WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaner greener approach

  1. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  2. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remain the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do—at least the ones we are studying—massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  3. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2011-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the avi...

  4. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considered a noxious weed, it produces 5–10 kg-biomass/m2-yr (similar to macroalgae ), a source of pyrolysis fuels with beneficial water treatment International...donax) pro- duce 23–50 ton/acre. It tolerates some salinity and brackish waters and also overwhelms native vegetation. Seaweed, a macroalgae , has...halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water , and seawater— have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for

  5. Greener Approach To Leather Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sah, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find out greener and more ecological methods of leather tanning. In this thesis, old traditional methods and new developing methods are compared. New alternatives to chrome tanning agent and their benefits are reported. Additionally, efficient way of chrome tanning in presence of masking agents or other catalysts is reported with cleaning techniques using membrane processes such as micro-filtration, ultra-filtration (UF), nano-filtration (NF) and reverse ...

  6. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions

  7. Greener Biomimetic Approach to the Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief account of greener production of nanoparticles which reduces or eliminates the use and generation of hazardous substances is presented. The utility of vitamins B1 and B2, which can function both as reducing and capping agents, provides an extremely simple, one-pot, greene...

  8. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  9. Greener Approach to Organics and Nanomaterials and Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our green chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety ...

  10. Mechanochemical conversion of brominated POPs into useful oxybromides: a greener approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Liu, Han; Zhang, Kunlun; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Brominated organic pollutants are considered of great concern for their adverse effect on human health and the environment, so an increasing number of such compounds are being classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mechanochemical destruction is a promising technology for POPs safe disposal because it can achieve their complete carbonization by solvent-free high energy ball milling at room temperature. However, a large amount of co-milling reagent usually is necessary, so a considerable volume of residue is produced. In the present study a different approach to POPs mechanochemical destruction is proposed. Employing stoichiometric quantities of Bi2O3 or La2O3 as co-milling reagent, brominated POPs are selectively and completely converted into their corresponding oxybromides (i.e. BiOBr and LaOBr), which possess very peculiar properties and can be used for some actual and many more potential applications. In this way, bromine is beneficially reused in the final product, while POPs carbon skeleton is safely destroyed to amorphous carbon. Moreover, mechanochemical destruction is employed in a greener and more sustainable manner.

  11. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies......, integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  12. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  13. The hydrodynamic basis of the vacuum cleaner effect in continuous-flow PCNL instruments: an empiric approach and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D

    2016-05-01

    Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.

  14. A Greener, Quick and Comprehensive Extraction Approach for LC-MS of Multiple Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breidbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In food/feed control, mycotoxin analysis is often still performed “one analyte at a time”. Here a method is presented which aims at making mycotoxin analysis environmentally friendlier through replacing acetonitrile by ethyl acetate and reducing chemical waste production by analyzing four mycotoxins together, forgoing sample extract clean-up, and minimizing solvent consumption. For this, 2 g of test material were suspended in 8 mL water and 16 mL ethyl acetate were added. Extraction was accelerated through sonication for 30 min and subsequent addition of 8 g sodium sulfate. After centrifugation, 500 µL supernatant were spiked with isotopologues, dried down, reconstituted in mobile phase, and measured with LC-MS. The method was validated in-house and through a collaborative study and the performance was fit-for-purpose. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDs between 16% at low and 4% at higher contaminations were obtained. The reproducibility RSDs were mostly between 12% and 32%. The trueness of results for T-2 toxin and Zearalenone were not different from 100%, for Deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin they were larger than 89%. The extraction was also adapted to a quick screening of Aflatoxin B1 in maize by flow-injection–mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative results were obtained through standard addition and scan-based ion ratio calculations. The method proved to be a viable greener and quicker alternative to existing methods.

  15. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  16. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  17. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  18. Cleaner processing: a sulphide-free approach for depilation of skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjithkumar, Ammasi; Durga, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Ramakrishnan; Rose, Chellan; Muralidharan, Chellappa

    2017-01-01

    The conventional unhairing process in leather making utilises large amount of lime and sodium sulphide which is hazardous and poses serious waste disposal concerns. Under acidic conditions, sodium sulphide liberates significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide which causes frequent fatal accidents. Further, the conventional unhairing process involves destruction of the hair leading to increased levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. A safe approach is needed to overcome such environmental and health problems through an eco-benign process. The present study deals with a clean technology in which the keratinous body is detached from the dermis using enzymes produced from Bacillus crolab MTCC 5468 by solid state fermentation (SSF) as an alternative to noxious chemicals. Complete unhairing of skin could be achieved with an enzyme concentration of 1.2 % (w/w). The bio-chemical parameters of the spent liquor of the enzymatic process were environmentally favourable when compared with conventional method. The study indicates that the enzymatic unhairing is a safe process which could be used effectively in leather processing to alleviate pollution and health problems.

  19. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  20. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqra, J.; Faryal, M.; Uzaira, R.; Noshaba, T.

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent). Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 percentage, 84 percentage and 78 percentage of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources. (author)

  1. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqra, J.; Faryal, M.; Uzaira, R.; Noshaba, T.

    2014-06-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent).Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 %, 84% and 78% of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources.

  2. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqra, J; Faryal, M; Uzaira, R; Noshaba, T

    2014-01-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent).Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 %, 84% and 78% of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  4. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  5. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  6. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  7. Greener and Sustainable Trends in Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trends in greener and sustainable process development during the past 25 years are abridged involving the use of alternate energy inputs (mechanochemistry, ultrasound- or microwave irradiation), photochemistry, and greener reaction media as applied to synthesis of organics and na...

  8. Hospital trash: cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1998-06-01

    Feminist researchers have contrasted the caring provided by women in hospitals with a more fragmented "curing" approach, which they identify with the predominantly male professions of medicine and surgery. The author spoke with hospital cleaners about their jobs and their health. Several themes emerged: the invisibility of the cleaning function, lack of respect for cleaners, representations of cleaning as undemanding, and assumptions that women's work in cleaning is particularly easy. Cleaners use various strategies to combat these stereotypes but receive little help from administrators or fellow employees. There is a hierarchy in the status of Québec hospital workers with curing (doctors) at the top, followed by caring and healing (nurses, therapists, and attendants), and hygiene (cleaners, sterilizers, and launderers) at the bottom. Authority hierarchies in health care are not related to gender in a simple way, although there is discrimination against women cleaners. The fact that cleaning, especially cleaning performed by women, is invisible to managers, other hospital personnel, and patients has important consequences for cleaners' and for patients' health.

  9. Greener "Solutions" for the Organic Chemistry Teaching Lab: Exploring the Advantages of Alternative Reaction Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E.; Rogers, Courtney E.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Spessard, Gary O.

    2009-01-01

    A major approach for implementing green chemistry is the discovery and development of synthetic strategies that reduce the quantity of solvent needed, eliminate it altogether, or rely on new reaction media. An increasing number of examples have demonstrated that greener reaction solvents or media can enhance performance as well as reduce hazard.…

  10. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  11. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  12. Greener and Sustainable Trends in Synthesis of Organics and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trends in greener and sustainable process development during the past 25 years are abridged involving the use of alternate energy inputs (mechanochemistry, ultrasound- or microwave irradiation), photochemistry, and greener reaction media as applied to synthesis of organics and nanomaterials. In the organic synthesis arena, examples comprise assembly of heterocyclic compounds, coupling and a variety of other name reactions catalyzed by basic water or recyclable magnetic nanocatalysts. Generation of nanoparticles benefits from the biomimetic approaches where vitamins, sugars, and plant polyphenols, including agricultural waste residues, can serve as reducing and capping agents. Metal nanocatalysts (Pd, Au, Ag, Ni, Ru, Ce, Cu, etc.) immobilized on biodegradable supports such as cellulose and chitosan, or on recyclable magnetic ferrites via ligands, namely dopamine or glutathione, are receiving special attention. These strategic approaches attempt to address most of the Green Chemistry Principles while producing functional chemicals with utmost level of waste minimization. Feature article for celebration of 25 years of Green Chemistry on invitation from American Chemical Society (ACS) journal, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

  13. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  14. Faster-higher-stronger -- greener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Toronto Olympic Bid Committee is reported to have adopted a strong environmental orientation in its bid to bring the 2008 Olympic Games to Toronto. In a recent address, the President of the Committee outlined details of the bid's environmental component which emphasizes the role of sustainable development within the Olympics and the consequences of this orientation on the design, construction and operation of facilities. The Toronto Bid Committee has gained inspiration and momentum for its 'green bid' from the host city of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sidney, Australia, which has won widespread praise for its efforts to clean up Homebush Bay, a brownfield site long seen as a liability for the city. The Toronto Bid Committee is making itself accountable for: creating the healthiest possible conditions for the athletes, visitors and residents; designing for sustainability; protecting, restoring and enhancing human and natural habitats; conserving resources and minimizing the ecological impact of the Games; promoting innovative, technically proven Canadian environmental technology; and fostering environmental awareness and education. The Committee intends to make the environment a priority and not just an afterthought in the bidding process. It hopes to develop specific goals and where possible, quantifiable targets in non-polluting designs for all Olympic housing and sports facilities. Wherever possible renewable power such as wind, solar and fuel cells will be used, and cleaner fuels such as natural gas where green power is not a viable option

  15. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  16. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  17. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  19. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  20. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  1. Reconstructing the image of the cleaner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorcho van Vlijmen; Toine van den Hoogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article shows the relevance of an insider’s perspective on workers in the cleaning industry (cleaners). It explains how the ways in which cleaners create meaning in their work can be explored. These findings help to create added value for FM. Theory: Organisational theory describes a

  2. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as..., floors, walls, and other production-related work areas. The cleaning products within this item are...

  3. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  4. New opportunities for biocatalysis: making pharmaceutical processes greener

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2008-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses, and in this ......The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses...... of biocatalysis for making pharmaceutical processes greener....

  5. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  6. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement applies are: (i) General purpose cleaners. Carpet and upholstery cleaners formulated for use in... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of...

  7. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  8. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  9. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  10. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  12. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  13. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...... sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production'....

  14. Microwave-assisted 'greener' synthesis of organics and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave selective heating techniques in conjunction with greener reaction media are dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic transformations and material synthesis. This presentation summarizes author’s own experience in developing MW-assisted ...

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Roche Colorado, developed a greener synthesis for gancyclovir (Cytovene, a potent antiviral drug) that uses a second-generation Guanine Triester (GTE) process.

  16. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation in the Impl...... to improve the firms' environmental activities (e.g. setting up environmental policies, targets and action plans, implementing new procedures and technologies).......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...

  17. Harvesting space for a greener earth

    CERN Document Server

    Matloff, Greg; Johnson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What was our planet like in years past? How has our civilization affected Earth and its ecology? Harvesting Space for a Greener Planet, the Second Edition of Paradise Regained: The Regreening of the Earth, begins by discussing these questions, and then generates a scenario for the restoration of Earth. It introduces new and innovative ideas on how we could use the Solar System and its resources for terrestrial benefit. The environmental challenges that face us today cannot be resolved by conservation and current technologies alone. Harvesting Space highlights the risk of humankind’s future extinction from environmental degradation. Population growth, global climate change, and maintaining sustainability of habitats for wildlife are all considered, among other issues. Rather than losing heart, we need to realize that the solutions to these problems lie in being good stewards of the planet and in the development of space. Not only will the solutions offered here avert a crisis, they will also provide the basi...

  18. Iron(III Fluorinated Porphyrins: Greener Chemistry from Synthesis to Oxidative Catalysis Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. H. Rebelo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(III fluorinated porphyrins play a central role in the biomimetics of heme enzymes and enable cleaner routes to the oxidation of organic compounds. The present work reports significant improvements in the eco-compatibility of the synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-pentafluorophenylporphyrin (H2TPFPP and the corresponding iron complex [Fe(TPFPPCl], and the use of [Fe(TPFPPCl] as an oxidation catalyst in green conditions. The preparations of H2TPFPP and [Fe(TPFPPCl] typically use toxic solvents and can be made significantly greener and simpler using microwave heating and optimization of the reaction conditions. In the optimized procedure it was possible to eliminate nitrobenzene from the porphyrin synthesis and replace DMF by acetonitrile in the metalation reaction, concomitant with a significant reduction of reaction time and simplification of the purification procedure. The Fe(IIIporphyrin is then tested as catalyst in the selective oxidation of aromatics at room temperature using a green oxidant (hydrogen peroxide and green solvent (ethanol. Efficient epoxidation of indene and selective oxidation of 3,5-dimethylphenol and naphthalene to the corresponding quinones is observed.

  19. Iron(III) Fluorinated Porphyrins: Greener Chemistry from Synthesis to Oxidative Catalysis Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Susana L H; Silva, André M N; Medforth, Craig J; Freire, Cristina

    2016-04-12

    Iron(III) fluorinated porphyrins play a central role in the biomimetics of heme enzymes and enable cleaner routes to the oxidation of organic compounds. The present work reports significant improvements in the eco-compatibility of the synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-pentafluorophenylporphyrin (H₂TPFPP) and the corresponding iron complex [Fe(TPFPP)Cl], and the use of [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] as an oxidation catalyst in green conditions. The preparations of H₂TPFPP and [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] typically use toxic solvents and can be made significantly greener and simpler using microwave heating and optimization of the reaction conditions. In the optimized procedure it was possible to eliminate nitrobenzene from the porphyrin synthesis and replace DMF by acetonitrile in the metalation reaction, concomitant with a significant reduction of reaction time and simplification of the purification procedure. The Fe(III)porphyrin is then tested as catalyst in the selective oxidation of aromatics at room temperature using a green oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) and green solvent (ethanol). Efficient epoxidation of indene and selective oxidation of 3,5-dimethylphenol and naphthalene to the corresponding quinones is observed.

  20. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  1. Breaking ground creating a greener, healthier city : conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This regional conference focused on urban green space issues with recommendations for new directions and strategic actions for A greener, healthier urban community. The conference theme was a green infrastructure for Calgary, which includes benefits such as less automobile emissions and improved public health. Urban land trusts were also examined as protection and acquisition tools. Participants submitted a recommendation to create a task force to examine water management with emphasis on adopting a watershed approach to water systems. Other topics of discussion included the greening of urban village parks as a vital ecological component to urban settings. Innovative techniques to make use of open space as Calgary grows, were also presented. The green infrastructure framework is based on minimizing the consumption of essential natural assets while developing a more efficient use of urban space. The pattern of growth is more significant than the amount of growth in determining the level and efficiency of resource use and traffic congestion. The many opportunities, incentives and obstacles to sustainable development were presented. refs., figs

  2. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    focus in the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative. The purpose of this evaluation has been to assess experience from the initiatives to date against the intentions of the action plan, and to provide constructive input to help flesh out a future product-oriented initiative, including the activities...... linked to the new programme for cleaner products. The evaluation has focused on three selected sectors and on inter-sector product-oriented projects carried out under the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1993-97. The investigation has been carried out at the request of the Council for Recycling...

  3. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  4. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  6. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  7. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  8. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafthefer, B.

    1986-01-01

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  9. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  10. Synthesis Under 'Greener' Conditions: Role of Sustainable Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in chemical synthesis involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a varie...

  11. GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An introduction of our interest in the microwave-assisted greener synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds will be presented. It involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports, such as alumina, sili...

  12. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...

  13. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  14. Determination and ranking cleaner production criteria by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Latif paper products company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghob Asadizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production process is an environmentally friendly approach that attempts to reduce waste and energy consumption then reduce environmental pollutions of industrial processes to provide the possibility of sustainable production in industrial units. To achieve this goal and alignment with cleaner production strategies, paper industries should consider reducing wastes of production processes and irregular consumption of energy as a priority in their programs. In this research Analytic Hierarchy Process has been applied and a three level hierarchy model was structured to facilitate the cleaner production process in Latif paper products firm. Using a literature review and field study, the proposed model provided a framework for cleaner production implementation in the firm. Results showed priorities of the main criteria of cleaner production are process change, product modification, implementation of preventive maintenance system, resititution and man force capitals respectively. Process change criterion allocated 40 percent of the total weighing value and has the highest priority in implementation of cleaner production strategy. Existence of industrial automation and its technology level which is a sub criterion of process change has the highest priority among 31 sub criteria. Also some of higher priority sub criteria such as use of higher quality inclusion and implementation of calibration system are related to process change. Therefore, to achieve cleaner production goals and implementation of its strategic objectives it is necessary to pay more attention to this criterion. Inconsistency ratio of the research is 0.06 which indicates the results are compatible. The results of this research can be used to accelerate the implementation of cleaner production process in Iran’s pulp and paper industry.

  15. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  16. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  17. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  18. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  19. Successes emerge in search for cleaner processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with mounting public and regulatory pressures, many chemical producers have long adopted pollution reduction efforts. But increasingly, firms are eyeing fundamental process changes to achieve cleaner technologies. In addition to environmental benefits, the promised economic payoffs are clear: higher yields and an escape from soaring waste treatment and disposal costs. Having such technologies, says Paolo Galli, Montecatini's (Milan) director/corporate research, is a tremendous tool. It's becoming an increasingly important competitive element. Indeed, suggests David Hyde, ICI's (London) manager/environmental technology, everyone is looking to use cleaner technologies for a competitive advantage. A number of leading technology groups, including UOP (Des Plaines, IL), are working on replacing hydrofluoric acid (HF) with solid catalysts in alkylation processes. Although it is technologically tough to replace HF or alternative sulfuric acid technology, the rewards could be huge in producing high-octane fuel additives. Catalytica (Mountain View, CA), for one, is building a pilot plant with partners Neste (Helsinki) and Du Pont's Conoco. The company has developed a process to manufacture high-purity DMC by direct synthesis from carbom monoxide, methanol, and oxygen. The medium-pressure process uses a copper salts catalyst system; EniChem says the only significant by-product is carbon dioxide, and there are no chlorinated impurities

  20. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  1. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  2. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  3. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  4. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  5. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  6. Epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng

    2008-09-01

    The cleaning profession has been associated with multiple ergonomic and chemical hazards which elevate the risk for occupational injury. This study investigated the epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in healthcare work settings in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Incidents of occupational injury among cleaners, resulting in lost time from work or medical care, over a period of 1 year in two healthcare regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person-years obtained from payroll data. Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. A total of 145 injuries were identified among cleaners, with an annual incidence rate of 32.1 per 100 person-years. After adjustment for age, gender, subsector, facility, experience and employment status, Poisson regression models demonstrated that a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of all injury, musculoskeletal injury and cuts was associated with cleaning work in acute care facilities, compared with long-term care facilities. Female cleaners were at a higher RR of all injuries and contusions than male cleaners. A lower risk of all injury and allergy and irritation incidents among part-time or casual workers was found. Cleaners with >10 years of experience were at significantly lower risk for all injury, contusion and allergy and irritation incidents. Cleaners were found to be at an elevated risk of all injury categories compared with healthcare workers in general.

  7. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  8. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  9. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  10. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  11. [Effectiveness and limits of the cleaners steam in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, O; Meistermann, C; Schwebel, A

    2009-05-01

    We assessed bactericidal activity of the cleaners steam used for the bio-cleaning of the hospital surfaces. We performed of samples (Rodac) before and after use of cleaner steam and compared with bactericidal effect of disinfecting detergent used in hospital for surfaces. We studied this effectiveness for different time of steam contact. Finally, we wanted to prove, by air sampling, that aero-bio-contamination was possible generated by using cleaners steam. We show that bactericidal effect of the cleaner steam is superior of some tested disinfecting detergent, for the treatment of one square meter till 2 min. This effectiveness diminishes to be just identical in that some disinfecting detergent when use of the cleaner steam is up to two or four square meters surfaces till 2 min. On the other hand, the cleaner steam is less efficient in terms of bacterial destruction when the time of contact steam-soil is superior in 2 min for six square meter surface. The air bacterial pollution, generated by the use of the cleaner steam, is restricted and not significantly augmented if measured in 44 cm above the soil in the course of cleaning. The cleaner steam is indeed a very good equipment for the cleaning of surfaces but it is necessary to respect a time of minimal contact of 2 min for four square meters surfaces treaties to acquire an antibacterial effect at least so important as that acquired with used disinfecting detergent. The disinfection of surfaces is then user-dependent and the time of requested contact is can be not compatible with hospital obligations.

  12. Evaluation of electrolytic alkaline cleaners by evaporative-rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed by which electrolytic alkaline cleaners used in large volumes in steel mills can be evaluated for their ability to clean rolling oil from steel strip without the necessity of large-scale mill trials. The method is evaporative-rate analysis, which can be used to determine the relative amount of residual oil on steel strip after cleaning. The procedure consists in placing a droplet of a solution of a volatile, radioactive, carbon-14 tagged organic compound dissolved in a more volatile solvent, on the surface of the metal, where it forms a ternary solution with any oil on the surface. The amount of oil in this ternary solution affects the rate of evaporation of the tagged compound. The rate of evaporation, monitored by a Geiger-Mueller detector, is a measure of the cleanliness of the surface. A number of commercial alkaline cleaners, both solids and liquids, were evaluated over a range of concentrations. Results indicated that the effectiveness of commercial alkaline cleaners varies greatly, and is a function of the cleaner concentration, cleaner composition, and polarity of cleaning. The presence of antifoaming agents also affects cleaning ability. The results of this study indicate that evaporative-rate analysis is a rapid and effective method for evaluating cleaners

  13. Greener Pathways to Organics and Nanomaterials: Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts(South Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable chemical synthetic activity involving alternate energy input, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions will be summarized for heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of name reactions; these reactions are catalyzed by basic w...

  14. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  15. Sustainable 'Greener' Methods for Chemical Transformations and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and name reac...

  16. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a var...

  17. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  18. Towards More Efficient, Greener Syntheses through Flow Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummiss, Justin A M; Morse, Peter D; Beingessner, Rachel L; Jamison, Timothy F

    2017-07-01

    Technological advances have an important role in the design of greener synthetic processes. In this Personal Account, we describe a wide range of thermal, photochemical, catalytic, and biphasic chemical transformations examined by our group. Each of these demonstrate how the merits of a continuous flow synthesis platform can align with some of the goals put forth by the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry. In particular, we illustrate the potential for improved reaction efficiency in terms of atom economy, product yield and reaction rates, the ability to design synthetic process with chemical and solvent waste reduction in mind as well as highlight the benefits of the real-time monitoring capabilities in flow for highly controlled synthetic output. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Development of self-running underwater cleaner for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Haruo; Mizutani, Takeshi; Miki, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    A self-running underwater cleaner for removing sediment accumulated on the bottoms of water tanks in nuclear power stations by remote operation was developed. This cleaner is used in the state maintaining the shielding effect of water against radiation as water is filled in equipment pits, and by the remote operation using cables, it runs freely in water and sucks bottom sediment. The sediment is transported through a drain hose to a treating facility in a power station, and treated in a lump. The cleaner is composed of the carriage with electric steering wheels and driving wheels and a high head submerged pump. Front and rear suction mouths are provided, and suck sediment with high speed water flow while scraping with rubber boards. The cleaner can be used in the water depth of 7 m, and as the results of practical test, it was confirmed that the decontaminating effect and maneuverability were very good so that the sediment at the corner was scarcely left behind, and the effects of labor saving and the reduction of exposure of employees were large. The fundamental experiments were carried out on the running mechanism, the coefficient of friction in water, and the construction of suction mouth. The trial manufacture of the under water cleaner, the water tank experiment and the test in the Mamaoka No. 1 plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  1. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  2. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  3. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  4. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  5. Wind power electricity: the bigger the turbine, the greener the electricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-05-01

    Wind energy is a fast-growing and promising renewable energy source. The investment costs of wind turbines have decreased over the years, making wind energy economically competitive to conventionally produced electricity. Size scaling in the form of a power law, experience curves and progress rates are used to estimate the cost development of ever-larger turbines. In life cycle assessment, scaling and progress rates are seldom applied to estimate the environmental impacts of wind energy. This study quantifies whether the trend toward larger turbines affects the environmental profile of the generated electricity. Previously published life cycle inventories were combined with an engineering-based scaling approach as well as European wind power statistics. The results showed that the larger the turbine is, the greener the electricity becomes. This effect was caused by pure size effects of the turbine (micro level) as well as learning and experience with the technology over time (macro level). The environmental progress rate was 86%, indicating that for every cumulative production doubling, the global warming potential per kWh was reduced by 14%. The parameters, hub height and rotor diameter were identified as Environmental Key Performance Indicators that can be used to estimate the environmental impacts for a generic turbine. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  7. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  8. Evaluation of several air cleaners for reducing indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Montassier, N.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, studies have been made of the effectiveness of several kinds of air cleaners in removing radon decay products from indoor air using a recently developed automated, semi-continuous measurement system that can determine the activity-weighted size distributions in occupied homes. Measurements of activity-weighted size distributions and radon concentrations were made every 90 min in a home with a high air exchange rate. A week-long series of measurements was made for the home with no cleaner operating and a similar set of measurements were made for each of the air cleaners. Two different types of air cleaners were tested in this study; filtration units (two different designs from two different manufacturers) and two ion generator/fan systems (identical design NO-RAD systems, but from two different manufacturers). It was found that the filtration units resulted in a median reduction in exposure of 15% and 36% for the two units and corresponding dose reductions of 32% and 53%. The two NO-RAD systems produced 37% and 10% reductions in the median exposure, but the reductions in the median dose were 49% and 46%. (author)

  9. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  10. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  11. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  12. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated... the purposes of this rule. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content requirement for all hand cleaners and/or sanitizers shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

  14. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  15. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  17. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  18. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  19. Cleaners in reducing the hazards of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; Wasiolek, P.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three types of air cleaners on the concentration and size distribution of radon progeny in a normally occupied house. Using an automated, semi-continuous, graded-screen array system and a radon monitor, the activity size distribution and radon concentration was measured and the exposure of the occupants of the home to radon could be assessed. The dose model developed as part of the recently released U.S. National Academy of Sciences report was used to related the exposure to deposited dose in the tissue of the bronchial epithelium. Thus, the effectiveness of the air cleaners in reducing both exposure and dose were evaluated. (author)

  20. Guide to cleaner coal technology-related web sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R; Jenkins, N; Zhang, X [IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Guide to Cleaner Coal Technology-Related Web Sites' is a guide to web sites that contain important information on cleaner coal technologies (CCT). It contains a short introduction to the World Wide Web and gives advice on how to search for information using directories and search engines. The core section of the Guide is a collection of factsheets summarising the information available on over 65 major web sites selected from organizations worldwide (except those promoting companies). These sites contain a wealth of information on CCT research and development, technology transfer, financing and markets. The factsheets are organised in the following categories. Associations, research centres and programmes; Climate change and sustainable development; Cooperative ventures; Electronic journals; Financial institutions; International organizations; National government information; and Statistical information. A full subject index is provided. The Guide concludes with some general comments on the quality of the sites reviewed.

  1. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  2. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  3. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  4. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  5. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  6. The challenge of a greener European construction sector: Views on technology-driven (eco)innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    , particular emphasis is given to the description and discussion of technology-driven eco-innovation initiatives such us nanotechnologies for a greener construction. Although the scope of this report covers the European construction sector, most data presented is at an EU scale. In this context, particular...

  7. Hyphenation of optimized microfluidic sample preparation with nano liquid chromatography for faster and greener alkaloid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.; Beek, van T.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Chen, B.

    2013-01-01

    A glass liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) microchip with three parallel 3.5 cm long and 100 µm wide interconnecting channels was optimized in terms of more environmentally friendly (greener) solvents and extraction efficiency. In addition, the optimized chip was successfully hyphenated with nano-liquid

  8. Greener Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials: Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in chemical synthesis involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a varie...

  9. Greener on the Other Side: Cultivating Community and Improvement through Sustainability Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, William L.; Kensler, Lisa; McKey, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability practices that lead to greener schools are often overlooked in leadership preparation programs and in school improvement efforts. An urban middle school principal recognizes the potential to build community, foster a healthy learning environment, and redefine her school through focusing on sustainability practices in a collaborative…

  10. Impact assessment of the carbon reduction strategy for transport, low carbon transport : a greener future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport (DfT, 2009), Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, which is part of the UK Governments wider UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (DECC, 2009), Britains path to ta...

  11. Greener Biomimetic Synthesis of Nanomaterials using Anti-oxidants from Plants and Microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation of nanoparticles often requires aggressive reducing agents and the cost of production is relatively high both materially and environmentally. Greener synthetic strategies are advanced via several pathways using benign reagents in the matrix in which they are to be ...

  12. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 White Paper on Transport of the European Commission spells out a series of targets for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 targets is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: ''Halve the use of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050....... Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...... project TRANSFORuM. The paper will present the key findings and the suggested action steps identified in the roadmap. The paper will also exemplify three possible urban transformation pathways towards the urban target. This approach emerged from stakeholder consultations which highlighted the need to take...

  13. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Helcom (The Helsinki Comity), representing most of the countries around the Baltic, made an agreement for the future of the Baltic Sea, on reducing the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea and thereby avert further environmental damage, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). One...... of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  14. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee E-mail: edwong@ptm.org.my; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment.

  15. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati [Kawasan Institusi Bangi, Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (Malaysia Energy Centre), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  16. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment

  17. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  18. Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts and Alternative Methods in the Greener Synthesis and Transformations of Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a var...

  19. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) is NOAA's effort to successfully integrate data and information with partners in the national US-Global Earth Observation System (US-GEO) and the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). As part of the GEO-IDE, the Unified Access Framework (UAF) is working to build momentum towards the goal of increased data integration and interoperability. The UAF project is moving towards this goal with an approach that includes leveraging well known and widely used standards and focusing initially on well understood data types, such as gridded data from climate models. This phased approach serves to engage data providers and users and also has a high probability of demonstrable successes. The UAF project shares the widely held conviction that the use of data standards is a key ingredient necessary to achieve interoperability. Many community-based consensus standards fail, though, due to poor compliance. Compliance problems emerge for many reasons: because the standards evolve through versions, because documentation is ambiguous or because individual data providers find the standard inadequate as-is to meet their special needs. In addition, minimalist use of standards will lead to a compliant service, but one which is of low quality. For example, serving five hundred individual files from a single climate model might be compliant, but enhancing the service so that those files are all aggregated together into one virtual dataset and available through a single access URL provides a much more useful service. The UAF project began showcasing the advantages of providing compliant data by manually building a master catalog generated from hand-picked THREDDS servers. With an understanding that educating data managers to provide standards compliant data and metadata can take years, the UAF project wanted to continue increasing the volume of data served through the master catalog as much as

  20. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Michael P.

    1994-02-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  1. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    are relevant issues to save energy and avoid greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions. This work compares the operating performance of 3 types of biomass stoves used in Europe in their interaction with dwellings. Field studies were conducted in 24 houses in Portugal and Denmark to analyse wood-burning behaviours......In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...

  2. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... and people of the neighbourhood coexist through events in real-time and depositions over time. The infra-ordinary as a spatial discourse interrogates and acknowledges the latent qualities of the common and seemingly banal, yet vitally important, spatial materiality of everyday life, as an alternative...

  3. Reactive adsorption: A cleaner technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, G.; Szanya, T.; Hanak, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cleaner technology prefers work with minimal loss and the wastes cause the less environmental damages. In the spirit of the previous sentence in the present paper reactive adsorption is investigated for the removal of radioactive nuclides from nuclear power plant decontamination solutions. During alkaline, oxidative decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment a radioactive solution is produced. Owing to the storing difficulties of radioactive solutions it is necessary to develop a method for the in situ treatment of radioactive, alkaline, oxidative decontamination solutions, and for the concentration of radioactive components. Reactive adsorption seems to be promising for this purpose. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  5. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  6. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  8. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  9. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  10. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  11. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  12. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  13. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...

  14. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  15. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  16. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...

  17. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  18. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teas, H.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Brown, C.D.; Glenn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  19. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  20. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  1. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  2. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Hong, Guang; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive. After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control. Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sustainable procurement for greener logistics in the Higher Education sector

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.; Cherrett, T.; Bailey, G.; Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Leonardi, J.; Aditjandra, P.; Zunder, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using the University of Southampton as a case study example, this paper reviews how procurement practices (i.e. purchasing of goods and services) of large organisations impact upon goods and service vehicle activity, with a view to investigating what approaches may be taken to reduce carbon footprint and improve environmental sustainability. The approaches considered included consolidation of suppliers, buyers (individuals and departments), orders and consignments. Research Approach:...

  5. Greener manufacturing and operations: from design to delivery and back

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkis, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementing the industrial ecology approach with reverse logistics Michael Martin, University of Exeter, UK 1.1 Levels at which the concept can be applied...

  6. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  7. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent study into the effectiveness of portable air cleaners (PACs), as an infection control measure against TB, delivered unexpectedly low results. That finding initiated a further study to understand the contribution of system...

  8. Increased participation among cleaners as a strategy to improve quality and occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrling, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good wo...

  9. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  10. Implementing cleaner production in an automotive company: an application of material input per unit of service tool to measure environmental and economic advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact reduction has been a growing concern of the automotive industry. One of the main challenges is to implement Cleaner Production as a tool to reduce environmental impacts and provide financial profits. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental impact and economic gains by implementing Cleaner Production, using an unexplored approach, in a company of the automotive sector. The research approach used was a case study, carried out by observation and semi-structured surveys. The production process chosen was updated, so technologies were changed to reduce biotic and abiotic disposal. For the analysis of environmental impacts, the ‘Material Input Per Unit of Service’ tool (MIPS was used, in which data was used to calculate: annual net profit; return on investment (% and return on investment for a period. The results showed that Cleaner Production implementation focusing on changing technology in the production process caused a 75% reduction in environmental impact, and a 62.7% decrease in production costs. Although of this study considers only one case to test the procedure applicability, it can be easily repeated in other more complex systems, by merely making the necessary adjustments due to the complexity of the processes involved.

  11. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  12. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  13. A GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CORE (FE, CU)-SHELL (AU, PT, PD AND AG) NANOCRYSTALS USING AQUEOUS VITAMIN C

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate the novel core (Fe and Cu)-shell (noble metals) metal nanocrystals using aqueous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascorbic acid, a benign naturally available antioxidant, and then add...

  14. Partnering for a greener community, Virginia Tech, the Town of Blacksburg, and Sustainable Blacksburg present Sustainability Week 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech, the Town of Blacksburg and Sustainable Blacksburg have partnered to present Sustainability Week 2008, Oct. 20 through 25. During Sustainability Week more than 20 activities, events and tours, focused on building and sustaining a greener community, have been scheduled.

  15. Greener corona discharge for enhanced wind generation with a simple dip-coated carbon nanotube decoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yishan; Li, Jun; Ye, Jianchun; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Huili; Huang, Sumei; Zhao, Ran; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Corona discharge-induced wind (CDIW) has been widely utilized in production lines in the food and semiconductor industries and in indoor devices such as electrostatic precipitators. Some ozone is inevitably emitted, posing serious health risks to respiratory system and lung function of a human being. In this work, a greener corona discharge with enhanced wind generation for a needle-to-cylinder discharge structure is demonstrated using a simple dip-coating method to attach carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the discharge electrode of a stainless steel needle. Compared with a conventional discharge electrode without CNT decoration, the velocity of the CDIW is greatly enhanced, the onset voltage is lowered, the energy conversion efficiency is greatly improved and the concentration of generated ozone is much reduced, making this easy method of CNT decoration a promising candidate for greener corona discharge systems. In addition, several impact factors for improved performance are discussed mathematically and phenomenologically, providing an insight into the corona discharge and wind generation.

  16. Greener corona discharge for enhanced wind generation with a simple dip-coated carbon nanotube decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yishan; Ye, Jianchun; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Huili; Huang, Sumei; Zhao, Ran; Ou-Yang, Wei; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Corona discharge-induced wind (CDIW) has been widely utilized in production lines in the food and semiconductor industries and in indoor devices such as electrostatic precipitators. Some ozone is inevitably emitted, posing serious health risks to respiratory system and lung function of a human being. In this work, a greener corona discharge with enhanced wind generation for a needle-to-cylinder discharge structure is demonstrated using a simple dip-coating method to attach carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the discharge electrode of a stainless steel needle. Compared with a conventional discharge electrode without CNT decoration, the velocity of the CDIW is greatly enhanced, the onset voltage is lowered, the energy conversion efficiency is greatly improved and the concentration of generated ozone is much reduced, making this easy method of CNT decoration a promising candidate for greener corona discharge systems. In addition, several impact factors for improved performance are discussed mathematically and phenomenologically, providing an insight into the corona discharge and wind generation. (paper)

  17. Nuclear criticality safety calculations for a K-25 site vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    A modified Nilfisk model GSJ dry vacuum cleaner is used throughout the K-25 Site to collect dry forms of highly enriched uranium (HEU). When vacuuming, solids are collected in a cyclone-type separator vacuum cleaner body. Calculations were done with the SCALE (KENO V.a) computer code to establish conditions at which a nuclear criticality event might occur if the vacuum cleaner was filled with fissile solution. Conditions evaluated included full (12-in. water) reflection and nominal (1-in. water) reflection, and full (100%) and 20% 235 U enrichment. Validation analyses of SCALE/KENO and the SCALE 27-group cross sections for nuclear criticality safety applications indicate that a calculated k eff + 2σ eff + 2σ ≥ 0.9605 is considered unsafe and may be critical. Critical conditions were calculated to be 70 g U/L for 100% 235 U and full 12-in. water reflection. This corresponds to a minimum critical mass of approximately 1,400 g 235 U for the approximate 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. The actual volume of the vacuum cleaner is smaller than the modeled volume because some internal materials of construction were assumed to be fissile solution. The model was an overestimate, for conservatism, of fissile solution occupancy. At nominal reflection conditions, the critical concentration in a vacuum cleaner full of UO 2 F 2 solution was calculated to be 100 g 235 U/L, or 2,000 g mass of 100% 235 U. At 20% 235 U for the 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. At 15% 235 U enrichment and full reflection, critical conditions were not reached at any possible concentration of uranium as a uranyl fluoride solution. At 17.5% 235 U enrichment, criticality was reached at approximately 1,300 g U/L which is beyond saturation at 25 C

  18. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hongchang; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Dalu; Liu, Qian; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP) fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the obtained composite fibers was evaluated by in vitro culture of the human myeloma cells (U2-OS). Taken together, the process outlined herein provides an effective, non-toxic approach for the fabrication of collagen/HAP composite nanofibers that could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25995630

  19. The battle for the "green" polymer. Different approaches for biopolymer synthesis: bioadvantaged vs. bioreplacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Nacú; Williams, R Christopher; Cochran, Eric W

    2014-05-14

    Biopolymers have been used throughout history; however, in the last two centuries they have seen a decrease in their utilization as the proliferation of inexpensive and mass-produced materials from petrochemical feedstocks quickly became better-suited to meeting society's needs. In recent years, high petroleum prices and the concern of society to adopt greener and cleaner products has led to an increased interest in biorenewable polymers and the use of sustainable technologies to produce them. Industrial and academic researchers alike have targeted several routes for producing these renewable materials. In this perspective, we compare and contrast two distinct approaches to the economical realization of these materials. One mentality that has emerged we term "bioreplacement", in which the fields of synthetic biology and catalysis collaborate to coax petrochemical monomers from sugars and lignocellulosic feedstocks that can subsequently be used in precisely the same ways to produce precisely the same polymers as we know today. For example, the metabolic engineering of bacteria is currently being explored as a viable route to common monomers such as butadiene, isoprene, styrene, acrylic acid, and sebacic acid, amongst others. Another motif that has recently gained traction may be referred to as the "bioadvantage" strategy, where the multifunctional "monomers" given to us by nature are combined in novel ways using novel chemistries to yield new polymers with new properties; for these materials to compete with their petroleum-based counterparts, they must add some advantage, for example less cost. For instance, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil readily undergoes polymerization to thermosets and recently, thermoplastic rubbers. Additionally, many plants produce pre-polymeric or polymeric materials that require little or no post modification to extract and make use of these compounds.

  20. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  1. Moving to Greener Societies: Moral Motivation and Green Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda Planas, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2014.35 - ISSN : 1955-611X; This paper intends to provide an alternative explanation of why societies behave differently from an environmental point of view. To do so, I use a Kantian moral approach at a microeconomic level. Under this premise, I show that two identical societies (according to income and political system) might follow dif...

  2. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...... of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high...

  3. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Den

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass

  4. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K.; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  5. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  6. Laser cleaner development for decontamination of the primary water cooling system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2010-01-01

    We recently have performed the feasibility studies to develop laser cleaners utilizing several laser oscillator and amplifier systems like femto-second free-electron lasers, water-jet guided lasers, Q-switched YAG lasers, fiber lasers. Whenever we used to clean the RI-contaminated surface using the lasers, we should focus enough laser power in the surface to evaporate instantly without melting. Therefore, as the contaminated being deeply located into the surface could be removed using any one set of the lasers, we found that every trial of laser cleaning could remove very well the RI contamination being located deeply. Our cold decontamination test using a model sample being Cobalt plated successfully has been performed to show a very high decontamination factor. In order to develop an usable laser cleaner, we plan to develop the prototype laser cleaner next year. (author)

  7. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  8. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  9. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  11. Increased Participation Among Cleaners as a Strategy to Improve Quality and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Öhrling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good work environment for cleaners can be combined with economical savings for a municipality. Like many other cleaning organizations, both national and international, the present cleaning division has been struggling for a long time with high levels of sick leave and early retirements. After years of unsuccessful attempts to improve the situation by reducing the physical load, cleaning managers made a decision to broaden their strategy by changing the structure of their organization. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to identify and understand the effects of the organizational change, both on an individual level and on an organizational level. The results show that the organizational change, which leads to increased participation and autonomy for the cleaners, in combination with a high degree of social support, had a positive effect on job satisfaction, work motivation, and pride among the cleaners. Sick leave within the division has decreased, and both the quality and efficiency of the cleaning service have increased. It can be concluded that there are other alternative organizational structures that could be applied within the public sector and prove advantageous, both for the individual cleaners and for the municipality. Further research of similar organizational structures within the private cleaning sector is recommended.

  12. Going greener: Synthesis of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters for styrene crosslinked resins with enhanced thermomechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. M. F. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was the development of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs that upon crosslinking with unsaturated monomers (UM could lead to greener unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs with similar thermomechanical properties to commercial fossil based UPR. After the successful synthesis of the biobased UPs, those were crosslinked with styrene (Sty, the most commonly used monomer, and the influence of the chemical structure of the UPs on the thermomechanical characteristics of UPRs were evaluated. The properties were compared with those of a commercial resin (Resipur 9837©. The BioUPRs presented high gel contents and contact angles that are similar to the commercial resin. The thermomechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and it was found that the UPR synthesized using propylene glycol (PG, succinic acid (SuAc and itaconic acid (ItAc presented very close thermomechanical properties compared to the commercial resin.

  13. Modelling Non-Renewable Energy in Mauritius: In Quest for Sustainable Policies towards a Greener Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranarain Ramlall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the interaction between energy consumption and energy production in an upper-income developing country. Results show that Industrial consumption of energy in Mauritius is driven mainly by Fuel source while Commercial use is accommodated by a mixture of Coal and Fuel sources. Bagasse and Hydro energy generations undermine the use of Coal and Fuel, all demonstrating an inherent greening phenomenon embedded in the energy process. However, their size effects are low. Findings further confirm sustainability in energy generation and absorption based on a slightly above one long-term elasticity coefficient between energy production and consumption. Overall, results suggest that Mauritius has to implement vigorous measures in view of greening its energy processes. Policy wise, this could signify the urgent need of both Commercial and Industrial usage taxes to stimulate a greener economy.

  14. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  15. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  17. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  18. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners...

  19. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    -year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard rate...

  20. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  1. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  2. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  3. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  4. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  5. Exploring the Stakeholders Salience for the adoption the Principles and Tools of Cleaner Production in Brazil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The key objective of this paper is to show the primary environmental influences exerted by the government, economic agents and society on companies for the implementation of the principles and tools of cleaner production (CP, and the attributes (power, legitimacy and urgency used by stakeholders to coerce companies into adopting these principles. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was the application of an exploratory survey in 102 Brazilian companies and the multi-varied evaluation of data by means of multiple correspondent analysis. Findings – The study shows that some principles of CP are little used by companies in Brazil. Concerning the influences on the adoption of CP, the government, economic agents and society are singled out as the important influencers. The government influence is manifest through the adoption of environmental regulating measures (power in conjunction with sincere actions in environmental education (influence. The economic agents possess the power, legitimacy and urgency to influence the adoption of CP. Society’s influences are less relevant, in that Brazilian society has much less awareness of sustainable production and consumption as compared to other countries. Practical implications – This study shows that it is vital that Brazilian society learns more about sustainable production, because a society with no environmental conscience is a society with little means to demand the implementation of CP. Originality/value – The results of the study represent an important theoretical contribution in that, at present, there is little literature on the relationship between stakeholders and Cleaner Production. This is the first study in Brazil to address the subject.

  6. Third quarterly report and final report within the counterpart subcontract no. 97/219: Support to the National Cleaner Production Centre, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The report analyses barriers and incentivres to cleaner production in Tanznaia based on experiences in three demonstration projects with around 25 companies.An outline for a policy study on cleaner production in Tanzania and for the strengthening of cleaner production in Tanzania is given....

  7. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  8. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  9. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  10. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropa- nol, acetonitrile, and dichloromethane were obtained from Acros Organics (Morris Plains, NJ). Dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) and 1...1. In the following solvents , swelling degree did not change in both heating and cooling processes: water, DMSO , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol...available alkylstyrene copolymer (imbiber beads). The cleaning ability of the gels was compared with the standard solvent cleaner trichloroethylene

  11. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  12. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  13. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  14. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  15. General wisdom concerning the factors affecting the adoption of cleaner technologies: a survey 1990-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaner technologies (CT) have recently received much attention in diverse media and policy agendas. This comes out of the clear role they play in environmental protection and sustainability and the large potential to contribute to economic growth and competitiveness. The realization of both

  16. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  17. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo; Woolley, Andrew; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented

  18. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  19. CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-04-07

    Apr 7, 2003 ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu .... Dr Joshi believes that blending science and a recognition of the social ... One example of where AMESH was applied was in analyzing why the ward ...

  20. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  1. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  2. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  3. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Gyanesh, E-mail: joshig@icfre.org [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Naithani, Sanjay [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Varshney, V.K. [Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Bisht, Surendra S. [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P.K. [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was successfully prepared from waste paper. • CMC had maximum degree of substitution (DS) 1.07. • Rheological studies of CMC (DS, 1.07) showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. • Characterization of CMC was done by FT-IR and NMR techniques. • Morphology of prepared CMC was studied by SEM. - Abstract: In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively for 3 h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1–3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product.

  4. Fluorescent probes for detection of picric acid explosive: A greener approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Sudesna; Gogoi, Bedanta; Sen Sarma, Neelotpal, E-mail: neelot@iasst.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Green materials with advantages of low cost and high sensitivity are important from the perspective of human health, environment and homeland security. Herein, we have reported two cost effective modified biomaterials as fluorophores for detection of Picric acid in aqueous state. The biomaterials Scutellarin–Hispiduloside and Curcumin have been modified with green solvent glycerol for Picric acid detection in aqueous solution. The limit of detection for Picric acid by Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol and Curcumin–glycerol are 9.1×10{sup −8} M and 6.03×10{sup −8} M respectively. These luminescence based sensors have also been able to detect Picric acid in real samples with high efficiency. The fluorescence quenching efficiency of Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol has been found to be 99% while that for Curcumin–glycerol, it is 88.9% for 0.5 µM Picric acid in aqueous state. In both the cases, the quenching is governed by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency has been found to be 0.968 and 0.792 respectively. In addition, both the systems show excellent selectivity towards PA in presence of other nitroaromatic compounds and are also statistically accessible. The utilization of readily available cheap biomaterials without using multistep protocol for synthesis and devoid of any kind of sophisticated equipments for the processs further enhances the utility of the method. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign systems – Scutellarin, Hispiduloside and curcumin with green solvent glycerol – have been used for Picric acid sensing. • The method is simple and cost effective with a detection limit for CIG and CG found to be 9.1×10−8 M and 6.03×10−8 M of PA respectively. • Both the sensing systems were found to be highly selective for Picric acid in the presence of structurally similar compounds. • The quenching occurs by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency is determined. • The sensing systems are applicable to real samples.

  5. A streamlined Western blot exercise: An efficient and greener approach in the laboratory classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L; Robinson, Rebekah L; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes from staining and destaining, whereas with western blotting it is the times required for antibody incubations and the numerous wash steps. This laboratory exercise incorporates 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) into the SDS-PAGE gel allowing for visualization of migrated proteins in a matter of minutes, saving both the time and chemical waste associated with traditional Coomassie staining. Additionally, TCE staining does not affect protein transfer eliminating the requirement for duplicated gels for total protein and western analyses. Protein transfer can be confirmed immediately without the use of Ponceau S staining. Lastly, this western blot procedure has been further shortened by using an HRP-conjugated primary antibody, which eliminates the secondary antibody incubation and washes, and uses a colorimetric detection to allow for visualization by students without the need for specialized equipment. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gyanesh; Naithani, Sanjay; Varshney, V.K.; Bisht, Surendra S.; Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was successfully prepared from waste paper. • CMC had maximum degree of substitution (DS) 1.07. • Rheological studies of CMC (DS, 1.07) showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. • Characterization of CMC was done by FT-IR and NMR techniques. • Morphology of prepared CMC was studied by SEM. - Abstract: In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH 2 COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH 2 COONa respectively for 3 h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1–3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product

  7. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: a greener approach towards waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanesh; Naithani, Sanjay; Varshney, V K; Bisht, Surendra S; Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P K

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH2COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH2COONa respectively for 3h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1-3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany J. Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.

  9. Greener Biomimetic Approach to the Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation of engineered nanomaterials represents a major breakthrough in material science and nanotechnology-based materials. These products have moved beyond the laboratory setting to the ‘real world’. More than 1000 of such products are currently on the market (www.nanote...

  10. Greener Biomimetic Approach to the Synthesis of Nanomaterials using Antioxidants and their Sustainable Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable synthetic activity for the preparation of nanoparticles involving benign alternatives which reduces or eliminates the use and generation of hazardous substances. Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea and wine polyphenols which function both as r...

  11. Biomimetic 'greener' approach to nanomaterials and their safer application in catalysis and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins B1,1a B2, C,1b and tea polyphenols1c which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanomaterials in water. Shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assiste...

  12. Greener Biomimetic Approach to the Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Sustainable Applications of Nano-Catalysts (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation of engineered nanomaterials represents a major breakthrough in material science and nanotechnology-based materials. These products have moved beyond the laboratory setting to the ‘real world’. More than 1000 of such products are currently on the market (www.nanote...

  13. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhou,1,2 Hongchang Yao,1 Jianshe Wang,1 Dalu Wang,1 Qian Liu,1 Zhongjun Li11College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Enviromental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the

  14. Evaluation of room air cleaners for the reduction of exposure and dose to indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Wasiolek, P.

    1994-01-01

    Since the proximate source of dose to the cells of the bronchial epithelium is the deposited radon progeny, the exposure and resulting dose could be reduced if the radon decay products were effectively removed from the indoor atmosphere. Thus, room air cleaners could be effective in reducing the risks associated with indoor radon. However, because of the short half-life of 218 Po, it grows back quickly and in the altered aerosol conditions that are produced by the presence of an air cleaner, the exposure/dose conditions as well as the magnitude of the dose can be substantially changed. To examine the nature of the exposure of individuals in normally occupied homes and to determine the effect of various types of room air cleaners on the exposure to and dose from the indoor radon progeny, a series of measurements have been made using an automated graded screen array system. Two extended experiments were performed in homes in Arnprior, Ontario and Parishville, NY, in which filtration systems, a positive ion electrostatic precipitator, and ioniser/fan systems have been tested for their ability to remove both airborne radioactivity and particles. In both experiments, measurements were made over one week periods with an air cleaner operating and the distributions of exposure are compared with measurements of the background conditions when no cleaner is functioning. The doses to both basal and secretory cells of the bronchial epithelium in the first eight generations of the bronchus were calculated using the model developed by James and their distributions are compared among the various exposure conditions. In most cases the presence of the air cleaner reduced the exposure to radon progeny. However, the reductions in dose were generally substantially smaller than the reductions in exposure. In the intercomparisons of the two filtration units and the two identical ioniser/fan systems, the units generally behaved in a similar manner. The results of this substantial set of

  15. A comparative study: Greener vs conventional synthesis of 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazoles via Biginelli reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shikha; Agarwal, Dinesh Kr.; Kalal, Priyanka; Gandhi, Divyani

    2018-05-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have been discovered as a powerful method for the synthesis of organic molecules, since the products are formed in a single step and the building blocks with diverse range of complexity can be obtained from easily available precursors. This strategy has become important in drug designing and discovery in the context of synthesis of biologically active compounds. In the today's scenario, MCRs are influenced by greener conditions as a powerful alternative over the conventional synthesis. In the last few years, a number of scientific publications have been appeared in the literature depicting the synthesis of pyrimidobenzothiazoles via greener routes which clearly states its importance in pharmaceutical chemistry for the drug development. Our article describes the synthesis of substituted pyrimidobenzothiazoles via one pot multicomponent reaction with structural diversity through conventional and greener pathways using different catalysts, ionic liquids, agar, resins etc.

  16. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd. Zamzam Jaafar; Wong Hwee Kheng; Norhayati Kamaruddin [Pusat Tenaga Malaysia, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001 2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the green fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  18. Ferrate(VI) as a greener oxidant: Electrochemical generation and treatment of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhui; Zhang, Qi; Liang, He; Ying, Li; Xiangxu, Meng; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-12-05

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) is a greener oxidant in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The electrochemical synthesis of Fe(VI) may be considered environmentally friendly because it involves one-step process to convert Fe(0) to Fe(VI) without using harmful chemicals. Electrolysis was performed by using a sponge iron as an anode in NaOH solution at different ionic strengths. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) curves showed that the sponge iron had higher electrical activity than the grey cast iron. The optimum current density was 0.054mAcm(-2) in 10M NaOH solution, which is much lower than the electrolyte concentrations used in other electrode materials. A comparison of current efficiency and energy consumption was conducted and is briefly discussed. The generated ferrate solution was applied to degrade phenol in water at two levels (2mgL(-1) and 5mgL(-1)). The maximum removal efficiency was ∼70% and the optimum pH for phenol treatment was 9.0. Experiments on phenol removal using conventional coagulants (ferric chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) were performed independently to demonstrate that removal of phenol by Fe(VI) occurred mainly by oxidative transformation. A combination of Fe(VI) and coagulant may be advantageous in enhancing removal efficiency, adjusting pH, and facilitating flocculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indati, M S; Leong, Y P; Ghate, A T

    2013-01-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  20. How Do Contractors Select Suppliers for Greener Construction Projects? The Case of Three Swedish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Mokhlesian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies of contractor selection based on clients and the selection of suppliers by contractors. However, supplier selection specifically related to green construction projects has been much less studied. Green construction differs from conventional construction because of differences in its underlying principles and use of environmentally-friendly materials and technologies. This paper studies how procurers in contractor companies in Sweden adopt green projects and how contractor perception of supplier mastery of green knowledge affects supplier selection. The investigation is based on a set of semi-structured interviews conducted among three large contractors in Sweden. A main finding is that the perceived differences between green and conventional projects do not change supplier selection dramatically. An implication is that “greener projects” is a more appropriate denotation than “green project”. Evidence shows that suppliers’ green knowledge is an important factor in supplier selection, as respondents rated suppliers’ knowledge of green projects as very important, and to fix his, there was a consensus among respondents about the need for close collaboration between contractors and suppliers. To ensure knowledge acquisition from suppliers and to increase their competitive advantage over rivals, contractors collaborate with their suppliers in a partnering setting. It is anticipated that the results of this study will be used to fill the gap in the literature on supplier selection in green projects and can also be used for construction firms contemplating getting involved in green projects.

  1. A Cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy

    In reality, however, today's Nepal is highly urbanized, with much of the country's population ... collaboration between Nepalese and Canadian researchers and the work of a local ... rates of morbidity and lower life expectancy." It is along the .... multidisciplinary approaches to ecological problems can share knowledge ...

  2. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR AQUEOUS CLEANER RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This generic verification protocol has been structured based on a format developed for ETV-MF projects. This document describes the intended approach and explain plans for testing with respect to areas such as test methodology, procedures, parameters, and instrumentation. Also ...

  3. Resource efficiency and cleaner production:Measurable advantages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raphulu, N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RECP can be defined as a systematic and integrated approach to managing energy, water, environmental and financial resources as well as eliminating or minimising waste and emissions to the environment on a sustainable and cost-effective basis...

  4. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability...

  5. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  6. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...... experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....

  7. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  8. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  9. Field evaluation and health assessment of air cleaners in removing radon decay products in domestic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chih-Shan.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, field evaluations of two types of air cleaners were conducted in three single-family houses. The measurements included radon concentration, particle number concentration, and concentration and size distribution of radon decay products. The influence on the behavior of radon decay products by various indoor particles both with and without the air cleaning systems was investigated. A room model was used to calculate the changes in the aerosol parameters caused by the operation of the air cleaners. Using the James dosimetric models (1989 and 1990), the changes in the hourly bronchial dose rate per Bq m -3 radon for men, women, and children can be estimated for various domestic environments. 94 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  10. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  11. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region......-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes during cleaning tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular distributions were computed to characterize postures and movements. Pain tended to play a significant role on RMS of left/right trapezius and left...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  12. Control and automatic alignment of the output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Degallaix, J; Hewitson, M; Affeldt, C; Leong, J; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Wittel, H; Willke, B; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hild, S; Freise, A, E-mail: mirko.prijatelj@aei.mpg.d [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    The implementation of a mode cleaner at the output port of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector will be part of the upcoming transition from GEO 600 to GEO-HF. Part of the transition will be the move from a heterodyne readout to a DC readout scheme. DC readout performance will be limited by higher order optical modes and control sidebands present at the output port. For optimum performance of DC readout an output mode cleaner (OMC) will clean the output beam of these contributions. Inclusion of an OMC will introduce new noise sources whose magnitudes needed to be estimated and for which new control systems will be needed. In this article we set requirements on the performance of these control systems and investigate the simulated performance of different designs.

  13. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  14. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Equal-sign lepton pairs: a cleaner W-signal in panti p collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud, M.; Gatto, R.; Savoy, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the observation of the energetic equal-sign dileptons in high-energy panti p colliding beams may provide for a cleaner way of detecting the W. It is assumed that the most energetic dileptons come from the semileptonic decays of the t- and b-quarks. The authors calculate the dilepton signal from weak interaction and compare it with the strong interaction background as predicted by QCD. (Auth.)

  16. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Raziye Montazerolfaraj; Hakime Selsele Vaziri; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Alireza Arsalan; Tahere Zarabie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM) techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Tex...

  17. Life-History Traits and Population Structure of Pederson Cleaner Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Jessica A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2017-12-01

    Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A. pedersoni under laboratory conditions and their abundance and population size structure on coral reefs in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were fitted to the data to determine age-size relationships, and the Beverton-Holt model was used to estimate mortality rates and size at maximum yield. Individuals grew rapidly when young, then slowed their growth after reaching sexual maturity at ~6 months. Individuals were gonochoric, with males attaining significantly smaller body sizes and shorter life spans than did females. Prior to death at <2 years, members of both genders exhibited senescence during which they ceased reproducing, shrank (females only), and decreased their activity levels over ~1-4 weeks. Field populations were abundant and composed mostly of juveniles during both years examined. Populations appeared to be stable but highly dynamic in terms of individuals, reaching maximum yield at 4 months of age. We conclude that obligate symbiosis with large sea anemones and cleaner mutualism with reef fishes both contribute to explaining aspects of the life history of Pederson shrimps, especially their apparent mating system of pure-search polygynandry. This life-history information also provides a scientific basis for sustainable fishery management and aquaculture of this key coral reef organism.

  18. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  19. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  20. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  1. The cleaner, the greener? Product sustainability assessment of the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® in comparison to the conventional façade paint Jumbosil®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Antony

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The debate on the question whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability is discussed among scientists, business leaders, politicians and those responsible for project funding. The objective of this paper is to contribute to this controversial debate by presenting the sustainability assessment of one of the most well-known and most successful biomimetic products: the façade paint Lotusan®.Results: As a first step it has been examined and verified that the façade paint Lotusan® is correctly defined as a biomimetic product. Secondly, Lotusan® has been assessed and compared to a conventional façade paint within the course of a detailed product sustainability assessment (PROSA. For purposes of comparison, the façade paint Jumbosil® was chosen as reference for a conventional paint available on the market. The benefit analysis showed that both paints fulfil equally well the requirements of functional utility. With respect to the symbolic utility, Lotusan® has a particular added aesthetic value by the preservation of the optical quality over the life cycle. Within the social analysis no substantial differences between the two paints could be found regarding the handling and disposal of the final products. Regarding the life-cycle cost, Lotusan® is the more expensive product. However, the higher investment cost for a Lotusan®-based façade painting are more than compensated by the longer life time, resulting in both reduced overall material demand and lower labour cost. In terms of the life-cycle impact assessment, it can be ascertained that substantial differences between the paints arise from the respective service life, which are presented in terms of four scenario analyses.Conclusion: In summary, the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® has been identified as a cost-effective and at the same time resource-saving product. Based on the underlying data and assumptions it could be demonstrated that Lotusan®-based façade paintings have a comparatively low overall impact on the environment. Summarizing our results, it can be emphasized that Lotusan® is the more favourable product compared to Jumbosil® according to sustainability aspects.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  3. Sustainability and cleaner production: a study on the implications competitive advantage in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the adoption of environmental management system in the business and the competitive advantages that can result from this process. Therefore, the effects are discussed the emergence of a model of sustainable development and the role and opportunities of the company that perspective. Being theoretical, the aim of this paper is to discuss the potential contributions that the implementation of cleaner production technology can offer to the enterprise competitive strategy. To elucidate these relationships are discussed concepts relating to the introduction of an environmental management system, which emphasized the use of environmental measures, specifically the inherent Cleaner Production that aim to reduce the environmental impacts of industrial production, eliminating waste and reducing costs. Moreover, the concept of competitive advantage is crafted light of assumptions Porter on profitability from cost reduction and product differentiation. The findings indicate that the introduction of the Cleaner Production to reduce costs and add value to the image of the product, is an instrument of competitiveness that allows the company to differentiate and gain competitive advantage.

  4. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  5. EVALUATION AND ACTIONS OF CLEANER PRODUCTION IN GALVANIC INDUSTRY OF THE VILLA CLARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Velazco Pedroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assessment results accomplished in different processes of the galvanic industry are presented and it is taking into account the application of good practices and measures of Cleaner Production. The main critical points in the processes of metallic coating were identified; and the characterization of the effluents generated by the installation is done. A number of technological changes in the processes are proposed, as well as the introduction of cleaner production measures which contribute to increase the efficiency and safety of processes, reduce risks and improvements to internal operations. It provides advantages of economic, environmental and social nature for the galvanic industry due to the minimizing of the impacts on environment, because the sewage and its pollutant load are reduced. Besides, we can save water, energy and raw materials. The economic evaluation showed the feasibility of applying the Cleaner Production (PML measures proposed with a Net Present Value (NPV of $109 696.26, and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR of 64 % value and payback period lower than two years.

  6. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  7. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  8. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  9. Securing a safer, greener, expandable nuclear fuel cycle supply chain for future power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, Georges

    2009-01-01

    After looking at what is necessary to sustainably ensure the global nuclear power plant fleet expansion, it becomes appearant that advanced reactor design should be accompanied with a greener and more flexible fuel cycle capability. The financial crisis has invaded all the front pages and our thoughts. However it has not rescheduled the growth of world population or reduced the desire of people in emerging economies to achieve a higher level of 'development'; nor has it alleviated climate change issues that demand CO2 constrained power sources. What is the outlook for nuclear power? On a worldwide basis, we have today a significant fleet of nuclear power plants, operating well, upgrading output, extending lifetime, and producing not only a safe reliable flow of electricity but a good flow of cash as well. For the countries hosting significant shares of this fleet, their nuclear power plants are increasingly precious assets, and despite the financial crisis, most of them are considering expansion of their nuclear fleets. For the others, the desire to access such a reliable and ultimately cheap source of energy will last longer than the temporary difficulties to get its financing. In short, the outlook for a massive phase of new nuclear builds remains very likely. Then comes the consequential issue of the nuclear fuel supply chain. From uranium exploration and production to back end solutions, most of the existing facilities were designed and startup decades ago. The question is therefore, does this supply chain offer the requested characteristics to sustain the nuclear power plants fleet for the long run? By requested characteristics, it is meant not only adequate capacity and improvement of quality, but also environmentally friendly new designs and processes. This paper is aimed at recalling the current situation of the supply chain, then at describing the status of major projects, and finally at identifying some gaps and issues

  10. New approaches to cleaner production: applying the SASI method to micro-tanneries in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, M.; Siebel, M.A.; Ahlers, R.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    The literature on micro and small sized enterprises in developing countries shows their existential difficulties. This is particularly true for those in marginal areas with multiple challenges including pollution prevention. Environmental agencies tend to require capital intensive end-of-pipe

  11. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  12. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  13. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2{sup nd} BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced.

  14. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon

    2004-01-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2 nd BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced

  15. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  16. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  17. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...

  18. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  19. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo J.; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  20. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  1. Inhaling Difluoroethane Computer Cleaner Resulting in Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Calhoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difluoroethane is the active ingredient in various computer cleaners and is increasingly abused by teenagers due to its ease of access, quick onset of euphoric effects, and lack of detectability on current urine drug screens. The substance has detrimental effects on various organ systems; however, its effects on the kidneys remain largely unreported. The following case report adds new information to the developing topic of acute kidney injury in patients abusing difluoroethane inhalants. In addition, it is one of the first to show a possible relationship between prolonged difluoroethane abuse and the development of chronic kidney disease in the absence of other predisposing risk factors.

  2. Jewelry cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider.

  3. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Ferrer, Barbara Ivette; Orue Valdes, Sonia; Mena Ulecia, Karel

    2007-01-01

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  4. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  5. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  7. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  8. Vocational training courses as an intervention on change of work practice among immigrant cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Flemming W; Frydendall, Karen B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how knowledge and skills from vocational training courses on working techniques modified for immigrant cleaners are applied in practice and to identify factors that influence the implementation. The modifications of the standard course included language support with possibilities for translation and an extension of the duration of the course. The study is a prospective intervention study based on qualitative data. Data were collected as structured interviews and observations were carried out at the workplaces before and after the course. The study population included 31 immigrant cleaners from five different workplaces. Changes were observed in the use of working techniques (i.e., positioning of hands when using the floor mop). In some cases the use of the taught techniques was incorrect, partial, or only used part of the time. Interactions between individual factors (i.e., knowledge, awareness, capability, or work orientation) and environmental factors (i.e., equipment, time, workload, or physical surroundings) influenced the use of the techniques in practice. The course provided the participants with new working techniques through which some were able to reduce work related pain. However, with regard to incorrect and partial use of the working techniques, follow-up and post-training support is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  10. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  11. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  12. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  13. An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Sun, Yuexia

    2018-01-01

    was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air......The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat...... Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor...

  14. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    , and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....... training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction....../elevation. Postural balance was measured on a force platform. Kinesiophobia was measured with Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Test and questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up and analyses followed the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle with last observation carried forward in case of missing...

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...

  16. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  17. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  19. China and Cleaner Coal. A marriage of necessity destined for failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, John

    2012-04-01

    For China, coal is a crucial source of abundant, indigenous and affordable energy and is a pillar of economic and social stability. From a logic of energy security, and because the industry itself maintains a formidable political presence through the sheer fact of its history and size, this resource will continue to play a central role in the country's energy mix. But in order to respond to the growing need to reduce the burden of coal use on the environment and the Chinese population, and to prevent catastrophic climate change, both Chinese leaders and the industry itself have faced a certain reality - coal must become cleaner. This has led to a tenuous compromise between those in China advocating for the use of coal as a matter of economic necessity and social stability (security of supply, reliable and cheap electricity, and indigenous energy technologies) and those who strive for more environmentally sustainable growth (and thus emphasize 'clean' coal). The convergence of these two concepts has spurred a major shift towards newer, more efficient, though still highly polluting technologies - notably larger scale, hotter burning supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired plants. But it has also spawned a number of demonstration-scale projects in various cutting-edge technologies to include coal gasification and carbon capture and storage (CCS), which promise vast improvements in CO_2 and other, toxic emissions if widely adopted. Indeed, mitigating climate change while continuing to rely heavily on coal will only be possible if carbon can successfully be captured and stored on a broad scale. The push to develop new coal technologies opens doors for both foreign and Chinese businesses to work together, potentially creating new market opportunities at home and abroad. Chinese companies can receive much-needed capital and expertise, while foreign companies and researchers are given the chance to test and develop technologies at a level of speed and scale that

  20. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  1. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  2. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  3. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  4. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  5. Sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated nanotubes: a greener point of view in protein sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Estefanía; Gutiérrez Ulloa, Carlos E; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

    2017-09-01

    Reduction or removal of solvents and reagents in protein sample preparation is a requirement. Dendrimers can strongly interact with proteins and have great potential as a greener alternative to conventional methods used in protein sample preparation. This work proposes the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized with carbosilane dendrons with sulfonate groups for protein sample preparation and shows the successful application of the proposed methodology to extract proteins from a complex matrix. SEM images of nanotubes and mixtures of nanotubes and proteins were taken. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence intensity of proteins was monitored to observe the most significant interactions at increasing dendron generations under neutral and basic pHs. Different conditions for the disruption of interactions between proteins and nanotubes after protein extraction and different concentrations of the disrupting reagent and the nanotube were also tried. Compatibility of extraction and disrupting conditions with the enzymatic digestion of proteins for obtaining bioactive peptides was also studied. Finally, sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated SWCNTs enabled the extraction of proteins from a complex sample without using non-environmentally friendly solvents that were required so far. Graphical Abstract Green protein extraction from a complex sample employing carbosilane dendron coated nanotubes.

  6. Sudden death involving inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) with spray cleaner: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kentaro; Maruyama-Maebashi, Kyoko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Nagai, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Miwako; Ochiai, Eriko; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2011-03-20

    Spray cleaner is a cleaning product containing compressed 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) to blow dust off electric devices and other sensitive equipment; however, it is also inhaled to induce euphoria. This report describes three cases of death involving HFC-152a inhalation with spray cleaner under different circumstances. In case 1, death was during inhalation for euphoria with which led to having frostbite. In case 2, death may have been associated with suicidal intention. Case 3 was also considered an accidental autoerotic death. In all three cases, HFC-152a was detected at 99.2-136.2mg/l in blood samples, 94.5-191.9 mg/l in urine samples and 3.6-18.4 mg in the gastric contents according to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. To prevent death associated with HFC-152a inhalation from spray cleaner, the danger of the sudden death should be announced to people, given the ready availability of commercial products containing HFC-152a. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tandem Aldol-Michael Reactions in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium: A Greener and Efficient Approach to Bis-Pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Majid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol, involving the green synthesis for the construction of novel bis-pyrimidine derivatives, 3a–i and 4a–e are accomplished by the aqueous diethylamine media promoted tandem Aldol-Michael reaction between two molecules of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b with various aldehydes. This efficient synthetic protocol using an economic and environmentally friendly reaction media with versatility and shorter reaction time provides bis-pyrimidine derivatives with high yields (88%–99%.

  8. Tandem Knoevenagel–Michael reactions in aqueous diethylamine medium: A greener and efficient approach toward bis-dimedone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid

    2017-02-01

    The use of inexpensive, eco-friendly and readily available reagents, easy work-up, and high purity products makes the procedure a convenient and robust method for the synthesis of tandem Knoevenagel–Michael adducts.

  9. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system.

  10. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  11. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  12. Skeletal Fluorosis Due To Inhalation Abuse of a Difluoroethane-Containing Computer Cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Joseph R; Whitford, Gary M; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Mumm, Steven; Keaveny, Tony M; Whyte, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is endemic in many countries and millions of people are affected worldwide, whereas in the United States SF is rare with occasional descriptions of unique cases. We report a 28-year-old American man who was healthy until 2 years earlier when he gradually experienced difficulty walking and an abnormal gait, left hip pain, loss of mobility in his right wrist and forearm, and progressive deformities including enlargement of the digits of both hands. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of his lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and the one-third forearm revealed bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores of +6.2, +4.8, +3.0, and -0.2, respectively. Serum, urine, and bone fluoride levels were all elevated and ultimately explained by chronic sniffing abuse of a computer cleaner containing 1,1-difluoroethane. Our findings reflect SF due to the unusual cause of inhalation abuse of difluoroethane. Because this practice seems widespread, particularly in the young, there may be many more such cases. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Application of cleaner production tools and failure modes and effects analysis in pig slaughterhourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fonseca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production programs (CP and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA are tools used to improve the sustainability of industries, ensuring greater profitability, quality, reliability and safety of their products and services. The meat industry is among the most polluting industries because of the large amounts of organic waste produced during meat processing. The objective of this study was to combine the CP and FMEA tools and to apply them in a pig slaughterhouse in order to detect critical points along the production chain that have a major environmental impact and to establish corrective and preventive actions that could minimize these problems. The results showed that water is the most consumed resource by the industry and also the main producer of waste due to microbiological contamination with animal feces and blood and meat residues. All impacts were found to be real due to their daily occurrence in the industry. Their severity, occurrence, detection and coverage were classified as moderate and high, high, low and moderate, and moderate and high, respectively. The application of the CP and FMEA tools was efficient in identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts caused by the slaughter and processing of pork carcasses. Liquid slaughter effluents and solid wastes (blood and bones are the factors that pose the greatest risks to the environment. The substitution of treatment plant chemicals with decomposing microorganisms, composting, and the production of animal meal and feed from solid waste are appropriate measures the industry could adopt to minimize the contamination of water resources and soil.

  14. Optical design and suspension system of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Junko; Winterflood, John; Li, Ju; Somiya, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    KAGRA is a Japanese large scale, underground, cryogenic gravitational telescope which is under construction in the Kamioka mine. For using cryogenic test masses, the sensitivity of KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce quantum noise, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC) at the output port that filters out junk light but allows the gravitational wave signal to go through. The requirement of the KAGRA OMC is even more challenging than other telescopes in the world since KAGRA plans to tune the signal readout phase so that the signal-to-noise ratio for our primary target source can be maximized. A proper selection of optical parameters and anti-vibration devices is required for the robust operation of the OMC. In this proceeding, we show our final results of modal-model simulations, in which we downselected the cavity length, the round-trip Gouy phase shift, the finesse, and the seismic isolation ratio for the suspended optics.

  15. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  16. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  17. Rancang Bangun Vacuum Cleaner Dengan Pengendali Nirkabel Menggunakan Modul Rf Data Transceiver Ys-1020ub Berbasis Mikrokontroler At89s52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAP Raka Agung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menjaga kesehatan kita, khususnya kebersihan rumah. Rumah yang bersih sangat mempengaruhi kesehatan para penghuninya. Debu adalah kotoran yang paling sering mengotori rumah kita terutama pada bagian lantai. Setiap hari kita harus membersihkan rumah dari debu yang ada pada lantai untuk menjaga kebersihan sekaligus kesehatan kita. Dalam membersihkan lantai rumah dari  debu sering menyita banyak waktu dan tenaga. Vacuum cleaner terkendali nirkabel menggunakan Modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 merupakan salah satu solusi untuk membersihkan lantai rumah dari kotoran debu.  Vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan enam buah motor DC yaitu dua motor DC penyedot debu, dua motor DC penentu arah maju, mundur, belok kanan, dan belok kiri, serta dua motor DC penentu arah geser kanan dan geser kiri.  Vacuum cleaner ini dapat dikendalikan dengan dua mode operasi yaitu mode manual dan otomatis. Pada mode manual vacuum cleaner ini dikendalikan menggunakan remote control, dengan tranmisi nirkabel memakai transceiver YS-1020UB. Sedangkan pada mode otomatis  vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan empat buah sensor jarak untuk menghindari tabrakan pada dinding.  Vacuum cleaner dengan pengendali nirkabel menggunakan modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 sudah bisa membersihkan debu lantai sehingga lantai bersih dari debu.

  18. Facile approach to prepare Pt decorated SWNT/graphene hybrid catalytic ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayavan, Sundar, E-mail: sundarmayavan@cecri.res.in [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M. [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Sim, Jun-Bo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Min, E-mail: sungmin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Pt NPs were in situ synthesized onto CNT–graphene support in aqueous solution. • The as-prepared material was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment. • Catalyst ink is active toward methanol oxidation. • This approach realizes both scalable and greener production of hybrid catalysts. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were in situ synthesized onto hybrid support involving graphene and single walled carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We investigate the reduction of graphene oxide, and platinum nanoparticle functionalization on hybrid support by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared platinum on hybrid support was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment and is active toward methanol oxidation. This work realizes both scalable and greener production of highly efficient hybrid catalysts, and would be valuable for practical applications of graphene based fuel cell catalysts.

  19. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  20. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  1. Mitigation of the effective dose of radon decay products through the use of an air cleaner in a dwelling in Okinawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, Chutima; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Shingaki, Reina; Furukawa, Masahide; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Chankow, Nares

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to assess the effects of an air cleaner on radon mitigation in a dwelling with a high radon concentration in Okinawa, Japan. The measurements included indoor radon concentration, individual radon progeny concentration, equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EECRn), unattached fraction, and size distribution of aerosol-attached radon progeny. These measurements were conducted in a 74 m 3 room with/without the use of an air cleaner. The results showed that the mean radon concentration during the measurement was quite high (301 Bq m -3 ). The operation of air cleaner decreased the radon progeny activity concentration, EECRn and equilibrium factor by 33%, 57% and 71%, respectively, whereas the unattached fraction increased by 174%. In addition, the activity concentration of attached radon progeny in the accumulation mode (50-2000 nm) was obviously deceased by 42%, when the air cleaner was operated. According to dosimetric calculations, the operation of air cleaner reduced the effective dose due to radon progeny by about 50%.

  2. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  3. The ecological significance of juvenile Diplodus sargus as ectoparasite fish cleaners in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour was recently described for the omnivorous species Diplodus sargus. Although previous studies have reported the existence of ectoparasites in the stomach contents of some individuals this commercially important fish was never considered a cleaner species. Here we make the first characterization of this behaviour based on field observations. This behaviour was exclusively performed by juvenile D. sargus and, until now, was only observed in confined or semi-confined areas such as coastal lagoons or harbours. Unexpectedly, cleaning rates and the number of individuals performing this behaviour largely exceeds the ones described for a sympatric cleaner fish (13.98 cleaning events/individual/hour compared to 5.08 in Centrolabrus exoletus. Clients belong to several fish families (e.g. Mugilidae, Sparidae and Labridae that include some of the most common species in coastal habitats. Frequently, clients request cleaning by tilting their body or remaining motionless near the surface while being cleaned (40% however, in most cases, the interaction ends because clients flee (46%. This could mean that D. sargus is also feeding on mucus and/or living tissue. These shifts between exploitation and cooperation have been frequently described for tropical reef species. Our results support cooperative behaviour, with a clear correlation between the number of nips per cleaning event or the number of nips to which the client reacted positively and cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.79, p<0.001; r=0.76, p<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, no correlation was detected between the number of jolts by the client fish and the cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.07, p=0.105 meaning that jolting does not increase with increased interaction time. In the future, the evaluation of the ecological importance of D. sargus as a cleaner species in the North-Eastern Atlantic, should proceed with field observations in

  4. GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING ALTERNATIVE REACTION CONDITIONS AND MEDIA (BRAZIL 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cycl...

  5. Deja vu all over again: the grass was not greener under utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan

    2007-12-15

    Abandoning wholesale electric competition now, just as needed market signals have developed, and reinstituting an outdated, failed central planning approach - even one with a fancy name like integrated portfolio management - is a solution looking for a problem. And the consequences that it creates will not be short term. (author)

  6. Power ultrasound-assisted cleaner leather dyeing technique: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2004-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound to leather processing has a significant role in the concept of "clean technology" for leather production. The effect of power ultrasound in leather dyeing has been compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound and conventional drumming. The power ultrasound source used in these experiments was ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz). The effect of various process parameters such as amount of dye offer, temperature, and type of dye has been experimentally found out. The effect of presonication of dye solution as well as leather has been studied. Experiments at ultrasonic bath temperature were carried out to find out the combined thermal as well as stirring effects of ultrasound. Dyeing in the presence of ultrasound affords about 37.5 (1.8 times) difference as increase in % dye exhaustion or about 50% decrease in the time required for dyeing compared to dyeing in the absence of ultrasound for 4% acid red dye. About 29 (1.55 times) increase in % dye exhaustion or 30% reduction in time required for dyeing was observed using ultrasound at stationary condition compared with conventional dynamic drumming conditions. The effect of ultrasound at constant temperature conditions with a control experiment has also been studied. The dye exhaustion increases as the temperature increases (30-60 degrees C) and better results are observed at higher temperature due to the use of ultrasound. Presonication of dye solution or crust leather prior to the dyeing process has no significant improvement in dye exhaustion, suggesting ultrasound effect is realized when it is applied during the dyeing process. The results indicate that 1697 and 1416 ppm of dye can be reduced in the spent liquor due to the use of ultrasound for acid red (for 100 min) and acid black (for 3 h) dyes, respectively, thereby reducing the pollution load in the effluent stream. The color yield of the leather as inferred from the reflectance measurement indicates that dye offer can

  7. Making offshore industries greener: negotiating environmental policy in the Dutch oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the negotiations between the Dutch Government and the oil and gas sector regarding environmental measures for the offshore industry are analysed. Dutch environmental policy is presently being developed via 'Target Group Management'. The instrument used in this approach is policy negotiations, resulting in covenants. By signing a covenant, both government and industry take responsibility for the development and implementation of a realistic environmental policy. Negotiating environmental policies, however, can be problematic. This relates to the delay in obtaining an integrated approach to environmental problems. It is not unlikely that, in the four years required for the negotiation process, a legally binding environmental law might also have been developed. It is concluded that the value of the covenant mainly depends on the goodwill of the parties involved. (Author)

  8. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  9. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  10. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  11. Effort-reward imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Niklas; Rugulies, Reiner; Maslach, Christina

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  13. Design and Synthesis of a Novel Class of Flavonoid Derivatives via Sequential Phosphorylation and its Application for Greener Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonga, Francis Juma

    Flavonoids exhibit arrays of biological effects that are beneficial to humans, including anti-viral, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, these applications have been hindered by their poor stability and solubility in common solvents. Consequently, there is significant interest in the modification of flavonoids to improve their solubility. This poor solubility is also believed to be responsible for its permeability and bioavailability. Hence the central goal of this work is to design synthetic strategies for the sequential protection of the -OH groups in order to produce phosphorylated quercetin and apigenin derivatives. This work is divided into two parts: the first part presents the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel flavonoid derivatives via global and sequential phosphorylation. The second part focuses on the application of the synthesized derivatives for greener nanoparticle synthesis. This work shows for the first time that sequential phosphorylation of Quercetin is feasible through the design of 4 new derivatives namely: 5,4'-O-Quercetin Diphosphate (QDPI), 4'-O-phosphate Quercetin (4'-QPI), 5,4'-Quercetin Diphosphate (5,4'-QDP) and monophosphate 4-QP. The synthesis of 4'-QP and 5, 4'-QDP was successful with 85% and 60.5% yields respectively. In addition, the progress towards the total synthesis of apigenin phosphate derivatives (7, 4'-ADP and 7-AP) is presented. The synthesized derivatives were characterized using 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. The phosphorylated derivatives were subsequently explored as reducing agents for sustainable synthesis of gold, silver and copper nanoparticles. We have successfully demonstrated the photochemical synthesis of gold nanoplates of sizes ranging from 10 - 200 nm using water soluble QDP in the presence of sunlight. This work contributes immensely in promoting the ideals of green nanosynthesis by (i) eliminating the use of organic solvents in the nanosynthesis, (ii) exploiting the

  14. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems. Towards smarter and greener electric grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingfeng Wang (ed.) [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods. (orig.)

  15. Biointervention makes leather processing greener: an integrated cleansing and tanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2003-06-01

    The do-undo methods adopted in conventional leather processing generate huge amounts of pollutants. In other words, conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/hide to wide variations in pH. Pretanning and tanning processes alone contribute more than 90% of the total pollution from leather processing. Included in this is a great deal of solid wastes such as lime and chrome sludge. In the approach described here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0 for cow hides. This was followed by a pickle-free chrome tanning, which does not require a basification step. Hence, this tanning technique involves primarily three steps, namely, dehairing, fiber opening, and tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal, opening up of fiber bundles, and penetration and distribution of chromium are comparable to that produced by traditional methods. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis, and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Importantly, softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also demonstrates reduction in chemical oxygen demand load by 80%, total solids load by 85%, and chromium load by 80% as compared to the conventional process, thereby leading toward zero discharge. The input-output audit shows that the biocatalytic three-step tanning process employs a very low amount of chemicals, thereby reducing the discharge by 90% as compared to the conventional multistep processing. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the process is technoeconomically viable.

  16. Using local knowledge and sustainable transport to promote a greener city: The case of Bucharest, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niță, Mihai R; Badiu, Denisa L; Onose, Diana A; Gavrilidis, Athanasios A; Grădinaru, Simona R; Năstase, Irina I; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Cities undergoing climate change and rapid urbanization are faced with significant transformational processes that affect the environment and society, challenging them to become more sustainable and resilient. The promotion of nature-based solutions represents an efficient approach to meet sustainability targets in cities and improve the quality of life of citizens. The association of large components of green infrastructure, such as urban parks, with physical activity can counteract the sedentary lifestyle endemic to cities and improve the overall health and well-being of individuals (Carrus et al., 2013; Scopelliti et al., 2016). By promoting a sustainable means of transport and connecting green spaces within a highly urbanized city, bicycle lanes represent an effective tool for associating physical activity with nature in cities allowing bicycle users to benefit from the positive health effects of nature-based solutions. Our study focuses on the potential of bicycle lanes to improve functional connectivity among green spaces. We administered 820 questionnaires in 34 green spaces (i.e., urban parks) in Bucharest, Romania, to identify the factors influencing the use of bicycle lanes connecting urban parks and to understand which planning criteria for bicycle lanes are considered as the most important by park visitors. We applied binary and ordinal logistic regressions and found that the factors affecting bicycle lane use are illegally parked cars and lack of accessibility to urban parks. The criteria preferred by park visitors for bicycle lane planning are determined by experience level and frequency of bicycle use. To develop a functional and integrated bicycle lane network that can make cities healthier and more sustainable, policy makers are advised to engage in a public participatory process and focus on the needs of bicycle users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  18. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  19. Work-Related Pain and Injury and Barriers to Workers’ Compensation Among Las Vegas Hotel Room Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. Methods. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. Results. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers’ compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included “It would be too much trouble” (43%), “I was afraid” (26%), and “I didn’t know how” (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. Conclusions. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed. PMID:15727981

  20. Work-related pain and injury and barriers to workers' compensation among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

    2005-03-01

    We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers' compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included "It would be too much trouble" (43%), "I was afraid" (26%), and "I didn't know how" (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed.

  1. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. 某精细化工企业清洁生产审核实践研究%Cleaner Production Audit on A Fine Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯俊丽; 张时佳

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes the cleaner production of a company as example to expound the necessity and practical signifi-cance of carrying out cleaner production audit in fine chemical industry. According to eight existing issues of this company, the study provides practical low and high cost clean production project, totally 28 items. After calculating the economic, environmen-tal and social benefit of each project,the practical values of cleaner production audit to a company were pointed out, giving direc-tion of energy-saving emission reduction and low carbon development. This audit discusses the specific practice of cleaner pro-duction in fine chemical industry and it has guiding significance of practicing cleaner production in this domain.%以某企业的清洁生产审核为例,阐述分析精细化工行业开展清洁生产审核的必要性及实践意义.针对该企业存在的八方面问题,提出切实可行的无低费及中高费清洁生产方案共计28项,经核算各方案的经济、环境、社会效益,指出企业开展清洁生产审核的实际价值,为企业节能减排、低碳发展指明方向.本次审核初步探讨了清洁生产在精细化工行业的具体实践,对该行业清洁生产的践行具有一定的指导意义.

  3. Roadmap to greener computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nguemaleu, Raoul-Abelin Choumin

    2014-01-01

    A concise and accessible introduction to green computing and green IT, this book addresses how computer science and the computer infrastructure affect the environment and presents the main challenges in making computing more environmentally friendly. The authors review the methodologies, designs, frameworks, and software development tools that can be used in computer science to reduce energy consumption and still compute efficiently. They also focus on Computer Aided Design (CAD) and describe what design engineers and CAD software applications can do to support new streamlined business directi

  4. APEC's greener energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, A M; Samuelson, R D

    2013-01-01

    The APEC member economies combined accounts for more than 50% of the world's GDP and consume almost 60% of the world's energy. Under the 2011 Honolulu Declaration, APEC Leaders have set an aspirational goal to reduce APEC's aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035, compared to 2005 levels. This article summarises the results from an APEC-wide study on APEC energy demand and supply outlook from 2010 to 2035. Our business-as-usual projections show that by 2035, APEC energy demand will have increased by 40% of 2010 levels. We also found that historical trends for declining energy intensity will continue and that APEC will likely achieve its aspirational intensity reduction goal. However, our results also suggest that CO 2 emissions will continue to rise and energy security will become less assured. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, APEC has already initiated a broad range of activities to achieve its 'green growth' objectives. While these have been fairly successful in guiding APEC economies towards a path of more sustainable development, these efforts will need to be intensified further to avoid serious environmental degradation.

  5. APEC's greener energy outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, A. M.; Samuelson, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    The APEC member economies combined accounts for more than 50% of the world's GDP and consume almost 60% of the world's energy. Under the 2011 Honolulu Declaration, APEC Leaders have set an aspirational goal to reduce APEC's aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035, compared to 2005 levels. This article summarises the results from an APEC-wide study on APEC energy demand and supply outlook from 2010 to 2035. Our business-as-usual projections show that by 2035, APEC energy demand will have increased by 40% of 2010 levels. We also found that historical trends for declining energy intensity will continue and that APEC will likely achieve its aspirational intensity reduction goal. However, our results also suggest that CO2 emissions will continue to rise and energy security will become less assured. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, APEC has already initiated a broad range of activities to achieve its 'green growth' objectives. While these have been fairly successful in guiding APEC economies towards a path of more sustainable development, these efforts will need to be intensified further to avoid serious environmental degradation.

  6. Greener by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds for potential use as greener high energy density materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha Horadugoda

    One main aspect of high energy density material (HEDM) design is to obtain greener alternatives for HEDMs that produce toxic byproducts. Primary explosives lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate contain heavy metals that cause heavy metal poisoning. Leaching of the widely used tertiary explosive NH4ClO4 into groundwater has resulted in human exposure to ClO4-- ions, which cause disruptions of thyroid related metabolic pathways and even thyroid cancer. Many research efforts to find replacements have gained little success. Thus, there is a need for greener HEDMs. Peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds are proposed as a potential new class of greener HEDMs due to the evolution of CO2 and/or CO, H2O, and O 2 as the main decomposition products. Currently, triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) are the only well-studied highly energetic peroxides. However, due to their high impact and friction sensitivities, low thermal stabilities, and low detonation velocities they have not found any civil or military HEDM applications. In this dissertation research, we have synthesized and fully characterized four categories of peroxo-based compounds: tert-butyl peroxides, tert-butyl peroxy esters, hydroperoxides, and peroxy acids to perform a systematic study of their sensitivities and the energetic properties for potential use as greener HEDMs. tert-Butyl peroxides were not sensitive to impact, friction, or electrostatic spark. Hence, tert-butyl peroxides can be described as fairly safe peroxo-based compounds to handle. tert-Butyl peroxy esters were all surprisingly energetic (4896--6003 m/s), despite the low oxygen and nitrogen contents. Aromatic tert -butyl peroxy esters were much lower in impact and friction sensitivities with respect to the known peroxo-based explosives. These are among the first low sensitivity peroxo-based compounds that can be categorized as secondary

  8. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  9. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  11. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  13. A study on the optimal design of a cyclone system for vacuum cleaner with the consideration of house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Gun Ho; Kim, Eung Dal; Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Keun; Ahn, Young Chull; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Cyclone, a type of particle collector widely used in the field of ambient sampling and industrial particulate control, is the principal type of gas-solids separator that use a centrifugal force. The goal of this study is to transform conventional cyclone into a new type of cyclone that can be used for the household vacuum cleaners. To meet the goal, first, the analysis about local environment and dust is carried out. Second, it must have enough high-efficiency not to reduce suction power due to clogging of exhaust filter unit. Two single cyclones with central-hopper-dust-outlet and side-wall-dust-outlet and a twin cyclone are designed and fabricated to evaluate, and compare, their dust collection efficiencies and pressure drops. The measurements of separation efficiency for dust by using DMT test dust type 08 are carried out. House dust experiment is additionally performed to check the local matters applicability such as tissue papers, fur and hairs. The collection efficiency of the twin cyclone is found to be 3-6% greater than those of two single cyclones with the same body diameter, inlet and inner cylinder diameter. Twin cyclone with a large body diameter, a small inner cylinder diameter, a short inner cylinder, a narrow inlet has high separation efficiency. This result indicates the possibility of achieving higher collection efficiencies with a twin cyclone

  14. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fueling our future: four steps to a new, reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' This manuscript demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, we look at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. We also examine different Distributed Generation scenarios including distributed generation via fuel cells for automotive applications which may be the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. With 1.3 billion potential customers, P.R. China is one country where such a scenario may fit. The up-and-coming Chinese H2/FC industry deals with applied fundamental research such as advances in Hydrogen production from Natural Gas, Methanol and Gasoline. The current activities in P.R. China certain to further accelerate the trend towards the coming Hydrogen Economy, together with the steps necessary to achieve a new reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are examined. (author)

  16. Combined exposures to workplace psychosocial stressors: relationships with mental health in a sample of NZ cleaners and clerical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, R; Lamontagne, A D; Firth, H

    2011-05-01

    A combined measure of two common psychosocial stressors, called job pressure has previously been shown to be strongly associated with poor mental health in high status workers. This study tests the generalizability of this association to lower status workers. A national random sample of cleaners and clerical workers was obtained from the New Zealand (NZ) electoral roll by occupational title (n = 596). Cross-sectional data on job stressors, demographics, and mental health (GHQ-12) was collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Combined exposure to low job control, high job demands, and job insecurity (high job pressure) was associated with markedly elevated odds (13-fold or higher) of poor mental health after adjustment for age, sex, occupation, and education. Combined with previous findings this suggests simultaneous exposure to more than one occupational psychosocial stressor may greatly increase the risk of poor mental health among both lower and higher status workers. This report adds to the larger literature in this area, supporting the need for expanded policy and practice intervention to reduce job stressors across the working population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  18. From Large-Scale Synthesis to Lighting Device Applications of Ternary I-III-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Inspiring Greener Material Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingkun; Pradhan, Narayan; Zhong, Haizheng

    2018-01-18

    Quantum dots with fabulous size-dependent and color-tunable emissions remained as one of the most exciting inventories in nanomaterials for the last 3 decades. Even though a large number of such dot nanocrystals were developed, CdSe still remained as unbeatable and highly trusted lighting nanocrystals. Beyond these, the ternary I-III-VI family of nanocrystals emerged as the most widely accepted greener materials with efficient emissions tunable in visible as well as NIR spectral windows. These bring the high possibility of their implementation as lighting materials acceptable to the community and also to the environment. Keeping these in mind, in this Perspective, the latest developments of ternary I-III-VI nanocrystals from their large-scale synthesis to device applications are presented. Incorporating ZnS, tuning the composition, mixing with other nanocrystals, and doping with Mn ions, light-emitting devices of single color as well as for generating white light emissions are also discussed. In addition, the future prospects of these materials in lighting applications are also proposed.

  19. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Application of fuzzy analytic network process for barrier evaluation in automotive parts remanufacturing towards cleaner production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    to hidden facts. Many researchers have explored such hidden facts in auto parts remanufacturing in developing nations and their emerging economies. However, there is a huge gap in the state-of-the-art remanufacturing practices in India, despite India's strong advancements in the automobile industry. In fact......, India's automobile industry is rapidly approaching that of China's in recent years. Although some studies are available regarding remanufacturing implementation, current research has generally failed to offer a deep analysis of the factors and barriers that exist as hurdles to such implementation....... Consequently, this paper attempts to investigate the essential barrier to auto parts remanufacturing in an Indian scenario, and we also address vital interrelationships and interdependencies. To achieve the aim of the study, a model framework is proposed and applied to an Indian case industry. The data...

  1. Effects on well-being of investing in cleaner air in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Warren; Striessnig, Erich; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, India has experienced rapid economic growth along with increases in levels of air pollution. Our goal is to examine how alternative policies for air pollution abatement affect well-being there. In particular, we estimate the effects of policies to reduce the levels of ambient fine particulates (PM2.5), which are especially harmful to human health, on well-being, quantified using the United Nations' human development index (HDI). Two of the three dimensions of this index are based on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and life expectancy. Our approach allows reductions in PM2.5 to affect both of them. In particular, economic growth is affected negatively through the costs of the additional pollution control measures and positively through the increased productivity of the population. We consider three scenarios of PM2.5 abatement, corresponding to no further control, current Indian legislation, and current European legislation. The overall effect in both control scenarios is that growth in GDP is virtually unaffected relative to the case of no further controls, life expectancy is higher, and well-being, as measured by the HDI, is improved. In India, air pollution abatement investments clearly improve well-being.

  2. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention: a worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures in health promotion. Strata were formed according to closest manager (total 11 strata); clusters were set within strata (total 40 clusters, 20 in each group). Musculoskeletal pain data from eight body regions was collected at baseline and after 4- and 12-months follow-up. The participants stated highest pain in the last month on a scale from 0, stating no pain, up to 10, stating worst possible pain. A repeated-measure 2 × 2 multi-adjusted mixed-models design was applied to compare the between-groups differences in an intention to treat analysis. Participants were entered as a random effect nested in clusters to account for the cluster-based randomization. Clinically significant reductions (>30%, f  2 > 0.25) in the aerobic exercise group, compared to the reference group, in pain intensity in neck, shoulders, arms/wrists were found at 12-months follow-up, and a tendency ( p = 0.07, f  2 = 0.18) to an increase for the knees. At 4-months follow-up the only significant between-group change was an increase in hip pain. This study indicates that aerobic exercise reduces musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities, but as an unintended side effect may increase pain in the lower extremities. Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.

  3. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  4. Fueling our future: four steps to a new reliable, cleaner, decentralized energy supply based on Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.

    2005-01-01

    In examining various market strategies, this presentation demonstrates the possible driving factors and necessary elements needed to move Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (H2/FC) to worldwide commercialisation. Focusing not only on the technology itself, this presentation looks at the 'bigger picture' explaining how certain trends have impacted the progress of new technologies developments in the past. The presentation demonstrates how these models can be applied to our present day situation. In this process, the consumer has played and will continue to play the key and leading role. Due to such strong influence, the consumer will ultimately fuel the future of H2/FC commercialisation by a desire for new and not yet discovered products and services. Examining different Distributed Generation scenarios, the catalyst to the Hydrogen Economy may be found through distributed generation via fuel cells. One possible step could be the use of Personal Power Cars equipped with Fuel Cells which not only drive on Hydrogen, but also supply (while standing) electricity /heat to residential and commercial buildings. The incentive for car owners driving and using these vehicles is twofold: either save (at his own home) or earn (at his office) money while their cars are parked and plugged into buildings via smart docking stations available at key parking sites. Cars parked at home in the garage will supply electricity to the homes and additionally, replace the function of the existing boiler. Car owners can earn money by selling the electricity generated (but not needed at that time) to the utilities and feed it into the existing electricity grid. The inter-dependability between supply and consumer-driven demand (or better, demand and supply) and other examples are explained. The steps necessary to achieve a new, reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on H2/FC are also presented and examined. (author)

  5. Cleaner generation, free-riders, and environmental integrity: clean development mechanism and the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, Stephen; Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael; Page, Tom [Tellus Institute and Stockholm Environmental Institute-Boston Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This article provides a first-cut estimate of the potential impacts of the clean development mechanism (CDM) on electricity generation and carbon emissions in the power sector of non-Annex 1 countries. We construct four illustrative CDM regimes that represent a range of approaches under consideration within the climate community. We examine the impact of these CDM regimes on investments in new generation, under illustrative carbon trading prices of US$ 10 and 100/tC. In the cases that are most conductive to CDM activity, roughly 94% of new generation investments remains identical to the without-CDM situation, with only 6% shifting from higher to lower carbon intensity technologies. We estimate that the CDM would bolster renewable energy generation by as little as 15% at US$ 10/tC, or as much as 300% at US$ 100/tC. A striking finding comes from our examination of the potential magnitude of the 'free-rider' problem, i.e. crediting of activities that will occur even in the absence of the CDM. The CDM is intended to be globally carbon-neutral --- a project reduces emissions in the host country but generates credits that increase emissions in the investor country. However, to the extent that unwarranted credits are awarded to non-additional projects, the CDM would increase global carbon emissions above the without-CDM emissions level. Under two of the CDM regimes considered, cumulative free-riders credits total 250-600MtC through the end of the first budget period in 2012. This represents 10-23% of the likely OECD emissions reduction requirement during the first budget period. Since such a magnitude of free-rider credits from non-additional CDM projects could threaten the environmental integrity of the Kyoto protocol, it is imperative that policy makers devise CDM rules that encourage legitimate projects, while effectively screening out non-additional activities. (Author)

  6. Proof of concept of a "greener" protein purification/enrichment method based on carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimer-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Estefanía; Maly, Marek; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

    2016-11-01

    Protein sample preparation is a critical and an unsustainable step since it involves the use of tedious methods that usually require high amount of solvents. The development of new materials offers additional opportunities in protein sample preparation. This work explores, for the first time, the potential application of carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers to the purification/enrichment of proteins. Studies on dendrimer binding to proteins, based on protein fluorescence intensity and emission wavelengths measurements, demonstrated the interaction between carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers and proteins at all tested pH levels. Interactions were greatly affected by the protein itself, pH, and dendrimer concentration and generation. Especially interesting was the interaction at acidic pH since it resulted in a significant protein precipitation. Dendrimer-protein interactions were modeled observing stable complexes for all proteins. Carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers at acidic pH were successfully used in the purification/enrichment of proteins extracted from a complex sample. Graphical Abstract Images showing the growing turbidity of solutions containing a mixture of proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA) at different protein:dendrimer ratios (1:0, 1:1, 1:8, and 1:20) at acidic pH and SDS-PAGE profiles of the corresponsing supernatants. Comparison of SDS-PAGE profiles for the pellets obtained during the purification of proteins present in a complex sample using a conventional "no-clean" method based on acetone precipitation and the proposed "greener" method using carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimer at a 1:20 protein:dendrimer ratio.

  7. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Korshøj

    Full Text Available Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners.One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis.Between-group differences (p<0.05 were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03 mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06 %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61 beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24 μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure.This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076.

  8. Using digital communication technology fails to improve longitudinal evaluation of an HIV prevention program aimed at Indian truck drivers and cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John A; Kondareddy, Divya; Gandham, Sabitha; Dude, Annie M

    2012-07-01

    HIV prevention programs for truck drivers and cleaners (TDC) in India are limited. Longitudinal follow-up presents an obstacle to program effectiveness evaluation. We asked 3,028 TDC in a truck-driver HIV prevention program in Hyderabad to leave a cellular telephone number; we contacted participants 6 months after the intervention to assess sexual risk behavior change. Married, older, and better educated participants were more likely to leave phone numbers. Only 6.5% of TDC were reachable after 6 months. Longitudinal follow-up of this mobile sub-population remains a challenge, and more effective methods for evaluating HIV prevention programs are needed.

  9. Aparelho de sucção tipo aspirador para captura de mosquitos A "vacuum-cleaner" type of suction apparatus for the collection of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délsio Natal

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available É feita a descrição de aparelho portátil de sucção tipo aspirador, para captura de mosquitos Culicidae. São sugeridas adaptações para coletas em diferentes situações. São feitos comentários sobre sua aplicação em pesquisa de mosquitos.A portable suction apparatus, which functions like a vacuum cleaner used for the collection of Culicidae mosquitoes is described. Adaptations for collecting in differents situations are suggested and some comments about its application in mosquitoes surveys are made.

  10. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep...... was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between...

  11. Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad según la Norma ISO 9001:2008, de la Empresa de Limpieza, CLEANER

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Boronat, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto, tratara sobre la implantación de un Sistema de Gestión de Calidad en una empresa de Limpieza, la cual desarrolla su actividad en la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía. El motivo es dinamizar la organización, intentando mejorar y corregir posibles fallos en su gestión, mejorando el registro y modo de proceder en los procesos y procedimientos de CLEANER. Por lo tanto, diseñaremos un Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, basado en la Norma ISO 9001:2008, basándon...

  12. Separation of iron and cobalt using 59Fe and 60Co by dialysis of polyvinylpyrrolidone-metal complexes: A greener approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Susanta; Sarkar, Soumi

    2007-01-01

    An environmentally benign method to separate iron and cobalt has been developed using a safe chemical, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The method involves dialysis of PVP-Fe and PVP-Co complexes against triple-distilled water. 59 Fe and 60 Co were used as radioactive tracers of iron and cobalt throughout the experiment. No other chemicals are required for clean separation of cobalt from iron. The optimum condition for separation has been obtained at pH 5 using 10% aqueous solution of PVP. The method is applicable from trace scale to macro-scale. Very high separation factors have been obtained

  13. Optimization of novel and greener approach for the coproduction of uricase and alkaline protease in Bacillus licheniformis by Box-Behnken model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Shweta V; Rathod, Virendra K

    2018-01-02

    This study explores a novel concept of coproduction of uricase and alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis using single substrate in single step. Seven local bacterial strains were screened for uricase production, amongst which B. licheniformis is found to produce highest uricase along with alkaline protease. Optimization of various factors influencing maximum enzyme coproduction by B. licheniformis is performed. Maximum enzyme productivity of 0.386 U/mL uricase and 0.507 U/mL alkaline protease is obtained at 8 hr of incubation period, 1% (v/v) inoculum, and at 0.2% (w/v) uric acid when the organism is cultivated at 25°C, 180 rpm, in a media containing xylose as a carbon source, urea as a nitrogen source, and initial pH of 9.5. The statistical experimental design method of Box-Behnken was further applied to obtain optimal concentration of significant parameters such as pH (9.5), uric acid concentration (0.1%), and urea concentration (0.05%). The maximum uricase and alkaline protease production by B. licheniformis using Box-Behnken design was 0.616 and 0.582 U/mL, respectively, with 1.6- and 1.13-fold increase as compared to one factor at a time optimized media. This study will be useful to develop an economic, commercially viable, and scalable process for simultaneous production of uricase and protease enzymes.

  14. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC with the pre-filter (PR or the active carbon granule filter (CF was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%, PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in

  15. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  16. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  17. The relationship between low back pain and leisure time physical activity in a working population of cleaners - a study with weekly follow-ups for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Tobias; Jorgensen, Marie B; Hansen, Jorgen V

    2012-01-01

    intensity in the subsequent 4 weeks. METHODS: 188 cleaners consented to participate in a 52-week text message survey about hours of LTPA and intensity of LBP (from 0 to 9) over the previous 7 days. The correlation between LBP and LTPA was calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient. During an episode...... and intensity of LBP measured on a weekly basis throughout a year showed no close correlation. Maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP did not result in a positive effect on LBP in the following 4 weeks. Documentation of LTPA recommendations for acute LBP in working populations is still needed....... intensity difference between groups of 0.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.417 to 0.539) or higher probability of returning to initial pain level (Odds ratio 1,02; 95% CI of 0.50 to 2.09) in the following four weeks compared with cleaners decreasing LTPA during acute LBP. CONCLUSIONS: Hours of LTPA...

  18. Physical workload, work intensification, and prevalence of pain in low wage workers: results from a participatory research project with hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Niklas; Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-11-01

    Occupational injury rates among hotel workers exceed the national service sector average. This study assesses the prevalence of back and neck pain, and its associations with physical workload, ergonomic problems, and increasing work demands. Nine hundred forty-one unionized hotel room cleaners completed a survey about health and working conditions. Associations between job demands and pain were determined by logistic regression models adjusting for individual characteristics, cumulative work demands, care-taking responsibilities at home, and psychosocial job factors. The 1-month prevalence of severe bodily pain was 47% in general, 43% for neck, 59% for upper back, and 63% for low back pain. Workers in the highest exposure quartiles for physical workload and ergonomic problems were between 3.24 and 5.42 times more likely to report severe pain than workers in the lowest quartile. Adjusted odds ratios for work intensification ranged from 1.74 (upper back) to 2.33 (neck). Most room cleaners experience severe back or neck pain. Severe pain showed strong associations with physical workload, work intensification, and ergonomic problems.

  19. Laying the foundations for greener transport - TERM 2011: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A

    2011-11-15

    For the first time ever the European Commissions is proposing a greenhouse gas emissions target for transport. But how is transport going to provide the services that our society needs while minimising its environmental impacts? This is the theme for the Transport White Paper launched in 2011. TERM 2011 and future reports aim to deliver an annual assessment on progress towards these targets by introducing the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism Core Set of Indicators (TERM-CSI). TERM 2011 provides also the baseline to which progress will be checked against, covering most of the environmental areas, including energy consumption, emissions, noise and transport demand. In addition, this report shows latest data and discuss on the different aspects that can contribute the most to minimise transport impacts. TERM 2011 applies the avoid-shift-improve (ASI) approach, introduced in the previous TERM report, analysing ways to optimise transport demand, obtain a more sustainable modal split or use the best technology available. (Author)

  20. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  1. Communicating solutions for a greener world - a case study of the Bellona Foundation's communication process within the hydrogen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loene, Cecilie

    2001-01-01

    The world is facing increasing energy and global climate change problems. Facing future depletion of fossil fuels and the threat of increased temperatures on earth due to air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels, there is a need for a clean alternative. The Norwegian environmental organization The Bellona Foundation believes that hydrogen as an energy carrier coupled with hydrogen technology is the solution and the only road to a 0-emissions society-a hydrogen society. Under the slogan, ''From Talking to Walking the Hy-way,'' Bellona is through their Hydrogen Project working to achieve this green society. In a case study of Bellona's Hydrogen Project, this thesis aims to examine how Bellona communicates with the intended target groups within this project and how the organization perceives the communication process. As the slogan suggests, in order for the Hydrogen Project to be completely successful, Bellona has to not only inform people about the hydrogen solution but also convince them and get them to begin implementing hydrogen technology. This is conducted through a communication process. The communication process includes both internal and external activities and is divided into four stages: translation, strategy, channels and feedback. Through contrasting the communication process with science communication models, the need for an interactive, multi-directional approach that makes problematic the receiver and recognizes the receiver as an active participant in addition to adhering to the correlation between message and context of the receiver. The case study aims to look at how Bellona conducts and perceives the different stages in the communication process and find out whether Bellona recognizes these features in or adheres to these factors within the Hydrogen Project. (Author)

  2. Experimental analysis of indoor air quality improvement achieved by using a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner in a ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, heating and ventilation in buildings. The experiments were conducted in a field laboratory and compared a low outdoor air...... supply rate with CAHP air purification of recirculated air with three different outdoor air supply rates without recirculation or air cleaning. Sensory assessments of perceived air quality and chemical measurements of TVOC concentration were used to evaluate the air-cleaning performance of the CAHP....... The results of the experiment showed that the operation of the CAHP significantly improved the perceived air quality in a room polluted by both human bio-effluents and building materials. At the outdoor airflow rate of 2 L/s per person, the indoor air quality with CAHP was equivalent to what was achieved...

  3. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  4. Green Materials Science and Engineering Reduces Biofouling: Approaches for Medical and Membrane-based Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerianne M Dobosz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  5. Making Restaurant No. 1 greener

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    The extension of a section of the terrace of Restaurant No. 1, which was part of the infrastructure consolidation programme that began in April 2009, will be completed at the end of this year. The new terrace will have an area of 1770 m² (compared with 1650 m²  today) and will stretch the length of the restaurant extension.   The new building is a striking example of the use of renewable energies, comprising high-performance photovoltaic panels with an innovative sealing system integrated in the roof that cope particularly well with low amounts of sun. The electric cables and connections of each module are hidden and integrated in the roof, giving it a uniform appearance. The roof comprises two rows of 12 modules, each measuring 11.6 m². Their total annual energy production capacity is around 14 MWh. By comparison, the building's estimated annual energy consumption is 98 MWh, depending on the conditions of use.

  6. Who needs a greener revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Rull, Valentí

    2010-01-01

    To meet the challenge of producing sufficient food for 9 billion people by 2050, many have proposed a new green revolution. However, Valentí Rull questions if this is a viable solution to alleviate hunger in the long term and whether it could lead to undesired and potentially disastrous consequences.

  7. Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gathergood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of the first pharmaceutically active molecules at the beginning of the 1900s, drug molecules and their metabolites have been observed in the environment in significant concentrations. In this review, the persistence of antibiotics in the environment and their associated effects on ecosystems, bacterial resistance and health effects will be examined. Solutions to these problems will also be discussed, including the pharmaceutical industries input, green chemistry, computer modeling and representative ionic liquid research.

  8. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office and Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) and its many partners is to preserve and restore land by promoting and using protective waste management practices and by assessing and cleaning..

  9. Green accounting for greener energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Vranes, S.; Goekalp, I.

    2010-01-01

    The first step towards the widespread use of renewable energy sources and preservation of our environment for the people of the future is to adopt the ''green accounting'' standards that translate socially and environmentally responsible behavior into monetary terms, the only language businesses understand. These standards have the potential of switching on the red light for all pollution-causing power plants, and those depleting the natural capital in any way, be it over-harvesting the forests, or exhausting the underground treasures - coal, oil, natural gas, etc. This paper will show how green accounting can help in changing the focus from the economic welfare to the total societal welfare, acknowledging the fact that human society is an integral part of the natural world. The paper will also briefly present the software developed by the authors that introduce the green accounting principles into the investment appraisal process, aiming at encouraging investments into renewable energy. The tool is also useful as a platform facilitating calibration of economic/financial instruments, like environmental taxes of governmental incentives, that are usually to boost renewable energy sector. The comparative analysis of investment into biofuel-powered combined heat and power production plant using two types of investment valuation standards, one based on conventional cash-flow analysis, the other based on green-accounting standards is detailed in the paper. The analysis is performed as a part of the European Commission Framework Program Project AFTUR, undertaken by the consortium consisting of respectful European Research Establishments in renewable energy area as well as major European biofuel-powered turbine producers. The results show that the wider adoption of green accounting standards would induce the unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sector, because it would make the investment into renewable energy attractive for investors. (author)

  10. How to Get Greener Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Cynthia N.

    2008-01-01

    Professors select readings for their students in different forms: printed matter, including books and journals; print-on-demand texts; and online material. Before long, enough books and articles will be available for downloading onto devices like the Sony Reader and Amazon.com's new Kindle to make that format another option. They consider a wide…

  11. Editorial: Nanoscience makes catalysis greener

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-09

    Green chemistry by nanocatalysis: Catalysis is a strategic field of science because it involves new ways of meeting energy and sustainability challenges. The concept of green chemistry, which makes the science of catalysis even more creative, has become an integral part of sustainability. This special issue is at the interface of green chemistry and nanocatalysis, and features excellent background articles as well as the latest research results. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Lithography - Green and Getting Greener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2011-06-01

    Today, many energy-saving technologies and practices are enabled or made more effective through the use of nano-electronics. Such technologies include hybrid and all-electric cars, as well as controllers to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic panels. Telecommuting, which enables people to work without traveling from their homes, has been made possible by personal computers and the internet. Reducing the costs of nano-electronics will make possible increased opportunities for the use of products that reduce energy consumption. The most effective way to reduce costs is to improve efficiency. Increased efficiency also provides the benefit of reducing energy and material consumption in the manufacturing of nano-electronics. For example, reducing photochemical usage decreases costs but also reduces material consumption and the need for disposal. Reduction of scrap and rework are direct improvements in efficiency. Cycle time reduction enables greater responsiveness to demand, reducing the amount of material started in processing but never completed. Good process control reduces scrap and rework during manufacturing and results in circuits that have high performance, yet lower power consumption, when used. There are ready opportunities for making the most of the natural tendencies of businesses to innovate and improve efficiency. The semiconductor industry has historically adopted process improvements that have increased worker safety and reduced the consumption of hazardous materials. An early example was the transition from solvent to aqueous photoresist developers. Today, all types of development can be conducted in safer equipment that minimizes the release of hazardous chemicals to the air and water. Non-toxic solvents, such as ethyl lactate, have been widely adopted. There are many opportunities for further improvement. For example, over 90% of resist goes down the drain using conventional spin-coating process, so there is an opportunity for greatly improved efficiency in that operation. A lot of water is used to reduce defects when using chemically amplified resists, and the amount of water needed could be reduced by improved design of resists and substrate coatings. Thinking further into the future, directed self-assembly has the promise of a patterning technology that can be applied simply and with energy-efficiency. Once the fundamental challenges of creating high output extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources are overcome, there will be great opportunities for reducing electricity consumption.

  13. Editorial: Nanoscience makes catalysis greener

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Basset, Jean-Marie; Astruc, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry by nanocatalysis: Catalysis is a strategic field of science because it involves new ways of meeting energy and sustainability challenges. The concept of green chemistry, which makes the science of catalysis even more creative, has

  14. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Evaluating Hazards of Microplastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A. E.; Lewis, A. S.; Butler, C. H.; Lunsman, T. D.; Verslycke, T.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris in the environment is a growing global concern, and the past decade has brought particular attention to a small size range of plastic debris, often referred to as microplastics. The potential environmental effects of microplastics are complex and, as yet, poorly understood. Emerging research suggests that specific plastic types pose environmental risks primarily via indirect toxicity caused by hazardous compounds associated with microplastics (e.g., monomers, additives, and sorbed environmental pollutants). However, our understanding of the physicochemical properties that determine the environmental fate and toxicity of microplastics is limited. Some recent regulatory initiatives have been broad, seeking to regulate all solid synthetic polymers ≤5 mm despite the lack of a sound technical basis for using solely a size-based cutoff. Such broad regulation of all solid synthetic polymers may actually discourage the use and innovation of less hazardous synthetic polymers and "greener" substitutes. We propose a polymer-specific approach to evaluating potential hazards of microplastics, informed by the state of the science and current research needs. This approach relies on identifying focused tests and analyses to set criteria for determining the degree to which a solid synthetic polymer is likely to pose environmental risk. Important considerations include degradation, sorptive capacity, and monomer/additive content. Our approach is a first step toward a more comprehensive way to evaluate the environmental hazards and risks of microplastics. Our goals are to develop clearer criteria to assess future solid synthetic polymers of unknown concern, inform microplastics regulation, and drive innovation of greener solutions to this global concern.

  16. A means to a cleaner environment: energy efficient platinum-containing fuel cells to be introduced commercially in the early 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    The twelfth National Fuel Cell Seminar held in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. from 26th to 28th November 1990, was attended by 450 delegates from 17 countries, representing both developers and potential users worldwide. ''Fuel Cells - An Answer to a Cleaner Environment'' was the key theme running throughout the conference. This was strongly linked to the firm belief that fuel cells would make an important contribution to the world's energy needs over the next ten years as economically viable fuel cell power plants become commercialised. The conference heard that platinum containing phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are soon to be produced on a commercial basis. Both Fuji and Toshiba announced that they had opened PAFC production facilities in Japan during 1990. The key progress regarding development of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) was the announcement of a U.S. Government sponsored programme, to be led to General Motors, to produce a PEMFC powered motor vehicle. The conference reflected the growing extent of the multi-national collaborations that are now underway to develop fuel cell technologies. (author).

  17. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  18. Sustainable Approach to Nanomaterials and Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent activity on sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions is summarized. The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a...

  19. From kitchen to classroom: Assessing the impact of cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves on primary school attendance in Karonga district, northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christine A; Crampin, Amelia C; Mortimer, Kevin; Dube, Albert; Malava, Jullita; Johnston, Deborah; Unterhalter, Elaine; Glynn, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains. The present paper capitalises on opportunities offered by the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest randomised trial of biomass-fuelled cookstoves on health outcomes conducted to date, the design of which allows for the evaluation of additional outcomes at scale. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of cookstoves on primary school absenteeism in Karonga district, northern Malawi, in particular by conferring health and time and resource gains on young people aged 5-18. The analysis combines quantitative data from 6168 primary school students with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions carried out among 48 students in the same catchment area in 2016. Negative binomial regression models find no evidence that the cookstoves affected primary school absenteeism overall [IRR 0.92 (0.71-1.18), p = 0.51]. Qualitative analysis suggests that the cookstoves did not sufficiently improve household health to influence school attendance, while the time and resource burdens associated with cooking activities-although reduced in intervention households-were considered to be compatible with school attendance in both trial arms. More research is needed to assess whether the cookstoves influenced educational outcomes not captured by the attendance measure available, such as timely arrival to school or hours spent on homework.

  20. Comparative cost-efficiency of the EVOTECH endoscope cleaner and reprocessor versus manual cleaning plus automated endoscope reprocessing in a real-world Canadian hospital endoscopy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shum Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reprocessing of endoscopes generally requires labour-intensive manual cleaning followed by high-level disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER. EVOTECH Endoscope Cleaner and Reprocessor (ECR is approved for fully automated cleaning and disinfection whereas AERs require manual cleaning prior to the high-level disinfection procedure. The purpose of this economic evaluation was to determine the cost-efficiency of the ECR versus AER methods of endoscopy reprocessing in an actual practice setting. Methods A time and motion study was conducted at a Canadian hospital to collect data on the personnel resources and consumable supplies costs associated with the use of EVOTECH ECR versus manual cleaning followed by AER with Medivators DSD-201. Reprocessing of all endoscopes was observed and timed for both reprocessor types over three days. Laboratory staff members were interviewed regarding the consumption and cost of all disposable supplies and equipment. Exact Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for assessing differences in total cycle reprocessing time. Results Endoscope reprocessing was significantly shorter with the ECR than with manual cleaning followed by AER. The differences in median time were 12.46 minutes per colonoscope (p Conclusions The EVOTECH ECR was more efficient and less costly to use for the reprocessing of endoscopes than manual cleaning followed by AER disinfection. Although the cost of consumable supplies required to reprocess endoscopes with EVOTECH ECR was slightly higher, the value of the labour time saved with EVOTECH ECR more than offset the additional consumables cost. The increased efficiency with EVOTECH ECR could lead to even further cost-savings by shifting endoscopy laboratory personnel responsibilities but further study is required.

  1. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... prevention and the implementation of cleaner technology by putting a stress on the industry. Further an approach for the balance between environmental and technological considerations is introduced. The need for easily understandable environmental priorities is stressed and a concept for this is presented...

  2. Metodologia de checkland aplicada à implementação da produção mais limpa em serviços Cleaner production implementation in services using checkland's methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Sena da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O programa de Produção Mais Limpa tem sido aplicado com sucesso na indústria manufatureira, entretanto, esta ferramenta está longe de ser adotada por empresas de prestação de serviço. Este artigo tem como principal contribuição caracterizar o desenvolvimento e a aplicação da Produção Mais Limpa na prestação de serviço, a partir da utilização da Metodologia de Checkland para estruturação de problemas. Essa metodologia objetiva a comparação entre sistema real (como a empresa se encontra hoje e conceitual (como a empresa iria funcionar se adotasse a Produção Mais Limpa no sentido de traçar cenários de mudanças e auxiliar os gestores na tomada de decisão sobre adotar ou não adotar este programa.The Cleaner Production program has been applied successfully in the manufacturing industry. However, this instrument is far from service company's adoption. The main contribution of this thesis is to characterize the development and application of the Cleaner Production program in Services using Checkland Methodology for structuring problems. The main objective of this methodology is make a comparison between the real system (the way the company is today and the conceptual system (the way the company would work if it adopted the Cleaner Production as it traces the changing pictures and help managers to decide on adopting this program or not. The aim of the presented Case Studies is to show how the model is applied in service companies.

  3. Micro scale reactor system development with integrated advanced sensor technology: A modular approach to the development of microfluidic screening platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Fernandes, Ana Carolina

    Biotechnology is an increasingly relevant field, at a time when most industries strive for the development of greener processes by reducing and/or eliminating the environmental impact of industrial processes, often by limiting the use of certain compounds (e.g. harsh solvents, metal-based catalysts...... in cascade systems may require the spatial separation of the involved enzymes due to incompatible side-products or inhibitions from the reaction components. Certain cells present a faster growth rate at high densities, or different production titres depending on the formation of aggregates or cell adherence...... through fluidic devices. The latter approach offers more flexibility at a lower cost in terms of the achievable studies with the same unit operations, since these can be placed in a different order depending on the purpose or sample being characterized. The main goal of this dissertation was to develop...

  4. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may...

  5. Catalytic processes for cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1999-01-01

    More stringent limitations on vehicle emissions require different measurement: fuel reformulation is one of the most important and is calling for a noticeable impact on refinery assets. Composition rangers of the future fuels have been defined on a time scale. In this scenario the evolution of catalytic technologies becomes a fundamental tool for allowing refinery to reach the fixed-by-law targets. In this paper, the refinery process options to meet each specific requirements of reformulated fuels are surveyed [it

  6. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  7. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation

  8. Off gas film cooler cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Hardip S.; Koch, William C.; Burns, David C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remote controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter.

  9. Energy efficiency and cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinoff, M.; Grozeva, Iv.

    1999-01-01

    Energy is the fundamental driver of the economic growth in the todays society. It is an absolute prerequisite for the industrial development in the developed countries as well as for improving the quality of life and reducing the poverty in the developing world. It is expected that the energy demand in the developing countries will increase rapidly in the next decades, and will even exceed the level of consumption in the rich countries due to rising population and incomes. The burning of fossil fuel, however, inevitably leads to negative environmental impact, which no longer can be neglected

  10. Actions on climate change, Intended Reducing carbon emissions in China via optimal industry shifts: Toward hi-tech industries, cleaner resources and higher carbon shares in less-develop regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xue; Lahr, Michael; Yaxiong, Zhang; Meng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses an optimal interregional input-output model to focus on how interregional industrial shifts alone might enable China to reduce carbon intensity instead of national shifts. The optimal industry shifts assure integration of all regions by regional products and goods in which carbon emissions are embodied via energy consumption. Generally speaking, high-tech industries concentrate in affluent regions to replace construction. Selected services increase output shares across most of regions. Meanwhile, energy-intensive manufacturing, rather than agriculture, decrease their shares to achieve the national annual growth constrained by nation’s carbon targets. Due to the need to decelerate energy use, carbon intensity goal puts particularly extreme pressure on less-developed regions to shutter heavy industries. Explicit shifts toward cleaner resources and renewable energy appear to be quite important for coal mines in Central China. - Highlights: • The model optimizes GDP constrained by industry-based emissions targets. • Scenario on carbon intensity, growth rate, energy mix, and technology advance. • Interregional I-O table informs technology, industry mix, and interregional trade. • China could raise the output of high-tech in South Coast and of selected services. • Shifts toward cleaner resources and renewable energy are important in the Central.

  11. Ultrasound-Promoted Greener Synthesis of Novel Trifurcate 3-Substituted-chroman-2,4-dione Derivatives and Their Drug-Likeness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and convenient approach for one-pot synthesis of 3-substituted chroman-2,4-diones via a three-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, 4-hydroxy- coumarins and diverse pyrazolone derivatives was described. The combinatorial synthesis for this methodology was achieved by applying ultrasound irradiation in the absence of activator while making use of water as green solvent. Additionally, novel chroman-2,4-dione derivatives attached to an edaravone moiety represent an exploitable source of brand new anticancer agents. In comparison with conventional methods, experimental simplicity, good functional group tolerance, excellent yields, short routine, and atom efficiency are prominent features of this sonocatalyzed procedure.

  12. Overview of municipal sludge fluid bed incineration in North America--from green to greener--the Lakeview, the Duffin Creek and the Southerly experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangtran, K; Takmaz, L; Pham, H; Bergel, J Y; Welp, J; Burrowes, P

    2011-01-01

    Thermal processes used in sludge disposal have become more attractive as process improvements have been introduced, such as power generation and efficient heat recovery. More and more utilities and agencies are reevaluating their sludge management practices to ensure that they are providing sustainable management solutions for their clients. The thermal process design approach to the disposal of sludge is not only designed to achieve stricter emission limits but also is more energy efficient compared to its predecessors. Increasing numbers of new plants are being built every year with more energy efficient heat recovery features such as air preheating and cogeneration with steam and electricity production. This paper presents an overview of fluid bed incineration in North America and its evolution over the last decades. Case studies of the last three newest and largest plants in North America are presented, including the Lakeview Plant, Duffin Creek Plant, both in Ontario, Canada and the Southerly Plant in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  13. Piper-betle-shaped nano-S-catalyzed synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free reaction condition: a greener "nanoparticle-catalyzed organic synthesis enhancement" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vijay K; Borah, Madhurjya; Thakur, Ashim J

    2013-04-05

    Nano-S prepared by an annealing process showed excellent catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free reaction condition at 50 °C. The catalyst could be reused up to the fifth cycle without loss in its action. The green-ness of the present protocol was also measured using green metrics drawing its superiority.

  14. An evidential reasoning-based AHP approach for the selection of environmentally-friendly designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, C.Y., E-mail: ng.cy@cityu.edu.hk

    2016-11-15

    Due to the stringent environmental regulatory requirements being imposed by cross-national bodies in recent years, manufacturers have to minimize the environmental impact of their products. Among those environmental impact evaluation tools available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is often employed to quantify the product's environmental impact throughout its entire life cycle. However, owing to the requirements of expert knowledge in environmental science and vast effort for data collection in carrying out LCA, as well as the common absence of complete product information during product development processes, there is a need to develop a more suitable tool for product designers. An evidential reasoning-based approach, which aims at providing a fast-track method to perform design alternative evaluations for non-LCA experts, is therefore introduced as a new initiative to deal with the incomplete or uncertain information. The proposed approach also enables decision makers to quantitatively assess the life cycle phases and design alternatives by comparing their potential environmental impacts, thus effectively and efficiently facilitates the identification of greener designs. A case application is carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  15. Sustainable Biomimetic Approach to Nanomaterials and Applications of Nano-Catalysts in Green Synthesis and Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions. The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a vari...

  16. Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action Complexities of Climate and Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlett, Lynn; Vargas-Moreno, Juan; Flaxman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues, vast and varied in their details, unfold at the confluence of people and place. They present complexities in their biophysical details, their scope and scale, and the dynamic character of human action and natural systems. Addressing environmental issues often invokes tensions among battling interests and competing priorities. Air and water pollution, the effects of climate change, ecosystem transformations—these and other environmental issues involve scientific, social, economic, and institutional challenges. This book analyzes why tackling many of these problems is so difficult and why sustainability involves more than adoption of greener, cleaner technologies. Sustainability, as discussed in this book, involves knowledge flows and collaborative decision processes that integrate scientific and technological methods and tools, political and governance structures and regimes, and social and community values. The authors synthesize a holistic and adaptive approach to rethinking the frame...

  17. Low carbon transport : a greener future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This strategy is intended to enable the UK to meet the requirements of the carbon budgets set under the Climate Change Act 2008. Implementation of the strategy will be taken forward in a way that recognises and respects the policy responsibilities an...

  18. Going where the grass is greener

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, HK; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2002-01-01

    Based on a case study from Ferlo in Senegal, this paper discusses how pastoral mobility can be studied and understood with special emphasis on the use of GPS data. It has a dual objective: first, to investigate the methodological potential of using GPS data; second, to discuss the analytical use ...

  19. Greener Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermedia...

  20. A white book for a greener future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition law promulgated in August 2015 and the Paris Agreement in December 2016 have marked the necessity to build an energy mix with a growing up importance given to renewable energy sources. The French Gas Association (AFG) and the gas industry have joint their efforts to promote the advantages of natural gas as a support to the development of renewable energies. The publication of the AFG white book on September 27 is an illustration of this promotional action. This article provides an overview of the 10 proposals of this white book: 1 - promoting all renewable energy sources; 2 - Making energy transition in the regions a success; 3 - Improving air quality thanks to clean mobility; 4 - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions; 5 - Reducing energy consumption in accommodations; 6 - Fighting fuel poverty; 7 - Contributing to the energy security supplies of France; 8 - Making energy taxation more efficient; 9 - Storing energy while accompanying renewable energy sources development; 10 - Promoting innovation

  1. Greener management practices - ash mound reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, S.L.; Shyam, A.K.; Soni, R. [National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2002-12-01

    The dry ash handling system at Dadri has been pioneered for the first time in India by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The system is similar to that at the Drax power station in England. The paper reports the successful experimental trials carried out on vegetation of temporary ash mounds to assess the growth potential of local herbs, shrubs, trees and grasses directly on ash with no soil cover or fertiliser. These were extended to trials directly on the available (completed) mound surfaces. The grass Cynodon dactylon germinated well as did seeds of tree species including the Casurarina and Eucalyptus. It is hoped that efforts at Dadri will ultimately transform the ash into a productive and self sustaining ecosystem, as leaf fall adds additional organic material and the weathering process continues. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  2. When girls have no opportunities and women have neither time nor energy: the participation of Muslim female cleaners in recreational physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Statistics about the recreational physical activity (PA) of minority ethnic Muslim women reveal very low participation rates. Drawing on approaches to socialization and Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste, the aim of this study was to investigate the (lack of) PA participation of Muslim mino...

  3. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzyka, L.

    1995-01-01

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  4. An empirical examination of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana: an ARDL approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twerefou Daniel Kwabena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and economic growth. In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, there exist scanty studies that confirm or otherwise the EKC hypothesis with regards to CO2 emissions as well as the factors that drive CO2 emissions. This work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by addressing these two major questions using data from 1970 to 2010 and the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL Bounds Testing approach. The results rather suggest a U-shaped relationship between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions per capita indicating the non-existence of the EKC hypothesis for CO2 in Ghana. This implies that further increase in per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP will only be associated with increase in CO2 emissions as the income per capita turning point of about $624 at constant 2000 prices occurred between 1996 and 1997. Furthermore, our results reveal energy consumption and trade openness are positive long run drivers of CO2 emissions. It is therefore recommended that the enhancement of trade liberalization policies should ensure the use of cleaner technologies and products while investment in cleaner energy alternatives could help reduce CO2 emissions. We also recommend the implementation of the Low Carbon Development Strategy which integrates development and climate change mitigation actions.

  5. Potencial para implantação da produção mais limpa em sistemas locais de produção: o polo joalheiro de São José do Rio Preto Potential for implantation of cleaner production in local production systems: the jewelry cluster of São José do Rio Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Mana Domingues

    2009-12-01

    oportunidades para incorporar a dimensão ambiental em políticas e ações para a promoção de SLP, levando em conta as especificidades e a dinâmica tecnológica setorial em MPE.Policies and actions in national and international spheres which aim to develop the local industry competition, taking as their basis the many advantages of agglomeration, have been focusing on the local production systems (LPS. Such actions and policies indicate the LPS as a vector of economic dynamism that improves local development, emphasizing the role of micro and small enterprises (MSE which occur in an industrial agglomeration. However, the environmental dimension has thus far only received tangential treatment within the policies and actions in the promotional and structural activities mentioned above. Thus, there is a question as to how we could contemplate this dimension in order to understand and promote LPS, including the objective of preventing and reducing negative environmental impacts from the activities of these agglomerations. The article proposes to examine the opportunities for integration of environmental issues in a group of enterprises that belong to the São José do Rio Preto-SP Jewelry Cluster, which is the second largest in the State of São Paulo in manufacturing jewelers made from gold. These enterprises joined a competitiveness project undertaken by SEBRAE (Brazilian Agency for Support of Micro and Small Enterprises. The analysis adopts the cleaner production proposal(P + L as an approach and tool for environmental management, particularly suitable for smaller enterprises that are able to converge innovation efforts in order to provide alternatives for undertaking improvements in environmental performance. Qualitative exploratory research found that endeavors to update technology in the jewelry cluster analyzed with a view to cleaner production, leads to environmental, economic and occupational health and safety benefits due to the reduction in the consumption of raw

  6. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  7. A Study on Alternative Approaches to Instill Environmental Concerns in the Domain of Production Management of Industrial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Manzan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative analysis of alternative models of production with environmental concerns that may lead to higher effectiveness in initiatives undertaken by industrial firms towards the development of more sustainable operations. The objective is to organize the knowledge on the subject of such models and provide guidelines that may help managers in selecting the most fitting approach for their business, according to the strategy and conditions of the firm. Among the presented models, the Cleaner Production model stands out for promoting the approach of nurturing the concurrent strengthening of quality, productivity, and sustainability in the existing manufacturing processes by dealing more comprehensively with factors internal to the firm that may be directly controlled by the managers.

  8. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  9. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority projects including milestone plans...

  10. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    schematics on the various wet treatment operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  11. IMCO: Making the seas safer and cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, when the IMCO Assembly met for the first time, the Organization has had two main objectives: the introduction of measures designed to improve safety at sea and to prevent pollution of the sea from ships. But during its twenty-year history IMCO has also adopted a number of Conventions and other measures which are aimed specifically at tankers and the problem of pollution. The 1954 Oil Pollution Convention (for which IMCO became depositary in 1959) was the first major attempt by the maritime nations to curb the impact of oil pollution, but since then the problem has become even more serious today The amount of oil carried by sea has risen by 700 per cent in 20 years - to around 1,700 million tons. The world tanker fleet has increased from 37 million deadweight tons in 1954 to around 340 million deadweight tons today, and the size of the tankers themselves has also grown amazingly. The second Convention deals with liability of the ship or cargo owner for damage suffered as a result of an oil pollution casualty. The Convention is intended to ensure that adequate compensation is available to victims and places the liability for the damage on the shipowner. As a result, another Conference was convened by IMCO in 1971 which resulted in the adoption of a Convention establishing the International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage The Convention came into force in 1978 and the Fund has now been established with its headquarters in London These three Conventions all deal with what one might call the legal aspects of oil pollution. But the continuing boom in the transportation of oil showed that more work needed to be done on the technical side as well: the scale of oil pollution was so great in some areas that there was serious concern for the marine environment, not only as a result of accidents but through normal tanker operations, notably the cleaning of cargo tanks. In 1973 a major conference was called to discuss the whole problem of marine pollution from ships and resulted in the adoption of the most ambitious anti-pollution Convention ever adopted. The Marine Pollution Convention dealt not only with oil but other forms of pollution, including that from garbage, sewage, chemicals and other harmful substances

  12. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as electrostatic precipitators use a process called electrostatic attraction to trap charged particles. They draw air through ... of ozone with indoor chemicals such as those coming from household cleaning products, air fresheners, certain paints, ...

  13. Much cleaner nuclear energy from thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Zaragoza, Spain, an experimental thorium reactor will be built, which can be an alternative for uranium reactors. A brief impression is given of activities in the Netherlands with respect to the so-called Energy Amplifier (EA), which is a combination of a nuclear power plant and an accelerator. EA is the idea of C. Rubbia of CERN in Geneva, Switzerland

  14. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Li, W.-M.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  15. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Thorsen, Nils

    -ters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant job...... experience. Generally participants have had 5-15 years of practical experience and are in the position of a internal or external job change towards new tasks that require new knowledge, methodologies or management/co-ordination skills. The education of "Masters of Environmental Management" (MEM) started...

  16. Strategy for cleaner production in microbrewery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Li, W.-M. [Qinhuangdao Long-shi Brewery Inc. (China)

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' There are over 600 breweries in China with nearly the same production processes. Many of them are microbrewery with the capacity of less than 1 million barrels a year. Breweries are characterized by high resource consumption and discharge of large volumes of wastewater, gas emission and solid waste, such as spent grains, coal residue and broken bottles. Long-shi Brewery Inc. is a microbrewery located on the countryside, 200 km east of Beijing, and it is the main sources of pollution in the local community. Wastewater is one of the most important parts of water pollution. In order to reduce pollution and increase economic benefit, several strategies have been taken at the distillery to reduce pollution. For example, some of the cooling water was recycled; coal slag was used to produce bricks or road filling; waste gases were purified before emission; and some of the CO2 produced from fermentation were recycled to produce liquid CO2. More works will be carried out to treat the wastewater from washing operation. After all these strategies, the environmental and economic situation of the company will be greatly improved. (author)

  17. Nuclear techniques for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Highlights of the major IAEA programme for nuclear techniques and research which have direct contribution towards improvement of the environment are presented. These include topics in the areas of food and agriculture, hydrology, environmental monitoring, and marine sciences. Joint IAEA and FAO programmes in food and agriculture covers topics such as: control of insects and pests, monitoring of pesticides in ecosystem and food irradiation. In hydrology, development and management of water resources, water pollution assessment, cleaning of flue gases and sewage sludge, etc are being undertaken primarily in developing countries. Environmental monitoring is conducted with particular emphasis to when there is an accidental release of radioactivity into the environment, as happened to the Chernobyl accident

  18. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Simmie, John M

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the reactive chemistry of minor pollutants within extensively validated detailed mechanisms for traditional fuels, and also for innovative surrogates, describing the complex chemistry of new, environmentally important bio-fuels.

  19. Customization creates more efficient, cleaner rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-08-01

    Technological advances in drilling equipment are essential to improving efficiency in the oilpatch; getting the technological upper hand on the competition is no less important for drilling equipment manufacturers than for actors in other sectors of the industry. While off-the-shelf uniformity that reduces unit cost has been the trend in fabricating field gas compression modules, custom manufacturing has become very popular in the rig manufacturing sector. Examples from Crown Energy Technologies and Tesco Corporation, both of Calgary, Aecon Industrial's Edmonton operations, PCL Industrial Construction Ltd of Nisku, and Toromont Process Systems of Houston and Calgary are described to illustrate the widespread demand for customized drilling rigs, including the growing preference for electric drives. Top drive systems, as opposed to rotary drives also have become very popular; six out of ten rigs are sold with electric top drives today compared with fewer than 10 rigs a decade ago. At the same time, Tesco has recently signed a deal with Conoco Inc to construct three revolutionary drilling rigs using Tesco's proprietary Casing Drilling Technology, which uses standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe, allowing operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells. Aecon and PCL Industrial Construction have had much demand for customized spools and modules particularly from the oil sands industry, while Toromont Process Systems is also expanding its Calgary facilities to meet the demand for its dual gas compression equipment used by power stations for gas compression and co-generation, natural gas refrigeration and specialty gas processing.

  20. Cleaner Air in Sity Landscape / Ljuba Gornaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gornaja, Ljuba

    1998-01-01

    1997.a. lõpul toimunud konverentsist "Transport ja keskkond Tallinnas" ئ perspektiivid ja areng. Tabelid: 1. Sõidukite arv Eestis 1981-1997, 2. Transpordi-dünaamika Tallinnas 1990-1996, 3. Ühistranspordi hinnad Tallinnas 1. jaan. 1998. 4. Mootorikütuse tariifid Eestis 1993-1999

  1. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  2. The photon and the vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum technologies based on optics often rely on photon bunching and measurement with feed forward to achieve an effective nonlinear interaction between otherwise transparent particles. The efficacy of this strategy for implementing nonlinear interactions requires pure state single photon wave packets. These, however, are not so easy to come by. In this talk I will discussed some methods and tools that enable the preparation of such state. (author)

  3. Richer and cleaner - At others' expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehn, Taran; Bruvoll, Annegrete

    2009-01-01

    In rich economies emissions of many pollutants tend to grow at a slower rate than GDP. This could be a result of shifting comparative advantages. If so, net imports of dirty products to these economies will increase and rather than reduced, emissions will be relocated to other countries. In this paper we investigate if decoupling in a rich, open economy coincides with such pollution leakages abroad. Based on historical observations and model projections, we find little evidence to support this hypothesis. Historically, decoupling coincides with falling pollution leakages. Projections over a period of decades indicate a weakening of the decoupling, but that leakages will increase. (author)

  4. Cleaner aero-engines taking off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothigius, J.

    1991-01-01

    Airlines operating on domestic routes in Sweden have to pay taxes on their emissions of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. These taxes have spurred improvements in engine design, but are unlikely to slow the growth in air traffic

  5. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  6. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  7. Designing green derivatives of β-blocker Metoprolol: a tiered approach for green and sustainable pharmacy and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Tushar; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    The presences of micro-pollutants (active pharmaceutical ingredients, APIs) are increasingly seen as a challenge of the sustainable management of water resources worldwide due to ineffective effluent treatment and other measures for their input prevention. Therefore, novel approaches are needed like designing greener pharmaceuticals, i.e. better biodegradability in the environment. This study addresses a tiered approach of implementing green and sustainable chemistry principles for theoretically designing better biodegradable and pharmacologically improved pharmaceuticals. Photodegradation process coupled with LC-MS(n) analysis and in silico tools such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis and molecular docking proved to be a very significant approach for the preliminary stages of designing chemical structures that would fit into the "benign by design" concept in the direction of green and sustainable pharmacy. Metoprolol (MTL) was used as an example, which itself is not readily biodegradable under conditions found in sewage treatment and the aquatic environment. The study provides the theoretical design of new derivatives of MTL which might have the same or improved pharmacological activity and are more degradable in the environment than MTL. However, the in silico toxicity prediction by QSAR of those photo-TPs indicated few of them might be possibly mutagenic and require further testing. This novel approach of theoretically designing 'green' pharmaceuticals can be considered as a step forward towards the green and sustainable pharmacy field. However, more knowledge and further experience have to be collected on the full scope, opportunities and limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic responses to global warming: Prospects for cooperative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    At the outset, any cooperative approach to global warming will have to reach some rough consensus on two sets of magnitudes and the marginal trade-off between them. One set of magnitudes relates to CO 2 production and abatement. It is the cost and difficulties of reducing energy use by households, farms, and industry, and of switching to cleaner fossil fuels or converting to nonfossil energies. These are the kinds of things that economists and engineers, sometimes sociologists and architects, have been working on with special motivation since 1973. The uncertainties remain great, and they increase many-fold when projected to the middle of the next century. But these estimates do receive attention. The other set of magnitudes has to do with the impact of changing climate on economic productivity, on health and comfort, on the quality of life in general, and on the differential rates of progress among countries. These estimates, on which virtually no work was done until recently, are doubly uncertain. In this study the author offers a judgment about the magnitude of the consequences of failing to reduce CO 2 emissions drastically below what they would be in the absence of such an effort. The author takes 'drastic' to mean anything between an emissions growth rate half of what it would otherwise be and an emissions growth rate of zero beginning one or two decades from now - that is, annual emissions leveling off within a decade or two. That level would still leave emissions growing at the maximum achieved rate

  9. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    questions are: How (much) and what do teachers learn from experience? And how do teachers of adults develop their pedagogical approach? I examine the field of adult learners from the teachers’ perspective. Firstly, I identify some of the commonly described characteristics of adults as learners...... in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles...

  10. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  11. Estrutura organizacional para a difusão da produção mais limpa: uma contribuição da metodologia seis sigma na constituição de redes intra-organizacionais Organizational structure for cleaner production diffusion: a contribution of the six sigma methodology to the creation of intra-organizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Cerávolo Calia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A "Produção Mais Limpa" é uma metodologia criada para aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental das manufaturas. Devido a sua importância para o desenvolvimento sustentável, a Produção Mais Limpa foi amplamente promovida pela Organização das Nações Unidas e por diversas redes de organizações visando à difusão desta metodologia. No entanto, após mais de dez anos de atuação, estas redes para a difusão da Produção Mais Limpa têm se confrontado com significativas e recorrentes barreiras organizacionais que limitam seu desempenho. Utilizando-se do referencial teórico de "organizações em rede" no contexto da inovação, este artigo se baseia num aprofundado estudo de caso sobre uma estrutura organizacional em rede dentro de uma empresa multinacional que opera dezenas de manufaturas em diversos países. Esta empresa triplicou o desempenho ambiental em toneladas de poluição prevenidas e multiplicou em oito vezes o número de projetos de Produção Mais Limpa bem sucedidos, após ter implementado uma estrutura organizacional em rede para aumentar sua capacidade de gerenciar projetos para a melhoria de processos. Para explicar os motivos de tal aumento de desempenho ambiental, o artigo utiliza a metodologia de modelagem organizacional Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD para descrever as interações entre os objetivos, regras e processos do Programa de Produção Mais Limpa desta corporação, assim como as suas estruturas de relacionamento entre os atores que viabilizaram a integração das competências necessárias para a geração de uma maior capacidade de inovação ambientalmente sustentável nas manufaturas.Cleaner Production is a methodology to improve environmental sustainability in manufacturers. Due to its importance for sustainable development, the United Nations and many regional networks have taken on the responsibility to diffuse Cleaner Production methodology. After more than ten years of activity, however, these

  12. The Political Economy of Energy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Shouro; De Cian, Enrica; Verdolini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general stren...

  13. Narrative approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations...... of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching...... as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue...

  14. Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting productivity is one of the goals of usinginformation technology in organizations. The purpose of this research isexamining the impact of IT on organizational productivity andrecognizing its mechanisms based on process-oriented approach. For thisend, by reviewing the literature of the subject a number of impacts of ITon organizational processes were identified. Then, through interviewswith IT experts, seven main factors were selected and presented in aconceptual model. This model was tested through a questionnaire in 148industrial companies. Data analysis shows that impact of IT onproductivity can be included in the eight major categories: Increasing ofthe Automation, Tracking, Communication, Improvement, Flexibility,Analytic, Coordination and Monitoring in organizational processes.Finally, to improve the impact of information technology onorganizational productivity, some suggestions are presented.

  15. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  16. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Diane; Solomon, Gina

    2004-01-01

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  17. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of solid waste management strategies in Thimphu with reference to its detrimental effect and remission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bidisha; Murshed, Warefta E.; Chakraborty, Saikat

    2018-04-01

    Bhutan is a small landlocked country with an area of 38,394 km2 and population of 797,765 which is considered as the world's leading carbon negative country. Since Bhutan is a developing nation which is thriving to expand its social, cultural and economic boundaries, the country is facing increasing number of rural-urban migration as well as rapidly changing life style which are the major driving forces of increased waste generation in the cities especially at the urban centers like Thimphu. Irregular management and improper dumping leads to an unhealthy community, disturbs the natural ecosystem and dismantles the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a product. This study basically assessed the constraints of the present strategies used in waste management practices in Thimphu associated with the increasing population pressure and the importance of having modern landfill and incinerator facilities with the use of innovative technologies which would help to develop the concept of Eco-city. Bhutan being a carbon negative country which could be a leading sign of eco-city might be questionable in near future for its improper management techniques. South Asian countries such as Bhutan need to be concerned about proper management of waste. It also contends that the current trend of using only landfills, cannot solve the waste management problem, but rather then that incinerators have the potential to be a better choice, if maintained properly for the development of an eco-city. Solid waste management (SWM) and partaking greener policy is a matter of concern for the eco-city. Use of proper waste management approaches is essential for having sustainable eco-city in the long run.

  19. An Integrated Open Approach to Capturing Systematic Knowledge for Manufacturing Process Innovation Based on Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation plays a vital role in the manufacture realization of increasingly complex new products, especially in the context of sustainable development and cleaner production. Knowledge-based innovation design can inspire designers’ creative thinking; however, the existing scattered knowledge has not yet been properly captured and organized according to Computer-Aided Process Innovation (CAPI. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated approach to tackle this non-trivial issue. By analyzing the design process of CAPI and technical features of open innovation, a novel holistic paradigm of process innovation knowledge capture based on collective intelligence (PIKC-CI is constructed from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle. Then, a multi-source innovation knowledge fusion algorithm based on semantic elements reconfiguration is applied to form new public knowledge. To ensure the credibility and orderliness of innovation knowledge refinement, a collaborative editing strategy based on knowledge lock and knowledge–social trust degree is explored. Finally, a knowledge management system MPI-OKCS integrating the proposed techniques is implemented into the pre-built CAPI general platform, and a welding process innovation example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that our work would lay the foundation for the future knowledge-inspired CAPI and smart process planning.

  20. Interventions to Encourage and Facilitate Greener Industrial Chemicals Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, David

    2017-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity in modern life, industrial chemicals are poorly regulated in the United States. Statutory law defines industrial chemicals as chemicals that are not foods, drugs, cosmetics, nor pesticides, but may be used in consumer products, and this distinction places them under the purview of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which received a substantial update when the US congress passed a revision of the act in 2016. The revised law, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety...

  1. Fabrication of Greener Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology plays a crucial role in different separation processes such as biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and food industries, drinking water supply, and wastewater treatment. However, there is a growing concern that solvents commonly used

  2. Can Small and Medium Enterprises Participate in Greener ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift toward a green economy in Latin America and the Caribbean poses key ... This project will examine policy options to promote green technologies and processes among ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  3. Towards greener concrete: The challenges of SUS-CON project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attanasio, A.; Largo, A.; Vinai, R.; Soutsos, M.; Visser, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Panagiotopoulou, C.; Taxiarchou, M.; Sonzogni, F.; Preda, M.; Pugliese, M.

    2017-01-01

    Portland cement production is an energy-intensive process responsible for a significant share of the total CO2 production. Its replacement with low carbon binders from by-products of industrial processes is a sustainable alternative for innovative construction materials. In addition, the combination

  4. Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

  5. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamane, N P; Nataraja, M C; Jeyalakshmi, R; Nithiyanantham, S

    2015-01-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO 2 emission’ (ECO 2 e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO 2 e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement. (paper)

  6. Fabrication of Greener Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, DooLi

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology plays a crucial role in different separation processes such as biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and food industries, drinking water supply, and wastewater treatment. However, there is a growing concern that solvents commonly used for membrane fabrication, such as dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic to the environment and human health. To explore the possibility of substituting these toxic solvents by less toxic or safer solvents, polymers commonly used for membrane fabrication, such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulose acetate (CA), polyethersulfone (PES), and poly(ether imide sulfone) (EXTEMTM), were dissolved in ionic liquids. Flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes were then fabricated. The thermodynamics of the polymer solutions, the kinetics of phase inversion and other factors, which resulted in significant differences in the membrane structure, compared to those of membranes fabricated from more toxic solvents, were investigated. Higher water permeance with smaller pores, unique and uniform morphologies, and narrower pore size distribution, were observed in the ionic liquid-based membranes. Furthermore, comparable performance on separation of peptides and proteins with various molecular weights was achieved with the membranes fabricated from ionic liquid solutions. In summary, we propose less hazardous polymer solutions to the environment, which can be used for the membrane fabrication with better performance and more regular morphology.

  7. Is a New Urban Development Model Building Greener Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngentob, Kara; Hostetler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Although neotraditional architecture largely focuses on promoting sense of community (SOC), it has the potential to influence environmentalism in residents as well. In October 2002, the authors conducted a mail survey of 1,611 middleclass homeowners in Gainesville, Florida, to determine if there were differences in SOC and environmental behaviors,…

  8. Emerging greener extraction systems for fungal pigments isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau , Juliana; Venkatachalam , Mekala; Fouillaud , Mireille; Dufossé , Laurent; Caro , Yanis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Filamentous fungi produce a mixture of various metabolites such as pigments, fatty acids, proteins and other cellular metabolites. Thus, extraction and isolation of the pigmented molecules of interest are necessary steps before proceeding to any further utilization of these metabolites for commercial applications. Pigments can be stored within the biomass, excreted in the fermentation broth or both, suggesting that extraction methods need to be developed accordingly to...

  9. Zimbabwean teachers in South Africa: A transient greener pasture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tertiary education sector, and migrating to other, better paying countries. Migrant teachers are playing a .... ways and challenges of finding employment, and what their future ... Profile of the Migrant Zimbabwean Teachers. The Zimbabwean ...

  10. RSM Outlook Summer 2012 : Blueprints for Greener Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Whittern (Justine)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Taking a global view (Russell Gilbert) Ruth Cairnie, Executive Vice President of Strategy and Planning for Royal Dutch Shell, discusses the forces driving the increasingly urgent need for sustainable energy and the factors that may determine whether we find solutions sooner

  11. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  12. Greener Alternatives to Expedient Synthesis of Heterocycles and Nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds [1] from in situ generated reactive interm...

  13. Greener Synthetic Alternatives to Organic Molecules and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermedia...

  14. Greener Synthetic Alternatives to Heterocycles, Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave (MW) expedited reaction of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermediates via enamines or using hyp...

  15. Clearing the Ground for a Greener New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewman, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    In the context of public and policy concerns about human induced climate change, it is striking that dominant models and histories of English teaching marginalise the environmental significance of English as a school subject (Matthewman, 2010). This is in spite of a growing body of ecocritical work within English and cultural studies which has…

  16. Gas rated a 'trump card' in bid for greener planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential environmental implications of natural gas supply and use are oulined, and possible impacts arising from exploration, production and transmission operations and the precautions taken are reviewed. The difference between natural gas combustion and the combustion of e.g. fuel oils with regard to emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals and carbon dioxide is considered. The growth in the share of natural gas, and the strong commercial incentives for the gas industry to minimise any leakage of methane are discussed. (UK)

  17. Creating Greener Citizens: Political Liberalism and a Robust Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of environmentalist views often urge the teaching of such views and the inculcation of "green" values within the educational curriculum of schools as a key component of achieving their ends. It might seem that modern versions of political morality that refuse to take a stance on controversial questions--religious, ethical,…

  18. Organic Milk: Is the Grass Greener on the Other Side?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the costs and benefits of producing organic milk. To be organic, dairy farmers must use organic fertilizer and organic pesticides, and the cows are not given supplemental hormones or antibiotics--that is, the milk must be produced without chemicals, hormones, or antibiotics (Hannon 2009). The organic versus nonorganic world…

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Buckman Laboratories International, developed Optimyze technology, which uses an esterase enzyme to remove sticky contaminants from paper products prior to recycling.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Battelle, developed a biobased soy toner for laser printers and copiers. The technology saves energy and improves de-inking, allowing more paper fiber to be recycled.

  3. Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...

  4. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING 'GREENER' ALTERNATIVE REACTION CONDITIONS AND MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical research during the last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift towards "environmentally-friendly chemistry" more popularly known as "green chemistry" due to the increasing environmental concerns and legislative requirements to curb the release of chemical waste into ...

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, BASF, invented a one-component, urethane acrylate oligomer primer system for automobile refinishing that is UV-curable, has VOCs, and is free of diisocyanates.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Nalco Chemical Co., developed homogeneous dispersion polymerization with water as the solvent to make polymers to treat water in industrial and municipal operations.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Argonne National Laboratory, developed an efficient, membrane-based process to synthesize lactate esters from sugars. These esters can replace toxic solvents.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winners, Bayer and Bayer AG, Covestro, developed high-performance, water-based, two-component polyurethane (PU) coatings that eliminate most or all VOCs and HAPs in other PU coatings.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Dow Chemical Company, developed a process to manufacture polystyrene foam sheet packaging that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a blowing agent, eliminating CFC-12 and HCFC-22.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Merck & Co. and Codexis, developed an enzymatic synthesis for sitagliptin (Januvia) that reduces waste, improves yield and safety, and eliminates a metal catalyst.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Flexsys America, developed nucleophilic aromatic substitution for hydrogen to eliminate waste from a common reaction and to produce 4-ADPA, a high-volume chemical.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winners, Bayer Corporation and Bayer AG, developed a waste-free manufacturing process for sodium iminodisuccinate (Baypure CX), a biodegradable, nontoxic chelating agent.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Dow and BASF, jointly developed a route to make propylene oxide from hydrogen peroxide that eliminates almost all waste and greatly reduces water and energy use.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, BHC Company, developed a highly atom-efficient method to make ibuprofen, a common painkiller, using three catalytic steps instead of six stoichiometric ones.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winners, Professor Kaichang Li, Columbia Forest Products, and Hercules, developed an adhesive for wood composites based on soy flour instead of resins with formaldehyde.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Lilly Research Laboratories, developed a low-waste drug synthesis using yeast for a stereospecific reduction, reducing solvent amounts, and replacing chromium oxide.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Eastman Chemical Co., makes esters for emollients and emulsifiers in cosmetics with immobilized enzymes, saving energy and avoiding strong acids and organic solvents.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Life Technologies, developed a one-pot synthesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a much more efficient process that prevents about 1.5 million pounds of hazardous waste a year.