  11. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  12. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  13. VERBAL AND SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY LOAD HAVE SIMILARLY MINIMAL EFFECTS ON SPEECH PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ogyoung; Redford, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the effects of working memory on speech production. Twenty American-English speaking adults produced syntactically complex sentences in tasks that taxed either verbal or spatial working memory. Sentences spoken under load were produced with more errors, fewer prosodic breaks, and at faster rates than sentence produced in the control conditions, but other acoustic correlates of rhythm and intonation did not change. Verbal and spatial working memory had very similar effects on production, suggesting that the different span tasks used to tax working memory merely shifted speakers’ attention away from the act of speaking. This finding runs contra the hypothesis of incremental phonological/phonetic encoding, which predicts the manipulation of information in verbal working memory during speech production. PMID:26448563

  14. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

  15. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Mayumi [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS - UMR 8627, Université de Paris-Sud 11,F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vicente, Avelino [IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège,Bat B5, Sart-Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València,Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-09-29

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2){sub L} quintuplet and a scalar SU(2){sub L} septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations.

  16. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2)L quintuplet and a scalar SU(2)L septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations

  17. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. PMID:25837297

  18. Minimizing the environmental footprint of livestock production: which measure to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing and wealthier human population implies an increase in demand for their needs, such as housing, infrastructure, energy and food, including animal-source food. Current animal production levels, however, already pose severe pressure on the environment, via their emissions to air, water and so

  19. Minimizing the residual oxygen in modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, L; Fava, P

    1997-01-01

    The total elimination of air represents a serious hurdle in modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products, due both to the high spin-rates of the packaging lines and, particularly, to the typical texture of bakery products which retain large quantities of air inside their porous structure. Simulating the gas-flushing modified atmosphere packaging with laboratory equipment and measuring the oxygen concentration directly inside bread rolls, by means of a gas analyser connected with the internal portion, it was possible to follow the rate of atmosphere substitution, evaluating the effects of different baking treatments (7, 12 and 23 min at 230 degrees C) and the role played by different gases (nitrogen, argon, helium, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide). The oxygen content inside the products, plotted versus time, led to typical logistic 'dose-response' curves which made it possible to forecast the time needed to reach established values of residual oxygen concentration and to emphasize the effects of the different conditions used. The gas properties particularly affected the rate of oxygen substitution and the less water-soluble was the gas, the faster was the oxygen reduction; the larger was the gas molecule, the slower was the process. Also baking time was shown to have, to a different extent, some measurable effects on the rate of oxygen substitution and hence, its optimization as well as the choice of gas mixture can contribute to improve modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products. PMID:9373539

  20. Simulation of particle distribution in a room with air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2012-01-01

    and particle phase model for simulating an air cleaner in a room. In addition, the aim is to study the impact of location of an air cleaner in a room. The dynamics of the particle inside a room was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software. Furthermore, the air change rate was measured by both tracer......Ventilation is one of the ways that humans can keep the indoor air quality at the proper level. Portable air cleaners have been developed to improve indoor air quality while reducing the energy consumption of the ventilation system. The aim of this study is to find the correct turbulence model...... gas and particles with different sizes.The proper turbulence model was selected after comparing the results with the behaviour of the gass in the test room. The simulations showed the effect that the location of an air cleaner had on the particle level. The results showed that the location of the air...

  1. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Roving and Service Quality in the Cleaner Wrasse Labroides bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, Jennifer; Manica, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus occupies fixed ‘cleaning stations’ on coral reefs, which ‘client’ reef fish visit repeatedly to have parasites removed. Conflict arises because cleaners prefer to cheat by feeding on client mucus instead of parasites. Clients can prevent L. dimidiatus from always cheating using control mechanisms such as chasing and partner switching, which depend on repeated interactions. These control mechanisms would be undermined in the absence of frequent repeated ...

  3. Single and double production of the Higgs boson at hadron and lepton colliders in minimal composite Higgs models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Kaneta, Kunio; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at the LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.

  4. High-Rate Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR) Processes to Minimize the Production of Excess Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Chon, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    High-rate anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) processes were developed to minimize excess sludge production during wastewater treatment. New ASSRs were operated in 2.5-day solids retention time (SRT), much shorter than 10-day SRT used by the commercial sludge reduction process. The 2.5-day was selected based on literature review and preliminary studies, showing that maximum solublization of key floc components, such as divalent cations, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and protease, occur within 2 to 3 days of anaerobic digestion. The laboratory reactor study showed that 2.5-day ASSR systems produced approximately 60 and 20% less sludge than the control (no ASSR) and the 10-day ASSR, respectively. The experimental systems showed acceptable effluent quality, despite minimal sludge wastage. This was possible because sludge EPS were continuously released/degraded and regenerated as sludge underwent recirculation between ASSR and the aerobic basin. The results supported that the activated sludge process incorporating small ASSRs significantly decrease the production of excess sludge during wastewater treatment.

  5. Single and double production of the Higgs boson at hadron and lepton colliders in minimal composite Higgs models

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.

  6. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  7. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  8. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a "local noun" (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an "attractor") within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with "rich" inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that proximity to a

  9. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L.; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a “local noun” (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an “attractor”) within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with “rich” inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that

  10. Potencial para implantação da produção mais limpa em sistemas locais de produção: o polo joalheiro de São José do Rio Preto Potential for implantation of cleaner production in local production systems: the jewelry cluster of São José do Rio Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Mana Domingues

    2009-12-01

    oportunidades para incorporar a dimensão ambiental em políticas e ações para a promoção de SLP, levando em conta as especificidades e a dinâmica tecnológica setorial em MPE.Policies and actions in national and international spheres which aim to develop the local industry competition, taking as their basis the many advantages of agglomeration, have been focusing on the local production systems (LPS. Such actions and policies indicate the LPS as a vector of economic dynamism that improves local development, emphasizing the role of micro and small enterprises (MSE which occur in an industrial agglomeration. However, the environmental dimension has thus far only received tangential treatment within the policies and actions in the promotional and structural activities mentioned above. Thus, there is a question as to how we could contemplate this dimension in order to understand and promote LPS, including the objective of preventing and reducing negative environmental impacts from the activities of these agglomerations. The article proposes to examine the opportunities for integration of environmental issues in a group of enterprises that belong to the São José do Rio Preto-SP Jewelry Cluster, which is the second largest in the State of São Paulo in manufacturing jewelers made from gold. These enterprises joined a competitiveness project undertaken by SEBRAE (Brazilian Agency for Support of Micro and Small Enterprises. The analysis adopts the cleaner production proposal(P + L as an approach and tool for environmental management, particularly suitable for smaller enterprises that are able to converge innovation efforts in order to provide alternatives for undertaking improvements in environmental performance. Qualitative exploratory research found that endeavors to update technology in the jewelry cluster analyzed with a view to cleaner production, leads to environmental, economic and occupational health and safety benefits due to the reduction in the consumption of raw

  11. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  12. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  13. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  14. Application of Balance Analysis Method in the Evaluation Stage of Cleaner Production Audit%平衡分析方法在清洁生产审核评估阶段中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭儒; 杨晓松

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation stage is an important part and committed step of the enterprise to carry out the clean production audit. Its purpose is to use material or energy balance tool to comprehensively analyze the material flow and / or energy flow of the audit focus, discover the links of material loss, energy loss and waste generation, find the causes of the problems and provide basis for clean production program. Therefore, the establishment of the balance, especially the analysis of the reasons for balance is a key part of the clean production audit work. This paper takes a steel rolling processing enterprise as an example to mainly introduce the application of the balanced analysis method in the evaluation stage.%评估阶段是企业开展清洁生产审核的重要环节和关键步骤,目的是借助物料和/或能量平衡等工具,对审核重点的物质流和/或能量进行全面分析,发现物料流失、能源损失及废弃物产生的环节,找到问题形成的原因,为清洁生产方案的产生提供依据。因此平衡的建立,特别是平衡原因的分析好坏是决定清洁生产审核工作成败的关键环节之一。本文以某钢扎延加工企业为例,重点介绍平衡分析方法在评估阶段中的应用。

  15. Maximizing photosynthetic efficiency and culture productivity in cyanobacteria upon minimizing the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Henning; Formighieri, Cinzia; Melis, Anastasios

    2014-10-01

    A phycocyanin-deletion mutant of Synechocystis (cyanobacteria) was generated upon replacement of the CPC-operon with a kanamycin resistance cassette. The Δcpc transformant strains (Δcpc) exhibited a green phenotype, compared to the blue-green of the wild type (WT), lacked the distinct phycocyanin absorbance at 625nm, and had a lower Chl per cell content and a lower PSI/PSII reaction center ratio compared to the WT. Molecular and genetic analyses showed replacement of all WT copies of the Synechocystis DNA with the transgenic version, thereby achieving genomic DNA homoplasmy. Biochemical analyses showed the absence of the phycocyanin α- and β-subunits, and the overexpression of the kanamycin resistance NPTI protein in the Δcpc. Physiological analyses revealed a higher, by a factor of about 2, intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis in the Δcpc compared to the WT. Under limiting intensities of illumination, growth of the Δcpc was slower than that of the WT. This difference in the rate of cell duplication diminished gradually as growth irradiance increased. Identical rates of cell duplication of about 13h for both WT and Δcpc were observed at about 800μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) or greater. Culture productivity analyses under simulated bright sunlight and high cell-density conditions showed that biomass accumulation by the Δcpc was 1.57-times greater than that achieved by the WT. Thus, the work provides first-time direct evidence of the applicability of the Truncated Light-harvesting Antenna (TLA)-concept in cyanobacteria, entailing substantial improvements in the photosynthetic efficiency and productivity of mass cultures upon minimizing the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna size.

  16. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WB...

  17. Dynamic monitoring of the dust pickup efficiency of vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Trakumas, Saulius; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a new method that uses an optical aerosol photometer for dynamically monitoring dust pickup efficiency during vacuuming. In the first stage of this study the new method was compared with built-in dirt sensors installed by vacuum cleaner manufacturers. Through parallel testing it has been shown that the widely available built-in dirt sensors are not sensitive enough to register small (vinyl sheet flooring. This method also was used to monitor dust pickup efficiency when vacuuming carpets originating from lead-contaminated homes. The dust pickup efficiencies obtained with the optical aerosol photometer have been compared with the surface lead concentrations found during different stages of cleaning. Results indicate that the dust mass concentration registered with the optical aerosol photometer at the nozzle outlet correlates well with the dust mass collected in the vacuum cleaner filter bag and with the surface lead level. Therefore, dynamic dust pickup monitoring can provide valuable information about the efficiency of cleaning when a vacuum cleaner is used. This suggests that a small aerosol photometer similar to a light-scattering smoke detector would be beneficial in vacuum cleaners used for cleaning surfaces contaminated with leaded dust and biological particles (including allergens). PMID:12570075

  18. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when ozone is expected to be high: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperature. Choose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when possible. Refuel cars ...

  19. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.;

    1996-01-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal...... cleaners (n = 17), normally exposed adults (n = 31), school children (n = 46) and Sudanese negative controls (n = 48). Previous studies of the same canal cleaners have demonstrated that chronically infected canal cleaners were more resistant to reinfection than newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA...... was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  20. Investment in biogas for energy purposes to promote cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Cuba, by the characteristics of a developing country characteristics, formulation and evaluation of projects is a critical task, since the decision to invest means sacrificing the opportunity to meet current needs for different and long-term alternatives. The assessment prior to the execution of a project is proposed as the aim of the present study, as a crucial task that contributes to amendments or self-definition. The results should be directed to the analysis of development trends in the energy environment which indicates the increase of the contribution of renewable energy sources as a viable to meet global demand for energy efficient and sustainable way. For that reason, it has encouraged the use of biogas as the most important fuel of the future, since the materials required for processing and construction of the necessary facilities are within reach of many first-world economies as countries developmental. History: Specific methods of pollution trends in the province; Description: Evaluation of investment within the life cycle of the investment project. Techniques and instruments: Direct observation; Structured surveys and use of specialized software: Excel, QSB, Statgraphics. The research is justified and concludes that the project Swine Genetics UEB Cienfuegos achieved energy independence, as well as sales to 13.7 MW annual energy electro National System (SEN). (full text)

  1. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation in the Impl......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...

  2. Modelling of the filter-adsorber type air cleaner by using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos Miomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most air purifying methods imply the passing of air flow, as a pollutant carrier, through a control unit which retains impurities. Properties of the air control unit and the purifying process itself therefore differ depending on the nature of present impurities, as well as on flow-thermal properties of air as the carrier of those impurities. For the assumed conditions, in terms of production of a pollution source and presence of different polluting substances in the form of dust, aerosols, gas, vapor in the exhaust gas, etc., an integrated gas purifier has been designed and tested, comprising a module for purification of mechanical impurities and a module for purification of gaseous impurities. The purifier is compact and has a universal application while simultaneously retaining several different pollutants. These requirements were met through application of the filtration and adsorption methods. On the formed experimental line with an adequate system of acquisition, filter-adsorber type gas cleaners in the function of flow-thermal parameters of gas mixture were tested simultaneously. Experimental data were used for training the radial basis function neural network, which was then used to model properties of the process and gas cleaner.

  3. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.R. [University of Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Biology; DeLaune, R.D.; Jugsujinda, A. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute

    2001-07-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m{sup 2} plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled+cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled+cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO{sub 2} fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled+cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia. (Author)

  4. 75 FR 447 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2007. 73 FR 2276 (Jan. 14, 2008). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... it determined to review, and on remedy, the public interest and bonding. 74 FR 57192 (Nov. 4, 2009... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and...

  5. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  6. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  7. Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  8. Minimal triangulations of simplotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Seacrest, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    We derive lower bounds for the size of simplicial covers of simplotopes, which are products of simplices. These also serve as lower bounds for triangulations of such polytopes, including triangulations with interior vertices. We establish that a minimal triangulation of a product of two simplices is given by a vertex triangulation, i.e., one without interior vertices. For products of more than two simplices, we produce bounds for products of segments and triangles. Our analysis yields linear programs that arise from considerations of covering exterior faces and exploiting the product structure of these polytopes. Aside from cubes, these are the first known lower bounds for triangulations of simplotopes with three or more factors. We also construct a minimal triangulation for the product of a triangle and a square, and compare it to our lower bound.

  9. Standard Practice for Effects of Cleaners on Unpainted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the procedure used to determine the effect of cleaners on unpainted aircraft surfaces. Visual observation is used for determining streaking or permanent stains which require polishing to remove. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000; and (2) The SRMs of the bovines were removed at slaughter. (c) Meat, meat... part are met. (a) Meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products from bovines. The meat, meat byproduct, or meat food product, as defined by FSIS in 9 CFR 301.2—that those terms as applied to bison......

  11. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bing-hui; FAN Bin; PENG Xian-jia; LUAN Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products,wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests.

  12. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bing-hui; Fan, Bin; Peng, Xian-jia; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products, wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests. PMID:16313006

  13. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  14. QCD-resummation and non-minimal flavour-violation for supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders; Resommation des corrections radiatives QCD et violation de la saveur non-minimale pour la production de particules supersymetriques aupres des collisionneurs hadroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, B

    2007-06-15

    Cross sections for supersymmetric particles production at hadron colliders have been extensively studied in the past at leading order and also at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD. The radiative corrections include large logarithms which have to be re-summed to all orders in the strong coupling constant in order to get reliable perturbative results. In this work, we perform a first and extensive study of the resummation effects for supersymmetric particle pair production at hadron colliders. We focus on Drell-Yan like slepton-pair and slepton-sneutrino associated production in minimal supergravity and gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking scenarios, and present accurate transverse-momentum and invariant-mass distributions, as well as total cross sections. In non-minimal supersymmetric models, novel effects of flavour violation may occur. In this case, the flavour structure in the squark sector cannot be directly deduced from the trilinear Yukawa couplings of the fermion and Higgs supermultiplets. We perform a precise numerical analysis of the experimentally allowed parameter space in the case of minimal supergravity scenarios with non-minimal flavour violation, looking for regions allowed by low-energy, electroweak precision, and cosmological data. Leading order cross sections for the production of squarks and gauginos at hadron colliders are implemented in a flexible computer program, allowing us to study in detail the dependence of these cross sections on flavour violation. (author)

  15. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...

  16. Survival and stress responses of E. coli exposed to alkaline cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of alkaline cleaners commonly used in food processing environments on survival and stress responses of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Alkaline cleaners containing either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and hypochlorite had gre...

  17. Hygienic Cleaning Products used in the kitchen; Exposure and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds contained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The products for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids, hygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products (abrasive, all purpose cleaner

  18. A hybrid of ant colony optimization and minimization of metabolic adjustment to improve the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiue Kee; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mohamed Salleh, Abdul Hakim; Choon, Yee Wen; Chong, Chuii Khim; Deris, Safaai

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study on gene knockout strategies to identify candidate genes to be knocked out for improving the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli. Succinic acid is widely used as a precursor for many chemicals, for example production of antibiotics, therapeutic proteins and food. However, the chemical syntheses of succinic acid using the traditional methods usually result in the production that is far below their theoretical maximums. In silico gene knockout strategies are commonly implemented to delete the gene in E. coli to overcome this problem. In this paper, a hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment (MoMA) is proposed to identify gene knockout strategies to improve the production of succinic acid in E. coli. As a result, the hybrid algorithm generated a list of knockout genes, succinic acid production rate and growth rate for E. coli after gene knockout. The results of the hybrid algorithm were compared with the previous methods, OptKnock and MOMAKnock. It was found that the hybrid algorithm performed better than OptKnock and MOMAKnock in terms of the production rate. The information from the results produced from the hybrid algorithm can be used in wet laboratory experiments to increase the production of succinic acid in E. coli. PMID:24763079

  19. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...... cleaners. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment was...... assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. RESULTS: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed...

  20. Production ecology of agroforestry systems: a minimal mechanistic model and analytical derivation of the land equivalent ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesman, K J; van der Werf, W; van Keulen, H

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the yield and the land equivalent ratio (LER) of a silvo-arable agroforestry (SAF) system, containing one tree and one crop species, is analyzed analytically using a minimal mechanistic model describing the system dynamics. Light competition between tree and crop is considered using light extinction functions. The tree leaf area is driven by annual increase in the number of leaf-bearing shoots with a seasonal cycle of bud burst, leaf expansion and senescence. The crop leaf area dynamics is driven by the solar radiation, heat sum and the dry matter allocation to the leaves. As a consequence of this, the model consists of six state equations expressing the temporal dynamics of: (1) tree biomass; (2) tree leaf area; (3) number of shoots per tree; (4) crop biomass; (5) crop leaf area index, and (6) heat sum. The main outputs of the model are the growth dynamics and final yields of trees and crops. Daily inputs are temperature and radiation. Planting densities, initial biomass of tree and crop species and growth parameters must be specified. The main parameters are those describing light interception, conversion to dry matter and leaf area. Given the crop cover and the tree parameters, it is shown that under potential growing conditions the land equivalent ratio can be explicitly expressed in terms of these parameters.

  1. Strategic adjustment of service quality to client identity in the cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes longicarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis, Lucille; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Cleaning mutualism, in which cleaning organisms remove ectoparasites from cooperating ‘clients’, is widespread among marine animals. Until now, research has focused on fishes as cleaners, whereas cleaner shrimps have received little attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the cleaning behaviour of the cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes longicarpus, and to compare the results directly to data on the sympatric and well-studied cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus. We first compared the ti...

  2. Minimal cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  3. Minimal cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography - a nondynamical description of the universe - is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and timelike geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a w...

  4. Combined Water-Fertilizer Management to Minimize Non-Point Water Pollution While Achieving High Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Letey, John; Jarrell, Wesley M

    1983-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to characterize relationships between fertilizer and water management in irrigated vegetable production in California. Greenhouse trials were conducted both in hydroponic solution culture and in soil culture, with tomatoes and lettuce, to establish functional relationships between nitrogen and water uptake by single plants, and nitrogen recovery efficiency as a function of method and rate of application and placement for a simulated drip irrigat...

  5. Evaluation of Post-Harvest Organic Carbon Amendments as a Strategy to Minimize Nitrogen Losses in Cole Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Van Eerd

    2013-02-01

    the CRN-control. Therefore, in areas with a high risk of environmental N contamination, growers should consider the OCA-oil practice after cole crop harvest to minimize the risk of N losses.

  6. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P2O5, and K2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt(-1) on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198-205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and decreasing GHG

  7. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  8. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  9. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    ideal reactor types, i.e. batch, continuous stirred, and plug-flow, is illustrated quantitatively by modeling different extents of cellulose conversion at different reaction conditions. The main operational challenges of membrane reactors for lignocellulose conversion are highlighted. Key membrane...... of the available literature data for glucose removal by membranes and for cellulose enzyme stability in membrane reactors are given. The treatise clearly shows that membrane reactors allowing continuous, complete, glucose removal during enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, can provide for both higher cellulose...... hydrolysis rates and higher enzyme usage efficiency (kg(product/)kg(enzyme)). Current membrane reactor designs are however not feasible for large scale operations. The report emphasizes that the industrial realization of cellulosic ethanol requires more focus on the operational feasibility within...

  10. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients. PMID:15854910

  11. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  12. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  13. A fibre-optic UV system for H(2)SO(4) production in aerosol chambers causing minimal thermal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kupc, A; Onnela, A; Duplissy, J; Mathot, S; Danielczok, A; Walther, H; Minginette, P; Rondo, L; Ickes, L; Curtius, J; Wagner, P E; Amorim, A; Lima, J M; Ehrhart, S; Kurten, A

    2011-01-01

    A novel fibre-optic UV illumination system for sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) production has been developed. The illumination system described in this paper provides sufficient ultraviolet light (UV) power while causing practically no thermal effect on the aerosol chamber (temperature variation <0.005 degrees C at full UV illumination). A similar thermal stability has not been achieved in other comparable experimental set-ups so far. The spectrum provided by the fibre-optic UV system corresponds to the UVB region, illuminates the chamber in a reasonably uniform way and is comparable to the ground level actinic flux. The UV system has been installed for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber experiments at CERN. Precise, easily-adjustable and reproducible concentrations of H(2)SO(4) were generated by adjusting the UV light intensity. This paper gives an overview on the design of this new system as well as insights on its performance and application. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibodies on demand: a fast method for the production of human scFvs with minimal amounts of antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal J Ignacio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies constitute a powerful tool to study protein function, protein localization and protein-protein interactions, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High-throughput antibody development requires faster methodologies with lower antigen consumption. Results Here, we describe a novel methodology to select human monoclonal recombinant antibodies by combining in vitro protein expression, phage display antibody libraries and antibody microarrays. The application of this combination of methodologies permitted us to generate human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs against two proteins: green fluorescent protein (GFP and thioredoxin (Trx in a short time, using as low as 5 μg of purified protein. These scFvs showed specific reactivity against their respective targets and worked well by ELISA and western blot. The scFvs were able to recognise as low as 31 ng of protein of their respective targets by western blot. Conclusion This work describes a novel and miniaturized methodology to obtain human monoclonal recombinant antibodies against any target in a shorter time than other methodologies using only 5 μg of protein. The protocol could be easily adapted to a high-throughput procedure for antibody production.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria......: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12...

  16. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  17. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  18. The use of natural products to minimize and or counter act the risk of exposure to environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kevin P.

    Essential oils have been studied for their unique ability to act as antioxidants. There is a large pool of publications describing the antioxidant activity of essential oils, however they all present results of research that was performed on a small number of oils and at most an individual botanical family or related species Antioxidant activities of 423 essential oils of 48 different botanical families were evaluated for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavenging agents using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryihydrazyl method. The EC50 of the 84 most active oils ranged from 4 to 2000 microg/mL. Oils having an EC50 of less than 300 mug/mL, (20 selected samples) were subjected to beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity test. Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the U.S.A and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold milk thistle, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities and anti-HCV activity. Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L. of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. There are few phytochemical studies found in the literature describing the chemical constituents of the two described species. Their lipoid constituents were examined to determine their essential oil and fatty acid composition. Both extracts were also tested for their radical scavenging activity. We investigated three groups of natural herbal antioxidants . One group related to essential oils showed the active antioxidant is mostly related to monoterpenes (or phenolic compounds) and ciscoterpenes. With silymarin , the active antioxidant chemicals are polyphenolic compounds. With the Rumnex , they showed the possibility of significant antioxidant activity and

  19. Household Products Database: Personal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand moisturizer, antibact. bubble bath care giving cleaner clipper lubricant cologne/fragrance concealer conditioner conditioner, dandruff contact ... lipcolor remover liquid mascara Mens products moisturizing mouthwash nail polish/enamel nappies night cream/lotion pain relief/ ...

  20. 几类两个矩阵广义逆乘积秩的最小值%Minimal Ranks of the Product of Generalized Inverses of Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春林; 郭文彬; 孙庆娟; 祝国豪

    2011-01-01

    应用矩阵秩等式的方法,研究了几类含有广义逆矩阵B(1,3)或A(1,4)矩阵广义逆乘积秩的最小值问题,通过对公式的证明得到了一系列统一的结果.%The minimal ranks of the product of generalized inverses of matrices are studied by using matrix rank methods in this paper.By proofing formula of containing g-inverse B(1,3) or g-inverse A(1,4) some interesting results are given.

  1. Resonance contribution of scalar color octet to $t \\bar{t}$ production at the LHC in the minimal four color quark-lepton symmetry model

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, I V; Smirnov, A D

    2016-01-01

    The scalar color octet contribution to the resonance $t\\bar{t}$-pair production at the LHC is calculated and analysed with account of the one loop effective two gluon vertex. It is shown that this contribution from the scalar color octet $F_2$ predicted by the minimal model with the four color quark-lepton symmetry is for $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV of about a few percents for $750 < m_{F_2} < 1800$ GeV and can exceed 10% for $400 < m_{F_2} < 750$ GeV. It is also pointed out that the search for the scalar octet $F_2$ as the resonance in the dijet mass spectra seems to be difficult because of the smallness of its one loop effective two gluon interaction.

  2. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;

    2009-01-01

    of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective......In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... sounds were conducted by the semantic differential method (SDM) and the method of successive intervals (MSI). SDM tests for seven adjective pairs were conducted to find the relation between subjective feeling and frequency bands. Two major feelings, performance and annoyance, were factored out from...

  3. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  4. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G;

    2012-01-01

    Worksite health promotion is seldom offered to workers who are low-educated and multi-ethnic, possibly due to an assumption that they are more reluctant to participate. Furthermore, little has been done to promote health at female-dominated workplaces. The main aim of this study was to investigate...... differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...

  5. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  6. Adhesion Performance of Solid Film Lubricants on Substrates Cleaned With Environmentally Compliant Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P. B.; Thom, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Solid film adhesion testing was used to determine the effect different environmentally compliant cleaners have on the adhesion properties of solid film lubricants used for several NASA programs. In an action to remove ozone depleting chemicals from aerospace processes, a replacement cleaner must be identified that does not affect the adhesion of solid film lubricants used on flight critical NASA hardware. ASTM D251083 Standard Test Method for Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants was used to evaluate the cleaners. Two different lubricants - Inlox 88 and Boosterlube - were tested using various commercially available cleaners. Inlox 88 is produced by E/M Corporation and is a liquid oxygen compatible lubricant used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine, and Boosterlube is a new lubricant being implemented for use on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. These lubricants were selected because of their specific use on flight critical NASA components. Results of this testing are presented in the paper.

  7. Typical household vacuum cleaners: the collection efficiency and emissions characteristics for fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, P J; Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Goldsmith, S

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM2.5) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KCl) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130 A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 micrograms/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 micron in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KCl particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KCl

  8. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  9. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    OpenAIRE

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries includingDenmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles andgases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermalplasma, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafineparticles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a cleanroom. It was found that...

  10. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity. PMID:26747903

  11. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis, Lucille; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Signals increase the fitness of a sender by altering the behaviour of receivers. For cooperative interactions biological market theory proposes that signalling strength may be linked to supply and demand. In this context, a recent laboratory experiment demonstrated that cleaner shrimps may advertise their service to client reef fish and that the advertisement is linked to hunger levels. We investigated signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus in the field to test more detaile...

  12. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  13. Minimizing indoor odors from products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walpot, J.I.

    1996-01-01

    Regarding negative perceptions in indoor environments perceived odors are often mentio-ned as indicating factors. At TNO (Organisation for Applied Scientific Research in The Netherlands) a combination of methods is developed and used for the characterisation and quantification of indoor odor problem

  14. 基于过氧化氢制备生产二氧化氯的过程开发研究%Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  15. A design of experiments test to define critical spray cleaning parameters for Brulin 815 GD and Jettacin cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Evans, Kurt B.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Deweese, C. Darrell; Prince, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental design testing was conducted to identify critical parameters of an aqueous spray process intended for cleaning solid rocket motor metal components (steel and aluminum). A two-level, six-parameter, fractional factorial matrix was constructed and conducted for two cleaners, Brulin 815 GD and Diversey Jettacin. The matrix parameters included cleaner temperature and concentration, wash density, wash pressure, rinse pressure, and dishwasher type. Other spray parameters: nozzle stand-off, rinse water temperature, wash and rinse time, dry conditions, and type of rinse water (deionized) were held constant. Matrix response testing utilized discriminating bond specimens (fracture energy and tensile adhesion strength) which represent critical production bond lines. Overall, Jettacin spray cleaning was insensitive to the range of conditions tested for all parameters and exhibited bond strengths significantly above the TCA test baseline for all bond lines tested. Brulin 815 was sensitive to cleaning temperature, but produced bond strengths above the TCA test baseline even at the lower temperatures. Ultimately, the experimental design database was utilized to recommend process parameter settings for future aqueous spray cleaning characterization work.

  16. New photo-thermal-synthesized polymer for self-compacting concrete to increase productivity, minimize pollution,and eliminate steam curing in precast concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. C.Lai; M. F.Mohd Zain; WANG Bao-min; K. C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The objective in this study is to apply the sustainable chemistry and photo-thermal synthesis technology to produce the sustainable eco-superplasticiser for the sustainable high performance SCC concrete especially in hot tropical countries. A photo-thermal synthesized eco-superplasticiser (PSES) was produced by using photo-thermal catalyst in a solar chemical reactor. In this preliminary study, an unique high early strength of SCC concrete has been successfully produced by imposing an unique proportion of the photo-thermal-synthesized ecoSuperplasticiser (PSES), local fly ash, sand and aggregate. The SCC concrete is preliminary tried in the precast concrete product to produce the complicated geometries as Tunnel segment, U-shape beam, and Box girder which have the critical reinforcement and thin section concrete. Surprisingly, this SCC provide the benefits as eliminating steaming energy, increased productivity, and minimize pollution. These unique properties of sustainable SCC concrete can not be achieved by the convention concrete by using ligno, naphthalene and melamine base superplasticiser. The synthesized sustainable eco-superplasticiser is a perfect choice to fully utilized the renewable energy and improve the concrete working environment.

  17. 饮料企业清洁生产与审核%Cleaner Productio and Audit of Bererage Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦人伟

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the production processes and pollutants generation of bererage, lists some typical and advanced cleaner production technology, some key points had also been addressed during the audit, to achieve the purposes of energy saving, exhausation decline, pollutants reduction, and profit increase.%本文分析了饮料企业的生产与污染物状况,列出了一批典型的、先进的清洁生产技术,并总结出在清洁生产审核中需注意的关键点,如让其真正发挥作用,则能达到节能、降耗、减污、增效的目的。

  18. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Marie B; Faber Anne; Hansen Jørgen V; Holtermann Andreas; Søgaard Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination tra...

  19. Effect of an Air Cleaner with Electrostatic Filter on the Removal of Airborne House Dust Mite Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. Materials and Methods A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recor...

  20. MAGNESIA SLIDE GATE PLATES USED IN STEEL LADLES FOR CLEANER STEELS CONTINUOUS CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenice Moreira Galinari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of cleaner steel has been demand for a growing market in Brazil and worldwide; and for such steels with low level of inclusions, refinement with addition of calcium has been widely used. That addition leaves a remainder of calcium in steel which may form phases of low melting point with silica and alumina present in the refractory during the casting. The slide gate plates, typically aluminous, not resist a single heat at certain levels of calcium and conditions of casting steel. The alternative here is the use of non-aluminous materials such as zirconia insert; however, it is a raw material of high cost, which requires a complex manufacturing process. The big challenge for the magnesia or basic material to be used in ladles, was its low thermal shock resistance, with intense crack formation due to high expansion of MgO. In this paper, it is presented the development and improvement of Magnesia Slide Gate Plates, Basic Plates for ladles, including high capacity ladles, their characteristics and properties. Extensive industrial tests were performed in Brazilian Steel Industry with satisfactory results. Magnesia Plates showed the same performance of plates with zirconia insert, and better cost-benefit.

  1. Building strong communities : municipal strategies for cleaner air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-30

    This handbook discussed the contribution that municipalities can make toward cleaner air. It helps make the connection between urban growth patterns and local air quality and describes some creative local policy measures and tools that have been used by municipalities in Ontario to reduce the negative impact of urban development on air quality. It provides insight into how municipalities can improve air quality through land-use planning and infrastructure decisions. Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, Waterloo, London and Windsor are the 6 cities that lead Ontario's economic growth. However, one of the consequences is that southern Ontario currently has some of the worst air quality in Canada, resulting from smog, traffic congestion and urban sprawl. Some of the initiatives launched by the Ontario government to reduce greenhouse gases include the Drive Clean Program; phasing out coal-burning power plants; and tighter emission limits for diesel trucks and buses. Municipalities can also promote educational campaigns and infrastructure investment to improve local air quality. The implications of urban growth patterns and vehicle emissions on air quality were explained along with threats to air quality and the influence of local factors on poor air quality. Some of the measures adopted by municipalities include the creation of partnerships between governments, school boards, transit systems and energy providers. Other measures include: the creation of a smog Alert Response Plans to target emissions in municipal operations during periods of poor local air quality; restrictions on pesticide use; anti-idling protocols for municipal vehicles; conversion of portions of their fleets to propane, natural gas or bio-diesel fuel to reduce emissions; and financial incentives to promote energy conservation. figs.

  2. Towards cleaner and more efficient coal use technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the public concern over energy/environment issues has been focused upon coal, even though this fuel has been responsible for almost 60% of the beneficial effects of electricity available in the United States, and similar percentages in a number of other major countries. Successes in overcoming some of coal's environmental problems have been accompanied by identification of new environmental issues, often less obvious and more intractable as to their solution. The picture is complicated by the arrival on the political scene of severe new coal-related environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, air toxics, and the impending shortage of waste disposal sites in many areas. However coal, which provides 90% of U.S. and 80% of the world's fossil energy reserves, will be needed well into, possibly through the 21 Century, barring global calamities, and unless an unexpected breakthrough in energy conversion brings to an early end the age of fossil fuels. Much of the increase will take place in the newly industrializing countries as they emerge to claim their share of prosperity. The environmental issue is technological and economic - in what ways and at what cost can this complex substance be transformed into useful energy (and possibly useful materials) while reducing its environmental impact to a level acceptable to society in the long? This paper will discuss technological capabilities for coal use in electricity generation today, as well as research, development and demonstration in progress to provide cleaner and more efficient coal technologies for the 21st century. It will address the implications for reduction of the environmental impacts of conventional pollutants and for coal's contribution to greenhouse gas mitigation, should this be required in the future. (author) 15 figs., refs

  3. A Performance Analysis of Modified Mid-Square and Mid-Product Techniques to Minimize the Redundancy for Retrieval of Database Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sundaram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An important tool in the field of education methodology is examination. As far as teaching-learning-evaluation process is concerned, the major task associated with the objective-type examination system is the administration of question paper setting. The lack of expertise and time are the major constraints that are encountered in the task of setting objective type question papers. During retrieval of records from a objective type question bank, redundancy may occur. To solve this problem, an approach needed to retrieve records from a database without redundancy. Approach: The task associated in generating the required collection of questions from a question bank, with minimal redundancy as far as possible in the retrieval of records from the question bank using mid-square and mid-product techniques for random number generation were discussed in this study. Results: A modified approach was identified and handled to generate random numbers and used to retrieve records from a database Conclusion: The suggested modified approach was more suitable for retrieving records from a database of even smaller size.

  4. Constitutive expression of the DUR1,2 gene in an industrial yeast strain to minimize ethyl carbamate production during Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianhui; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Guangfa

    2016-01-01

    Urea and ethanol are the main precursors of ethyl carbamate (EC) in Chinese rice wine. During fermentation, urea is generated from arginine by arginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and subsequently cleaved by urea amidolyase or directly transported out of the cell into the fermentation liquor, where it reacts with ethanol to form EC. To reduce the amount of EC in Chinese rice wine, we metabolically engineered two yeast strains, N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c, from the wild-type Chinese rice wine yeast strain N85. Both new strains were capable of constitutively expressing DUR1,2 (encodes urea amidolyase) and thus enhancing urea degradation. The use of N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c reduced the concentration of EC in Chinese rice wine fermented on a small-scale by 49.1% and 55.3%, respectively, relative to fermentation with the parental strain. All of the engineered strains showed good genetic stability and minimized the production of urea during fermentation, with no exogenous genes introduced during genetic manipulation, and were therefore suitable for commercialization to increase the safety of Chinese rice wine.

  5. Presence of cleaner wrasse increases the recruitment of damselfishes to coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Derek; Cheney, Karen L; Werminghausen, Johanna; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I; Cribb, Thomas H; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2015-08-01

    Mutualisms affect the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of biological communities. However, ecological processes that drive mutualism-related shifts in population structure are often unclear and must be examined to elucidate how complex, multi-species mutualistic networks are formed and structured. In this study, we investigated how the presence of key marine mutualistic partners can drive the organisation of local communities on coral reefs. The cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, removes ectoparasites and reduces stress hormones for multiple reef fish species, and their presence on coral reefs increases fish abundance and diversity. Such changes in population structure could be driven by increased recruitment of larval fish at settlement, or by post-settlement processes such as modified levels of migration or predation. We conducted a controlled field experiment to examine the effect of cleaners on recruitment processes of a common group of reef fishes, and showed that small patch reefs (61-285 m(2)) with cleaner wrasse had higher abundances of damselfish recruits than reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been removed over a 12-year period. However, the presence of cleaner wrasse did not affect species diversity of damselfish recruits. Our study provides evidence of the ecological processes that underpin changes in local population structure in the presence of a key mutualistic partner. PMID:26289440

  6. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...

  7. Cortisol mediates cleaner wrasse switch from cooperation to cheating and tactical deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Grutter, Alexandra S; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan

    2014-07-01

    Recent empirical research, mostly done on humans, recognizes that individuals' physiological state affects levels of cooperation. An individual's internal state may affect the payoffs of behavioural alternatives, which in turn could influence the decision to either cooperate or to defect. However, little is known about the physiology underlying condition dependent cooperation. Here, we demonstrate that shifts in cortisol levels affect levels of cooperation in wild cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners cooperate by removing ectoparasites from visiting 'client' reef fishes but prefer to eat client mucus, which constitutes cheating. We exogenously administrated one of three different compounds to adults, that is, (a) cortisol, (b) glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone RU486 or (c) sham (saline), and observed their cleaning behaviour during the following 45min. The effects of cortisol match an earlier observational study that first described the existence of "cheating" cleaners: such cleaners provide small clients with more tactile stimulation with their pectoral and pelvic fins, a behaviour that attracts larger clients that are then bitten to obtain mucus. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors led to more tactile stimulation to large clients. As energy demands and associated cortisol concentration level shifts affect cleaner wrasse behavioural patterns, cortisol potentially offers a general mechanism for condition dependent cooperation in vertebrates.

  8. Composites (CFCCs) for low cost energy and cleaner environment. Continuous fiber ceramic composites program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    For many industrial applications, materials are desired which combine light weight, high temperature strength, and stability in corrosive environments. Among competing materials, ceramics are noteworthy candidates for such applications. The use of ceramics is often constrained, however, by brittleness; i.e., low toughness. Ceramic composites are being developed to overcome this limitation. With recent advances in ceramic fiber technology, it is possible to design a composite material based on continuous ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix. The use of ceramic composites in industrial applications will result in reduced fuel consumption, but will also prevent airborne pollution (principally NO, SO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and particulates), and economically benefit the end user through energy and environmental savings and increased competitiveness. Industry will also benefit through increased productivity and consumers will benefit through lower energy and environmental costs and a cleaner environment. The development and use of CFCCs could become an important factor in the international competitiveness of U.S. industry. CFCCs will be a critical enabling material in the design and engineering of advanced components, systems, and processes. If CFCC technology is developed outside the United States, domestic users of these materials may be forced to rely on foreign suppliers of the products fabricated from CFCCs, as well as the materials themselves. Foreign countries, including Japan and France, have embarked on government-supported CFCC development efforts. With the market for CFCC products expected to be a $10 billion dollar market by 2010, CFCC development will be important for the competitiveness of U.S. industry and for retaining and creating jobs for U.S. citizens. This document summarizes the potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that CFCCs will have for the U.S. economy and particularly for the industrial sector.

  9. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  10. Cost minimization and asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; John Quiggin

    2005-01-01

    A cost-based approach to asset-pricing equilibrium relationships is developed. A cost function induces a stochastic discount factor (pricing kernel) that is a function of random output, prices, and capital stockt. By eliminating opportunities for arbitrage between financial markets and the production technology, firms minimize the current cost of future consumption. The first-order conditions for this cost minimization problem generate the stochastic discount factor. The cost-based approach i...

  11. Chip cleaner system failure's diagnosis and maintenance of DMG NC turning machine%德马吉数控车床排屑系统故障的诊断与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦红卫; 纪琳

    2012-01-01

    According to the failure phenomena in CTX400 DMG NC turning machine that the chip cleaner system does not work and no CRT alarm, we find that the fault is caused by the damage of the chip cleaner's input chip. Because this chip has suspended production, we refit the chip cleaner's electrical control circuit, nip the input chip off and ensure the chip cleaner system's normal work. It's a beneficial reference for such kind of machine tools' maintenance.%针对CTX400德马吉数控车床排屑系统不工作、CRT无报警的故障现象,确定故障原因为排屑输送机输入芯片已损坏造成.由于该芯片已停产,便对排屑输送机电气控制线路进行了改造,短接了输入芯片回路,确保了排屑系统正常工作,为此类机床的维修提供了有益的参考.

  12. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2011-01-01

    training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction......Cleaners constitute a job group with poor health and low socioeconomic resources. Therefore, there is a great need for scientifically documented health promoting initiatives for cleaners. However, both workplace initiatives and high quality intervention studies are lacking. The aim of this study......, and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....

  13. A novel cleaner for colloidal silica abrasive removal in post-Cu CMP cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cleaning solution, named FA/O alkaline cleaner, was proposed and demonstrated in the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. In order to remove both the chemical and physical absorbed colloidal silica abrasives, an FA/OII chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant were added into the cleaner. By varying the concentration of chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant, a series of experiments were performed to determine the best cleaning results. This paper discusses the mechanism of the removal of colloidal silica abrasives with a FA/O alkaline cleaner. Based on the experiment results, it is concluded that both the FA/OII chelating and non-ionic surfactant could benefit the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. When the concentration of FA/OII chelating agent and FA/O non-ionic surfactant reached the optima value, it was demonstrated that silica abrasives could be removed efficiently by this novel cleaning solution. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  15. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  16. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  17. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. PMID:21237482

  18. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  19. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two‐channel based independent vector analysis (IVA) on a home‐robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at...

  20. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Hunter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health.Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused.Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group.Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  1. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  2. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  3. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  4. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou [China Technical Consultants, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  6. Thoron (220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the 'electrical' filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny 'depleted' air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of chemicals and polymers: towards cleaner processes and atom economy, session 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, A.; Thivolle-Cazat, J.; Hutchings, G.; Murata, K.; Leininger, S.; Sorokin, A.; Angelis, A. de; Apesteguia, C.I.; Mayoral, J.A.; Hardacre, C.; Jeon, J.; Tominaga, K.; Plasseraud, L.; Kervennal, J.; Souza, R.F. de; Ciardelli, F.; Dominguez, J.M.

    2004-07-01

    The abstracts of all the presentations (1 plenary session, 2 keynotes, 16 oral communications, 151 posters) of the thematic session 5 'synthesis of chemicals and polymers: towards cleaner processes and atom economy' are gathered in the CD-Rom of the conference. (O.M.)

  8. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  9. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    study. In this article we share information about the design and the evaluation of a worksite physical activity programme based on a social ecological approach to health promotion. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 20 cleaners and their five supervisors we explored which...

  10. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection...

  12. Study about anti-request design of transmission mechanism in job device of colliery sump cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德玉; 王汉军; 步秀军

    2001-01-01

    The paper takes reversal hexagon connecting bar mechanism which uses in colliery sump cleaner as research object, takes main performance of reversal hexagon connecting bar in loader as target and uses the idea of anti-request project and modern design, raises a new method of engineering design. It has proved that the method is feasibility and correct by practice.

  13. Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low

  14. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  15. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minimally invasive approach in terms of, you know, effectiveness of treating lumbar herniations? 2 Well, the minimally ... think it’s important to stress here that the effectiveness of this procedure is about the same as ...

  16. Virtual design and performance prediction of a silencing air cleaner used in an I.C. engine intake system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of the authors' studies on the virtual design method used in the development of low noise intake system of I.C. engine. The resulting high pass-by noise at level above the legislative target at full throttle when engine speed was around 5200 r/min necessitated a BEM-aided redesign task, following the typical process of design and development of an intake system. During the initial design, based on the acoustic theory and the requirements (1. The air flux of the redesigned should equal to or exceed the value of the original flux; 2. The filtering area must not be degraded), and considering the constraint of space in the engine compartment, total volume and rough internal dimensions were determined. During the detailed design, the exact internal dimensions of the air cleaner were determined, and an effective method was applied to improve the acoustic performance at low frequency. The predicted sound power of the intake system indicated that the objective of reducing the overall engine noise by minimizing intake system noise was achieved.

  17. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and effects of L-arginine on colonic nitric oxide production and fluid transport in patients with "minimal colitis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Andresen, Lars; Normark, Michel;

    2005-01-01

    Some patients with idiopathic, chronic diarrhoea have minimal, non-specific colonic inflammation. As nitric oxide (NO) acts as a secretagogue in the colon, we studied the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in mucosal biopsies and the effects of NOS stimulation on colonic transfer of fluid...

  18. The Cooperative Cleaners Problem in Stochastic Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Regev, Eyal; Bruckstein, Alfred M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the strengths and limitations of collaborative teams of simple agents. In particular, we discuss the efficient use of "ant robots" for covering a connected region on the $Z^{2}$ grid, whose area is unknown in advance and which expands stochastically. Specifically, we discuss the problem where an initial connected region of $S_0$ boundary tiles expand outward with probability $p$ at every time step. On this grid region a group of $k$ limited and simple agents operate, in order to clean the unmapped and dynamically expanding region. A preliminary version of this problem was discussed in [1],[2] involving a deterministic expansion of a region in the grid.In this work we extend the model and examine cases where the spread of the region is done stochastically, where each tile has some probability $p$ to expand, at every time step. For this extended model we obtain an analytic probabilistic lower bounds for the minimal number of agents and minimal time required to enable a collaborative cover...

  19. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ..., uses and/or different performance specifications. For example, within the product category ``hand... category that have different characteristics or that meet different performance specifications and, where... may know that there are different performance specifications that metal cleaners and corrosion...

  20. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  1. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University,Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For N=1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from N=2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full N=2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break N=2→N=1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  2. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  3. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  4. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Hviid; Louise Hardman Smith; Karen Bo Frydendall; Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  5. Blood Donors on Medication - an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian D K; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Wichmann, Michael G; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. RESULTS: For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of t(max) + 5 t(1/2) were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of t(max) + 24 t(1/2) is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. CONCLUSION: Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  6. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    OpenAIRE

    Atoun Ehud; Rath Ehud; Van Tongel Alexander; Narvani Ali; Sforza Giusseppe; Levy Ofer

    2012-01-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a “Hoover” (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resec...

  7. Pneumatic colon injury following high pressure blow gun dust cleaner spray to the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Sy, Edgar D.; Chiu, Yin-I.; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ong, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A pneumatic tool or air tool such as blow gun dust cleaner is a tool driven by compressed air and spraying of the perineum can insufflate the colon due to its high pressure and high flow rate. Presentation of case We present a case of 4 year old boy who developed sudden onset of tense abdominal distention and developed peritonitis. Patient’s family initially denied a history of trauma. Radiologic examination showed pneumoperitoneum and colon dilatation. Exploratory laparotomy rev...

  8. Analysis of Incomplete Filling Defect for Injection-Molded Air Cleaner Cover Using Moldflow Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeyoung Shin; Eun-Soo Park

    2013-01-01

    A large-sized cover part for air cleaner was injection molded with ABS resin, and its incomplete filling defect was analyzed using commercial Moldflow software. To investigate the effect of processing temperature on incomplete filling defect, tensile properties, weight loss, and phase separation behavior of ABS resin were evaluated. The tensile properties of dumbbell samples were not changed up to 250°C and decreased significantly thereafter. SEM micrographs indicated no significant changes ...

  9. A Control Strategy for an Autonomous Robotic Vacuum Cleaner for Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, G; Gautham, Vasan; Kumar, T. S. B Gowtham; Naresh, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of dust on the surface of solar panels reduces the amount of radiation reaching it. This leads to loss in generated electric power and formation of hotspots which would permanently damage the solar panel. This project aims at developing an autonomous vacuum cleaning method which can be used on a regular basis to maximize the lifetime and efficiency of a solar panel. This system is implemented using two subsystems namely a Robotic Vacuum Cleaner and a Docking Station. The Robotic ...

  10. Green Chemistry: Innovations for a Cleaner World. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This video was developed through a cooperative agreement between the American Chemical Society (ACS)'s Education and International Activities Division and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Chemistry Program, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. "Green Chemistry" focuses on chemical products and processes that reduce or…

  11. Generalized rule application in bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus): using predator species as social tools to reduce punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, Sharon; Grutter, Alexandra; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-07-01

    Generalized rule application promotes flexible behavior by allowing individuals to adjust quickly to environmental changes through generalization of previous learning. Here, we show that bluestreak 'cleaner' wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) uses generalized rule application in their use of predators as social tools against punishing reef fish clients. Punishment occurs as cleaners do not only remove ectoparasites from clients, but prefer to feed on client mucus (constituting cheating). We tested for generalized rule application in a series of experiments, starting by training cleaners to approach one of two fish models in order to evade punishment (by chasing) from a 'cheated' client model. Cleaners learned this task only if the safe haven was a predator model. During consecutive exposure to pairs of novel species, including exotic models, cleaners demonstrated generalization of the 'predators-are-safe-havens' rule by rapidly satisfying learning criteria. However, cleaners were not able to generalize to a 'one-of-two-stimuli-presents-a-safe-haven' rule, as they failed to solve the task when confronted with either two harmless fish models or two predator models. Our results emphasize the importance of ecologically relevant experiments to uncover complex cognitive processes in non-human animals, like generalized rule learning in the context of social tool use in a fish. PMID:27016339

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  13. Stimulation of dopamine D₁ receptor improves learning capacity in cooperating cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, João P M; Santos, Teresa P; Pinto, Maria; Soares, Marta C

    2016-01-27

    Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context. The Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is a highly social teleost fish species with a complex network of interactions with its 'client' reef fish. We asked if changes in DA signalling would affect individual learning ability by presenting cleaner fish two ecologically different tasks that simulated a natural situation requiring accurate decision-making. We demonstrate that there is an involvement of the DA system and D1 receptor pathways on cleaners' natural abilities to learn both tasks. Our results add significantly to the growing literature on the physiological mechanisms that underlie and facilitate the expression of cooperative abilities. PMID:26791613

  14. TagCleaner: Identification and removal of tag sequences from genomic and metagenomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data. Results TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different filter parameters according to their own preferences. Conclusions TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner.

  15. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12 mo...... negatively with most PPT measurements. The group of cleaners with LTSA had significantly lower levels of PPT (large effects) in the neck-shoulder region than the cleaners with no LTSA (P ......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated...

  16. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two‐channel based independent vector analysis (IVA on a home‐robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at any time and at any location, even while a robot cleaner is moving. Thus, the system should always be in a recognition‐ready state to promptly recognize a spoken word at any time, and the false acceptance rate should be lower. To cope with these issues, the keyword spotting technique is applied. In addition, a microphone alignment method and a model‐based real‐time IVA approach are proposed to effectively and simultaneously process the speech and noise sources, as well as to cover 360‐degree directions irrespective of distance. From the experimental evaluations, we show that the proposed method is robust in terms of speech recognition accuracy, even when the speaker location is unfixed and changes all the time. In addition, the proposed method shows good performance in severely noisy environments.

  17. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  18. Materials balance on an oil washed from a sandy substrate using shoreline cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Fuller, C.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. Civil Engineering; Bonner, J.; Louchouarn, P.; Tissot, P.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Conrad Blucher Inst.

    2000-07-01

    Texas has 2360 miles of shoreline and two very busy ports, Houston and Corpus Christi, which handle 50 per cent of the crude oil import for the country. Approximately 80 per cent of the commerce at Corpus Christi is related to petroleum. Oil spills could cause damage to marine ecosystems, wetlands, loss of habitat and could prove to be very expensive to clean up. A test was performed at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas, to examine shoreline cleaners use on oiled sandy substrates. The test involved the configuration of a beach in different tanks, where wave and tidal cycles were simulated with longshore currents using influent/effluent flow ports. This paper presented oiled-control treatments as well as oil-plus Corexit 9580, and oil-plus-CytoSol treatments. Before the beginning of the experiment, oil was applied to the beaches and left to weather for 24 hours. The spraying of the beaches with a cleaner followed. The beach was allowed to soak, and was then sprayed with seawater. Projected airstreams contained the oil spills in the center of each tank. Periodical sampling occurred in the beach sediments, water column, tank walls, surface oil spill and tank effluent. When the experiment was completed, a surface skimmer was used to collect the spill. Oil mass estimates were used to determine the materials balance of oil for each sample. Unexpected beach erosion in the oiled-control tank and in the CytoSol tank rendered the comparisons between treatments difficult. It seemed that both shoreline cleaners allowed the oil to percolate down into the beach substrates. Some oil was flushed from the beach sediments from the wave action causing floating oil slicks. Large percentages of oil remained in the beach sediments for both cleaners at the end of the experiment, which only lasted 10.5 hours. The authors concluded that a longer study period is required to investigate the full benefits of the cleaners using identical protocols

  19. Materials balance on an oil washed from a sandy substrate using shoreline cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas has 2360 miles of shoreline and two very busy ports, Houston and Corpus Christi, which handle 50 per cent of the crude oil import for the country. Approximately 80 per cent of the commerce at Corpus Christi is related to petroleum. Oil spills could cause damage to marine ecosystems, wetlands, loss of habitat and could prove to be very expensive to clean up. A test was performed at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas, to examine shoreline cleaners use on oiled sandy substrates. The test involved the configuration of a beach in different tanks, where wave and tidal cycles were simulated with longshore currents using influent/effluent flow ports. This paper presented oiled-control treatments as well as oil-plus Corexit 9580, and oil-plus-CytoSol treatments. Before the beginning of the experiment, oil was applied to the beaches and left to weather for 24 hours. The spraying of the beaches with a cleaner followed. The beach was allowed to soak, and was then sprayed with seawater. Projected airstreams contained the oil spills in the center of each tank. Periodical sampling occurred in the beach sediments, water column, tank walls, surface oil spill and tank effluent. When the experiment was completed, a surface skimmer was used to collect the spill. Oil mass estimates were used to determine the materials balance of oil for each sample. Unexpected beach erosion in the oiled-control tank and in the CytoSol tank rendered the comparisons between treatments difficult. It seemed that both shoreline cleaners allowed the oil to percolate down into the beach substrates. Some oil was flushed from the beach sediments from the wave action causing floating oil slicks. Large percentages of oil remained in the beach sediments for both cleaners at the end of the experiment, which only lasted 10.5 hours. The authors concluded that a longer study period is required to investigate the full benefits of the cleaners using identical protocols

  20. Richer and cleaner - At others' expense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran; Bruvoll, Annegrete [Statistics Norway, Research Department, PB. 8131 Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    In rich economies emissions of many pollutants tend to grow at a slower rate than GDP. This could be a result of shifting comparative advantages. If so, net imports of dirty products to these economies will increase and rather than reduced, emissions will be relocated to other countries. In this paper we investigate if decoupling in a rich, open economy coincides with such pollution leakages abroad. Based on historical observations and model projections, we find little evidence to support this hypothesis. Historically, decoupling coincides with falling pollution leakages. Projections over a period of decades indicate a weakening of the decoupling, but that leakages will increase. (author)

  1. The Optimal Minimum Wage for Poverty Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a minimum wage on employment and on poverty have been studied in the literature. This paper characterizes the poverty minimizing minimum wage, and shows how it depends on productivity, inequality and the degree of labor market competitiveness.

  2. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors. PMID:22266479

  3. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possible incision to minimize the injury to the tissues, particularly the muscles, the skin, and the ligaments, ... easier, and it limits the damage to the tissues around. So it’s a much safer procedure for ...

  4. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach. The word that we put in the operative record is minimal. We’re talking about maybe ... we’re looking at 20-times magnification. The operative area, the field that they’re working is ...

  5. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the smallest possible incision to minimize the injury to the tissues, particularly the muscles, the skin, ... the world. It’s one of the most common injuries and one of the most common causes of ...

  7. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  8. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  9. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  10. Maximizing photosynthetic productivity and solar conversion efficiency in microalgae by minimizing the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, A.; Neidhardt, J.; Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1998-08-01

    The solar conversion efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in light-acclimated Dunaliella salina (green algae) were analyzed. Cells were grown under continuous low-light (LL; 100 {micro}mol photons/m{sup 2} s) or high-light (HL; 2,000 {micro}mol photons/m{sup 2} s) conditions. HL-grown cells exhibited signs of chronic photoinhibition, i.e., a lower pigment content, a highly truncated chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size for the photosystems, and accumulation of photodamaged photosystem-II (PSII) reaction centers in the chloroplast thylakoids. In spite of these deficiencies, high-light-grown cells showed photosynthetic productivity (300 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s) that was {approximately} 3 times greater than that of the normally pigmented LL-grown cells ({approximately} 100 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s). Recovery from photoinhibition in the HL-grown cells, induced in the absence of a light-harvesting Chl antenna size enlargement, increased photosynthetic productivity further to {approximately} 650 mmol O{sub 2}/(mol Chl) s. It is shown that, under moderate to high light conditions, D. salina with a highly truncated Chl antenna size will display superior photosynthetic productivity, solar conversion efficiency and H{sub 2} production when compared to the normally pigmented control cells. Estimates of H{sub 2} production in mass culture suggest an average of 200 L H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} d for the cells with the truncated Chl antenna, and less than 50 L H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} d for the normally pigmented cells.

  11. Ability of a solid state fermentation technique to significantly minimize catabolic repression of. alpha. -amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis M27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, M.V.; Lonsane, B.K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Fermentation Technology and Bioengineering Discipline)

    1991-08-01

    The production of {alpha}-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis M27 in submerged fermentation was completely inhibited due to catabolic repression in medium containing 1% glucose. In contrast, the enzyme production in a solid state fermentation system was 19,550 units/ml extract even when the medium contained 15% glucose. The peak in enzyme titre was, however, shifted from 48 to 72 h. The ability of the solid state fermentation system to significantly overcome catabolic repression was not known earlier and is probably conferred by various physico-chemical factors and culture conditions specific to the system. (orig.).

  12. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  13. Studies of b-associated production and muonic decays of neutral Higgs bosons at the ATLAS experiment within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsinsky, Markus

    2008-09-15

    This thesis presents a Monte Carlo study of neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) decaying into muons at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Signal and background processes are simulated using novel Monte Carlo generators that incorporate parts of higher order corrections and are expected to give a more accurate prediction than previous programs. The SHERPA Monte Carlo generator is validated for its use in the analysis and compared to results obtained with other programs. Where possible, the Monte Carlo event samples are normalized to higher order calculations. To increase the available Monte Carlo statistics, this study is based on the ATLAS fast detector simulation ATLFAST. Differences between ATLFAST and the detailed detector simulation of ATLAS are examined, and, where possible, correction procedures are devised. A cut based analysis is performed assuming an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1}, and optimized with respect to the discovery potential for MSSM Higgs bosons. The systematic uncertainties of the event selection and the Monte Carlo predictions are estimated. A method that can be used to estimate the background from data is presented and evaluated. Last, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment in the CP conserving benchmark scenarios of the MSSM is evaluated. One or more of the neutral Higgs bosons of the MSSM can be discovered in the muonic decay mode using 30 fb{sup -1} of data for low masses of the pseudoscalar boson A{sup 0}, if the model parameter tan {beta} is at least 20. For higher masses of the A{sup 0}, tan {beta} would need to be significantly higher to ensure a discovery in the studied decay channel. The sensitivity of ATLAS to MSSM Higgs bosons is multiple times larger than the one of previous and currently running experiments. (orig.)

  14. A high-copy T7 Escherichia coli expression vector for the production of recombinant proteins with a minimal N-terminal His-tagged fusion peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.R. Ramos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the construction of a vector derived from pET3-His and pRSET plasmids for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli based on T7 phage RNA polymerase. The resulting pAE plasmid combined the advantages of both vectors: small size (pRSET, expression of a short 6XHis tag at N-terminus (pET3-His and a high copy number of plasmid (pRSET. The small size of the vector (2.8 kb and the high copy number/cell (200-250 copies facilitate the subcloning and sequencing procedures when compared to the pET system (pET3-His, 4.6 kb and 40-50 copies and also result in high level expression of recombinant proteins (20 mg purified protein/liter of culture. In addition, the vector pAE enables the expression of a fusion protein with a minimal amino-terminal hexa-histidine affinity tag (a tag of 9 amino acids using XhoI restriction enzyme for the 5'cloning site as in the case of pET3-His plasmid and in contrast to proteins expressed by pRSET plasmids (a tag of 36 amino acids using BamHI restriction enzyme for the 5'cloning site. Thus, although proteins expressed by pRSET plasmids also have a hexa-histidine tag, the fusion peptide is much longer and may represent a problem for some recombinant proteins.

  15. The chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway as a tool to minimize chlorophyll antenna size and maximize photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Henning; Melis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna (TLA) size, as a tool by which to maximize sunlight utilization and photosynthetic productivity in microalgal mass cultures or high-density plant canopies, is discussed. TLA technology is known to improve sunlight-to-product energy conversion efficiencies and is hereby exemplified by photosynthetic productivity estimates of wild type and a TLA strain under simulated mass culture conditions. Recent advances in the generation of TLA-type mutants by targeting genes of the chloroplast signal-recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway, affecting the thylakoid membrane assembly of light-harvesting proteins, are also summarized. Two distinct CpSRP assembly pathways are recognized, one entailing post-translational, the other a co-translational mechanism. Differences between the post-translational and co-translational integration mechanisms are outlined, as these pertain to the CpSRP-mediated assembly of thylakoid membrane protein complexes in higher plants and green microalgae. The applicability of the CpSRP pathway genes in efforts to generate TLA-type strains with enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency in photosynthesis is evaluated.

  16. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  17. Minimal gaugino mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose minimal gaugino mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultrahigh energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. We show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the μ problem. We briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of minimal gaugino mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  18. Minimal Gaugino Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose Minimal Gaugino Mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultra-high energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. The authors show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the mu problem. The authors briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of Minimal Gaugino Mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  19. Long-term effects of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus on coral reef fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Waldie

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour is deemed a mutualism, however the benefit of cleaning interactions to client individuals is unknown. Furthermore, mechanisms that may shift fish community structure in the presence of cleaning organisms are unclear. Here we show that on patch reefs (61-285 m² which had all cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae experimentally removed (1-5 adults reef⁻¹ and which were then maintained cleaner-fish free over 8.5 years, individuals of two site-attached (resident client damselfishes (Pomacentridae were smaller compared to those on control reefs. Furthermore, resident fishes were 37% less abundant and 23% less species rich per reef, compared to control reefs. Such changes in site-attached fish may reflect lower fish growth rates and/or survivorship. Additionally, juveniles of visitors (fish likely to move between reefs were 65% less abundant on removal reefs suggesting cleaners may also affect recruitment. This may, in part, explain the 23% lower abundance and 33% lower species richness of visitor fishes, and 66% lower abundance of visitor herbivores (Acanthuridae on removal reefs that we also observed. This is the first study to demonstrate a benefit of cleaning behaviour to client individuals, in the form of increased size, and to elucidate potential mechanisms leading to community-wide effects on the fish population. Many of the fish groups affected may also indirectly affect other reef organisms, thus further impacting the reef community. The large-scale effect of the presence of the relatively small and uncommon fish, Labroides dimidiadus, on other fishes is unparalleled on coral reefs.

  20. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  1. Minimal Genus One Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...

  2. NATO COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES TO MODERN SOCIETY PILOT STUDY: CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promote cooperation for improving the common pollution landscape by stimulating cross-national dialogues and collaboration. Share knowledge on the methods, tools, and technologies for making cleaner products and processes possible.

  3. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Heidi [Department of Energy Fellow (United States); Shoffner, Peggy; Lagos, Leonel E. [Project Management Professional - PMP (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  4. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  5. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  6. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: I. Significance and mechanism of cellobiose and glucose inhibition on cellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis reactions impose significant limitations on the efficiency of lignocellulose conversion especially at high-biomass dry matter conditions. To provide the base for selecting the optimal reactor conditions, this paper reviews the reaction kinetics, mechanisms...... inhibition mechanisms and kinetics. The data show that new strategies that place the bioreactor design at the center stage are required to alleviate the product inhibition and in turn to enhance the efficiency of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Accomplishment of the enzymatic hydrolysis at medium substrate...... concentration in separate hydrolysis reactors that allow continuous glucose removal is proposed to be the way forward for obtaining feasible enzymatic degradation in lignocellulose processing. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  7. Building the Petascale National Environmental Research Interoperability Data Platform (NERDIP): Minimizing the 'Trough of Disillusionment' and Accelerating Pathways to the 'Plateau of Productivity'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has evolved to become Australia's peak computing centre for national computational and Data-intensive Earth system science. More recently NCI collocated 10 Petabytes of 34 major national and international environmental, climate, earth system, geophysics and astronomy data collections to create the National Environmental Research Interoperability Data Platform (NERDIP). Spatial scales of the collections range from global to local ultra-high resolution, whilst sizes range from 3PB down to a few GB. The data is highly connected to both NCI HPC and cloud resources via low latency internal networks with massive bandwidth. Now that the collections are collocated on a single data platform, the 'Hype' and expectations around potential use cases for the NERDIP are high. Not unexpected issues are emerging such as access, licensing issues, ownership, and incompatible data standards. Many communities are standardised within their domain, but achieving true interdisciplinary science will require all communities to move towards open interoperable data formats such as NetCDF4/HDF5. This transition will impact on software using proprietary or non-open standards. But before we reach the 'Plateau of Productivity', there needs to be greater 'Enlightenment' of users to encourage them to realise that this unprecedented Earth system science platform provides a rich mine of opportunities for discovery and innovation for a diverse range of both domain-specific and interdisciplinary investigations including climate and weather research, impact analysis, environment, remote sensing and geophysics and develop new and innovative interdisciplinary use cases that will guide those architecting the system and help minimise the amplitude of the 'Trough of Disillusionment' and ensure greater productivity and uptake of the collections that make NERDIP unique in the next generation of Data-intensive Science.

  8. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old ... L-5, S-1. So that’s why she’s having this procedure. The man who is doing the procedure ...

  9. Periodic minimal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  10. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal

    2007-01-01

    I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the under...

  11. Logarithmic Superconformal Minimal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A; Tartaglia, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models LM(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets (A_1^{(1)})_k oplus (A_1^{(1)})_n / (A_1^{(1)})_{k+n} where n>0 is an integer fusion level and k=nP/(P'-P)-2 is a fractional level. For n=1, these are the logarithmic minimal models LM(P,P'). For n>1, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n x n fusion of the n=1 models. For n=2, we call them logarithmic superconformal minimal models LSM(p,p') where P=|2p-p'|, P'=p' and p,p' are coprime, and they share the central charges of the rational superconformal minimal models SM(P,P'). Their mathematical description entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 BMW tangle algebra with loop fugacity beta_2=x^2+1+x^{-2} and twist omega=x^4 where x=e^{i(p'-p)pi/p'}. Examples are superconformal dense polymers LSM(2,3) with c=-5/2, beta_2=0 and superconformal percolation LSM(3,4) with c=0, beta_2=1. We calculate the free energies analytically. By numerical...

  12. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  13. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  14. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of the sciatic nerve. You know one good important thing to talk about is the concept of “I ... in the minimally invasive procedures? The most important thing is to have a good trusting relationship between your surgeon and yourself, and ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Miami’s Baptist Hospital. You’re going to be a seeing a procedure called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old woman who ...

  16. Minimally Invasive Stomas

    OpenAIRE

    Hellinger, Michael D.; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and...

  17. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.;

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT). No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT...

  18. Drainpipe cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SYSTEM Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath ... by IV Oxygen Pain medication Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps ...

  19. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    , integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  20. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plas

  1. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  2. Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, Beatriz; Méndez, Ranón; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

    2004-06-01

    A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

  3. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  4. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Pinto, Ana I; Grutter, Alexandra S; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-22

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred 'prawn' items and less-preferred 'flake' items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item ('cheating') led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions.

  5. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  6. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selectivetechnology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from2-methyl-benzene-l,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The productstructure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept ofenvironmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  7. 无公害清洗剂的研制%The Development of the Biorational Cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱灵峰; 范彩玲; 樊素芳; 王彩霞; 潘振良; 李静

    2001-01-01

    A biorational cleaner has been developed.It is a kind of weak alkaline aqueous cleaner,which contains no harmful compositions of strong acids,alkaline,phosphates,aluminum salts etc.It is effective for cleaning any hard surfaces and almost poisonless on human beings and animals.%研制了无公害清洗剂,该剂为弱碱性水基清洗剂,不含强酸、强碱、磷、铝等有害成分,能有效地清洗任何硬表面的油污,对人、畜基本无毒。

  8. Wetting and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, C; Wiese, K J; Bachas, Constantin; Doussal, Pierre Le; Wiese, Kay Joerg

    2006-01-01

    We study minimal surfaces which arise in wetting and capillarity phenomena. Using conformal coordinates, we reduce the problem to a set of coupled boundary equations for the contact line of the fluid surface, and then derive simple diagrammatic rules to calculate the non-linear corrections to the Joanny-de Gennes energy. We argue that perturbation theory is quasi-local, i.e. that all geometric length scales of the fluid container decouple from the short-wavelength deformations of the contact line. This is illustrated by a calculation of the linearized interaction between contact lines on two opposite parallel walls. We present a simple algorithm to compute the minimal surface and its energy based on these ideas. We also point out the intriguing singularities that arise in the Legendre transformation from the pure Dirichlet to the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem.

  9. Minimal Composite Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the u......We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity......, and that the underlying dynamics is preferred to be near conformal. We discover that the compositeness scale of inflation is of the order of the grand unified energy scale....

  10. The Minimal R$\

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating neutrino mass generation and a dark matter candidate in a unified model has always been intriguing. We present the minimal model to realize the dual-task procedure based on the one-loop ultraviolet completion of the Weinberg operator, in the framework of minimal dark matter and radiative neutrino mass generation. In addition to the Standard Model particles, the model consists of a real scalar quintuplet, a pair of vector-like quadruplet fermions and a fermionic quintuplet. The neutral component of the fermionic quintuplet serves as a good dark matter candidate which can be tested by the future direct and indirect detection experiments. The constraints from flavor physics and electroweak-scale naturalness are also discussed.

  11. Risk minimization by experimental mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Experimental mechanics has to undertake new functions to confirm theoretical perceptions and to check results of numerical analysis, because such results are dependent on the validity of assumptions and suppositions which generally are necessary to enable mathematical analysis of complex problems. Methods of experimental mechanics have become essential to design structures and products of a large variety to save raw materials and energy, to improve safety against failure and reliability of products, structures and even complex technical systems. Experimental methods are applied in system identification of complex structures. They are developed also as tools for supervising operating systems, machinery and installations as well as engineering structures, in order to get reliable informations on the life-time, to guarantee a higher degree of safety and to minimize risks. Therefore, methods of experimental mechanics are quite essential in developing strategies of riskmanagement. The contributions to this report are dealing with new theoretical perceptions, practical applications and experiences according to the objectives of the international symposium on 'Risk Minimization by Experimental Mechanics'. (orig.).

  12. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, P. Michael

    2000-01-01

    To reduce the risk, trauma, and expense of intrathoracic surgical treatments, minimally invasive procedures performed with the assistance of fiberoptic video technology have been developed for thoracic and bronchial surgeries. The surgical treatment of nearly every intrathoracic condition can benefit from a video-assisted approach performed through a few small incisions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic and rigid-bronchoscopic surgery have improved the results of thoracic procedures by decreasing...

  13. Minimization of social and environmental risks of biodiesel production companies in Brazil: one step in the search for corporate social responsibility; Minimizacao do risco socioambiental para empresas produtoras de biodiesel no Brasil: um passo na busca da responsabilidade social corporativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffel, Silvia Blajberg; Sousa, Denise da Silva [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA); La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The National Biodiesel Production and Use Program and the Social Fuel Seal were developed to stimulate the family farmer's inclusion in the new productive chain of biodiesel, based on the basic principles of social inclusion promotion, job and income generation and the attenuation of the regional disparities, producing oilseeds suitable to each region of the country. Great challenges are in place for each stakeholder, like government, biodiesel producing companies, family farmers, syndicates and social movements, evidencing that the Seal is important, but not enough to assure the sustainable inclusion of family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel. This paper presents some social and environmental risks that emerge for the producing companies, followed by management proposals. The Corporate Social Responsibility concept is evoked, in a sense that the producing companies not only control its social and environmental risks, but not only minimizing its negative impacts and its negative externalities that results from its operations on the environment, society and stakeholders. But that they create and aggregate value, maximizing its positive impacts in the communities where they actuate, experiencing new business models and creating new institutional shapes. (author)

  14. A Note on Minimal Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Huan YU; Qing Zhong LI

    2007-01-01

    In this note, a construction of minimal surfaces in Euclidean 3-space is given. By using the product of Weierstrass data of two known minimal surfaces, one gets a new Weierstrass data and a corresponding minimal surface from the Weierstrass representation.

  15. Fueling our future: four steps to a new reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In examining various market strategies, this presentation demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, this presentation looks at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. The presentation demonstrates how these models can be applied to our present day situation. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. Due to such strong influence, the consumer will ultimately fuel the future of H2/FC commercialisation by a desire for new and not yet discovered products and services. Examining different Distributed Generation scenarios, the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy may be found through distributed generation via fuel cells. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. The incentive for car owners driving and using these vehicles is twofold: either save (at his own home) or earn (at his office) money while their cars are parked and plugged into buildings via smart docking stations available at key parking sites. Cars parked at home in the garage will supply electricity to the homes and additionally, replace the function of the existing boiler. Car owners can earn money by selling the electricity generated (but not needed at that time) to the utilities and feed it into the existing electricity grid. The inter-dependability between supply and consumer-driven demand (or better, demand and supply) and other examples are explained. The steps necessary to achieve a new, reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are also presented and examined. (author)

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  17. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  18. Minimal E6 unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  19. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marie B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT, cognitive behavioural training (CBTr or a reference group (REF. Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT. Results No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT or CBTr compared with REF was found in conservative ITT analyses. However, explorative analyses revealed a treatment effect for musculoskeletal pain of the PCT. People with chronic neck/shoulder pain at baseline were more frequently non-chronic at follow-up after PCT compared with REF (p = 0.05. Conclusions The PCT intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability and sickness absence. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN96241850

  20. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  1. Logic Minimization Based Approach for Compressing Image Data

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine, Jacob; Feng, Wen; Jacob, James

    1995-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for the lossless compression of binary images using logic minimization. The image is divided into windows or blocks of size $r\\times c$ pixels and each block is transformed into a Boolean switching function in cubical form, treating the pixel values as output of the function. Compression is performed by minimizing these switching functions using ESPRESSO, a cube-based two-level logic minimizer. To reduce the bits required to encode the minimized cubes (product term...

  2. Minimal Higgs inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose two simple minimal Higgs inflation scenarios through a simple modification of the Higgs potential, as opposed to the usual non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling prescription. The modification is done in such a way that it creates a flat plateau for a huge range of field values at the inflationary energy scale $\\mu \\simeq (\\lambda)^{1/4} \\alpha$. Assuming the perturbative Higgs quartic coupling, $\\lambda \\simeq {\\cal O}(1)$, for both the models inflation energy scale turned out to be $\\mu \\simeq (10^{14}, 10^{15})$ GeV, and prediction of all the cosmologically relevant quantities, $(n_s,r,dn_s^k)$, fit extremely well with observations made by PLANCK. Considering observed central value of the scalar spectral index, $n_s= 0.968$, our two models predict efolding number, $N = (52,47)$. Within a wide range of viable parameter space, we found that the prediction of tensor to scalar ratio $r (\\leq 10^{-5})$ is far below the current experimental sensitivity to be observed in the near future. The ...

  3. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  4. Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazushiro; Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce the quantum noise level, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light to clean up the signal and the reference light at the signal extraction port. The proper design of the OMC is a key to achieve the target sensitivity of KAGRA. In this proceeding, we present two results. One is the final result of numerical simulations, from which we determined the optical parameters of the OMC. The other is the latest results of our prototype experiment, the goal of which is to establish the control scheme of the OMC.

  5. NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Replacement Effort for Oxygen System Cleaner - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt Burns, H.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.; Farner, Bruce R.; Ross, H. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid oxygen are extremely reactive materials used in bipropellant propulsion systems. Both flight and ground oxygen systems require a high level of cleanliness to support engine performance, testing, and prevent mishaps. Solvents used to clean and verify the cleanliness of oxygen systems and supporting test hardware must be compatible with the system's materials of construction and effective at removing or reducing expected contaminants to an acceptable level. This paper will define the philosophy and test approach used for evaluating replacement solvents for the current Marshall Space Flight Center/Stennis Space Center baseline HCFC-225 material that will no longer be available for purchase after 2014. MSFC/SSC applications in cleaning / sampling oxygen propulsion components, support equipment, and test system were reviewed then candidate replacement cleaners and test methods selected. All of these factors as well as testing results will be discussed.

  6. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...... revealed that their everyday lives as unskilled migrant workers had a decisive influence on their opportunities of engaging in LTPA: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive ‘second shift’ at home and therefore had great difficulty finding the time and energy...... to exercise. However, previous experience of LTPA seemed to have a decisive influence on their current LTPA practices....

  7. Avaliação física e química de produtos minimamente processados de abacaxi-'Pérola' Physical and chemical study of minimally processed products of 'Pérola' pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SARZI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, física e quimicamente, produtos minimamente processados de abacaxi-'Pérola', "rodelas" e "metades", armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas (3ºC, 6ºC e 9ºC. Frutos selecionados, quanto ao grau de maturação e ausência de danos, foram lavados, desinfeccionados com cloro (200 mg.L-1 e armazenados a 10ºC, por 12 horas, antes do processamento. O produto minimamente processado foi embalado em bandejas de isopor recobertas com filme de PVC esticável ("metades" ou bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno ("rodelas" e armazenado sob refrigeraç ;ão, com avaliação a cada 3 dias, quanto à textura, coloração, pH, e conteúdos de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico e de açúcares, solúveis e redutores. Durante o armazenamento, o produto tornou-se menos firme, e sua polpa apresentou escurecimento. Os conteúdos de açúcares solúveis e redutores e de sólidos solúveis totais não foram afetados pelo tipo de preparo, temperatura ou embalagem. Os teores de acidez total titulável aumentaram e foram influenciados pela temperatura, sendo que os mantidos a 9ºC apresentaram os maiores teores, havendo, como conseqüência, decréscimo no pH. Os produtos armazenados a 9ºC também apresentaram evolução mais rápida no escurecimento, na redução do teor de ácido ascórbico e menor vida útil (6 dias, enquanto, para os armazenados a 3ºC e 6ºC, este período foi de 9 dias. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a temperatura de armazenamento foi o fator limitante para a vida útil destes produtos.The aim of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of minimally processed products of 'Pérola' pineapples, "roundels" and "halves," stored under different temperatures (3ºC, 6ºC and 9ºC. The fruits, selected according to degree of maturation and absence of injury, were washed, disinfected with chlorine (200 mg.L-1 and stored at 10º

  8. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  9. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Eckes, Maxi J; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  10. Linear Superposition of Minimal Surfaces: Generalized Helicoids and Minimal Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Observing a linear superposition principle, a family of new minimal hypersurfaces in Euclidean space is found, as well as that linear combinations of generalized helicoids induce new algebraic minimal cones of arbitrarily high degree.

  11. Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z2 parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z2 breaking, can generate the Z2 breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism, and has constrained and correlated signals in invisible Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z2 breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B-L breaking fields are also discussed.

  12. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass; MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... doctor may recommend a minimally invasive coronary artery bypass if you have a blockage in one or ...

  13. Minimal ambient nuclear C*-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    We provide examples of ambient nuclear C*-algebras of non-nuclear C*-algebras with no proper intermediate C*-algebras. In particular this gives the first examples of minimal ambient nuclear C*-algebras of non-nuclear C*-algebras. For this purpose, we study generic Cantor systems of infinite free product groups.

  14. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  15. Minimal Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  16. Minimal dilaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Kin-ya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have reported the observation of the particle of mass around 125 GeV which is consistent to the Standard Model (SM Higgs boson, but with an excess of events beyond the SM expectation in the diphoton decay channel at each of them. There still remains room for a logical possibility that we are not seeing the SM Higgs but something else. Here we introduce the minimal dilaton model in which the LHC signals are explained by an extra singlet scalar of the mass around 125 GeV that slightly mixes with the SM Higgs heavier than 600 GeV. When this scalar has a vacuum expectation value well beyond the electroweak scale, it can be identified as a linearly realized version of a dilaton field. Though the current experimental constraints from the Higgs search disfavors such a region, the singlet scalar model itself still provides a viable alternative to the SM Higgs in interpreting its search results.

  17. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  18. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  19. Vacuum-Cleaner Noise and Acute Stress Responses in Female C57BL/6 Mice (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D.

    2010-01-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of lab...

  20. Study about anti-request design of transmission mechanism in job devic e of colliery sump cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG De-yu; WANG Han-jun; BU Xiu-jun

    2001-01-01

    The paper takes reversal hexagon connecting bar mechanism which us es in colliery sump cleaner as research object, takes main performance of rever sal hexagon connecting bar in loader as target and uses the idea of anti-reque s t project and modern design, raises a new method of engineering design. It has p roved that the method is feasibility and correct by practice.

  1. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  2. Use of GC/MS and Microtome Techniques as Methods to Evaluate ODC Free Cleaner Diffusion and Evaporation in Insulation and Phenolic Case Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) many chlorinated solvents used in the aerospace industry are being phased out. Replacement of the ODC (ozone-depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past seven years at Thiokol Propulsion, a Division of Cordant Technologies, Inc. The down selection of ODC replacement cleaners has been based on several factors including the diffusion evaporation of the cleaners in selected substrates. Methodologies were developed to evaluate the cleaner content in substrates. Methods of cutting thin slices of material (microtoming) were combined with GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) analysis. Substrates evaluated in this study include potential solid rocket motor materials: ASNBR (asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber) and CFEPDM (carbon-filled ethylene propylene dimonomer) insulation and glass (GCP), carbon (CCP) and silica (SCP) cloth phenolic substrates with fibers either parallel (0 deg) or perpendicular (90 deg) to the surface. Residue profiles indicate both cleaner and substrate composition affect the diffusion and subsequent evaporation of the cleaner from the substrate surface.

  3. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides economics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an obje ctive in designing chemical processes, and usually leads to high costs of invest ment and operation. An attempt was made to minimize waste discharged from chemic al reaction processes during the design and modification process while the opera tion conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and e conomics. Multiobjectives decision nonlinear programming (NLP) was employed to o ptimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste . A modeling language package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process. This p aper presents a case study of the benzene production process. The flowsheet factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined. Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations e asily. After comparisons of all possible solutions, best-compromise approach wa s applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  4. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides econormics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an objective in designing chemical processes,and usually leads to high costs of investment and operation.An attempt was mede to minimize waste discharged from chemical reaction processes during the design and modification process while the operation conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and economics.Multiob-jectives decision nonlinear programming(NLP) was emplyed optimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste. A modeling package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process.This paper presents a case study of the benzenc production process.The flowsheer factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined.Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations easily.After comparisons of all possiblle solutions,best-compromise approach was applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  5. 免洗快干织物除圬剂的研制%The Development of Quick-dry Fabric Dry Cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠莹

    2011-01-01

    The convenient quick-dry fabric aerosol dry cleaner was developed to meet the deverisiform cleaning demands.Choosing suitable grease sorbent,degreaser,propellant and powder valve,the formulation system and manufacturing technique were studied.The product formulation passed the application test and stable test.This product had broad market prospect.%为了满足人们多元化的洗衣洁衣需要,开发了便利的免洗快干织物除污气雾剂产品。通过挑选油脂吸附剂、去污剂和抛射剂,筛选粉末阀门,研究调整了配方体系和生产工艺。经过一系列的试验,该产品通过了相关应用测试及稳定性试验,具有广阔的市场前景。

  6. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  7. Ecological evaluation of shoreline cleaners used on oiled mesocosm sandy beaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, C.; Bonner, J.; Dellamea, S.; Ussery, S.; Tissot, P.; Louchouarn, P. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Page, C.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Significant environmental impacts result from most landfall of an oil spill. The fate and environmental effects of shoreline cleaners Corexit 9580 and CytoSol were studied in the mesocosm beaches located at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas. The biological effects to the immediate treatment areas and water columns were studied by performing bioassays in-situ and ex-situ. Organisms used for the in-situ tests were fiddler crabs and oysters, among others. They were exposed to the immediate treatment areas and the sub-tidal water columns respectively. Guidelines issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were followed to expose sheepshead minnows to tank effluent samples. The protocols issued by Environment Canada were respected for the evaluation of beach sediment core samples with amphipods. Microbics Microtox was used to evaluate the sediment elutriate toxicity. This test showed an accelerated toxicity reduction. The amphipod study and the fiddler crab exposures did not expose a reduction in beach substrate toxicity. The sheepshead minnows and the oysters did not show water column toxicity. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Analysis of Incomplete Filling Defect for Injection-Molded Air Cleaner Cover Using Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeyoung Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-sized cover part for air cleaner was injection molded with ABS resin, and its incomplete filling defect was analyzed using commercial Moldflow software. To investigate the effect of processing temperature on incomplete filling defect, tensile properties, weight loss, and phase separation behavior of ABS resin were evaluated. The tensile properties of dumbbell samples were not changed up to 250°C and decreased significantly thereafter. SEM micrographs indicated no significant changes in the status of polybutadiene rubber phase below 250°C. These different test results indicated that ABS resin little affected the thermal decomposition in processing temperature range. The Moldflow simulation was performed using measured thickness of molded cover and actual mold design with the defects. As expected, the cover part showed unbalanced filling and incomplete sections. To improve these defects, two possible cases of hot runner system have been simulated. When applying modified 5-gate system, the maximum injection pressure was decreased approximately 5.5% more than that of actual gate system. In case of 6-gate system, the maximum injection pressure reduced by 23%, and the injection pressure required to fill is well within the range of the molding equipment. The maximum clamping force of 6-gate system was also significantly reduced than that of actual and 5-gate system.

  9. Ecological evaluation of shoreline cleaners used on oiled mesocosm sandy beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant environmental impacts result from most landfall of an oil spill. The fate and environmental effects of shoreline cleaners Corexit 9580 and CytoSol were studied in the mesocosm beaches located at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Corpus Christi, Texas. The biological effects to the immediate treatment areas and water columns were studied by performing bioassays in-situ and ex-situ. Organisms used for the in-situ tests were fiddler crabs and oysters, among others. They were exposed to the immediate treatment areas and the sub-tidal water columns respectively. Guidelines issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were followed to expose sheepshead minnows to tank effluent samples. The protocols issued by Environment Canada were respected for the evaluation of beach sediment core samples with amphipods. Microbics Microtox was used to evaluate the sediment elutriate toxicity. This test showed an accelerated toxicity reduction. The amphipod study and the fiddler crab exposures did not expose a reduction in beach substrate toxicity. The sheepshead minnows and the oysters did not show water column toxicity. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. The contaminant removal efficiency of an air cleaner using the adsorption/desorption effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibariga-oka, Tempakucho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Shimizu, Masayuki [Sala Housing Corporation, Toyohashi 441-8021 (Japan); Sato, Hiroyasu [TOENEC Corporation, Nagoya 460-0008 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The adsorption and desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to material surfaces were conducted to control indoor air quality. The VOC removal performance of building materials using sorption effects was validated in cases related to poor indoor air quality that occurred during non-ventilation periods during intermittent-ventilation situations. The objective of this investigation is to present the contaminant removal efficiency and practicality of a prototype air cleaner which uses sorption effects. Toluene and formaldehyde were used as pollutant sources and were continuously emitted into the test chamber. Effects due to the number of sorption units, operation time and mode of contaminant removal performance were examined. The sorption materials evaluated in this investigation were a porous material, zeolite, pumice stone and hydro-corn. As a result of the experiments, zeolite exhibited relatively high contaminant removal efficiency with toluene, and zeolite and the porous material exhibited high removal efficiency with formaldehyde for both one-cycle and two-cycle sorption modes. Moreover, significant removal performances were observed in the numerical analysis of the continuous-operation mode. (author)

  11. Minimal surfaces for architectural constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimirović Ljubica S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal surfaces are the surfaces of the smallest area spanned by a given boundary. The equivalent is the definition that it is the surface of vanishing mean curvature. Minimal surface theory is rapidly developed at recent time. Many new examples are constructed and old altered. Minimal area property makes this surface suitable for application in architecture. The main reasons for application are: weight and amount of material are reduced on minimum. Famous architects like Otto Frei created this new trend in architecture. In recent years it becomes possible to enlarge the family of minimal surfaces by constructing new surfaces.

  12. A NEW CASE FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING LOGIC FUNCTION MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zolfaghari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sum of minterms is a canonical form for representing logic functions. There are classical methods such as Karnaugh map or Quine–McCluskey tabulation for minimizing a sum of products. This minimization reduces the minterms to smaller products called implicants. If minterms are represented by bit strings, the bit strings shrink through the minimization process. This can be considered as a kind of data compression provided that there is a way for retrieving the original bit strings from the compressed strings. This paper proposes implements and evaluates an image compression method called YALMIC (Yet Another Logic Minimization Based Image Compression which depends on logic function minimization. This method considers adjacent pixels of the image as disjointed minterms constructing a logic function and compresses the 24-bit color images through minimizing the function. We compare the compression ratio of the proposed method to those of existing methods and show that YALMIC improves the compression ratio by about 25% on average.

  13. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... restorers; blast media; candles and wax melts; electronic components cleaners; floor coverings (non-carpet... ``Miscellaneous products--blasting grit.'' The second is floor coverings (non-carpet), which may overlap with the EPA-designated recovered content product ``Floor tiles.'' The third is pneumatic equipment...

  14. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... wax melts; electronic components cleaners; floor coverings (non-carpet); foot care products; furniture..., a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 13 product... this final rule as the ``preferred procurement program''). The proposed rule can be found at 76...

  15. Temperatura e tipo de preparo na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola' Temperature and method of preparation in preservation of the minimally processed product of Pérola pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SARZI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tipo de preparo ("rodelas" e "metades" e da temperatura de armazenamento (3ºC, 6ºC e 9ºC na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola'. Os frutos, depois de selecionados, lavados e desinfectados com cloro, foram armazenados por 12 horas a 10ºC, antes de serem processados sob condições higiênicas, embalados em contentores de polietileno tereftalatado ("rodelas" ou bandeja de isopor recoberta com filme de cloreto de polivinila esticável ("metades" e armazenados por até 12 dias. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto à evolução da atmosfera interna na embalagem, respiração, quantidade de suco drenado e evolução da massa fresca e da aparência. Foram testadas, durante o período de armazenamento, a aceitabilidade pelos consumidores, no início do experimento e enquanto a aparência e a análise microbiológica permitiram. A presença de bactérias mesofílicas e coliformes totais e fecais foi avaliada a cada três dias. Durante o armazenamento, a porcentagem de O2 nas embalagens apresentou decréscimo, enquanto a de CO2 aumentou até 20% para as "metades" e até 1,86% para as "rodelas". A intensidade dos cortes no preparo teve influência direta na respiração, assim como nas perdas de suco e de massa fresca. A temperatura influenciou na respiração e foi fator limitante à vida de prateleira do produto, pois os produtos armazenados a 9ºC, conservaram-se por 6 dias, enquanto os mantidos a 3ºC e 6ºC, por até 9 dias.The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of two types of preparation ("roundels" and "halves" and of different storages temperatures (3ºC, 6ºC and 9ºC on the preservation of the minimally processed product of 'Pérola' pineapples. The fruits, after being selected, washed and disinfected with chlorine, were stored for 12 h at 10ºC, before being processed under hygienic conditions, packaged in polyethylene terephthalate

  16. 用户行为对家用吸尘器造型设计的影响%Users Behavior’s Impact on Modeling Design of Household Vacuum Cleaner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田美玲; 杨松; 赵莹; 赵新军

    2014-01-01

    随着生活水平的不断提高,居民要求改善居住环境,改变传统的打扫方式,吸尘器的需求量必然会有一个新的突破。用户行为对家用吸尘器造型设计的影响研究以美国IIT设计学院Whitney教授建立的POEM (People,Objects,Environments,Mes⁃sages)分析框架为基础,从行为的主要因素出发,深入理解用户行为的内涵及其对产品造型设计的影响,从而期望从另一个角度挖掘产品造型设计的规律,摆脱形式化的造型缺陷,为吸尘器造型设计的改良寻找了一个更准确的视角,做出“易用的、实用的”产品,从而提升产品的认知度,为企业带来更大的收益。%With the living standards of residents improving constantly,it requires to improve the living environment and to change the way of traditional cleaning methods. Therefore, the demands for cleaner will have a new breakthrough. Based on the POEM (People, Objects,Environments,Messages) analytical framework established by Professor Whitney who comes from American College of Design IIT, the research of user behavior impact on household cleaner form design proceeds from the research of major behavioral factors, understands the connotation of user behavior and influence on product design deeply. By digging product design rules from another perspective and avoiding of defects of the formalization, find a more accurate perspective for the improved design of vacuum cleaner and design the functional and easy-to-use product. Thus the design will enhance product awareness and bring more benefits for enterprises.

  17. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  18. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  19. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  20. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'

  1. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  2. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  3. Improving the analysis of small precipitates in HSLA steels using a plasma cleaner and ELNES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Craven, A J

    2003-04-01

    The change from producing high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sheet by conventional thick slab casting to producing it by direct charged thin slab casting causes a major change in the evolution of the precipitation. A key area of interest is the composition of the sub-10nm precipitates used to produce dispersion hardening. Carbon extraction replicas are frequently used to study precipitates in steels and other metals. When used with annular dark field imaging, this technique gives high contrast images of the precipitates while the thin carbon film adds little background or additional characteristic signals to either electron energy loss spectra or energy dispersive X-ray spectra. The method has the additional major advantage of removing the ferromagnetic matrix when studying HSLA steels. However, when the precipitates contain carbon, the C K-edge is dominated by the contribution from the amorphous carbon film. A plasma cleaner can be used to thin this carbon film to approximately 0.5 nm or less and then the contribution from the carbon in the precipitate can be separated from that in the carbon film using the electron energy loss near edge structure. A similar approach can be taken to separate the oxygen content of the precipitate from that of oxides formed from low-level impurities in the amorphous carbon during the plasma thinning process. In most cases, the precipitate studied here contained little or no oxygen even for the smallest sizes examined (approximately 4 nm). The precipitates contain mainly nitrogen with little carbon. For some compositions, the precipitates are clearly sub-stoichiometric. PMID:12524190

  4. Minimal flows and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, J

    1988-01-01

    This monograph presents developments in the abstract theory of topological dynamics, concentrating on the internal structure of minimal flows (actions of groups on compact Hausdorff spaces for which every orbit is dense) and their homomorphisms (continuous equivariant maps). Various classes of minimal flows (equicontinuous, distal, point distal) are intensively studied, and a general structure theorem is obtained. Another theme is the ``universal'' approach - entire classes of minimal flows are studied, rather than flows in isolation. This leads to the consideration of disjointness of flows, w

  5. HEAVY OIL UPGRADING WITH MINIMAL INVESTMENT COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By making best use of the low value by-products and maximum utilization of the existed processing units to minimize the investment cost,several heavy oil upgrading processes have been developed and put into practice in China.For domestic sweet crudes,RFCC combined with decanted oil coking or deasphalting has been selected.By RFCC-coking or deasphalting synergy,inferior quality feedstock can be accepted and needle coke and paving asphalt are produced.For imported sulfur crudes,high vacuum distillation combined with asphalt production and combined coking with the use of coke in cement industry and Fluidized Bed Combustion are recommend.

  6. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... his choice. Tariq asks, can we see one day that minimally invasive techniques to replace conventional heart ... rarely need those pacemaker wires after the first day after surgery. Okay, we have another question from ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to minimize their symptoms, but that doesn't impact the course of the disease itself. When I' ... more likely we see aortic stenosis. Again, patient education is part of the evaluation and management of ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to minimize their symptoms, but that doesn't impact the course of the disease itself. When I' ... echocardiography is? Echocardiography is the use of ultrasound technology. Ultrasound technology is a form of the same ...

  9. $\\alpha$-minimal Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendal, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A Banach space with a Schauder basis is said to be $\\alpha$-minimal for some countable ordinal $\\alpha$ if, for any two block subspaces, the Bourgain embeddability index of one into the other is at least $\\alpha$. We prove a dichotomy that characterises when a Banach space has an $\\alpha$-minimal subspace, which contributes to the ongoing project, initiated by W. T. Gowers, of classifying separable Banach spaces by identifying characteristic subspaces.

  10. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) with the same "minimal" bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new "minimal massive gravity" has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  11. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Marzola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the r\\^ole of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\approx 10^{-3}$, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index $n_s \\simeq 0.97$ which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  12. The relationship between low back pain and leisure time physical activity in a working population of cleaners - a study with weekly follow-ups for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Tobias; Jorgensen, Marie B; Hansen, Jorgen V;

    2012-01-01

    on studies involving patient populations. The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate the correlation between LBP and LTPA on a weekly basis over the course of a year in a high-risk group of cleaners; and (2) to investigate if maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP has a positive effect on LBP...... of acute LBP, a mixed effect logistic regression model was used to investigate whether cleaners who maintain LTPA have a lower pain intensity and higher probability of returning to initial pain intensity within the following four weeks compared with cleaners who decrease LTPA during acute LBP. RESULTS...... and intensity of LBP measured on a weekly basis throughout a year showed no close correlation. Maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP did not result in a positive effect on LBP in the following 4 weeks. Documentation of LTPA recommendations for acute LBP in working populations is still needed....

  13. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  14. The New Minimal Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  15. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for new nanotec...

  16. An Approach to Composition Based on a Minimal Techno Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bougaïeff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines key issues relating to minimal techno, a sub-genre of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in the early 1990s. These key issues are the aesthetics, composition, performance, and technology of minimal techno, as well as the economics of EDM production. The study aims to answer the following question. What is the musical and social significance of minimal techno production and performance? The study is conducted in two parts. The history of minimal music is ...

  17. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal, Cécilia; Rousselle, Christophe; Mandin, Corinne; Manel, Jacques; Maupetit, François

    2008-01-01

    Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning products. All experiment...

  18. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  19. Minimization and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report will serve as one of a series of technical manuals providing reference material and direct know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in Member States without nuclear power and the associated range of complex waste management operations. Considerations are limited to the minimization and segregation of wastes, these being initial steps on which the efficiency of the whole waste management system depends. The minimization and segregation operations are examined in the context of the restricted quantities and predominantly shorter lived activities of wastes from nuclear research, production and usage of radioisotopes. Liquid and solid wastes only are considered in the report. Gaseous waste minimization and treatment are specialized subjects and are not examined in this document. Gaseous effluent treatment in facilities handling low and intermediate level radioactive materials has been already the subject of a detailed IAEA report. Management of spent sealed sources has specifically been covered in a previous manual. Conditioned sealed sources must be taken into account in segregation arrangements for interim storage and disposal where there are exceptional long lived highly radiotoxic isotopes, particularly radium or americium. These are unlikely ever to be suitable for shallow land burial along with the remaining wastes. 30 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup;

    2007-01-01

    . In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  1. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    theorems together with the comparison techniques for distance functions in Riemannian geometry and obtain bounds for the first Dirichlet eigenvalues, the exit times and the capacities as well as isoperimetric type inequalities for so-called extrinsic $R-$webs of minimal webs in ambient Riemannian manifolds...

  2. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  3. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Minimal surfaces in Riemannian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple solution to the Plateau problem in a Riemannian manifold is established. In Sn, the existence of two solutions to this problem is obtained. The Morse-Tompkins-Shiffman theorem is extended to the case when the ambient space admits no minimal sphere. (author). 20 refs

  5. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and...

  7. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  8. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  9. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving;

    2002-01-01

    products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...

  10. INSURANCE IN AGRICULTURE OF SERBIA AS PRECONDITION OF RISK MINIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljevic, Zorica; Zaric, Vlade; Sevic, Dunja

    2013-01-01

    Due to its specific nature agriculture is exposed to a number of risks, whose emergence could lead to the losses in production as well as volatility in the business. The risks can not be completely eliminated, but they can be managed and their impacts can be minimized. Insurance could have the most important role in minimization of risk. Insurance is a form of risk management used to limit potential losses. Insurance in agriculture includes crop and fruit insurance, but also insurance of live...

  11. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  12. How to distinguish between the vacuum cleaner and flippase mechanisms of the LmrA multi-drug transporter in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyr, JHS; Rohwer, JM; Snoep, JL; Westerhoff, HV; Konings, WN

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the LmrA multi-drug transport system of Lactococcus lactis is used to explore the possibility of distinguishing experimentally between two putative transport mechanisms, i.e., the vacuum-cleaner and the flippase mechanisms. This comparative model also serves as an example of num

  13. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  14. A Minimally Symmetric Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized SU(2)xU(1) electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal in all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB). Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  15. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  16. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  17. BDD Minimization for Approximate Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Soeken, Mathias; Grosse, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Drechsler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    We present Approximate BDD Minimization (ABM) as a problem that has application in approximate computing. Given a BDD representation of a multi-output Boolean function, ABM asks whether there exists another function that has a smaller BDD representation but meets a threshold w.r.t. an error metric. We present operators to derive approximated functions and present algorithms to exactly compute the error metrics directly on the BDD representation. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the app...

  18. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  19. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions ...

  20. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...... for the torsional rigidity are actually attained and give conditions under which the geometric average of the stochastic mean exit time for Brownian motion at infinity is finite....

  1. Stretch-Minimizing Volumetric Parameterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jin; Gui-Ping Qian; Jie-Yi Zhao; Jian Chang; Ruo-Feng Tong; Jianjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Not many methods for parameterization guarantee bijectivity or local injectivity, which is essential for foldover-free mappings. Stretch-minimizing parameterization which is widely used for surface parameterization, provides foldover-free mappings and is capable of trading off between angle and area distortions. We extend its usage to volumetric parameterization in this paper by deriving a 3D version of stretch-distortion energy and incorporating fixed boundary conditions. Our energy definition includes a natural barrier term which effectively prevents elements from collapsing and folding over. It saves the effort in other methods of formulating additional energy or constrains to ensure the local injectivity. We propose to minimize the overall energy integrated over the whole mesh with a relaxation-enhanced solver and optimize the energy globally. This is different from the conventional approach of surface parameterization where mesh nodes are optimized individually. Compared with other volumetric parameterizations, our approach bears the advantages of stretch-minimizing method, being foldover-free and offering a good trade-off between angle and volume distortions.

  2. Novel air cleaners and their evaluation methods%新型空气净化器及其评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路丽; 贺军辉; 田华; 何溥; 杨巧文

    2015-01-01

    随着雾霾天气日益频繁,室内空气质量备受关注,传统的室内空气净化器已不能满足室内空气净化的要求,研发新型多功能空气净化器及复合空气净化技术已成为净化器发展的主要方向.本文总结近年来国内外对室内空气净化器的相关研究,综述当前应用最广泛的几种新型室内空气净化器(包括新型吸附材料、低温等离子体、光催化、催化氧化、复合式空气净化器)的研发进展,分析各净化器的优势与不足,总结新型空气净化器的主要评价指标及评价方法,分析其气体污染物、固体颗粒物、微生物污染物进行单一评价的方法,并展望室内空气净化器的研发方向.%More and more frequent haze days increase the concern over indoor air quality.Traditional indoor air cleaners no longer satisfy the requirements of indoor air purification.Thus,development of novel multifunctional air cleaners and comprehensive air purification technologies become a major research direction toward improving indoor air quality and meeting new needs of current market.By summarizing recent researches on indoor air cleaners of both at home and abroad,herein we review several novel indoor air cleaners,including new adsorption materials,non-thermal plasma,photocatalytic,catalytic oxidation and multifunctional air cleaners,and analyze their advantages and disadvantages.The main evaluation indexes and methods of novel air cleaners are also summarized,including the evaluation methods for gas pollutants,solid particles and microbial contaminants.An outlook is also made toward the future research directions of indoor air cleaners.

  3. New Algorithm to Evaluate the Unreliability of Flow Networks Based on Minimal Cutsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 候朝桢

    2004-01-01

    Several conclusions on minimal cutset are proposed, from which a new algorithm is deduced to evaluate the unreliability of flow networks. Beginning with one unreliability product of the network, disjointed unreliability products are branched out one by one, every of which is selected from the network minimal cutsets. Finally the unreliability of the network is obtained by adding all these unreliability products up.

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Less Acculturated Mexican Mothers' Safety Perceptions of Herbs, Medicines, and Cleaners in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosslin, Katie; Tsai, Ray; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2016-04-01

    Childhood poisoning is a leading public health concern in our society. The death rate from unintentional poisonings among children has increased by 80% from 2000 to 2009. Immigrant children are also at-risk. A qualitative study, consisting of a pile sort, was conducted among immigrant Mexican mothers to determine their safety perceptions of commonly used medicines, herbs, and cleaners. Participants (N = 35) were selected for semi-structured interviews from a pediatric primary care clinic in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Some mothers over-estimated their children's ability to discern the dangers of substances, relied heavily on sensory skills of children, and perceived a medicine as safe after successful use in the past. Other mothers were more cognizant of allergic reactions, ingestion, and the need to store substances carefully. Brief interventions that incorporate culturally-appropriate safety messages are needed to assist Mexican mothers in creating a safe home environment. PMID:25801449

  5. Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MCFA) into Corporate Management System

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Michiyasu; 中嶌, 道靖

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the structure of a management system which supports countermeasures for the environment in the manufacturing process by Environmental Management Accounting and particularly by Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) and the features of its management system.

  6. CHALLENGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN INTERNATIONAL MANUFACTURING SUBCONTRACTING: THE CASE OF THE MAQUILADORA INDUSTRY IN NORTHERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montalvo Corral

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito global, las autoridades nacionales y locales enfrentan nuevas formas de organización industrial que hacen más difícil la regulación ambiental de estas actividades. Después de la última oleada de privatizaciones acompañadas de concentración económica en diversos sectores y de la maduración de la manufactura globalizada, se puede esperar que los organismos encargados de regular la actividad industrial tengan poca independencia y poder para diseñar y aplicar esquemas regulatorios. Éste es particularmente el caso en la promoción de innovación tecnológica encaminada a proteger el medio ambiente. Este artículo argumenta la tesis de que el ciclo de negocios en la industria maquiladora y la carencia de capacidad institucional de las autoridades ambientales regionales son las limitantes estructurales directas en la promoción de la produción limpia en la región fronteriza de Estados Unidos y México.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  8. On dp-minimal ordered structures

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, P.

    2011-01-01

    We show some basic facts about dp-minimal ordered structures. The main results are : dp-minimal groups are abelian-by-finite-exponent, in a divisible ordered dp-minimal group, any infinite set has non-empty interior, and any theory of pure tree is dp-minimal.

  9. On VC-minimal theories and variants

    OpenAIRE

    Guingona, Vincent; Laskowski, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study VC-minimal theories and explore related concepts. We first define the notion of convex orderablility and show that this lies strictly between VC-minimality and dp-minimality. Next, we define the notion of weak VC-minimality, show it lies strictly between VC-minimality and dependence, and show that all unstable weakly VC-minimal theories interpret an infinite linear order. Finally, we define the notion full VC-minimality, show that this lies strictly between weak o-mini...

  10. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-11-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. PMID:21262520

  12. Chemical basis for minimal cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Ikegami, Takashi

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the chemical-molecular origins of movement, perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. The aqueous phase contains a surfactant that modulates the interfacial......-movement. Different from the mere physicalchemical process, any life system preserves its own identity and consistency with respect to the environment. This homeostasis, rooted on the sensory motor couplings, will organize minimal cognition (see also, Ikegami , T. et al., 2008, BioSys., 91, p.388 ]...

  13. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments in recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  14. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...... of three examples, a vacuum cleaner, two sweaters and a passenger car. The quality of the results is compared with two other methods for environmental evaluation....

  15. Next-to-Minimal SOFTSUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B C; Tunstall, Lewis C; Voigt, A; Williams, A G

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a $\\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general $\\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ violating (denoted as $\\,\\mathbf{\\backslash}\\mkern-11.0mu{\\mathbb{Z}}_{3}$) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper se...

  16. Noise Tolerance under Risk Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Manwani, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of noise tolerant learning of classifiers. We formulate the problem as follows. We assume that there is an ${\\bf unobservable}$ training set which is noise-free. The actual training set given to the learning algorithm is obtained from this ideal data set by corrupting the class label of each example where the probability that the class label on an example is corrupted is a function of the feature vector of the example. This would account for almost all kinds of noisy data one may encounter in practice. We say that a learning method is noise tolerant if the classifiers learnt with the ideal noise-free data and with noisy data have the same classification accuracy on the noise-free data. In this paper we analyze the noise tolerant properties of risk minimization, which is a generic method for learning classifiers. We consider different loss functions such as 0-1 loss, hinge loss, exponential loss, squared error loss etc. We show that the risk minimization under 0-1 loss func...

  17. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). Now legislation at the federal level is being introduced. Passage will result in new EPA regulations and also DOE orders. At the state level the Hazardous Waste Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989 was signed by the Governor. DHS is currently promulgating regulations to implement the new law. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements

  18. Green development within Product families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Willum, Ole; Frees, Niels;

    2000-01-01

    decision makers throughout the product life cycle. The EDIP-project has demonstrated that it is possible to identify "the ten most important environmental hot spots". The documentation achieved by the environmental assessment shows where the most serious environmental impacts in the product life cycle...... families, based on environmental and economical importance as well as the existence of several producers. Using this method, five families have been selected, namely mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting and ventilation. Collaboration with 5 industrial...

  19. Physics on Smallest Scales - An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, Martin; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: i) the existence of additional space dimensions; ii) the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non-commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments a...

  20. Laparoscopic colonic resection in inflammatory bowel disease: minimal surgery, minimal access and minimal hospital stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2008-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is technically demanding but can offer improved short-term outcomes. The introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as the default operative approach for IBD, however, may have inherent learning curve-associated disadvantages. We hypothesise that the establishment of MIS as the standard operative approach does not increase patient morbidity as assessed in the initial period of its introduction into a specialised unit, and that it confers earlier postoperative gastrointestinal recovery and reduced hospitalisation compared with conventional open resection.