WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaner cook stoves

  1. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality

  2. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    are relevant issues to save energy and avoid greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions. This work compares the operating performance of 3 types of biomass stoves used in Europe in their interaction with dwellings. Field studies were conducted in 24 houses in Portugal and Denmark to analyse wood-burning behaviours......In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...

  3. Biogas cook stoves for healthy and sustainable diets? A case study in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Lee Anderman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cook stoves that replace solid fuels with cleaner energy sources, such as biogas, are gaining popularity in low-income settings across Asia, Africa and South America. Published research on these technologies focuses on their potential to reduce indoor air pollution and improve respiratory health. Effects on other cooking related aspects, such as diets and women’s time management, are less understood. In this study in southern India, we investigate if using biogas cook stoves alters household diets and women’s time management. We compare treatment households who are supplied with a biogas cook stove with comparison households who do not have access to these stoves, while controlling for several socio-economic factors. We find that diets of treatment households are more diverse than diets of comparison households. In addition, women from treatment households spend on average 40 minutes less cooking and 70 minutes less collecting firewood per day than women in comparison households. This study illustrates that alongside known benefits for respiratory health, using alternative cook stoves may benefit household diets and free up women’s time. To inform development investments and ensure these co-benefits, we argue that multiple dimensions of sustainability should be considered in evaluating the impact of alternative cook stoves.

  4. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  5. Adoption and use of a semi-gasifier cooking and water heating stove and fuel intervention in the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Carter, E.; Shan, M.; Ni, K.; Niu, H.; Tseng, J. T. W.; Pattanayak, S. K.; Jeuland, M.; Schauer, J. J.; Ezzati, M.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yang, X.; Baumgartner, J.

    2017-07-01

    Improved cookstoves and fuels, such as advanced gasifier stoves, carry the promise of improving health outcomes, preserving local environments, and reducing climate-forcing air pollutants. However, low adoption and use of these stoves in many settings has limited their benefits. We aimed to improve the understanding of improved stove use by describing the patterns and predictors of adoption of a semi-gasifier stove and processed biomass fuel intervention in southwestern China. Of 113 intervention homes interviewed, 79% of homes tried the stove, and the majority of these (92%) continued using it 5-10 months later. One to five months after intervention, the average proportion of days that the semi-gasifier stove was in use was modest (40.4% [95% CI 34.3-46.6]), and further declined over 13 months. Homes that received the stove in the first batch used it more frequently (67.2% [95% CI 42.1-92.3] days in use) than homes that received it in the second batch (29.3% [95% CI 13.8-44.5] days in use), likely because of stove quality and user training. Household stove use was positively associated with reported cooking needs and negatively associated with age of the main cook, household socioeconomic status, and the availability of substitute cleaner-burning stoves. Our results show that even a carefully engineered, multi-purpose semi-gasifier stove and fuel intervention contributed modestly to overall household energy use in rural China.

  6. A quantitative performance assessment of improved cooking stoves and traditional three-stone-fire stoves using a two-pot test design in Chamwino, Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, J.; Uckert, G.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A. A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2018-02-01

    In Tanzania, a majority of rural residents cook using firewood-based three-stone-fire stoves. In this study, quantitative performance differences between technologically advanced improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves are analysed. We test the performance of improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves using local cooks, foods, and fuels, in the semi-arid region of Dodoma in Tanzania. We used the cooking protocol of the Controlled Cooking Test following a two-pot test design. The findings of the study suggest that improved cooking stoves use less firewood and less time than three-stone-fire stoves to conduct a predefined cooking task. In total, 40 households were assessed and ask to complete two different cooking tasks: (1) a fast cooking meal (rice and vegetables) and (2) a slow cooking meal (beans and rice). For cooking task 1, the results show a significant reduction in firewood consumption of 37.1% by improved cooking stoves compared to traditional three-stone-fire stoves; for cooking task 2 a reduction of 15.6% is found. In addition, it was found that the time needed to conduct cooking tasks 1 and 2 was significantly reduced by 26.8% and 22.8% respectively, when improved cooking stoves were used instead of three-stone-fire-stoves. We observed that the villagers altered the initial improved cooking stove design, resulting in the so-called modified improved cooking stove. In an additional Controlled Cooking Test, we conducted cooking task 3: a very fast cooking meal (maize flour and vegetables) within 32 households. Significant changes between the initial and modified improved cooking stoves regarding firewood and time consumption were not detected. However, analyses show that both firewood and time consumption during cooking was reduced when large amounts (for 6-7 household members) of food were prepared instead of small amounts (for 2-3 household members).

  7. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  8. A laboratory comparison of the global warming impact of five major types of biomass cooking stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarty, N.; Ogle, D.; Still, D.; Bond, T.; Roden, C. [Aprovecho Research Center, Creswell, OR (United States)

    2008-06-15

    With over 2 billion of the world's population living in families using biomass to cook every day, the possibility of improved stoves helping to mitigate climate change is generating increasing attention. With their emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, and black carbon, among other substances, is there a cleaner, practical option to provide to the families that will need to continue to use biomass for cooking? This study served to help quantify the relative emissions from five common types of biomass combustion in order to investigate if there are cleaner options. The laboratory results showed that for situations of sustainable harvesting where CO{sub 2} emissions are considered neutral, some improved stoves with rocket-type combustion or fan assistance can reduce overall warming impact from the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) by as much as 50-95%. In non-sustainable situations where fuel and CO{sub 2} savings are of greater importance, three types of improved combustion methods were shown to potentially reduce warming by 40-60%. Charcoal-burning may emit less CO{sub 2} than traditional wood-burning, but the PIC emissions are significantly greater.

  9. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  10. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Clean Cook Stove Technology for Artisanal Palm Oil Clarification and Biochar Production in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorvlo, Selorm Y.; Addo, Ahmad; Abenney-Mickson, Stephen

    the palm fruits) and simultaneously produce heat and biochar. The adopted design procedure was iterative and eight preliminary tests were conducted; each an improvement of the previous stove tested. The best stove configuration was adopted for the design calculations and the final stove fabricated...... with a biochar yield of 5%. A maximum CO emission of 5 ppm was measured. The study showed that the palm oil clarification process with the designed cook stove provided a smokeless work environment, heat and biochar....

  12. Improved cook stove adoption and impact assessment: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, Karin; Armendáriz, Cynthia; Alatorre, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Until now, the success of improved cook stoves (ICS) implementation programs has usually been measured by the number of ICS distributed. Some important research has been conducted to try to determine the effects of the use of an ICS in the user′s health, but these studies are expensive and time consuming. Moreover, no evaluations show the impact of the technology in the user′s lives. This study seeks to contribute to fill this gap. Scope: By applying cluster analysis techniques to survey data, the most relevant variables that explain adoption and impact were identified. Using these variables, two qualitative indexes are proposed: The adoption index considers the use of the new technology, the level of satisfaction, and the conditions of the stove. The impact index considers the changes in cooking practices and life quality brought about by the ICS. Both indexes are then applied to two implementation programs. The indexes show the differences between the program results and the user′s perceptions of each technology. Conclusions: The proposed indexes can be used to measure the success of an ICS implementation program in terms of the benefits perceived by the users of these technologies. -- Highlights: •Two qualitative indexes are proposed to measure the benefits perceived by ICS users. •Two implementation programs were assessed. •The approach enables determining the impact of ICS programs at a fraction of the cost. •It enables comparing the results of different implementation programs

  13. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, C.; Pachauri, S.; Rao, N.; McCollum, D.; Rogelj, J.; Riahi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent c...

  14. Particle Morphology From Wood-Burning Cook Stoves Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, O.; Carabali, G.; Castro, T.; Torres, R.; Ruiz, L. G.; Molina, L. T.; Saavedra, I.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from three wood-burning cook stoves were sampled to collect particles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) copper grids were placed on the last two stages of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor (d50= 0.32, and 0.18 μm). Samples were obtained on two heating stages of cooking, the first is a quick heating process to boil 1 liter of water, and the second is to keep the water at 90 C. Absorption coefficient, scattering coefficients, and particles concentration (0.01 - 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using an absorption photometer (operated at 550 nm), a portable integrating nephelometer (at 530 nm), and a condensation particle counter connected to a chamber to dilute the wood stoves emissions. Transmission electron micrographic images of soot particles were acquired at different magnifications using a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) JEOL HRTEM 4000EX operating at 200 kV, equipped with a GATAN digital micrograph system for image acquisition. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The presence of high numbers of carbon ceno-spheres can be attributed to pyrolysis, thermal degradation, and others processes prior to combustion. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. EDS analysis in particles with d50= 0.18 μm showed a higher content of carbonaceous material and relevant amounts of Si, S and K.

  15. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; Pachauri, Shonali; Rao, Narasimha D.; McCollum, David; Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent climate policy scenarios. Our most stringent mitigation scenario increases clean fuel costs 38% in 2030 relative to the baseline, keeping 21% more South Asians on traditional stoves or increasing the minimum support policy cost to achieve universal clean cooking by up to 44%. The extent of this increase depends on how policymakers allocate subsidies between clean fuels and stoves. These additional costs are within the range of financial transfers to South Asia estimated in efforts-sharing scenarios of international climate agreements.

  16. Validation of numerical model for cook stove using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes based solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Moinul; Hasan, Md. Abdullah Al; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Rahaman, Md. Mashiur

    2017-12-01

    Biomass fired cook stoves, for many years, have been the main cooking appliance for the rural people of developing countries. Several researches have been carried out to the find efficient stoves. In the present study, numerical model of an improved household cook stove is developed to analyze the heat transfer and flow behavior of gas during operation. The numerical model is validated with the experimental results. Computation of the numerical model is executed the using non-premixed combustion model. Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) equation along with the κ - ɛ model governed the turbulent flow associated within the computed domain. The computational results are in well agreement with the experiment. Developed numerical model can be used to predict the effect of different biomasses on the efficiency of the cook stove.

  17. Gasification Performance of a Top-Lit Updraft Cook Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Mehta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study of a top-lit updraft cook stove with a focus on gasification. The reactor is operated with primary air only. The performance is studied for a variation in the primary airflow, as well as reactor geometry. Temperature in the reactor, air flow rate, fuel consumption rate, and producer gas composition were measured. From the measurements the superficial velocity, pyrolysis front velocity, peak bed temperature, air fuel ratio, heating value of the producer gas, and gasification rate were calculated. The results show that the producer gas energy content was maximized at a superficial velocity of 9 cm/s. The percent char remaining at the end of gasification decreased with increasing combustion chamber diameter. For a fixed superficial velocity, the gasification rate and producer gas energy content were found to scale linearly with diameter. The energy content of the producer gas was maximized at an air fuel (AF ratio of 1.8 regardless of the diameter.

  18. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  19. Induction stoves as an option for clean cooking in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Manjushree; Prasad, Rakesh; Rehman, Ibrahim H; Gill, Bigsna

    2016-01-01

    As part of a programme on ‘access to clean cooking alternatives in rural India’, induction stoves were introduced in nearly 4000 rural households in Himachal Pradesh, one of the few highly electrified states in India. Analysis of primary usage information from 1000 rural households revealed that electricity majorly replaced Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), generally used as a secondary cooking fuel, but did not influence a similar shift from traditional mud stoves as the primary cooking technology. Likewise, the shift from firewood to electricity as a primary cooking fuel was observed in only 5% of the households studied. Country level analysis indicates that rural households falling in lower monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) classes have lesser access to electricity and clean cooking options than those falling in higher MPCE classes. Again, only three states in India with high levels of rural household electrification report consumption statuses more than 82 kWh per month (the estimated mean for electricity consumption by induction stoves). Overall, the results of the study indicate that induction stoves will have limited potential in reducing the consumption of firewood and LPG if included in energy access programmes, that too only in regions where high levels of electrification exist. - Highlights: • Primary survey of induction stove users was conducted in 1000 rural households. • In 84% households, electricity replaced LPG as the secondary cooking fuel. • In only 5% households, electricity replaced firewood as the primary cooking fuel. • Electricity as a cooking fuel for rural India still needs massive investments. • Currently, induction stoves are only able to reduce consumption of firewood and LPG.

  20. Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. M.; Abakr, Y. A.; Riley, P. H.; Hann, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity, and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities, stoves are made without technical advancements, mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency, and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost, high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire, and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting, charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

  1. Fuelwood savings and carbon emission reductions by the use of improved cooking stoves in an Afromontane forest, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dresen, E.; DeVries, B.R.; Herold, M.; Verchot, L.; Müller, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS), specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera , referred to locally as “ Mirt ” stoves, have be...

  2. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  3. Policy implications for improved cook stove programs—A case study of the importance of village fuel use variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlne, Niklas; Ahlgren, Erik O.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the long history of cook stove programs, very few have been successful, often only in areas where biomass is purchased or there is a biomass shortage. Several studies have described how rural households generally rely on several different fuels; which fuels are used may depend on various household characteristics such as location and income. This article explores possible consequences of variations in fuel usage for improved cook stove programs and how this may vary between different areas. Reductions of CO 2 equivalent emissions and monetary savings are calculated for hypothetical cook stove deployment using data from a rural energy survey in the Vĩnh Phúc province of northern Vietnam. The results indicate that the areas may respond differently to the various stove options, both in terms of economy and emission reductions. Furthermore, there are large differences in emission reduction calculations when only Kyoto-gases are included and when non-Kyoto greenhouse agents are added. Assumptions regarding household behavior and stove efficiencies have large impacts on the results, indicating a need for further research on how improved cook stoves may influence households’ fuel choices. - Highlights: • Household data from six different villages were used to calculate potential benefits from an improved stove program. • The possible monetary savings and reductions in CO 2 equivalent emissions were calculated. • The results show benefits as non-linear functions of stove improvements. • The results show large variations among villages in the functions mapping stove improvements to benefits

  4. The role of donor organisations in promoting energy efficient cook stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kees, Marlis; Feldmann, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on cooking energy and the role of donor organisations in the introduction and dissemination of improved stoves. After presenting some basic facts on cooking energy, the article discusses the cooking energy–poverty nexus and possible reasons for the often neglect of this topic in the context of development cooperation. Clean and efficient technologies for cooking are presented and a short introduction to different dissemination approaches shows the changes that occurred in the last years. The importance of public sector investments to increase the supply and use of clean cooking energy technologies in developing countries is analysed and underlined by GTZ’s experiences in this field. The case study of Uganda finally demonstrates how cooking energy interventions work in the field and points out that investment pays off. - Highlights: ► Cooking energy is a neglected topic in the context of development cooperation. ► Political frameworks do not reflect social and economic relevance of biomass energy. ► Scaling up the dissemination of cookstoves requires public sector investment. ► Investments in efficient and clean stoves pay-off.

  5. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    .... 701- TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of top-of...

  6. 75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...); (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review))] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of- the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International... porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China and Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on...

  7. Absorption cycle commercial refrigerator using wood burning cook stove; Geladeira de absorcao acionada por fogao a lenha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1991-12-31

    The current utilization of wood burning cook stoves in Brazil and the socio-economical profile of their users were surveyed. A traditional heavy-mass wood-burning cook stove was studied as a thermal equipment. Simple changes in the geometry of the combustion chamber were suggested to improve the cooking efficiency. A closed two-phase thermosyphon using water as working fluid was designed, built and connected between the combustion chamber of the cook stove and a depressurized absorption refrigeration system to determine the heat flux and the temperature level. A commercial refrigerator unit, using the absorption cycle, was coupled with the wood stove through the thermosyphon. The overall results of the coupling point to successful country-side applications. (author) 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  9. Wood fuel use in the traditional cooking stoves in the rural floodplain areas of Bangladesh: A socio-environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)]|[Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Al Rashid, Harun [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Shin, Man Yong [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A study was conducted, using a multistage simple random sampling design, to determine the structural characteristics of the traditional cooking stoves, amount of wood fuel consumed in the rural floodplain areas in Bangladesh, and also to figure out the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood fuel usage in the traditional cooking stove. The study showed that family size, income, amount cooked and burning hours significantly affected the amount of wood fuel used per family per year. Taking into account different family sizes, the study observed that 4.24 tonne fuelwood were consumed per family per year. The study showed that 42% of families used only biomass fuel, 5% used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and 53% used kerosene along with biomass fuels. The main source of biomass fuel was homestead forests (40%). It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. The study also showed that 83% of the respondents would prefer improved cooking stoves over traditional cooking stoves. (author)

  10. Wood fuel use in the traditional cooking stoves in the rural floodplain areas of Bangladesh: A socio-environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Al Rashid, Harun; Shin, Man Yong

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted, using a multistage simple random sampling design, to determine the structural characteristics of the traditional cooking stoves, amount of wood fuel consumed in the rural floodplain areas in Bangladesh, and also to figure out the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood fuel usage in the traditional cooking stove. The study showed that family size, income, amount cooked and burning hours significantly affected the amount of wood fuel used per family per year. Taking into account different family sizes, the study observed that 4.24 tonne fuelwood were consumed per family per year. The study showed that 42% of families used only biomass fuel, 5% used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and 53% used kerosene along with biomass fuels. The main source of biomass fuel was homestead forests (40%). It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. The study also showed that 83% of the respondents would prefer improved cooking stoves over traditional cooking stoves. (author)

  11. Fuelwood Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions by the Use of Improved Cooking Stoves in an Afromontane Forest, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dresen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS, specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera, referred to locally as “Mirt” stoves, have been distributed here. We found a high acceptance rate of the stove. One hundred forty interviews, including users and non-users of the ICS, revealed fuelwood savings of nearly 40% in injera preparation compared to the traditional three-stone fire, leading to a total annual savings of 1.28 tons of fuelwood per household. Considering the approximated share of fuelwood from unsustainable sources, these savings translate to 11,800 tons of CO2 saved for 11,156 disseminated ICS, corresponding to the amount of carbon stored in over 30 ha of local forest. We further found that stove efficiency increased with longer injera baking sessions, which shows a way of optimizing fuelwood savings by adapted usage of ICS. Our study confirms that efficient cooking stoves, if well adapted to the local cooking habits, can make a significant contribution to the conservation of forests and the avoidance of carbon emission from forest clearing and degradation.

  12. Cleaner Cooking Solutions to Achieve Health, Climate, and Economic Cobenefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly half the world’s population has to rely on solid fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal for household energy, burning them in inefficient open fires and stoves with inadequate ventilation. Household solid fuel combustion is...

  13. Cooking and baking with the sun. Development potential of solar stoves. Kochen und Backen mit Sonne. Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten von Solaroefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelle, E.; Kienzle, P.; Oehler, U.

    1991-04-01

    Throughout the last years efforts were made to use solar energy for cooking and baking. Especially in the sunblessed development countries this could contribute to saving fossile energies and ressources. U. Oehler is one of those who developed solar stoves which have proved to work well both in our climate and in tropical areas. A simple theoretic model tires to describe the temperature behaviour of such a stove. By way of comparison the stove was also subjected to experiments. The potential of development and practical application is described. (orig.).

  14. Design, empirical modelling and analysis of a waste-heat recovery system coupled to a traditional cooking stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakdanuphab, Rachsak; Sakulkalavek, Aparporn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WHR system was implemented to utilise the waste heat from a stove. • The empirical modelling by RSM can be used to predict the generated TEG power. • The total conversion efficiency of the WHR system was more than 80%. • The stove efficiency decreased less than 5% when the WHR system was attached. - Abstract: In this work, a waste-heat recovery (WHR) system was designed and implemented to utilise the waste heat from a cooking stove. The WHR system was designed to preserve maximum thermal energy efficiency, use passive cooling, and produce a system that did not alter the body of the cooking stove. The thermal energy from the cooking stove was converted into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) and used in a waste-heat hot water boiler. The cold side of the TEG was cooled by heat pipes immersed in a water box that offers a high heat transfer rate. The heated water can be used for domestic purposes. Dependent variables were the heater temperature and the volume of water. The heater temperature was varied between 130 and 271 °C, and 4.2–9.5 L of water was investigated. At equilibrium, response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to empirically model the influence of the heater temperature and the volume of water on the electrical power generation and the hot water temperature. Experimental results of the system efficiency showed that the heater temperature was more influential than was the volume of water. The total efficiency of the WHR system was more than 80%. Thermal contact resistance was analysed to improve the WHR system performance. Finally, the thermal efficiency of a cooking stove, both with and without the WHR system, was measured. Results showed that the thermal efficiency of the cooking stove decreased by less than 5% when the WHR system was attached.

  15. Fuelwood savings and carbon emission reductions by the use of improved cooking stoves in an Afromontane forest, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresen, E.; DeVries, B.R.; Herold, M.; Verchot, L.; Müller, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative

  16. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hollada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1 perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2 cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3 social norms related to cooking practices; (4 safety concerns; (5 comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6 lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking.

  17. Chemical characterization of biomass burning deposits from cooking stoves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, Abdus; Hasan, Mahmodul; Begum, Bilkis A.; Begum, Monira; Biswas, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning smoke deposits were characterized from cooking stoves in Brahmondi, Narsingdi, Bangladesh. Arjun, bamboo, coconut, madhabilata, mahogany, mango, rice husk coil, plum and mixed dried leaves were used as biomasses. Smoke deposits were collected from the ceiling (above the stove) of the kitchen on aluminum foil. Deposits samples were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for trace elements determination. UV–visible spectrophotometer was used for ions analysis. The surface morphology of the smoke deposits was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elevated concentrations of the trace elements were observed, especially for toxic metals (Pb, Co, Cu). The highest concentration of lead was observed in rice husk coil among the determined biomasses followed by mahogany and arjun, whereas the lowest concentration was observed in bamboo. Potassium has the highest concentration among the determined trace elements followed by calcium, iron and titanium. Trace elements such as potassium, calcium, iron showed significant variation among different biomass burning smoke deposits. The average concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate were 38.0, 0.60, 0.73 mg kg −1 , respectively. The surface morphology was almost similar for these biomass burning deposit samples. The Southeast Asian biomass burning smoke deposits had distinct behavior from European and USA wood fuels combustion. -- Highlights: •Elevated concentrations of trace elements were observed in biomass burning deposits. •Very high concentration of lead was observed in biomasses burring deposits •Elevated toxic trace elements concentrations in kitchens need further surveillance

  18. Farmer innovation driven by needs and understanding: building the capacities of farmer groups for improved cooking stove construction and continued adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, G.; Hafner, J.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2017-12-01

    Enhancing food security is one of the main goals of subsistence farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the implementation of improved loam-made cooking stoves and its contribution to coping and livelihood strategies. Controlled combustion, air as well as smoke flue, and heat insulation facilitate the more efficient fuel consumption of improved cooking stoves compared to traditional stoves—namely three stone fires. Although the majority of small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on the free public good of firewood, the increasing time needed for collecting firewood implies high opportunity costs for productive members of the family. The primary outcomes for users of improved stoves are reduced fuel consumption, greater safety, saved time, and reduced smoke in the kitchen. The paper illustrates part of the output, outcome, and impact of a participatory action research approach for implementing improved cooking stoves. Special emphasis was put on enabling the villagers to construct their stoves without external support, hence having locally manufactured stoves made of mud, bricks, and dried grass. The impact pathway of improved cooking stoves followed the training-of-trainers concept, where members of the initially established farmer groups were trained to construct stoves on their own. Special focus was given to knowledge exchange and knowledge transfer in order to increase firewood efficiency and overall satisfaction of users of improved cook stoves. Encouraging the members to further adapt the stoves enabled them to scale-up the construction of improved cooked stoves into a business model and increase dissemination while creating income. Although many important benefits, like time and knowledge gain, were identified by the farmers after adoption of the new technology, we found adoption rates differed significantly between regions.

  19. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Rhodes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of

  20. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  1. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  2. Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants from Residential Coal Heating and Combined Heating/Cooking Stoves: Impacts on the Cryosphere, Policy Options, and Co-benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Anenberg, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Lewis, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Pearson, P.

    2017-12-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion for cooking, heating, and other energy services contributes to indoor and outdoor air pollution, and creates impacts on the cryosphere. Solid fuel use often occurs in colder climates and at higher elevations, where a wide range of combustion emissions can reduce reflectivity of the snow- and ice-covered surfaces, causing climatic warming. Reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), such as black carbon (BC), could have substantial climate and health co-benefits, especially in areas where emissions influence the cryosphere. A review of existing literature and emissions estimates, conducted as part of the Warsaw Summit on BC and Other Emissions from Residential Coal Heating Stoves and Combined Cooking/Heating Stoves, found little nationally-representative data on the fuels and technologies used for heating and combined cooking/heating. The GAINS model estimates that 24 million tonnes of coal equivalent were combusted by households for space heating globally in 2010, releasing 190 kilotons (kt) BC. Emissions from combined cooking/heating are virtually unknown. Policy instruments could mitigate cryosphere-relevant emissions of SLCPs from residential heating or cooking. These include indoor air quality guidelines, stove emission limits, bans on the use of specific fuels, regulatory codes that stipulate when burning can occur, stove changeout programs, and voluntary public education campaigns. These measures are being implemented in countries such as Chile (fuelwood moisture reduction campaign, energy efficiency, heating system improvements), Mongolia (stove renovation, fuel switching), Peru (improved stove programs), Poland (district heating, local fuel bans), United States (stove emission regulation) and throughout the European Community (Ecodesign Directive). Few, if any, of these regulations are likely to reduce emissions from combined cooking/heating. This research team found no global platform to create and share model

  3. Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmeechokchai, Bundit [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22 Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Chawana, Saichit [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by the ICS and the SBD is assessed. The identification and ranking of barriers to the adoption of the ICS and the SBD technologies are also investigated. In this study the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to assess the energy consumption and the corresponding emissions reduction. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is used to identify and rank the barriers. Results from the LEAP model show that the cumulative total energy consumption and corresponding emissions reductions during the period 2002-2030 by the ICS are 27,887.7 ktoe and 10,041.0 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent, respectively. An average emissions reduction cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year is US$ 0.95 for a fuel wood cooking stove and US$ 0.35 for a charcoal cooking stove. Regarding the SBD, the cumulative total liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption reduction and CO{sub 2} mitigation are 5780.9ktoe and 1548.8 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent during the period 2002-2030, respectively. Results from AHP analysis of ranking of barriers show that the three most important barriers in the adoption of the ICS are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of information, and (iii) lack of financial sources. For the SBD, the three most important barriers are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of financial sources, and (iii) lack of experts and skilled manpower. The sustainable energy triangle strategy (SETS) is implemented to overcome barriers in the adoption of the ICS. Results show that the traditional cooking stoves are successfully replaced

  4. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  5. Insulated Solar Electric Cooking – Tomorrow's healthy affordable stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watkins

    Full Text Available We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater inside of a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking (SEC technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC systems already cost competitive. We present a $100 prototype and preliminary results of two implementations in Uganda.

  6. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, pcooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  7. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagutu, Agatha W.; Chhabra, Sumesh C.; Lang' at-Thoruwa, Caroline C. [Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-0100, Nairobi (Kenya); Thoruwa, Thomas F.N. [Department of Energy Engineering, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); Mahunnah, R.L.A. [University of Dar-es Salaam, Muhimbili College of Medicine, P.O. Box 53486, Dar-es Salaam (Tanzania)

    2010-08-15

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L{sup -1} (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries. (author)

  8. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagutu, Agatha W.; Thoruwa, Thomas F.N.; Chhabra, Sumesh C.; Lang'at-Thoruwa, Caroline C.; Mahunnah, R.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L -1 (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries.

  9. Solid-fuel cook stoves: Fuel efficiency and emissions testing--Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 1.6 million people prematurely die each year due to exposure to air pollutants from burning solid fuels for residential cooking and heating (WHO, 2010). Residential solid-fuel use accounts for approximately 25 percent of ...

  10. Biomass conservation potential of pottery/ceramic lined Mamta Stove: An improved stove promoted under National Programme on Improved Cookstoves in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R.; Yadla, V.L. [M.S. Univ. of Baroda, Vadodara (India). Home Management Dept.

    1995-10-01

    To combat biomass scarcity and ensure a cleaner cooking environment with less drudgery, among other things, a variety of improved stoves are promoted under National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC). Mamta Stove (MS) is one among such improved stoves. An indepth study was undertaken covering a sample of twenty-five rural families with the primary objective of assessing fuel saving potential of MS under field conditions through Kitchen Performance Test (KPT). Conventional stove (CS) used in almost all the families was shielded horse-shoe shaped stove with a negligible proportion using three stone open fire. Nearly 88% depended only on zero private cost fuels. The mean number of persons for whom the stoves were used on the days of field measurements in case of CS and MS were 5.6 and 5.7 respectively with an SD of 1.16 and standard adult equivalent (SAE) was approximately 4. Cooking pots included a concave roasting pan, a deep frying pan and flat bottomed pots. The mean daily fuel consumption on CS and MS were estimated to be 4.88 kg and 3.75 kg respective, thereby, resulting in fuel saving to the tune of 24% on MS. The paper discusses at length the design features of CS and MS, meal pattern, cooking habits, need for user training, consumerism in the area of cooking and stove technology, economics of switching over to MS and policy implications of commercialization of hitherto subsidized stove program. Further, salient characteristics of high and low cooking fuel consumers on MS are presented to bring to limelight their profile.

  11. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes; Caracterización energética y emisiones de una estufa de cocción ecoeficiente con biomasa a diferentes altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A. [Universidad de Antioquia. Grupo de manejo eficiente de la energía. Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-07-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  12. Laboratory Measurements of Biomass Cook-stove Emissions Aged in an Oxidation Flow Reactor: Influence of Combustion and Aging Conditions on Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, A. P.; Reece, S. M.; Sinha, A.; Wathore, R.

    2016-12-01

    Combustion in rudimentary and improved cook-stoves used by billions in developing countries can be a regionally dominant contributor to black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols (POA) and precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies suggest that SOA formed during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from biomass burning may make important contribution to its atmospheric impacts. However, the extent to which stove type and operating conditions affect the amount, composition and characteristics of SOA formed from the aging of cookstoves emissions is still largely undetermined. Here we present results from experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) designed to assess aging of cook-stove emissions in both laboratory and field settings. Laboratory tests results are used to compare the quantity and properties of fresh and aged emissions from a traditional open fire and twp alternative stove designs operated on the standard and alternate testing protocols. Diluted cookstove emissions were exposed to a range of oxidant concentrations in the F-OFR. Primary emissions were aged both on-line, to study the influence of combustion variability, and sampled from batched emissions in a smog chamber to examine different aging conditions. Data from real-time particle- and gas-phase instruments and integrated filter samples were collected up and down stream of the OFR. The properties of primary emissions vary strongly with stove type and combustion conditions (e.g. smoldering versus flaming). Experiments aging diluted biomass emissions from distinct phases of stove operation (smoldering and flaming) showed peak SOA production for both phases occurred between 3 and 6 equivalent days of aging with slightly greater production observed in flaming phase emissions. Changing combustion conditions had a stronger influence than aging on POA+SOA `emission factors'. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor data show a substantial evolution of aerosol

  13. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  14. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  15. Morphology and Chemical Composition of soot particles emitted by Wood-burning Cook-Stoves: a HRTEM, XPS and Elastic backscattering Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; De la Cruz, W.; Días, J.; Amelines, O.; Rivera-Hernández, M.; Varela, A.; Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Policroniades, R.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, microstructure and the chemical composition on surface of soot particles were studied by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic backscattering spectrometry. In order to obtain freshly soot particles emitted by home-made wood-burning cook stoves, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot particles. The XPS survey spectra show a large carbon peak around 285 eV and the oxygen signal at 533 eV. Some differences observed in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles probably depend on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The C-1s XPS spectra show an asymmetric broad peak and other with low intensity that corresponds to sp2 and sp3hybridization, which were fitted with a convolution using Gaussian functions. Elastic backscattering technique allows a chemical elemental analysis of samples and confirms the presence of C, O and Si observed by XPS. Additionally, the morphological properties of soot aggregates were analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df. Also, real-time absorption (σabs) and scattering (σsct) coefficients of fine (with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) soot particles were measured. The trend in σabs and σsct indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  16. Investigation of time-resolved atmospheric conditions and indoor/outdoor particulate matter concentrations in homes with gas and biomass cook stoves in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor

  17. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  18. Diffusion of improved biomass stoves in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daxiong Qiu; Shuhua Gu; Catania, P.; Kun Huang

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale utilization of inefficient biofuel stoves for cooking and heating in the rural areas of China can cause ecological and environmental problems; thus, in 1982, the Chinese government encouraged the diffusion of improved biomass stoves. From 1982 to 1994, these improved biomass stoves have been used by 144 million households or the equivalent of 90% of all improved stoves installed globally; 62% of the Chinese market has been penetrated. This paper presents the fundamental features of China's diffusion programme of improved biomass stoves, analyses of the future domestic market, and defines some of the lessons learned from the diffusion programme which may be applicable in other emerging nations. (Author)

  19. Heat radiation approach for harnessing heat of the cook stove to generate electricity for lighting system and charging of mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rodrigo C., Jr.; Manansala, Chad Deo G.

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on the potential of thermoelectric coupling such as the thermoelectric cooler module. A thermoelectric cooler converts the heat coming from the cook stove into electricity and store in a battery. A dc-dc boost converter will be used to produce enough voltage to light a minimum house dwelling or charge phone battery. This device will be helpful to those that faces a problem on electricity especially in the isolated areas. The study aims (1) to harness heat from the cook stove up to 110 °C (2) To automatically cool-off the system to protect the thermoelectric cooler from damage due to excessive heat using an electronic solenoid; (3) To store energy harnessed in the battery; (4) To amplify the output voltages of the battery using DC to DC boost converter for lighting system and charging of mobile phone battery. From various tests conducted, it can fully charge a mobile phone in 3 hours observing the unit’s battery voltage drop from 4.06V to 3.98V. In the testing it used different orientation of steel rod by conduction to transfer heat and by radiation through tubular steel with its different dimensions. Most recent testing proved that the 2x2x9 tubular steel by radiation had the best result. The temperature reached more than a hundred degree Celsius that met the objective. The test resulted of boosting the voltage of the battery output from 3.7V to 4.96V on the average. The boosted voltage decrease as the system’s cool-off mechanism operated when the temperature reached above 110 degree Celsius decreasing output voltage to 0.8V resulting the boosted voltage to drop to zero. Therefore, the proponents concluded that heat waste can be converted to electrical energy by harnessing heat through radiation, with the help of TEC that generates voltage for lighting and can be boosted to be used for mobile charging. Furthermore, the study proved that the excess heat can damaged the TEC which was prevented by using of cooling-off mechanism, making it more

  20. Bringing Stoves to the People: An Assessment of Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, S.; Prasad, K.K; Van der Zaan, H.B

    1990-01-01

    The absence of reliable and in-depth information on the impact of improved cook-stove has required stove project managers, governments and donors to rely on unverified and anecdotal data for designing and implementing stove programmes. This survey was designed to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of world-wide stove activities. The report was a compilation of seven stove surveys carried out from Burkina Faso, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Niger. The report has indicated the benefits of using improved cook stoves that includes, conserving energy, reduction of indoor air pollution, improves household health, foster greater gender equality and stimulation of small-scale enterprise development

  1. Caracterización energética y emisiones de una estufa de cocción ecoeficiente con biomasa a diferentes altitudes//Energy and emissions characterization of an eco‐efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Pérez-Bayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 2500 millones de personas dependen de la leña como su principal combustible para calefacción y cocción.En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de la altitud (678 y 1976 metros sobre el nivel del mar, msnm en el desempeño energético y las emisiones de una estufa de cocción eco-eficiente con biomasa.Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo bajo las pruebas de ebullición de agua y cocción controlada. El rendimiento disminuyó 24% al aumentar la altitud en la prueba de ebullición, y el consumo específico de combustible aumentó 27,3% debido a los cambios en la densidad del aire. En la prueba de cocción controlada, el consumo específico de combustible y las emisiones específicas aumentaron 15,3% y 16%, respectivamente. La altitud afectó significativamente el desempeño de la estufa tipo "Plancha", por lo que es necesario el rediseño de las estufas de acuerdo a su ubicación geográfica con el fin de optimizar el proceso de cocción.Palabras claves: estufa de cocción eco-eficiente, biomasa, combustión, altitud, energía y emisiones, pruebas de desempeño WBT–CCT.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAround 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBTand Controlled Cooking (CCT Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24% with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3% due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3% and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the “Plancha” wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is

  2. The use of wood burning cook stove in rural areas of Piaui-Brazil: a case study; O uso do fogao a lenha no semi-arido piauiense: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Martins, Gilberto; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2008-07-01

    The use of wood burning cook stoves is an ancient practice, still used nowadays, mainly in the rural areas of the developing countries. Despite its widespread use by millions of people around of the world, little attention has being paid to its study. In Piaui this reality is not different, since thousands of locals use this equipment as their main instrument for the preparation of their meals. The present article has the objective to study the use of wood stove in rural areas of Piaui. A questionnaire has been applied to ten homes in two villages, which permitted to obtain the main characteristics of the equipment used as well as the habits and wood consumption patterns. (author)

  3. Modelling of a solar stove: small scale concentrating system with heat storage: potential for cooking in rural areas, Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikukwa, Actor

    2007-10-15

    programme is to simulate the heat transfer mechanisms taking place within the fibrous receiver during operation. The predicted results are then presented and discussed in detail. The transportation of the hot air from the receiver, the ceding of its sensible energy to rockbed thermal storage and insulation are deliberated in chapter 5. Another major computer programme that models these processes is written, in which case, results for different inputs are discussed and compared. The need to devise an airpump capable of adjusting the mass flow rate in order to sustain a constant inlet air temperature to the storage is highlighted. Chapter 6 describes the design of the hotplates and their incorporation to the storage unit. The premise on which the third major computer model in this work is discussed in detail. This simulation programme attempts to model a cooking process, in which case, the thermal storage is simultaneously discharged. The results are presented and an overview of the merits of a successful system are briefly discussed. Finally, major conclusions, recommendations and areas for further study are given(Author). refs., figs., tabs

  4. Modelling of a solar stove: small scale concentrating system with heat storage: potential for cooking in rural areas, Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikukwa, Actor

    2007-10-15

    programme is to simulate the heat transfer mechanisms taking place within the fibrous receiver during operation. The predicted results are then presented and discussed in detail. The transportation of the hot air from the receiver, the ceding of its sensible energy to rockbed thermal storage and insulation are deliberated in chapter 5. Another major computer programme that models these processes is written, in which case, results for different inputs are discussed and compared. The need to devise an airpump capable of adjusting the mass flow rate in order to sustain a constant inlet air temperature to the storage is highlighted. Chapter 6 describes the design of the hotplates and their incorporation to the storage unit. The premise on which the third major computer model in this work is discussed in detail. This simulation programme attempts to model a cooking process, in which case, the thermal storage is simultaneously discharged. The results are presented and an overview of the merits of a successful system are briefly discussed. Finally, major conclusions, recommendations and areas for further study are given(Author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a large-scale distribution of cook stoves and water filters in Western Province, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Corey L; Kirby, Miles A; Zambrano, Laura D; Rosa, Ghislane; Barstow, Christina K; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-12-15

    In Rwanda, pneumonia and diarrhea are the first and second leading causes of death, respectively, among children under five. Household air pollution (HAP) resultant from cooking indoors with biomass fuels on traditional stoves is a significant risk factor for pneumonia, while consumption of contaminated drinking water is a primary cause of diarrheal disease. To date, there have been no large-scale effectiveness trials of programmatic efforts to provide either improved cookstoves or household water filters at scale in a low-income country. In this paper we describe the design of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of a national-level program to distribute and promote the use of improved cookstoves and advanced water filters to the poorest quarter of households in Rwanda. We randomly allocated 72 sectors (administratively defined units) in Western Province to the intervention, with the remaining 24 sectors in the province serving as controls. In the intervention sectors, roughly 100,000 households received improved cookstoves and household water filters through a government-sponsored program targeting the poorest quarter of households nationally. The primary outcome measures are the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea among children under five years of age. Over a one-year surveillance period, all cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea identified by health workers in the study area will be extracted from records maintained at health facilities and by community health workers (CHW). In addition, we are conducting intensive, longitudinal data collection among a random sample of households in the study area for in-depth assessment of coverage, use, environmental exposures, and additional health measures. Although previous research has examined the impact of providing household water treatment and improved cookstoves on child health, there have been no studies of national-level programs to deliver these interventions

  6. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  7. Improved stoves and wood benches: one alternative energy self-sufficiency at the farm level for dependents of the oak forests of the Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal Hernandez, Javier Dario

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve thermal efficiency of typical cook stoves used in rural area of Encino, Santander, three improved cook stoves prototypes were built, by means of a modification carried out at combustion chamber. The improved cook stoves were tested by using Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) and compared against a typical cook stove. Scores displayed a mean performance of 14.66% among improved cook stoves and typical cook stove, which implies a saving in fuelwood consume of 0.86 ton/year. Likewise, farm fuelwood lots design is proposed by comparing four tree species used for cooking purposes in that place. Finally, impact in terms of avoided deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions is assessed, under a focus that it could integrate both improved cook stoves and farm fuel wood lots.

  8. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldred Tunde Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI. This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82 and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13, respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  9. Performance evaluation of a powered charcoal stove using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A powered stove was designed to effectively utilized biomass, quickly start and maintain fire and reduce cooking time. The stove consists of a blower with hand winder and a fuel carrier. Performance evaluation carried out show that boiling time decreased with increased volumetric air flow rate for all the biomass used.

  10. Scaling housing interventions for wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    The wood-burning stove is the most popular energy technology in the world since about 3 billion people rely on it for both domestic cooking and heating purposes. It is estimated that in 2030 more than 200 million people will be affected by this abundant energy source. Large-scale clean stove prog...

  11. Improved stoves in Southern Africa: a solution for all seasons

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapako, MC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available to avoid using wood altogether. The requirements of a cooking fuel vary seasonally in any given household, and across different climatic zones. The ability of improved stoves to meet these requirements varies considerably across these different zones...

  12. Implications of Different Household Cooking Energy on Indoor Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Energy is a basic necessity of life for meeting domestic, social and industrial needs of man. ... The cooking methods sampled were firewood stove, kerosene stove, charcoal stove, electricity stove and gas cooker. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Awareness of health effects of cooking smoke among women in the Gondar Region of Ethiopia: a pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burning of biomass fuels results in exposure to high levels of indoor air pollution, with consequent health effects. Possible interventions to reduce the exposure include changing cooking practices and introduction of smoke-free stoves supported by health education. Social, cultural and financial constraints are major challenges to implementation and success of interventions. The objective of this study is to determine awareness of women in Gondar, Ethiopia to the harmful health effects of cooking smoke and to assess their willingness to change cooking practices. Methods We used a single, administered questionnaire which included questions on household circumstances, general health, awareness of health impact of cooking smoke and willingness to change. We interviewed 15 women from each of rural, urban-traditional and middle class backgrounds. Results Eighty percent of rural women cooked indoors using biomass fuel with no ventilation. Rural women reported two to three times more respiratory disease in their children and in themselves compared to the other two groups. Although aware of the negative effect of smoke on their own health, only 20% of participants realised it caused problems in children, and 13% thought it was a cause for concern. Once aware of adverse effects, women were willing to change cooking practices but were unable to afford cleaner fuels or improved stoves. Conclusion Increasing the awareness of the health-effects of indoor biomass cooking smoke may be the first step in implementing a programme to reduce exposure.

  14. Fuelwood and stoves: lessons from Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J

    1983-03-01

    Laboratory tests on traditional open fires as methods of cooking give values of thermal efficiency varying from 12-30%. These are significantly higher than values which are widely quoted in the literature. The results of a research visit to Zimbabwe indicated that in three villages fuel efficiency did not appear to be the main determinant of choice of cooking method: villagers had changed from their traditional mode of cooking to stoves which they perceived to consume substantially more fuel. These stoves enable meals to be prepared more quickly which the women found useful during the busy months. The increased labour costs could be borne because the fuel was gathered during the slack season.

  15. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  16. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  17. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gujba, Haruna; Mulugetta, Yacob; Azapagic, Adisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU) continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four time...

  18. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  19. Performance evaluation of kerosene stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathy, D; Murugesan, V; Shanmugam, K; Swaminathan, K R

    1984-07-01

    This article compares the eight types of stoves available in the market in Coimbatore area. The authors have discussed about the design parameters which affect the fuel efficiencies of the kerosene stoves.

  20. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  1. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  2. Improved stoves in India: A study of sustainable business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Slaski, Xander; Thurber, Mark C.; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Burning of biomass for cooking is associated with health problems and climate change impacts. Many previous efforts to disseminate improved stoves – primarily by governments and NGOs – have not been successful. Based on interviews with 12 organizations selling improved biomass stoves, we assess the results to date and future prospects of commercial stove operations in India. Specifically, we consider how the ability of these businesses to achieve scale and become self-sustaining has been influenced by six elements of their respective business models: design, customers targeted, financing, marketing, channel strategy, and organizational characteristics. The two companies with the most stoves in the field shared in common generous enterprise financing, a sophisticated approach to developing a sales channel, and many person-years of management experience in marketing and operations. And yet the financial sustainability of improved stove sales to households remains far from assured. The only company in our sample with demonstrated profitability is a family-owned business selling to commercial rather than household customers. The stove sales leader is itself now turning to the commercial segment to maintain flagging cash flow, casting doubt on the likelihood of large positive impacts on health from sales to households in the near term. - Highlights: ► Business models to sell improved stoves can be viable in India. ► Commercial stove efforts may not be able to deliver all the benefits hoped for. ► The government could play a useful role if policies are targeted and well thought-out. ► Develops models for that hard-to-define entity mixing business and charity.

  3. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  4. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  5. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A.M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is developed by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air to fuel ratio in order to increase the system’s efficiency and to decrease the air pollution by providing....... The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water and the essential heat for warming the room and cooking....

  6. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  7. Competing for development : a case study of fuel-efficient stoves for Darfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelnour, S.; Branzei, O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed the Darfur Stoves Project. The project was designed to provide local support to non-government organizations (NGOs) to set up production facilities capable of producing 100 stoves per day. The Berkeley-Darfur stove design was based on a survey conducted in Darfur of cooking methods, tools, household fuels, and food requirements. The stove was designed to perform well in windy conditions. A pilot production facility was conducted to ensure that the stoves were easily built and assembled using simple hand tools. The stoves save the average family $250 per year in fuel wood and labour costs. The project is now examining methods of setting up multiple full-scale assembly shops to ensure that 300,000 stoves are built and distributed to households and displaced communities in the Darfur region. The need to save fuel wood has grown since the onset of armed conflict in the region. The combined concerns of deforestation, starvation, and violence against women as they searched for fuel wood has become a central concern in the region. The stove design is one of several designs currently being adopted by development agencies in the region. 32 refs., 11 figs

  8. Competing for development : a case study of fuel-efficient stoves for Darfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, S.; Branzei, O. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Richard Ivey School of Business

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the Darfur Stoves Project. The project was designed to provide local support to non-government organizations (NGOs) to set up production facilities capable of producing 100 stoves per day. The Berkeley-Darfur stove design was based on a survey conducted in Darfur of cooking methods, tools, household fuels, and food requirements. The stove was designed to perform well in windy conditions. A pilot production facility was conducted to ensure that the stoves were easily built and assembled using simple hand tools. The stoves save the average family $250 per year in fuel wood and labour costs. The project is now examining methods of setting up multiple full-scale assembly shops to ensure that 300,000 stoves are built and distributed to households and displaced communities in the Darfur region. The need to save fuel wood has grown since the onset of armed conflict in the region. The combined concerns of deforestation, starvation, and violence against women as they searched for fuel wood has become a central concern in the region. The stove design is one of several designs currently being adopted by development agencies in the region. 32 refs., 11 figs.

  9. [Design of coal stove, construction, assembly and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitrus, K.D.; Dauda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Some years back, after the discovery of Petroleum, Kerosene as one of the fraction of the distillation of Petroleum came into use as cooking fuel and a reduction in pressure was seen on wood and vegetation. Along this line, by the improvement of sciences and technology gas cooker and electric cooker were developed; but epileptic supply of electricity, gas and government policy on deforestation showed that continuous dependence on wood, electricity, gas and kerosene as the only sources of cooking fuel is not going to solve Nigeria domestic cooking problem. To solve this, coal as a source of heat energy could be used as a cooking fuel. However, this paper reports the design of coal stove, construction, assembly and test. The test result showed that using coal (anthracite) as the fuel on a pot of 200g containing 800g of water at room temperature could boil the water in 20 minutes

  10. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

    2015-08-01

    Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance-usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1-3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7-9 hr/week). Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance-usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance-usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact.

  11. Improved biomass Injera stove- Mirte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, M.; Kenna, J.

    1994-01-01

    The status report of 1994 - 1995 shows as the need to design an improved biomass stove for Injera was recognized. The marketing began in mid-1994 with a Mirte which showed even higher efficiencies in laboratory, using 50 percent less woody biomass than the open fire. By early 1994 several hundreds Mirte stoves had been sold in Addis Ababa at non-subsidized prices. The Mirte is currently produced on a large-scale by building materials companies. 3 figs. 1 tab

  12. Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastbergen, Dan

    Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means of accomplishing this is currently nonexistent. The goal of this work is to develop a thermoelectric generator to convert a small amount of wasted heat into electricity. Although this concept has been around for decades, previous attempts have failed due to insufficient analysis of the system as a whole, leading to ineffective and costly designs. In this work, a complete design process is undertaken including concept generation, prototype testing, field testing, and redesign/optimization. Detailed component models are constructed and integrated to create a full system model. The model encompasses the stove operation, thermoelectric module, heat sinks, charging system and battery. A 3000 cycle endurance test was also conducted to evaluate the effects of operating temperature, module quality, and thermal interface quality on the generator's reliability, lifetime and cost effectiveness. The results from this testing are integrated into the system model to determine the lowest system cost in $/Watt over a five year period. Through this work the concept of a stove-based thermoelectric generator is shown to be technologically and economically feasible. In addition, a methodology is developed for optimizing the system for specific regional stove usage habits.

  13. Catalytic combustion in gas stoves - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Several independent studies show that gas stoves to some degree contribute to the indoor emissions of NO{sub x} especially in situations were the ventilation flow is poor. The peak-NO{sub x} concentrations can reach several hundred ppb but the integral concentration seldom exceeds about 20 - 50 ppb, which corresponds to an indoor-outdoor ratio of about 1 - 2.5. Epidemiological studies indicate increasing problems with respiratory symptoms in sensitive people at concentrations as low as 15 ppb of NO{sub 2}. Consequently, the NO{sub x}-concentration in homes where gas stoves are used is high enough to cause health effects. However, in situations where the ventilation flow is high (utilisation of ventilation hoods) the NO{sub x}-emissions are not likely to cause any health problems. This study has been aimed at investigating the possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from gas stoves by replacing the conventional flame combustion with catalytic combustion. The investigation is requested by Swedish Gas Center, and is a following-up work of an earlier conducted feasibility study presented in April-2002. The present investigation reports on the possibility to use cheap and simple retro-fit catalytic design suggestions for traditional gas stoves. Experiments have been conducted with both natural and town gas, and parameters such as emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned fuel gas and thermal efficiency, etc, have been examined and are discussed. The results show that it is possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions up to 80% by a simple retro-fit installation, without decreasing the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate. The measured source strengths correspond to indoor NO{sub x} concentrations that are below or equal to the average outdoor concentration, implying that no additional detrimental health effects are probable. The drawback of the suggested installations is that the concentration of CO and in some cases also CH{sub 4} are increased in the flue gases

  14. Adoption of Clean Cookstoves after Improved Solid Fuel Stove Programme Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Peruvian Andean Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M

    2017-07-08

    This study examined measures of clean cookstove adoption after improved solid fuel stove programmes in three geographically and culturally diverse rural Andean settings and explored factors associated with these measures. A questionnaire was administered to 1200 households on stove use and cooking behaviours including previously defined factors associated with clean cookstove adoption. Logistic multivariable regressions with 16 pre-specified explanatory variables were performed for three outcomes; (1) daily improved solid fuel stove use, (2) use of liquefied petroleum gas stove and (3) traditional stove displacement. Eighty-seven percent of households reported daily improved solid fuel stove use, 51% liquefied petroleum gas stove use and 66% no longer used the traditional cookstove. Variables associated with one or more of the three outcomes are: education, age and civil status of the reporting female, household wealth and size, region, encounters of problems with the improved solid fuel stove, knowledge of somebody able to build an improved solid fuel stove, whether stove parts are obtainable in the community, and subsidy schemes. We conclude that to be successful, improved solid fuel stove programmes need to consider (1) existing household characteristics, (2) the household's need for ready access to maintenance and repair, and (3) improved knowledge at the community level.

  15. Changes of indoor climate by the adoption of retrofitted wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2014-01-01

    More than 3 billion people in the world rely on local solid-fuels for domestic cooking and heating through inefficient combustion, causing indoor air pollution and overheating worldwide. Technological regimes were categorized in 18 popular stove models to describe how residential wood combustion ...

  16. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  17. ITDG stoves project - the story so far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, S

    1981-12-01

    The ITDG stoves project was initiated in 1978 and funded by ODA in 1979 to assist overseas organizations in the design, testing and development of wood-burning stoves, as a contribution to the deforestation problem. Collaboration has been established with three organizations in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India who have the resources to undertake testing, design and dissemination of stoves. The strategy and performance of the stove project to date is evaluated.

  18. Stoves or sugar? Willingness to adopt improved cookstoves in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagger, Pamela; Jumbe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Malawi has set a target of adoption of two million improved cookstoves (ICS) by 2020. Meeting this objective requires knowledge about determinants of adoption, particularly in rural areas where the cost of traditional cooking technologies and fuels are non-monetary, and where people have limited capacity to purchase an ICS. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with 383 households in rural Malawi asking them if they would chose a locally made ICS or a package of sugar and salt of roughly equal value. Six months later, we assessed adoption and stove use patterns. Sixty-six percent of households chose the ICS. We find that having a larger share of crop residues in household fuel supply, awareness of the environmental impacts of woodfuel reliance, time the primary cook devotes to collecting fuelwood, and peer effects at the village-level increase the odds of choosing the ICS. Having a large labor supply for fuelwood collection and experience with a non-traditional cooking technology decreased the odds of choosing the ICS. In a rapid assessment six months after stoves were distributed, we found 80% of households were still using the ICS, but not exclusively. Our findings suggest considerable potential for wide-scale adoption of low cost ICS in Malawi. - Highlights: •There is demand for locally produced improved cookstoves in rural Malawi. •Environmental awareness, labor availability, and peer effects influence adoption. •Sustained and exclusive use of improved cookstoves requires training and follow-up.

  19. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the

  20. Are Korean Households Willing to Pay a Premium for Induction Cooktops over Gas Stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Korean households generally prefer to use induction cooktops rather than gas stoves because of their greater convenience and safety features. This paper tries to investigate whether Korean households are willing to pay a premium for replacing their gas stoves, which are currently common in Korea, with induction cooktops, from the perspective of convenience and safety. To this end, a contingent valuation technique was applied to assess the additional willingness to pay (WTP a premium for using an induction cooktop rather than a gas stove. A nationwide survey of 1000 households was carried out. The results indicate that the mean additional WTP for using an induction cooktop rather than a gas stove is KRW 207 (USD 0.19 per cubic meter of residential gas. This value can be interpreted as the convenience and safety benefits to the consumer of using an induction cooktop rather than a gas stove, or residential electricity rather than residential gas for cooking. It amounts to approximately 26.7% of the average 2015 price of residential gas, which was KRW 775 (USD 0.70 per cubic meter. If the gap between the price for residential electricity and the price for residential gas is less than the WTP value, households will increase their demand for residential electricity for cooking.

  1. Biogas Stoves Reduce Firewood Use, Household Air Pollution, and Hospital Visits in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica J; Hollingsworth, John W; Chartier, Ryan T; Cooper, Ellen M; Foster, William Michael; Gomes, Genna L; Kussin, Peter S; MacInnis, John J; Padhi, Bijaya K; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Rodes, Charles E; Ryde, Ian T; Singha, Ashok K; Stapleton, Heather M; Thornburg, Jonathan; Young, Cora J; Meyer, Joel N; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2017-01-03

    Traditional cooking using biomass is associated with ill health, local environmental degradation, and regional climate change. Clean stoves (liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, and electric) are heralded as a solution, but few studies have demonstrated their environmental health benefits in field settings. We analyzed the impact of mainly biogas (as well as electric and LPG) stove use on social, environmental, and health outcomes in two districts in Odisha, India, where the Indian government has promoted household biogas. We established a cross-sectional observational cohort of 105 households that use either traditional mud stoves or improved cookstoves (ICS). Our multidisciplinary team conducted surveys, environmental air sampling, fuel weighing, and health measurements. We examined associations between traditional or improved stove use and primary outcomes, stratifying households by proximity to major industrial plants. ICS use was associated with 91% reduced use of firewood (p biogas stoves in a context in which traditional stove use persists, although pollution levels in ICS households still remained above WHO guidelines.

  2. Test of pyrolysis gasifier stoves in two institutional kitchens in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendelbo, Pall; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    : The main purpose of the paper is to evaluate tests of institutional kitchens carried out at schools in Uganda 1997. The results of the tests for the institutional kitchen with pyrolysis gasifier stoves are compared with the fuel use in traditional kitchens with three-stone stoves. The project......, respectively. The cooking place was build up with a rotating plate on which tree gasifier units were placed. In this way it was possible to change on of the gasifier units when necessary. The pot was then mounted on a tripod app. 10 cm above the gasifier units. The results of the tests show that the improved...

  3. Designing a behavioral intervention using the COM-B model and the theoretical domains framework to promote gas stove use in rural Guatemala: a formative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Weinstein, John R; Handley, Margaret A

    2018-02-14

    Three billion people use solid cooking fuels, and 4 million people die from household air pollution annually. Shifting households to clean fuels, like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may protect health only if stoves are consistently used. Few studies have used an implementation science framework to systematically assess "de-implementation" of traditional stoves, and none have done so with pregnant women who are more likely to adopt new behaviors. We evaluated an introduced LPG stove coupled with a phased behavioral intervention to encourage exclusive gas stove use among pregnant women in rural Guatemala. We enrolled 50 women at < 20 weeks gestation in this prospective cohort study. All women received a free 3-burner LPG stove and ten tank refills. We conducted formative research using COM-B Model and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). This included thematic analysis of focus group findings and classes delivered to 25 pregnant women (Phase 1). In Phase 2, we complemented classes with a home-based tailored behavioral intervention with a different group of 25 pregnant women. We mapped 35 TDF constructs onto survey questions. To evaluate stove use, we placed temperature sensors on wood and gas stoves and estimated fraction of stove use three times during pregnancy and twice during the first month after infant birth. Class attendance rates were above 92%. We discussed feasible ways to reduce HAP exposure, proper stove use, maintenance and safety. We addressed food preferences, ease of cooking and time savings through cooking demonstrations. In Phase 2, the COM-B framework revealed that other household members needed to be involved if the gas stove was to be consistently used. Social identity and empowerment were key in decisions about stove repairs and LPG tank refills. The seven intervention functions included training, education, persuasion, incentivization, modelling, enablement and environmental restructuring. Wood stove use dropped upon introduction of the

  4. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  5. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  6. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire

  7. Numerical investigation of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a plant oil stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, B.; Werler, M.; Wirbser, H.; Gabi, M.

    2013-10-01

    Recently a low cost cooking device for developing and emerging countries was developed at KIT in cooperation with the company Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH. After constructing an innovative basic design further development was required. Numerical investigations were conducted in order to investigate the flow inside the combustion chamber of the stove under variation of different geometrical parameters. Beyond the performance improvement a further reason of the investigations was to rate the effects of manufacturing tolerance problems. In this paper the numerical investigation of a plant oil stove by means of RANS simulation will be presented. In order to reduce the computational costs different model reduction steps were necessary. The simulation results of the basic configuration compare very well with experimental measurements and problematic behaviors of the actual stove design could be explained by the investigation.

  8. Using exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin to evaluate the effectiveness of a chimney stove model in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Adam R; Fitzgerald, Christopher; Dorner, Stephen C; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Rathbun, Stephen L; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of biological indicators of physiological change may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of stove models, which are intended to reduce indoor smoke exposure and potential health effects. We examined changes in exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), percentage carboxy-hemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in response to the installation of a chimney stove model by the Juntos National Program in Huayatan, Peru in 2008. Biomarkers were measured in a convenience sample comprising 35 women who met requirements for participation, and were measured before and three weeks after installation of a chimney stove. The relationships between exposure to indoor smoke and biomarker measurements were also analyzed using simple linear regression models. Exhaled CO reduced from 6.71 ppm (95% CI 5.84-7.71) to 3.14 ppm (95% CI 2.77-3.66) three weeks after stove installation (P < 0.001) while % COHb reduced from 1.76% (95% CI 1.62-1.91) to 1.18% (95% CI 1.12-1.25; P < 0.001). Changes in exhaled CO and % COHb from pre- to post-chimney stove installation were not correlated with corresponding changes in exposure to CO and PM2.5 even though the exposures also reduced after stove installation. Exhaled CO and % COHb both showed improvement with reduction in concentration after the installation of the chimney cook stoves, indicating a positive physiological response subsequent to the intervention.

  9. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  10. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Gujba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of heat transfer and thermal efficiency of an infrared gas stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenlerdchanya, A.; Rattanadecho, P.; Keangin, P.

    2018-01-01

    An infrared gas stove is a low-pressure gas stove type and it has higher thermal efficiency than the other domestic cooking stoves. This study considers the computationally determine water and air temperature distributions, water and air velocity distributions and thermal efficiency of the infrared gas stove. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of various pot diameters i.e. 220 mm, 240 mm and 260 mm on the water and air temperature distributions, water and air velocity distributions and thermal efficiency of the infrared gas stove. The time-dependent heat transfer equation involving diffusion and convection coupled with the time-dependent fluid dynamic equation is implemented and is solved by using the finite element method (FEM). The computer simulation study is validated with an experimental study, which is use standard experiment by LPG test for low-pressure gas stove in households (TIS No. 2312-2549). The findings revealed that the water and air temperature distributions increase with greater heating time, which varies with the three different pot diameters (220 mm, 240 mm and 260 mm). Similarly, the greater heating time, the water and air velocity distributions increase that vary by pot diameters (220, 240 and 260 mm). The maximum water temperature in the case of pot diameter of 220 mm is higher than the maximum water velocity in the case of pot diameters of 240 mm and 260 mm, respectively. However, the maximum air temperature in the case of pot diameter of 260 mm is higher than the maximum water velocity in the case of pot diameters of 240 mm and 220 mm, respectively. The obtained results may provide a basis for improving the energy efficiency of infrared gas stoves and other equipment, including helping to reduce energy consumption.

  12. Thermoelectricity - A Promising Complementarity with Efficient Stoves in Off-grid-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Favarel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules produce electricity from heat flow. In areas without electricity, biomass is generally burnt in open fires or rudimentary stoves in order to generate heat, to cook and to produce domestic hot water. Combustion quality in these devices is very low and needs a large amount of wood extracted from surrounding forests. “Planète Bois” develops highly efficient clean multifunction stoves based on double chamber combustion.  As an exhaust fan is necessary to adjust the primary and secondary air flows for optimal combustion, these stoves cannot currently be used without electricity. Thermoelectric modules incorporated in a heat exchanger between the flue and the hot water tank can supply the exhaust fan and also produce some electricity for other basic purposes. Our paper presents tests that were done on one of these stoves to size the thermoelectric generator and thus the produced electricity. These preliminary tests are used to identify an outlook for the successful implementation of these stoves.

  13. Dutch Cooking and baking customers under the magnifying glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, J.

    1980-10-01

    Sponsored by VEGIN, the Amsterdam bureau Centrum interviewed 400 people, aged 18-60 and using gas stoves less than 15 years old, about their cooking habits on gas stoves. For reasons of energy conservation or burner malfunction, over half of the interviewees do not use the ignition burner. Foreign dishes are becoming more popular (prepared by 64% of the respondents). Some 60% use the oven for baking or for heating prepared meals, not particularly for preparing their own dishes. The growing tendency to use only the front burner (for convenience of stirring) appears universal except in homes where such practice would be hazardous to children. Over 95% of those interviewed are married or living together. About 18% of the men cook regularly, 26% occasionally, and 54% never. Those men who do cook are generally younger and in two-person households. Only 6% of the respondents have their stoves regularly checked by professionals.

  14. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  15. Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanna K; Emmel, Nick D; Manaseki, Semira; Chambers, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users. A translator moderated all discussions with a questioning route. All discussions were fully transcribed and translated. The transcripts were analysed by identifying common themes in responses to form an emerging theory. The findings in the paper are that all stove users recognised respiratory symptoms caused by stove smoke and other health effects such as warmth, dirt and workload, which they perceived to be important. Stove users had a lack of knowledge about the diseases caused by the smoke. Public health was a key driver for the improved stove project, yet has been neglected in improved stove marketing. The study used in this paper was limited by the language barrier. Some of the meanings of participants' responses may have been lost in translation. This paper has highlighted the importance of the health effects of stove smoke to stove users. Uptake of the improved stoves has been low. Public health should be included in marketing strategies for improved stoves to increase their uptake. The paper shows that acute respiratory infections are a major cause of mortality world-wide. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuels in household stoves causes a significant proportion of respiratory infections. No qualitative research has been published exploring stove users' views on the health effects of stoves. This paper provides an insight into stove users' perceptions for those interested in people-centred approaches to tackling international health issues.

  16. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  17. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

    2013-03-01

    In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

  19. Improved earthen stoves in coastal areas in Bangladesh: Economic, ecological and socio-cultural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazmul Alam, S.M.; Chowdhury, Sakila Jahan [Department of Social Sciences and Asian Languages, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    The study evaluated the economic, ecological and socio-cultural achievements of improved earthen stoves that were provided to the beneficiaries under a project to improve decreasing biomass energy utilization. A questionnaire was developed and a random sampling method was employed for selecting the samples from the population. The region has undergone a significant change with the development of shrimp aquaculture in brackish water on former paddy field. As a result the households have become dependent on the wood resources of the Sundarban (77% as their first choice of daily fuel). The fuel collection rate from the Sundarban has increased by 30% since the change to aquaculture, while the use of agricultural residues has declined by a similar amount. The introduction of the improved stove with two cook stations and a chimney resulted in a reduction of fuel use (as wood) to 540 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1}, from the previous usage of 810 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1} using the traditional stove. Households saved 1.5 kg d{sup -1} of fuel (one third), and reduced the cooking time by 45 min d{sup -1} (about 20%). While 85% of men and 65% of women were the major fuel collectors, the improved stove resulted in a small increase (14 taka) in the women's contribution to family income as well as a monthly saving on fuel cost of 45 taka. Respondents utilized saved time and money for household means and other economic activities. (author)

  20. Ceramic stove eases strain on African forests | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... IDRC began supporting research that led to the marketing of the ceramic Jiko stove in the ... IDRC Communications ... Informal sector workers producing the traditional stoves were sent designs and convinced to switch to this ...

  1. PENGEMBANGAN TUNGKU BRIKET BATUBARA SKALA RUMAH TANGGA Improvement of a Coal Briquette Stove for Household Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Tamrin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving of a coal briquette stove is required in the context of energy diversification for strengthening national energy security. The policy of kerosene conversion to LPG is a short term policy and needs other source of energy alternative.  In idealized sense, all potentials should be used for household cooking, not always depending on a particular energy source. Purpose of this research was to improve a household coal briquette stove to increase stove efficiency and ease in ceasing the ember. Design criteria of the coal briquette stove were based on heat transfer from the burning coal to the heated object, ease in ceasing the ember, and facilitating the exhausting smoke from the kitchen room. Performance test to the designed stove was conducted on analyses of temperature at the bottom of a pan versus time during the firing, heat efficiency, and the time of ceasing ember. The results showed that the cooking temperature (>180 oC was reached after 35-65 minutes. The cooking temperature lasted for 4 hours, heat efficiency of 25.5 % was about optimum, and the time of ember ceasing was 19-33 minutes. ABSTRAK Pengembangan tungku briket batubara sangat diperlukan dalam diversifikasi pemakaian energi bahan bakar agar ketahanan energi nasional  menjadi kuat.  Kebijakan pengalihan bahan bakar minyak tanah ke elpiji merupakan ke- bijakan jangka pendek dan perlu energi alternatif lainnya  Idealnya  semua potensi yang ada dapat digunakan untuk memasak, tidak harus bergantung pada energi tertentu.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan tungku briket batubara skala rumah tangga untuk meningkatkan efiseinsi dan memudahkan pematian bara api. Tungku briket batubara dibuat didasarkan pada sistem pindah panas dari bara briket ke objek yang dipanaskan, memudahkan pe- matian bara api briket batubara dan menyalurkan asap dari ruang pembakaran keluar dari ruang dapur. Pengujian dilakukan untuk mengetahui perubahan suhu dasar panci selama pembakaran

  2. A health intervention or a kitchen appliance? Household costs and benefits of a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundale, Katie; Thomas, Ranjeeta; Malava, Jullita Kenala; Havens, Deborah; Mortimer, Kevin; Conteh, Lesong

    2017-06-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality for children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Household air pollution has been found to increase risk of pneumonia, especially due to exposure from dirty burning biomass fuels. It has been suggested that advanced stoves, which burn fuel more efficiently and reduce smoke emissions, may help to reduce household air pollution in poor, rural settings. This qualitative study aims to provide an insight into the household costs and perceived benefits from use of the stove in Malawi. It was conducted alongside The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest village cluster-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced combustion cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under five to date. In 2015, using 100 semi-structured interviews this study assessed household time use and perceptions of the stove from both control and intervention participants taking part in the CAPS trial in Chilumba. Household direct and indirect costs associated with the intervention were calculated. Users overwhelming liked using the stove. The main reported benefits were reduced cooking times and reduced fuel consumption. In most interviews, the health benefits were not initially identified as advantages of the stove, although when prompted, respondents stated that reduced smoke emissions contributed to a reduction in respiratory symptoms. The cost of the stove was much higher than most respondents said they would be willing to pay. The stoves were not primarily seen as health products. Perceptions of limited impact on health was subsequently supported by the CAPS trial data which showed no significant effect on pneumonia. While the findings are encouraging from the perspective of acceptability, without innovative financing mechanisms, general uptake and sustained use of the stove may not be possible in this setting. The findings also raise the question of whether the stoves should be marketed and championed as 'health

  3. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol production potential from woodstoves for residential heating: Influence of the stove technology and combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Amelie; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bruns, Emily A.; Pieber, Simone M.; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay G.; Prévôt, André S. H.; Wortham, Henri; El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To reduce the influence of biomass burning on air quality, consumers are encouraged to replace their old woodstove with new and cleaner appliances. While their primary emissions have been extensively investigated, the impact of atmospheric aging on these emissions, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, remains unknown. Here, using an atmospheric smog chamber, we aim at understanding the chemical nature and quantify the emission factors of the primary organic aerosols (POA) from three types of appliances for residential heating, and to assess the influence of aging thereon. Two, old and modern, logwood stoves and one pellet burner were operated under typical conditions. Emissions from an entire burning cycle (past the start-up operation) were injected, including the smoldering and flaming phases, resulting in highly variable emission factors. The stoves emitted a significant fraction of POA (up to 80%) and black carbon. After ageing, the total mass concentration of organic aerosol (OA) increased on average by a factor of 5. For the pellet stove, flaming conditions were maintained throughout the combustion. The aerosol was dominated by black carbon (over 90% of the primary emission) and amounted to the same quantity of primary aerosol emitted by the old logwood stove. However, after ageing, the OA mass was increased by a factor of 1.7 only, thus rendering OA emissions by the pellet stove almost negligible compared to the other two stoves tested. Therefore, the pellet stove was the most reliable and least polluting appliance out of the three stoves tested. The spectral signatures of the POA and aged emissions by a High Resolution - Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Electron Ionization (EI) at 70 eV) were also investigated. The m/z 44 (CO2+) and high molecular weight fragments (m/z 115 (C9H7+), 137 (C8H9O2+), 167 (C9H11O3+) and 181 (C9H9O4+, C14H13+)) correlate with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) allowing us to discriminate further

  4. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  5. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  6. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

  7. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  8. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  9. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zheng; Jin Yinlong; Liu Fan; Cheng Yibin; Liu Jiang; Kang Jiaqi; He Gongli; Tang Ning; Chen Xun; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO 2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

  10. The development of a thermoelectric power generator dedicated to stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sornek, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Rzepka, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of thermoelectric generators in the stove-fireplace with accumulation. • Construction of the thermoelectric generator is limited by the heat accumulation. • Variants of the heat exchanger’s construction are discussed. • The control method is related on velocity of flue gas and water cooling. • The power limit of 30 W for self-sufficient operation is sufficient. - Abstract: A significant part of the world’s population (about 40%) cooks their meals and provides heating for their homes using wood-burning heating devices. Due to the relatively low cost of fuel and their aesthetic design, solid fuel stoves capable of heat accumulation are convenient and common. The use of dedicated small-scale power generators provides also additional benefits. This paper presents the results of a study conducted to verify the possibility of generating power using stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems. In such units, the temperature of the flue gas should be kept at a certain level for the purposes of storing heat, which results from certain limitations of the thermoelectric generators. To verify the possibility of applying thermoelectric modules in such heating devices, a dedicated system with thermoelectric generators was selected from among various microcogeneration systems and implemented. Three types of heat exchangers were studied and the most efficient unit was selected for further testing. Two types of generators, with maximum operating temperatures of 320 and 175 °C, were compared. Subsequently, the characteristics of the latter were determined. The conducted tests allowed to determine the performance and the total efficiency of the generators that were used. It has been demonstrated that the maximum power of the generator would not exceed ca. 30 W e and that there is no economic justification for such a device. However, providing a self-powered and self-sufficient operation of stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

  11. Smoke emissions from a catalytic wood stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowburn, D.A.; Stephens, N.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here was concerned with testing a catalytic wood burning stove (roomheater) following the most applicable UK procedures. The identical stove has also been tested in several other nations to their individual procedures. The results will be submitted to the International Energy Agency (IEA) such that appropriate comparisons can be made. The results comprised: burning rate; an indicative appliance efficiency; heat output; carbon dioxide emissions; carbon monoxide emissions; and smoke emissions. These results were determined with the appliance at three nominal burning rates (high, medium and low). Comparing the results with those obtained in other countries indicates good agreement except when the appliance was operated at low burning rates, under which conditions the UK results indicate significantly worse smoke emissions than those measured by other researchers. (author)

  12. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  13. In-home performance of residential cordwood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The air quality impacts of residential cordwood stoves have been of concern to regulators, energy planners, and members of the woodstove industry. In addition, the reliability of laboratory certification emission values in predicting 'real world' emissions has been questioned. In response to these concerns, particulate emissions from residential cordwood stoves under actual in-home use have been measured for 5 heating seasons as part of 12 separate studies in Oregon, New York, Vermont, and the Yukon Territory. Monitoring was conducted using an automated emission sampler (AES) system. The system has been deployed in nearly 100 individual homes. Typically, emissions from several 1-week-long integrated sampling periods over the course of the heating season were measured with the AES system at each home. Particulate emission rates in grams of particles per hour of stove operation, grams of particles per kilogram of dry wood burned, and grams of particles per million Joules were calculated. Ancillary data provided by the studies included wood burn rates, homeowner wood loading patterns, wood moisture content and species, hours of operation of auxiliary heating appliances in the study homes, room ambient, flue gas, catalyst, and pre-catalyst temperatures, and hours of catalyst operation. Conventional stoves, high-technology non-catalytic stoves, catalytic stoves, and stoves equipped with retrofit catalytic devices have been studied. In addition to the 12 cordwood stove studies, the AES system has been used in 2 pellet stove studies and 1 fireplace study

  14. Indoor Wood-Burning Stove and Fireplace Use and Breast Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexandra J; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-07-18

    Indoor burning of fuel for heating or cooking releases carcinogens. Little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution from wood-burning stoves or fireplaces on breast cancer risk. In a large prospective cohort study, we evaluated the risk of breast cancer in relation to indoor heating and cooking practices. Sister Study participants ( n =50,884) were recruited from 2003–2009. Breast cancer–free women in the United States or Puerto Rico, 35–74 y old, with a sister with breast cancer were eligible. Participants completed questionnaires on indoor heating and cooking practices for both their enrollment and their longest adult residence. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between indoor heating/cooking and breast cancer. A total of 2,416 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=6.4 y). Having an indoor wood-burning stove/fireplace in the longest adult residence was associated with a higher breast cancer risk [HR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.22)]; the risk increased with average frequency of use [≥once/week, HR=1.17 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.34)] (p for trend=0.01). An elevated HR was seen for women burning wood [HR=1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.21)] or natural gas/propane [HR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.32)]. No association was observed for burning artificial fire-logs [HR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.12)] except among women from western states [HR=1.36 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.81)]. In this prospective study, using an indoor wood-burning stove/fireplace in the longest adult residence at least once a week and burning either wood or natural gas/propane was associated with a modestly higher risk of breast cancer. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP827.

  15. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  16. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Cooking Fuel Systems in India, China, Kenya, and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily use of traditional cooking fuels and stoves in India, China, Kenya, and Ghana emits harmful air pollutants that result in over a million premature deaths annually. Reducing pollution from cookstoves is a key priority, as emissions from traditional cookstoves and open fires ...

  19. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  20. Improvement Design of an Existing Atomized Kerosene Stove for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing atomized kerosene stove being used in some households in Nigeria does not give room for primary air fuel mixture but secondary one before combustion. This in turn leads to higher specific fuel consumption and ultimately lower thermal efficiency (resulting from low combustion efficiency) of the stove. In order ...

  1. Emission of Dioxins from Danish Wood-Stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, K.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of the investigation was to estimate the annual dioxin emission from Danish wood-stoves. 4 stoves of different designs and 3 types of fuel were tested in 2 operating conditions. Sampling was carried out in a dilution tunnel, making reproducible sampling possible. The dioxin...

  2. The emissions from a space-heating biomass stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, T.; Pinar, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the flue gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and soot from an improved space-heating biomass stove and thermal efficiency of the stove have been investigated. Various biomass fuels such as firewood, wood shavings, hazelnut shell, walnut shell, peanut shell, seed shell of apricot (sweet and hot seed type), kernel removed corncob, wheat stalk litter (for cattle and sheep pen), cornhusk and maize stalk litter (for cattle pen) and charcoal were burned in the same space-heating biomass stove. Flue gas emissions were recorded during the combustion period at intervals of 5min. It was seen from the results that the flue gas emissions have different values depending on the characteristics of biomass fuels. Charcoal is the most appropriate biomass fuel for use in the space-heating biomass stoves because its combustion emits less smoke and the thermal efficiency of the stove is approximately 46%. (author)

  3. Poverty alleviation aspects of successful improved household stoves programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Programmes to improve household wood and charcoal stove efficiencies have been launched throughout the developing world over the past 20 years. Their main driver has been to reduce environmental degradation resulting from the removal of trees for charcoal and fuel wood production. In addition, health benefits arise from the reduction or removal of smoke in people's homes. Unfortunately, many programmes have failed to establish sustainable improved stove production - primarily through lack of sufficient attention to consumer tastes and market dynamics. This project, carried out in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda, has identified key success factors for sustainable stove production and supply by determining the poverty impacts of successful, commercially-based, improved household biomass stove programmes on producers, consumers and others associated with the household fuel and stove supply and end-use business. (author)

  4. STAR Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating and Lighting Kick-off Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR grantees and EPA scientists will discuss progress on their projects which aim to quantify the extent to which interventions for cleaner cooking, heating, or lighting can impact air quality and climate, which in turn affect human health and welfare

  5. Reconstructing the image of the cleaner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorcho van Vlijmen; Toine van den Hoogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article shows the relevance of an insider’s perspective on workers in the cleaning industry (cleaners). It explains how the ways in which cleaners create meaning in their work can be explored. These findings help to create added value for FM. Theory: Organisational theory describes a

  6. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as..., floors, walls, and other production-related work areas. The cleaning products within this item are...

  7. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  8. Clean Energy for Development: The Environmental and Socioeconomic Benefits of Ethanol as a Household Cooking Fuel In Ethiopia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debebe, M.; Lambe, F. (Gaia Association, Bole Subcity, P.O.Box 13493, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)). e-mail: gaiaassociation@ethionet.et

    2008-10-15

    The overwhelming dependence of the household sector on traditional fuels (solid biomass) and kerosene for cooking is having a hugely negative impact on health, the environment and the economy in Ethiopia. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation associated with harvesting biomass for cooking, are contributing to climate change and environmental degradation. Moreover, indoor air pollution from the burning of traditional fuels indoors causes numerous serious health problems for those exposed - in most cases, women and children. Ethiopian families cook using these fuels because they have no alternatives. Gaia Association, an Ethiopian NGO, and its partners are working to increase access to ethanol fuelled cooking stoves for households at all income levels and have conducted an extensive pilot study to assess the impact of the ethanol fuelled CleanCook stove on Ethiopian homes in a variety of locations. The favourable study results were used to inform a detailed business plan outlining the strategies for local commercialisation of the stove and fuel. Adoption of this alternative clean cooking technology has been shown to address the health, environmental and socioeconomic problems associated with heavy reliance on traditional cooking fuels.

  9. Effects of a liquefied petroleum gas stove intervention on pollutant exposure and adult cardiopulmonary outcomes (CHAP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño-Del-Rio, Magdalena; Goodman, Dina; Kephart, Josiah L; Miele, Catherine H; Williams, Kendra N; Moazzami, Mitra; Fung, Elizabeth C; Koehler, Kirsten; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Lee, Kathryn A; Nangia, Saachi; Harvey, Steven A; Steenland, Kyle; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Checkley, William

    2017-11-03

    Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years. After enrollment, we will collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, household characteristics, and cooking practices. During the first year of the study, LPG stoves and fuel tanks will be delivered to the homes of 90 intervention participants. During the second year, participants in the intervention arm will keep their LPG stoves, but the gas supply will stop. Control participants will receive LPG stoves and vouchers to obtain free fuel from distributors at the beginning of the second year, but gas will not be delivered. Starting at baseline, we will collect longitudinal measurements of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, blood pressure, endothelial function, carotid artery intima-media thickness, 24-h dietary recalls, exhaled carbon monoxide, quality-of-life indicators, and stove-use behaviors. Environmental exposure assessments will occur six times over the 2-year follow-up period, consisting of 48-h personal exposure and kitchen concentration measurements of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide, and 48-h kitchen concentrations of nitrogen dioxide for a subset of 100 participants. Findings from this study will allow us to better understand behavioral patterns, environmental exposures, and cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes resulting from the adoption of

  10. Beer, Wood, and Welfare--The Impact of Improved Stove Use Among Dolo-Beer Breweries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grimm

    Full Text Available Local beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households as well as the environmental effect. We find substantial wood savings among the breweries, 36% to 38% if they fully switch to an improved stove. In absolute amounts, they save about 0.176 kg of fuelwood per litre of dolo brewed. These savings imply huge reductions in CO2-emissions and reduce the overall demand for woodfuel, which is predominantly used by the poorer strata for cooking purposes. We provide estimates for the price decrease that might result from this and show that the urban poor are likely to benefit. Thus, the intervention under study is an example for a green growth intervention with pro-poor welfare gains--something green growth strategies should look for.

  11. Multi-criteria evaluation of cooking energy alternatives for promoting parabolic solar cooker in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohekar, S.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India). CREED; Ramachandran, M. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2004-07-01

    The policy formulation for cooking energy substitution by renewables is addressed in multi-criteria context. A survey is conducted to know the perceptions of different decision making groups on present dissemination of various cooking energy alternatives in India. Nine cooking energy alternatives are evaluated on 30 different criteria comprising of technical, economic, environmental/social, behavioural and commercial issues. Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), a multi-criteria decision making method of outranking nature is used to rank the alternatives. It is found that liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove is the most preferred device, followed by kerosene stove, solar box cooker and parabolic solar cooker (PSC) in that order. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out for identifying potential areas for improvement for PSC. On the basis of results, strategies for promoting wide spread use of PSC are formulated. (author)

  12. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory...

  13. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  14. Factors Influencing Household Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanistreet Debbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Household burning of solid fuels in traditional stoves is detrimental to health, the environment and development. A range of improved solid fuel stoves (IS are available but little is known about successful approaches to dissemination. This qualitative systematic review aimed to identify factors that influence household uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Extensive searches were carried out and studies were screened and extracted using established systematic review methods. Fourteen qualitative studies from Asia, Africa and Latin-America met the inclusion criteria. Thematic synthesis was used to synthesise data and findings are presented under seven framework domains. Findings relate to user and stakeholder perceptions and highlight the importance of cost, good stove design, fuel and time savings, health benefits, being able to cook traditional dishes and cleanliness in relation to uptake. Creating demand, appropriate approaches to business, and community involvement, are also discussed. Achieving and sustaining uptake is complex and requires consideration of a broad range of factors, which operate at household, community, regional and national levels. Initiatives aimed at IS scale up should include quantitative evaluations of effectiveness, supplemented with qualitative studies to assess factors affecting uptake, with an equity focus.

  15. How do People in Rural India Perceive Improved Stoves and Clean Fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Bhojvaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cook stoves (ICS have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion. This paper explores the variation in perceptions of and preferences for ICS in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as revealed through a series of semi-structured focus groups and interviews from 11 rural villages or hamlets. We find cautious interest in new ICS technologies, and observe that preferences for ICS are positively related to perceptions of health and time savings. Other respondent and community characteristics, e.g., gender, education, prior experience with clean stoves and institutions promoting similar technologies, and social norms as perceived through the actions of neighbours, also appear important. Though they cannot be considered representative, our results suggest that efforts to increase adoption and use of ICS in rural India will likely require a combination of supply-chain improvements and carefully designed social marketing and promotion campaigns, and possibly incentives, to reduce the up-front cost of stoves.

  16. Rural-urban differences in cooking practices and exposures in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, Christine; Dickinson, Katherine; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Kanyomse, Ernest; Coffey, Evan; Hannigan, Michael; Alirigia, Rex; Oduro, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Key differences between urban and rural populations can influence the adoption and impacts of new cooking technologies and fuels. We examine these differences among urban and rural households that are part of the REACCTING study in Northern Ghana. While urban and rural populations in the study area all use multiple stoves, the types of stoves and fuels differ, with urban participants more likely to use charcoal and LPG while rural households rely primarily on wood. Further, rural and urban households tend to use different stoves/fuels to cook the same dishes—for example, the staple porridge Tuo Zaafi (TZ) is primarily cooked over wood fires in rural areas and charcoal stoves in urban settings. This suggests that fuel availability and ability to purchase fuel may be a stronger predictor of fuel choice than cultural preferences alone. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants also differ in these two types of areas, with urban areas having pollutant hot spots to which residents can be exposed and rural areas having more homogeneous and lower pollutant concentrations. Further, exposures to carbon monoxide and particulate matter differ in magnitude and in timing between urban and rural study participants, suggesting different behaviors and sources of exposures. The results from this analysis highlight important disparities between urban and rural populations of a single region and imply that such a characterization is needed to successfully implement and assess the impacts of household energy interventions.

  17. Fuel efficient stoves for the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, P [Intermediate Technology Group Ltd., Rugby (GB)

    1990-12-01

    In developing countries particularly in rural areas, the majority of households depend on biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal, or animal dung for their cooking and heating needs. Formerly free, these materials are acquiring a monetary value and improved combustion efficiency leads to better utilisation as well as reduced pollution. This article describes the latest development in this field. (author).

  18. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  19. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood......-burning is an overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install...

  20. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  1. Survey of usage patterns for domestic stoves/fireplaces. Prestudy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  2. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  3. performance eval performance evaluation of a biomass stove using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... stoves have come in various sizes and styles which require biomass ... impacts associated solid wood based fuel is reduced through .... The LEMS model is an ideal test for .... increased firepower, the curve returns to a fairly.

  4. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement applies are: (i) General purpose cleaners. Carpet and upholstery cleaners formulated for use in... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of...

  5. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  6. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  7. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  8. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  10. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  11. Heat transfer and performance analysis of thermoelectric stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, Yousef S.H.; Kseibi, Musaab M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and testing of a thermo electric stove. • Three biofuels namely: wood, peat and manure are used. • Heat transfer analysis is detailed. • Resulting thermoelectric energy for vital purposes in remote poor regions. • Evaluation of performance of the stove subcomponents. - Abstract: Access to electricity is one of the important challenges for remote poor regions of the world. Adding TEG (thermoelectric generators) to stoves can provide electricity for the basic benefits such as: operating radio, light, phones, medical instruments and other small electronic devices. Heat transfer analysis of a multi-purpose stove coupled with 12 TEG modules is presented. This analysis comprises a well aerodynamically designed combustor, finned TEG base plate, cooker and water heater beside the outer surface for space heating. Heat transfer analysis was also carried out for all the subcomponents of the stove, and performance predicted against the experimental results. It was found that the maximum power obtained is about 7.88 W using wood, manure or peat with an average overall efficiency of the stove about 60%.

  12. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  13. Impact of the Improved Patsari Biomass Stove on Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biomarkers and Carbon Monoxide Exposures in Rural Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; Marron-Mares, Adriana Teresa; Masera, Omar; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Sjödin, Andreas; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cooking with biomass fuels on open fires results in exposure to health-damaging pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter. Objective: We compared CO exposures and urinary PAH biomarkers pre- and postintervention with an improved biomass stove, the Patsari stove. Methods: In a subsample of 63 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in central Mexico, we measured personal CO exposure for 8 hr during the day using continuous monitors and passive samplers. In addition, first-morning urine samples obtained the next day were analyzed for monohydroxylated PAH metabolites by gas chromatography/isotope dilution/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Exposure data were collected during the use of an open fire (preintervention) and after installation of the improved stove (postintervention) for 47 women, enabling paired comparisons. Results: Median pre- and postintervention values were 4 and 1 ppm for continuous personal CO and 3 and 1 ppm for passive sampler CO, respectively. Postintervention measurements indicated an average reduction of 42% for hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene on a whole-weight concentration basis (micrograms per liter of urine), and a 34% reduction on a creatinine-adjusted basis (micrograms per gram of creatinine). Pre- and postintervention geometric mean values for 1-hydroxypyrene were 3.2 and 2.0 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Conclusion: Use of the Patsari stove significantly reduced CO and PAH exposures in women. However, levels of many PAH biomarkers remained higher than those reported among smokers. PMID:21622083

  14. Guidelines for automated control systems for stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Mandl, Christoph; Obernberger, Ingwald

    ERA-NET Bioenergy is a network of national research and development programmes focusing on bioenergy which includes 14 funding organisations from 10 European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Its mission is to e...... manufacturers concerning the optimisation of their products and the development and design of new products with its recommendations which have been worked out based on scientific investigations as well as comprehensive test runs....... units or measures to stabilise the draft or to reduce standing losses). Objectives related to the implementation and evaluation of the different measures -Test of the most promising concepts by performing test runs with prototypes. -Development of design guidelines for stove manufacturers based...... by ERA-NET Bioenergy under 7th Joint Call for Research and Development of the ERA-NET Bioenergy from 2013. Today small-scale biomass combustion is one of the most relevant bioenergy applications. Driven by EU-wide and national measures to promote the utilisation of biomass for energy production...

  15. Solar stove as a mechanism of appropriate energy by the low-income population in Sergipe, Brazil; Fogao solar como mecanismo de apropriacao de energia pela populacao de baixa renda em Sergipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazil, Osiris Ashton Vital; Silva, Maria Susana [Sergipe Parque Tecnologico (SERGIPETEC), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Araujo, Paulo Mario Machado de; Doria, Mary Barreto; Claudia Andrade, Leao Ana [Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (LEM/ITP), Aracaju, Sergipe (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Materiais; Teixeira, Olivio [Universidade Federal do Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the experience from the realization of social workshops technology of construction and use of the solar stove box type in Sergipe State. The workshops were realized in 2007 and in the beginning from 2008 like mechanisms to appropriate the low income family to the use of the solar energy. The workshops accompanying enables to analyze the dynamic and propose betterments in the construction process of the innovation. The incentive to the solar stove use is justified by the fact of low income population frequently use logs like energetic for cook. The reached results in the workshops made possible the discussion of the mechanism from appropriation of the solar stove by the population in the government State action optic. (author)

  16. Lessons from a pilot program to induce stove replacements in Chile: design, implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Chávez, Carlos; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe

    2017-11-01

    We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a subsidy program to introduce cleaner and more efficient household wood combustion technologies. The program was conducted in the city of Temuco, one of the most polluted cities in southern Chile, as a pilot study to design a new national stove replacement initiative for pollution control. In this city, around 90% of the total emissions of suspended particulate matter is caused by households burning wood. We created a simulated market in which households could choose among different combustion technologies with an assigned subsidy. The subsidy was a relevant factor in the decision to participate, and the inability to secure credit was a significant constraint for the participation of low-income households. Due to several practical difficulties and challenges associated with the implementation of large-scale programs that encourage technological innovation at the household level, it is strongly advisable to start with a small-scale pilot that can provide useful insights into the final design of a fuller, larger-scale program.

  17. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  18. Experimental and computational studies on a gasifier based stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varunkumar, S.; Rajan, N.K.S.; Mukunda, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple method to calculate the fraction of HHC was devised. ► η g for stove is same as that of a downdraft gasifier. ► Gas from stove contains 5.5% of CH 4 equivalent of HHC. ► Effect of vessel size on utilization efficiency brought out clearly. ► Contribution of radiative heat transfer from char bed to efficiency is 6%. - Abstract: The work reported here is concerned with a detailed thermochemical evaluation of the flaming mode behaviour of a gasifier based stove. Determination of the gas composition over the fuel bed, surface and gas temperatures in the gasification process constitute principal experimental features. A simple atomic balance for the gasification reaction combined with the gas composition from the experiments is used to determine the CH 4 equivalent of higher hydrocarbons and the gasification efficiency (η g ). The components of utilization efficiency, namely, gasification–combustion and heat transfer are explored. Reactive flow computational studies using the measured gas composition over the fuel bed are used to simulate the thermochemical flow field and heat transfer to the vessel; hither-to-ignored vessel size effects in the extraction of heat from the stove are established clearly. The overall flaming mode efficiency of the stove is 50–54%; the convective and radiative components of heat transfer are established to be 45–47 and 5–7% respectively. The efficiency estimates from reacting computational fluid dynamics (RCFD) compare well with experiments.

  19. Cooking crisis: What crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking has long been a topic of discussion and concern among those arguing for a healthy diet. Chadwick, the great public health reformer, in 1842 called for cooking education.\\ud \\ud The Obama administration has heartedly endorsed cooking, mainly through the First Lady and a program called Cooking Matters, to address the obesity problem in the United States (http://cookingmatters.org/). \\ud \\ud Changing practices in cooking and food preparation and the way we eat some argue are driven by a ...

  20. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  1. Factors affecting perception of beneficiaries of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves regarding cost-benefit of adoption of Mamta Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R.; Yadla, V.L. [M.S. Univ. of Baroda, Vadodara (India). Home Management Dept.

    1995-10-01

    Perceived levels of cost-benefit of adoption of Mamta Stove (MS) was investigated on a sample of 390 beneficiaries of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) drawn through multistage random sampling technique from 3 villages in Gujarat State, viz., Kanjari, Vadadla, and Sindhrot. A standardized cost-benefit scale that exhibited a reliability coefficient of 0.92 was used in the study. The main cooks revealed a mean age of 36 years. Regarding perception on available sources of cooking fuel and accessibility to those, a wide disparity was observed, not only with reference to commercial sources and fuel forms but also with reference to free fuels gathered from forest land and waste land. MSs were installed in rural kitchens with the active involvement of about 50% of the main cooks. Majority of the cooks in Sindhrot village attended user education camps. The mean perceived cost-benefit ratio (PCBR) was computed to be 0.14. However, PCBR of the cooks from Sindhrot village was 0.51 while those of Vadadla and Kanjari were 0.09 and {minus}0.19 respectively. The correlation coefficient computed between PCBR and selected variables revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between PCBR of the cook and their participation in NPIC and quality of installation of MS. The observation of the highest PCBR in Sindhrot village, a model smokeless village developed by TBU Baroda, could be attributed to the implementation of NPIC in a systematic manner adopting participatory model. The paper discusses at length the implications of the study and outlines the strategies for achieving widespread adoption of MS by beneficiaries of NPIC.

  2. Energy performance of Portuguese and Danish wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, considerable amounts of renewable energy resources are used for residential heating with wood-burning stoves, which can cause considerable energy losses and environmental impacts. A better understanding of its operating characteristics will permit to improve the buildings energy...... carried out through the measurement of the main operating parameters: flue gas temperature and composition, combustion air flow rate, and fuel consumption rate. The results showed that the appliances emitted energy intermittently, with a mean heat flow rate into the indoors of 5 kWth, representing mean...... efficiency and indoor climate, and to reduce the emission of air pollutants to the environment. This study aimed to analyze the operating conditions of a Portuguese made stove and compare it with the most efficient Danish made stoves tested at the Technological Institute. The combustion experiments were...

  3. Mapping the performance of wood-burning stoves by installations worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2016-01-01

    environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...

  4. STUDI EMISI TUNGKU MASAK RUMAH TANGGA (Study for Emission Characteristic of Household Stoves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study emission characteristic of household stoves. Five stoves were tested, namely clay pot biomass stove, brick biomass stove, kerosene stove, coal stove, and LPG stove.  Emission parameters to be measured were CO, NO2, SO2, and particulates. Gas emission was measured using gas analyzer Wolfsense TG 501, while particulate was determined based on Indonesian National Standard (SNI: 19-7117.12-2005. Results showed that LPG stove emitted no CO indicating that complete burning existed. Other stoves emitted CO with kerosene stove exhibited the highest CO emission of 1074 μg/m3. Biomass pot stoves produced SO2 (722 μg/m3 which is lower than LPG stove (1488 μg/m3 and kerosene stove (1055 μg/m3, but higher than coal stove (290 μg/m3. On the other side, biomass pot stoves produced more NO2 (99 μg/m3 with pot stove as compared to kerosene stove (25 μg/m3. Particulate emission increased based on the fuels used with an order from the lowest was LPG stove, kerosene stove, coal stove, and biomass stove. Key words: emission, stove, biomass, fossil fuels   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji karakteristik emisi beberapa tungku atau kompor dapur rumah tangga. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan lima jenis tungku atau kompor, yaitu tungku biomassa pot tebal, tungku biomassa bata, kompor minyak tanah, kompor batubara, dan kompor LPG. Parameter emisi yang diukur meliputi CO, NO2, SO2 dan partikel. Emisi gas diukur menggunakan gas analyser Wolfsense TG 501, sedangkan emisi partikel debu ditentukan berdasarkan standar SNI 19-7117.12-2005. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kompor LPG tidak menghasilkan emisi CO. Kompor minyak tanah menghasilkan emisi CO paling tinggi yaitu (1074 μg/m3. Kompor LPG menghasilkan emisi SO2 paling banyak (1488 μg/m3, diikuti kompor minyak tanah (1055 μg/m3, tungku kayu pot (722 μg/m3, dan kompor batubara (290 μg/m3. Di pihak lain, tungku biomassa pot tebal

  5. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    focus in the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative. The purpose of this evaluation has been to assess experience from the initiatives to date against the intentions of the action plan, and to provide constructive input to help flesh out a future product-oriented initiative, including the activities...... linked to the new programme for cleaner products. The evaluation has focused on three selected sectors and on inter-sector product-oriented projects carried out under the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1993-97. The investigation has been carried out at the request of the Council for Recycling...

  6. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  7. Burns and fires in South Africa's informal settlements: Have approved kerosene stoves improved safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimemia, David; van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Seedat, Mohamed

    2018-06-01

    This study is a follow-on to an intervention project that implemented South African Bureau of Standards approved kerosene stoves and safety education in 150 households of a Johannesburg informal settlement. An investigation conducted 12 months later established that 43 stoves had operational defects, yet 23 households continued using the faulty appliances. This study focuses on (1) the psychological and behavioural factors associated with continued use of faulty stoves by the 23 households, and (2), the specific technical failures of these stoves. The study involved one-on-one recall interviews with the households using defective stoves (N=21) and laboratory-based stove tests for seven of the affected appliances. The results indicate that the stoves had defects in critical safety features such as flame control and the self-extinguishing mechanism. Four stove malfunctions of minor burn affect were reported in the study. Continued use of the damaged stoves was significantly associated with the time from receipt of the stove to detection of first failure: stoves that failed later on were more significantly likely to remain in use as compared to those that failed sooner. The findings point to the need for strengthening enforcement of appliance standards, public education on kerosene stove use, and structural change for the energy-poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  9. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  10. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  11. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  12. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafthefer, B.

    1986-01-01

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  13. Dynamics of sustained use and abandonment of clean cooking systems: study protocol for community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Chalise, Nishesh; Yadama, Gautam N

    2016-04-26

    More than 3 billion of the world's population are affected by household air pollution from relying on unprocessed solid fuels for heating and cooking. Household air pollution is harmful to human health, climate, and environment. Sustained uptake and use of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels are proposed as solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present our study protocol aimed at understanding multiple interacting feedback mechanisms involved in the dynamic behavior between social, ecological, and technological systems driving sustained use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies among the rural poor in India. This study uses a comparative case study design to understand the dynamics of sustained use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels in four rural communities of Rajasthan, India. The study adopts a community based system dynamics modeling approach. We describe our approach of using community based system dynamics with rural communities to delineate the feedback mechanisms involved in the uptake and sustainment of clean cooking technologies. We develop a reference mode with communities showing the trend over time of use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels in these communities. Subsequently, the study develops a system dynamics model with communities to understand the complex sub-systems driving the behavior in these communities as reflected in the reference mode. We use group model building techniques to facilitate participation of relevant stakeholders in the four communities and elicit a narrative describing the feedback mechanisms underlying sustained adoption or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies. In understanding the dynamics of feedback mechanisms in the uptake and exclusive use of cleaner cooking systems, we increase the likelihood of dissemination and implementation of efficacious interventions into everyday settings to improve the health and wellbeing of women and children most affected

  14. Cooking with Fire: The Mutagenicity- and PAH-Emission ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. We evaluated two categories of solid-fuel cookstoves for 8 pollutant- and 4 mutagenicity-emission factors, correlated the mutagenicity-emission factors, and compared them to those of other combustion emissions. We burned red oak in a 3-stone fire (TSF), a natural-draft stove (NDS), and a forced-draft stove (FDS); we combusted propane as a liquified petroleum gas control fuel. We determined emission factors based on useful energy (megajoules delivered, MJd) for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon, methane, total hydrocarbons, 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, levoglucosan (a wood-smoke marker), and mutagenicity in Salmonella. Other than NOx the emission factors per MJd correlated highly among each other (r2 ≥ 0.92); NOx correlated 0.58-0.76 with the other emission factors. Excluding NOx, the NDS and FDS reduced the emission factors on average 68 and 92%, respectively, relative to the TSF. Nonetheless, the mutagenicity-emission factor based on fuel energy used (MJthermal) for the most efficient stove (FDS) was intermediate to that of a large diesel bus engine and a small diesel generator. Both mutagenicity- and pollutant-emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove

  15. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901) and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539), we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure) related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes. PMID:27517950

  16. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  17. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Biomass Stove Using Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers have proved that smoke and other emissions resulting from fuel wood in traditional stoves have led to increase in health hazards which include acute ... High thermal efficiency translates to less exposure to PM and CO emission which reduces significantly, risk to health accruing to the use of briquette and fuel ...

  19. Reducing health impacts of biomass burning for cooking. The need for cookstove performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeliotis, K. [Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens (Greece); Pakula, C. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Section Household and Appliance Technology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is routinely used for cooking in the developing world, especially in rural areas. The World Health Organization estimates that about 2.5 billion people globally rely on biomass, such as wood, agricultural waste and animal dung to meet their energy needs for cooking utilising traditional low-efficiency cookstoves. However, certain human health risks are associated with the inhalation of off-gases resulting from the indoor use of biomass for cooking, especially for women and children who spend more of their time at home. On the other hand, use of energy-efficient cookstoves is considered to reduce those risks. Thus, qualitative and quantitative measurements of cookstove performance are necessary in order to make different stoves and different cooking processes comparable. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the current situation regarding biomass use for cooking with emphasis placed on the developing world, the brief of the adverse health impacts of biomass burning based on the review of literature, the presentation of the merits of improved efficiency cookstoves and to highlight the need for stove performance tests. The demand of different types of biomass is not likely to change in the near future in the developing world since biomass is readily available and cheap. Thus, the efforts to improve household air quality must concentrate on improving cookstoves efficiency and ventilation of the flue gases outdoors. Programmes for the improvement of the cookstoves efficiency in the developing world should be part of the development agenda.

  20. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  1. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  2. Emission of dioxins from fireplaces and wood-burning stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.J.; Vikelsoee, J.; Madsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the Environmental Report No. 149 was published. The result of this investigation was that exceptionally large quantities of dioxin were emitted from burning of clean wood in fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. The conclusion was, however, that it was a preliminary investigation subject to great uncertainties. So it was recommended to make further investigations. The project was continued in 1990, and the present report is the result of this investigation. The fuels applied were logged and treated as an integral part of the test in order to take precautions against contamination. A new test arrangement with a dilution channel was developed in order to be able to take samples. The dilution channel made it possible to take out representative samples for the entire combustion process. Four wood-burning stoves were chosen for the experiments. Two stoves representing those sold from 1960 till 1990. One new stove approved according to DS 887 and finally a prototype stove. The dioxin analysis method was developed so that it could better handle the presence of tar in the samples taken. Danmarks Miljoe Undersoegelse (DMU) - The Danish Environmental Investigations - carried out a great work of development and documentation in this field. Before the main experiment a validation of the sampling and the analysis method was made. The conclusion was that the sampling and analysis method was satisfactory and that a continuity from Environmental Project no. 149 was ensured. During the execution of the present project a probable explanation of the high dioxin emission has been found which were reported in Environmental Project No. 149. The reason is in all probability contamination from burning of pressure-creosoted wood with burning of clean wood. The present report contains a number of appendices showing results from single experiments, references and a number of references to supplementary reports which were elaborated during the progress of the work. (EG)

  3. Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana (REACCTING): study rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Kanyomse, Ernest; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Coffey, Evan; Rivera, Isaac J; Adoctor, James; Alirigia, Rex; Muvandimwe, Didier; Dove, MacKenzie; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary H; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Abisiba, Adoctor Victor; Anaseba, Dominic; Hagar, Yolanda; Masson, Nicholas; Monaghan, Andrew; Titiati, Atsu; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hsu, Yueh-Ya; Kaspar, Rachael; Brooks, Bre'Anna; Hodgson, Abraham; Hannigan, Michael; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2015-02-12

    Cooking over open fires using solid fuels is both common practice throughout much of the world and widely recognized to contribute to human health, environmental, and social problems. The public health burden of household air pollution includes an estimated four million premature deaths each year. To be effective and generate useful insight into potential solutions, cookstove intervention studies must select cooking technologies that are appropriate for local socioeconomic conditions and cooking culture, and include interdisciplinary measurement strategies along a continuum of outcomes. REACCTING (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana) is an ongoing interdisciplinary randomized cookstove intervention study in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. The study tests two types of biomass burning stoves that have the potential to meet local cooking needs and represent different "rungs" in the cookstove technology ladder: a locally-made low-tech rocket stove and the imported, highly efficient Philips gasifier stove. Intervention households were randomized into four different groups, three of which received different combinations of two improved stoves, while the fourth group serves as a control for the duration of the study. Diverse measurements assess different points along the causal chain linking the intervention to final outcomes of interest. We assess stove use and cooking behavior, cooking emissions, household air pollution and personal exposure, health burden, and local to regional air quality. Integrated analysis and modeling will tackle a range of interdisciplinary science questions, including examining ambient exposures among the regional population, assessing how those exposures might change with different technologies and behaviors, and estimating the comparative impact of local behavior and technological changes versus regional climate variability and change on local air quality and health outcomes

  4. Proper indoor climate by the adoption of advanced wood burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Skreiberg, Oeyvind

    2014-01-01

    The indoor emission of (ultra)fine particles and overheating from wood-burning stoves are crucial problems in modern houses when wood is used for heating. The main cause for indoor particle emission is the interaction between user and stove when lighting and refilling the stove. The main causes...... for overheating are a high thermal insulation level of the house and high (peak) wattage of the stove. This research aims to understand how low wattage stoves with a computer added device and water jacket will perform on the indoor air quality as proper heating appliances for low energy houses. Two field studies...... were designed to compare the influence of the auto-pilot device and water jacket on the indoor climate. The first experiments were conducted in 8 renovated detached houses using certified stoves while the following experiments were conducted in 4 low energy houses using modern and advanced stoves...

  5. Childhood asthma and indoor woodsmoke from cooking in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Morten A; Hessen, Jens O; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel; McCracken, John; Lopez, Victorina

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence and severity of asthma, and the association with cooking on open wood fires, as preparation for a large-scale randomized field trial on effects of indoor air pollution and child health. This is one of the first systematic studies of asthma and indoor wood-smoke pollution and to our knowledge the first asthma study in a purely indigeneous population in Latin America. The mothers of 1058 children aged 4-6 years were interviewed, using the standardized ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) procedures and questionnaire. The study population is a Mam-speaking (Maya), indigenous group living at relatively high altitude (2000 m) in Western Guatemalan Highlands. We found that asthma prevalence is low among indigenous children in Guatemala, compared to other populations in Latin America. Only 3.3% of the children reported wheezing symptoms in the last 12 months, and 72% wheezing symptoms ever. The majority of the current wheezers had at least one of the criteria for severe asthma. The prevalence of all the symptoms of asthma was higher in children from households that used open fires compared to improved stoves with chimneys. In a logistic regression model, use of open fire for cooking was a significant risk factor for a number of asthma symptoms, with odds ratios varying from 2.0 to 3.5. Among the different cooking technologies (1-improved stove with chimney, 2-mixture of gas and open fire, 3-open fire) trends of higher prevalence with more pollution was found for some of the symptoms. Hence use of open fire for cooking, may be an important risk factor for asthma symptoms and severity.

  6. The cost of cooking a meal. The case of Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Ray, Charlotte; Boulkaid, Youssef

    2017-06-01

    Energy for cooking is considered essential in achieving modern energy access. Despite this, almost three billion people worldwide still use solid fuels to meet their cooking needs. To better support practitioners and policy-makers, this paper presents a new model for comparing cooking solutions and its key output metric: the ‘levelized cost of cooking a meal’ (LCCM). The model is applied to compare several cooking solutions in the case study area of Nyeri County in Kenya. The cooking access targets are connected to the International Workshop Agreement and Global Tracking Framework’s tiers of cooking energy access. Results show how an increased energy access with improved firewood and charcoal cookstoves could reduce both household’s LCCMs and the total costs compared to traditional firewood cooking over the modelling period. On the other hand, switching to cleaner cooking solutions, such as LPG- and electricity, would result in higher costs for the end-user highlighting that this transition is not straightforward. The paper also contextualizes the results into the wider socio-economic context. It finds that a tradeoff is present between minimizing costs for households and meeting household priorities, thus maximizing the potential benefits of clean cooking without dismissing the use of biomass altogether.

  7. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  9. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Hannes; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use. We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437), 9 (n = 23,139) and 6 countries (n = 14,561) respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels. Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (pCooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070) determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50). Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation. We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  10. The development impact of solar cookers: A review of solar cooking impact research in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentzel, Marlett; Pouris, Anastassios

    2007-01-01

    Solar cooking is often considered 'a solution looking for a problem'. Solar cookers have long been presented as an interesting solution to the world's problem of dwindling fuel wood sources and other environmental problems associated with wood fuel demand for cooking. However, recent GTZ field work in South Africa showed different benefits instead: the use of solar cookers resulted in appreciable fuel and time savings as well as increased energy security for households using commercial fuels. These observations are based on field tests in South Africa that started in 1996 to investigate the social acceptability of solar cookers and to facilitate local production and commercialisation of the technology. Impact studies and use rate studies have been carried out by a number of different organisations since the inception of the project and although commercialisation of the technology has not been achieved to its fullest potential, impact studies indicate that solar cookers have a positive development impact on households through fuel-, energy- and time savings. The article aims to summarise the findings of the various studies and present an overview of use rates and impact data. A variety of factors influence solar cooker use rates, which in turn determine impacts. Some factors are related to the user, some to the environment in which the cooker is used and some to the cooker itself. Ultimately, the data shows that on average, only 17% of solar cooker owners do not use their stoves after purchase and that active solar cooker users utilise their stoves on average for 31% of their cooking incidences. Since the majority of solar stove buyers actually use their stoves and obtain real benefits, this suggests that that solar cookers are indeed not a solution looking for a problem but a solution worth promoting

  11. In-home performance of pellet stoves in Medford and Klamath Falls, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.G.; Houck, J.E.; Roholt, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Pollutant emissions, thermal efficiencies, and heat outputs of pellet stoves operating in homes located in Klamath Falls and Medford, Oregon were documented. Six stoves representing two commercially available, certified models were studied during the 1989-1990 heating season. Three models exempt from certification (a total of six stoves) were studied during the 1990-1991 heating season. An automated emission sampler (AES) system was used to conduct long-term, in-home monitoring of the stoves. The results of the studies have permitted an evaluation of the environmental and energy performance characteristics of the stoves. For the certified stoves, the average overall particulate emissions were 1.05 grams per hour (g/hr), which is about 75% lower than the best-performing cordwood stoves. The in-home particulate emission values were close to their laboratory certification values. Preliminary results for the exempt stoves produced an average particulate emission value of 2.02 g/hr. Also, for the certified stoves, altitude appeared to have little or no effect on particulate emissions and there appeared to be no differences in particulate emission rates between the two models studied. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and carbon monoxide emissions were low. The carbon monoxide emission rates averaged 14 g/hr, the average net thermal efficiency of the stoves was 68%, and the average heat output was 8,747 Btu per hour. Similar data are currently being evaluated for the exempt stoves. Emission and energy performance data obtained for the pellet stoves assessed in this study demonstrated that pellet stoves offer a viable residential biomass-fueled heating option

  12. The house, the tile stove and the climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The tile stove was invented in the North Alpine area between the 8th and 10th century. Apart from convection air heating and clay cupola ovens, this system provided the only possibility for a smoke-free heated living room. The innovation of the tile stove heating system itself did not reach...... the Southern Scandinavian region until the 12th century. In the Upper German speaking area, this heating system had been connected to a characteristic ground plan since the 14th century. This so-called ninefold ground plan consisted of the "stube" and the adjacent kitchen, a central corridor and unheated...... chambers in three bays and two or three aisles. It probably originated from the "appartement" in a noble context, but "trickled down" to urban and rural housing. In contrast to the quick spread of the heating system, this ground plan was only gradually adopted in the Lower Mountain Range, Northern Germany...

  13. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  14. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  15. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  16. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.; Manić Nebojša G.; Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2015-01-01

    Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW), used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results o...

  17. Outlook for modern cooking energy access in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Central American nations of Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua are among the poorest in the Americas. While the fraction of population dependent on solid fuels has declined in these nations over the last 25 years, the number of people using them has risen. Here, we first assess current patterns of cooking energy use in these nations. We then apply a discrete model of household cooking choices and demand to simulate future pathways of clean cooking uptake and the outlook for achieving target 7.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which aims to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030. We find that by 2030, ensuing income growth is likely to enable 90% of urban populations in these nations to switch to using modern cooking energy services. However, without supporting policies, between 40% to 50% of rural Guatemalans and Hondurans, while over two-thirds of rural Nicaraguans, are likely to find clean fuels or stoves unaffordable in 2030. A targeted subsidy on modern fuels, like liquid petroleum gas (LPG), is the most effective policy mechanism we studied that could provide such support. A 50% subsidy policy on LPG targeted to the rural and urban poor population could, by 2030, make cooking with LPG affordable to an additional 7.3 million people in these countries. We estimate that such a policy would cost about $250 million per year and would have negligible greenhouse gas emissions impacts. Such a policy could also have significant health benefits, preventing about 8,890 premature deaths annually from reduced exposure to cooking-related household pollution in 2030. PMID:29883457

  18. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  19. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  20. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  1. Efficient utilization of short rotation tree biomass for cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Chauhan, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The human as well as livestock population increase is phenomenal in developing world including India. The survival of this huge population certainly depends on the carrying capacity of the natural systems, which is essentially determined by the nature itself. Present state of the forests can satisfy the needs of certain population and the demand for wood has rapidly outstripped the sustainability of forests. The fuelwood requirements in the developing world is approximately 80 per cent of total wood requirements and is the major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, there is need to maximize the productivity on one hand and protection/extention of the area on another hand. Wood substitution is an option including shifting from fuelwood for cooking to fossil fuels but in the changing climatic situation, this option is short term alternative. There is need to produce more and use the same efficiently to reduce the demands. Millions of households across the country are using crude cooking stoves for their daily needs which are not only energy inefficient but detrimental to women health also. It has been the policy of Government to encourage trees outside forests to minimize the pressure from forests through meeting requirements outside forests, which is possible through intensively managed short rotation forestry and also some initiatives have been taken to increase the fuelwood efficiency through improved cooking stove, which are working successfully. Woodfuel remained the most important source of household energy in India but regular attempts have not been made to improve the efficiency in its use. This paper will focus on potential of short rotation forestry plantations for energy consumption and its efficient use at domestic scale. This has three fold interrelated economic, environmental and social impact. Key words: Short Rotation Forestry, trees outside forests, wood energy, cooking stove

  2. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  3. Successes emerge in search for cleaner processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with mounting public and regulatory pressures, many chemical producers have long adopted pollution reduction efforts. But increasingly, firms are eyeing fundamental process changes to achieve cleaner technologies. In addition to environmental benefits, the promised economic payoffs are clear: higher yields and an escape from soaring waste treatment and disposal costs. Having such technologies, says Paolo Galli, Montecatini's (Milan) director/corporate research, is a tremendous tool. It's becoming an increasingly important competitive element. Indeed, suggests David Hyde, ICI's (London) manager/environmental technology, everyone is looking to use cleaner technologies for a competitive advantage. A number of leading technology groups, including UOP (Des Plaines, IL), are working on replacing hydrofluoric acid (HF) with solid catalysts in alkylation processes. Although it is technologically tough to replace HF or alternative sulfuric acid technology, the rewards could be huge in producing high-octane fuel additives. Catalytica (Mountain View, CA), for one, is building a pilot plant with partners Neste (Helsinki) and Du Pont's Conoco. The company has developed a process to manufacture high-purity DMC by direct synthesis from carbom monoxide, methanol, and oxygen. The medium-pressure process uses a copper salts catalyst system; EniChem says the only significant by-product is carbon dioxide, and there are no chlorinated impurities

  4. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW, used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results obtained showed that in case of nominal load and combustion of pellets recommended by the stove manufacturer, stove efficiency of 80.03% was achieved. The use of lower quality pellet caused additional 1.13 kW reduction in heat output in case of nominal load and 0.63 kW in case of reduced load. This was attributed to less favourable properties and lower bulk and particle density of lower quality pellet. The use of different burner capacity has shown to have little effect on heat output and efficiency of the stove when pre-set values in the control system of the stove were not altered. It is concluded that replacement of the burner only is not sufficient to increase/decrease the declared capacity of the same stove configuration, meaning that additional measures are necessary. These measures include a new set up of the stove control system, which needs to be properly adjusted for each alteration in stove configuration. Without the adjustment mentioned, declared capacity of the stove cannot be altered, while its CO emission shall be considerably increased.

  5. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  6. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  7. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  8. On the possibilities of reduction in emission caused by home tile stoves in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczyk, W. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The coal-fired tile stoves are still very popular in Poland. The estimated total number of such home stoves operated in Cracow reaches ca. 100 000. Operation of these stoves during the heating season belongs to the most significant sources of air pollution. Type and scale of emission of the most important pollutants, caused by coal combustion in home stoves in Cracow has been determined basing upon the investigations carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Power Engineering Machines and Devices, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland within the American-Polish Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. Further experiments included in this Program allowed to estimate the attainable efficiency of home tile stoves and possible reduction in pollutant emission resulting from their operation. A short discussion of these data and capacities is presented in this lecture.

  9. Impact of operating wood-burning stoves on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Jensen, Ole Michael; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    A field study on the impact of operating and reloading wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality was carried out during two consecutive winters. In contrast to the majority of recent studies, which focussed on the ambient air quality and the penetration of particles to the indoor air......, this study aims to understand to what extent the operation of a stove contributes to the generation of concentration of ultrafine particles in the indoor air. Therefore, different stoves were ignited in one session by the owner of the stove and in a subsequent session by an expert on wood-burning stoves....... The study was conducted in seven typical Danish detached houses without other indoor activities taking place. In each house the average air change rate during one week was measured (using passive tracer gas technique) and the indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded continuously...

  10. Emission of Metals from Pelletized and Uncompressed Biomass Fuels Combustion in Rural Household Stoves in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Effort of reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries may require an increasing utilization of biomass fuels. Biomass pellets seem well-suited for residential biomass markets. However, there is limited quantitative information on pollutant emissions from biomass pellets burning, especially those measured in real applications. In this study, biomass pellets and raw biomass fuels were burned in a pellet burner and a conventional stove respectively, in rural households, and metal emissions were determined. Results showed that the emission factors (EFs) ranged 3.20-5.57 (Pb), 5.20-7.58 (Cu), 0.11-0.23 (Cd), 12.67-39.00 (As), 0.59-1.31 mg/kg (Ni) for pellets, and 0.73-1.34 (Pb), 0.92-4.48 (Cu), 0.08-0.14 (Cd), 7.29-13.22 (As), 0.28-0.62 (Ni) mg/kg for raw biomass. For unit energy delivered to cooking vessels, the EFs ranged 0.42-0.77 (Pb), 0.79-1.16 (Cu), 0.01-0.03 (Cd), 1.93-5.09 (As), 0.08-0.19 mg/MJ (Ni) for pellets, and 0.30-0.56 (Pb), 0.41-1.86 (Cu), 0.04-0.06 (Cd), 3.25-5.49 (As), 0.12-0.26 (Ni) mg/MJ for raw biomass. This study found that moisture, volatile matter and modified combustion efficiency were the important factors affecting metal emissions. Comparisons of the mass-based and task-based EFs found that biomass pellets produced higher metal emissions than the same amount of raw biomass. However, metal emissions from pellets were not higher in terms of unit energy delivered.

  11. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  12. Epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng

    2008-09-01

    The cleaning profession has been associated with multiple ergonomic and chemical hazards which elevate the risk for occupational injury. This study investigated the epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in healthcare work settings in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Incidents of occupational injury among cleaners, resulting in lost time from work or medical care, over a period of 1 year in two healthcare regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person-years obtained from payroll data. Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. A total of 145 injuries were identified among cleaners, with an annual incidence rate of 32.1 per 100 person-years. After adjustment for age, gender, subsector, facility, experience and employment status, Poisson regression models demonstrated that a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of all injury, musculoskeletal injury and cuts was associated with cleaning work in acute care facilities, compared with long-term care facilities. Female cleaners were at a higher RR of all injuries and contusions than male cleaners. A lower risk of all injury and allergy and irritation incidents among part-time or casual workers was found. Cleaners with >10 years of experience were at significantly lower risk for all injury, contusion and allergy and irritation incidents. Cleaners were found to be at an elevated risk of all injury categories compared with healthcare workers in general.

  13. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery in a Charcoal Stove using a Thermo-Electric Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Judges Ajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal stoves have widespread use among the poorer households and outdoor food vendors in Nigeria. In order to improve the efficiency of charcoal stoves, various researches have tried integrating a thermoelectric module in the charcoal stove. The researches, however did not exploit the performance of the thermoelectric modules at different ambient temperatures. To evaluate the performance of thermoelectric integrated charcoal stoves in the sub-Saharan Africa, a self-powered, forced air induced thermoelectric charcoal stove experiment was carried out at five different ambient temperatures of 36ºC, 33ºC, 32ºC, 30ºC and 29ºC and an average fuel hotbed temperature of 1023.75ºC. The thermoelectric charcoal stove generated a maximum voltage of 5.25V at an ambient temperature of 29ºC. The least maximum voltage was generated at the highest ambient temperature of 36ºC. It was observed that the maximum voltage increased with decreasing ambient temperature, this could be attributed to the ambient air being used to cool the thermoelectric generator. Therefore, it could be said that the performance of a forced draft thermoelectric charcoal stove increases with decrease in ambient temperature.

  15. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  16. Wood Stove Pollution in the Developed World: A Case to Raise Awareness Among Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoff, Lisa B; Koutrakis, Petros; Garshick, Eric; Karagas, Margaret R; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R; Fleisch, Abby F

    2017-06-01

    Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science. We identified 36 studies in developed countries that reported associations of household wood stove use and/or community wood smoke exposure with pediatric health outcomes. Studies primarily investigated respiratory outcomes, with no evaluation of cardiometabolic or neurocognitive health. Studies found community wood smoke exposure to be consistently associated with adverse pediatric respiratory health. Household wood stove use was less consistently associated with respiratory outcomes. However, studies of household wood stoves always relied on participant self-report of wood stove use, while studies of community wood smoke generally assessed air pollution exposure directly and more precisely in larger study populations. In most studies, important potential confounders, such as markers of socioeconomic status, were unaccounted for and may have biased results. We conclude that studies with improved exposure assessment, that measure and account for confounding, and that consider non-respiratory outcomes are needed. While awaiting additional data, pediatricians can refer patients to precautionary measures recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to mitigate exposure. These include replacing old appliances with EPA-certified stoves, properly maintaining the stove, and using only dry, well-seasoned wood. In addition, several studies have shown mechanical air filters to effectively reduce wood stove pollution exposure in affected homes and

  17. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  18. CO and NO emissions from pellet stoves: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a report on an experimental investigation on pellet stoves aimed to fully understand which parameters influence CO and NO emissions and how it is possible to find and choose the optimal point of working. Tests are performed on three pellet stoves varying heating power, combustion chamber size and burner pot geometry. After a brief review on the factors which influence the production of these pollutants, we present and discuss the results of experimental tests aimed to ascertain how the geometry of the combustion chamber and the distribution of primary and secondary air, can modify the quantity of CO and NO in the flue gas. Experimental tests show that production of CO is strongly affected by the excess air and by its distribution: in particular, it is critical an effective control of air distribution. In these devices a low-level of CO emissions does require a proper setup to operate in the optimal range of excess air that minimizes CO production. In order to simplify the optimization process, we propose the use of instantaneous data of CO and O2 concentration, instead of average values, because they allow a quick identification of the optimal point. It is shown that the optimal range of operation can be enlarged as a consequence of proper burner pot design. Finally, it is shown that NO emissions are not a critical issue, since they are well below threshold enforced by law, are not influenced by the distribution of air in the combustion chamber, and their behavior as a function of air excess is the same for all the geometries investigated here.

  19. CO and NO emissions from pellet stoves: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, D; Lezzi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a report on an experimental investigation on pellet stoves aimed to fully understand which parameters influence CO and NO emissions and how it is possible to find and choose the optimal point of working. Tests are performed on three pellet stoves varying heating power, combustion chamber size and burner pot geometry. After a brief review on the factors which influence the production of these pollutants, we present and discuss the results of experimental tests aimed to ascertain how the geometry of the combustion chamber and the distribution of primary and secondary air, can modify the quantity of CO and NO in the flue gas. Experimental tests show that production of CO is strongly affected by the excess air and by its distribution: in particular, it is critical an effective control of air distribution. In these devices a low-level of CO emissions does require a proper setup to operate in the optimal range of excess air that minimizes CO production. In order to simplify the optimization process, we propose the use of instantaneous data of CO and O2 concentration, instead of average values, because they allow a quick identification of the optimal point. It is shown that the optimal range of operation can be enlarged as a consequence of proper burner pot design. Finally, it is shown that NO emissions are not a critical issue, since they are well below threshold enforced by law, are not influenced by the distribution of air in the combustion chamber, and their behavior as a function of air excess is the same for all the geometries investigated here.

  20. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  1. [Effectiveness and limits of the cleaners steam in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, O; Meistermann, C; Schwebel, A

    2009-05-01

    We assessed bactericidal activity of the cleaners steam used for the bio-cleaning of the hospital surfaces. We performed of samples (Rodac) before and after use of cleaner steam and compared with bactericidal effect of disinfecting detergent used in hospital for surfaces. We studied this effectiveness for different time of steam contact. Finally, we wanted to prove, by air sampling, that aero-bio-contamination was possible generated by using cleaners steam. We show that bactericidal effect of the cleaner steam is superior of some tested disinfecting detergent, for the treatment of one square meter till 2 min. This effectiveness diminishes to be just identical in that some disinfecting detergent when use of the cleaner steam is up to two or four square meters surfaces till 2 min. On the other hand, the cleaner steam is less efficient in terms of bacterial destruction when the time of contact steam-soil is superior in 2 min for six square meter surface. The air bacterial pollution, generated by the use of the cleaner steam, is restricted and not significantly augmented if measured in 44 cm above the soil in the course of cleaning. The cleaner steam is indeed a very good equipment for the cleaning of surfaces but it is necessary to respect a time of minimal contact of 2 min for four square meters surfaces treaties to acquire an antibacterial effect at least so important as that acquired with used disinfecting detergent. The disinfection of surfaces is then user-dependent and the time of requested contact is can be not compatible with hospital obligations.

  2. Hospital trash: cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1998-06-01

    Feminist researchers have contrasted the caring provided by women in hospitals with a more fragmented "curing" approach, which they identify with the predominantly male professions of medicine and surgery. The author spoke with hospital cleaners about their jobs and their health. Several themes emerged: the invisibility of the cleaning function, lack of respect for cleaners, representations of cleaning as undemanding, and assumptions that women's work in cleaning is particularly easy. Cleaners use various strategies to combat these stereotypes but receive little help from administrators or fellow employees. There is a hierarchy in the status of Québec hospital workers with curing (doctors) at the top, followed by caring and healing (nurses, therapists, and attendants), and hygiene (cleaners, sterilizers, and launderers) at the bottom. Authority hierarchies in health care are not related to gender in a simple way, although there is discrimination against women cleaners. The fact that cleaning, especially cleaning performed by women, is invisible to managers, other hospital personnel, and patients has important consequences for cleaners' and for patients' health.

  3. Evaluation of electrolytic alkaline cleaners by evaporative-rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed by which electrolytic alkaline cleaners used in large volumes in steel mills can be evaluated for their ability to clean rolling oil from steel strip without the necessity of large-scale mill trials. The method is evaporative-rate analysis, which can be used to determine the relative amount of residual oil on steel strip after cleaning. The procedure consists in placing a droplet of a solution of a volatile, radioactive, carbon-14 tagged organic compound dissolved in a more volatile solvent, on the surface of the metal, where it forms a ternary solution with any oil on the surface. The amount of oil in this ternary solution affects the rate of evaporation of the tagged compound. The rate of evaporation, monitored by a Geiger-Mueller detector, is a measure of the cleanliness of the surface. A number of commercial alkaline cleaners, both solids and liquids, were evaluated over a range of concentrations. Results indicated that the effectiveness of commercial alkaline cleaners varies greatly, and is a function of the cleaner concentration, cleaner composition, and polarity of cleaning. The presence of antifoaming agents also affects cleaning ability. The results of this study indicate that evaporative-rate analysis is a rapid and effective method for evaluating cleaners

  4. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  5. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    OpenAIRE

    Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T.

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ∼ 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreacto...

  6. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  7. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  8. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-12-24

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  9. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi de Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  10. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PM2.5 in household kitchens of Bhaktapur, Nepal, using four different cooking fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Amod K.; Bates, Michael N.; Acharya, Jiwan; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Chandyo, Ram K.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Raut, Anil K.; Smith, Kirk R.

    2015-07-01

    In studies examining the health effects of household air pollution (HAP), lack of affordable monitoring devices often precludes collection of actual air pollution data, forcing use of exposure indicators, such as type of cooking fuel used. Among the most important pollutants is fine particulate matter (PM2.5), perhaps the best single indicator of risk from smoke exposure. In this study, we deployed an affordable and robust device to monitor PM2.5 in 824 households in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Four primary cooking fuels were used in roughly equal proportions in these households: electricity (22%), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (29%), kerosene (23%), and biomass (26%). PM2.5 concentrations were measured in the kitchens using a light-scattering nephelometer, the UCB-PATS (University of California, Berkeley-Particle and Temperature monitoring System). The major predictors of PM2.5 concentrations in study households were investigated. The UCB-PATS results were well correlated with the gravimetric results (R2 = 0.84; for all fuels combined). The mean household PM2.5 concentrations across all seasons of the year were 656 (standard deviation (SD):924) μg/m3 from biomass; 169 (SD: 207) μg/m3 from kerosene; 101 (SD: 130) μg/m3 from LPG; and 80 (SD: 103) μg/m3 from electric stoves. In the multivariate regression of PM2.5 measures, compared with electric stoves, use of LPG, kerosene and biomass stoves were associated with increased indoor PM2.5 concentrations of 65% (95% CI: 38-95%), 146% (103-200%), and 733% (589-907%), respectively. The UCB-PATS performed well in the field. Biomass fuel stoves without flues were the most significant sources of PM2.5, followed by kerosene and then LPG stoves. Outdoor PM2.5, and season influenced indoor PM2.5 levels. Results support careful use of inexpensive light-scattering monitors for monitoring of HAP in developing countries.

  12. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John R; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Davila, Gilberto; Hammond, S Katharine; Ryde, Ian T; Meyer, Joel N; Benowitz, Neal; Thompson, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers. Urine was collected from 23 women who were 3 months post-partum three times over 72h: morning (fasting), after lunch, and following dinner or use of wood-fired traditional sauna baths (samples=68). Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations of metabolites of four PAHs and eight VOCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Long-term (pregnancy through 3 months prenatal) exposure to particulate matter and airborne PAHs were measured. Women using wood-fueled chimney stoves are exposed to high levels of particulate matter (median 48h PM 2.5 105.7μg/m 3 ; inter-quartile range (IQR): 77.6-130.4). Urinary PAH and VOC metabolites were significantly associated with woodsmoke exposures: 2-naphthol (median (IQR) in ng/mg creatinine: 295.9 (74.4-430.9) after sauna versus 23.9 (17.1-49.5) fasting; and acrolein: 571.7 (429.3-1040.7) after sauna versus 268.0 (178.3-398.6) fasting. Urinary PAH (total PAH: ρ=0.89, p0.85) or PAH and VOC biomarkers (ρ=-0.20 to 0.38, p>0.07). Urinary metabolite concentrations were significantly greater than those of heavy smokers (mean cigarettes/day=18) across all PAHs. In 15 (65%) women, maximum 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit of coke-oven workers. The high concentrations of urinary PAH and VOC metabolites among

  13. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  14. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  15. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  16. Cooking with Quadratics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  17. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  18. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions

  19. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  20. Optimization of Operating Conditions of a Household Up-draft Biomass Gasification Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Deng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out with a household up-draft biomass gasification stove to investigate effects of the air distribution method on the performance of the stove. The temperature distribution along the gasifier, the producer gas composition, the stove power, and the thermal efficiency were investigated. Results showed that in the temperature distribution along the gasifier height, the highest temperature was at the bottom oxidation layer of the gasifier, in the range of 950 to 1050 °C. With increasing air quantity through the burner, the time required to boil the water first decreased and then increased, whereas the stove power and thermal efficiency increased and then decreased. The best stove performance was obtained at an optimum air distribution ratio of 0.333 between burner and gasifier air (0.794×10-3 m3/s·kg. When the burner air increased, the flame length above the burner was remarkably reduced and the flame color gradually changed from yellow-red to blue. At the optimum air distribution ratio of 0.333, the flame was blue and stable. The present study provides references for developing a more efficient biomass gasification stove.

  1. Stove checking behaviour in people with OCD vs. anxious controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self

  2. Development of self-running underwater cleaner for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Haruo; Mizutani, Takeshi; Miki, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    A self-running underwater cleaner for removing sediment accumulated on the bottoms of water tanks in nuclear power stations by remote operation was developed. This cleaner is used in the state maintaining the shielding effect of water against radiation as water is filled in equipment pits, and by the remote operation using cables, it runs freely in water and sucks bottom sediment. The sediment is transported through a drain hose to a treating facility in a power station, and treated in a lump. The cleaner is composed of the carriage with electric steering wheels and driving wheels and a high head submerged pump. Front and rear suction mouths are provided, and suck sediment with high speed water flow while scraping with rubber boards. The cleaner can be used in the water depth of 7 m, and as the results of practical test, it was confirmed that the decontaminating effect and maneuverability were very good so that the sediment at the corner was scarcely left behind, and the effects of labor saving and the reduction of exposure of employees were large. The fundamental experiments were carried out on the running mechanism, the coefficient of friction in water, and the construction of suction mouth. The trial manufacture of the under water cleaner, the water tank experiment and the test in the Mamaoka No. 1 plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  4. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  5. Experimentation on bio-kerosene stove using organic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshini, M.; Shetty, Divakar

    2017-07-01

    One of the basic worthy item used in most of the villages even now a day's also is the kerosene stove. But in the current scenario, the petroleum products are been replenished. So an alternate fuel should be found in order delve. This work is to check the contingency of blending pongamia oil and kerosene in which is used as an additive. Pongamia is one of the forest based fast growing evergreen tree which is capable of yielding 9 - 90 kg seeds from which 25% of oil can be extracted. Distilled cow urine is to be used so that the fuel can be stored for longer time and is odorless. Blends of 10% to 70% neat pongamia oil - kerosene(KEP) and pongamia oil - kerosene with additive(KEPWA) are prepared. The properties such as flash point, fire point and viscosity are determined. The blends are been compared by doing emission test. The blends with additive showed better properties and reducing in emission characteristics compared to neat blends. It is also observed that emission of CO is decreasing with increasing blends.

  6. Environmental payoffs of LPG cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Pachauri, S.; Zerriffi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of Indians use solid fuels to meet daily cooking energy needs, with associated negative environmental, social, and health impacts. Major national initiatives implemented by the Indian government over the last few decades have included subsidies for cleaner burning fuels like liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene to encourage a transition to these. However, the extent to which these programs have affected net emissions from the use of these improved fuels has not been adequately studied. Here, we estimate the amount of fuelwood displaced and its net emissions impact due to improved access to LPG for cooking in India between 2001 and 2011 using nationally representative household expenditure surveys and census datasets. We account for a suite of climate-relevant emissions (Kyoto gases and other short-lived climate pollutants) and biomass renewability scenarios (a fully renewable and a conservative non-renewable case). We estimate that the national fuelwood displaced due to increased LPG access between 2001 and 2011 was approximately 7.2 million tons. On aggregate, we estimate a net emissions reduction of 6.73 MtCO2e due to the fuelwood displaced from increased access to LPG, when both Kyoto and non-Kyoto climate-active emissions are accounted for and assuming 0.3 as the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB) harvested. However, if only Kyoto gases are considered, we estimate a smaller net emissions decrease of 0.03 MtCO2e (assuming fully renewable biomass harvesting), or 3.05 MtCO2e (assuming 0.3 as the fNRB). We conclude that the transition to LPG cooking in India reduced pressures on forests and achieved modest climate benefits, though uncertainties regarding the extent of non-renewable biomass harvesting and suite of climate-active emissions included in such an estimation can significantly influence results in any given year and should be considered carefully in any analysis and policy-making.

  7. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arbex

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046 for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035 was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  8. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, M A; Martins, L C; Pereira, L A A; Negrini, F; Cardoso, A A; Melchert, W R; Arbex, R F; Saldiva, P H N; Zanobetti, A; Braga, A L F

    2007-04-01

    Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF(25-75), based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF(25-75), a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF(25-75) that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  9. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  10. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  11. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  12. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  14. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  15. Test Report - CleanCook Model A1 Stove with Alcohol Fuel - Air Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test results were obtained in accordance with ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IWA (International Workshop Agreement) 11:2012 that was unanimously affirmed by more than 90 stakeholders at the ISO International Workshop on Cookstoves on February 28-29, 2012 in ...

  16. Black carbon cookstove emissions: A field assessment of 19 stove/fuel combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Charity; Delapena, Samantha; Prasad, Rajendra; L'Orange, Christian; Alexander, Donee; Johnson, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from household cookstoves consuming solid fuel produce approximately 25 percent of total anthropogenic BC emissions. The short atmospheric lifetime of BC means that reducing BC emissions would result in a faster climate response than mitigating CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases. This study presents the results of optical BC measurements of two new cookstove emissions field assessments and 17 archived cookstove datasets. BC was determined from attenuation of 880 nm light, which is strongly absorbed by BC, and linearly related between 1 and 125 attenuation units. A relationship was experimentally determined correlating BC mass deposition on quartz filters determined via thermal optical analysis (TOA) and on PTFE and quartz filters using transmissometry, yielding an attenuation cross-section (σATN) for both filter media types. σATN relates TOA measurements to optical measurements on PTFE and quartz (σATN(PTFE) = 13.7 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87, σATN(Quartz) = 15.6 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87). These filter-specific σATN, optical measurements of archived filters were used to determine BC emission factors and the fraction of particulate matter (PM) in the form of black carbon (BC/PM). The 19 stoves measured fell into five stove classes; simple wood, rocket, advanced biomass, simple charcoal, and advanced charcoal. Advanced biomass stoves include forced- and natural-draft gasifiers which use wood or biomass pellets as fuel. Of these classes, the simple wood and rocket stoves demonstrated the highest median BC emission factors, ranging from 0.051 to 0.14 g MJ-1. The lowest BC emission factors were seen in charcoal stoves, which corresponds to the generally low PM emission factors observed during charcoal combustion, ranging from 0.0084 to 0.014 g MJ-1. The advanced biomass stoves generally showed an improvement in BC emissions factors compared to simple wood and rocket stoves, ranging from 0.0031 to 0.071 g MJ-1. BC/PM ratios were highest for the

  17. 'Oorja' in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 "Oorja" stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of "agricultural waste" to make

  18. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodology for identifying parameters for the TRNSYS model Type 210 - wood pellet stoves and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Fiedler, Frank; Nordlander, Svante

    2006-05-15

    This report describes a method how to perform measurements on boilers and stoves and how to identify parameters from the measurements for the boiler/stove-model TRNSYS Type 210. The model can be used for detailed annual system simulations using TRNSYS. Experience from measurements on three different pellet stoves and four boilers were used to develop this methodology. Recommendations for the set up of measurements are given and the required combustion theory for the data evaluation and data preparation are given. The data evaluation showed that the uncertainties are quite large for the measured flue gas flow rate and for boilers and stoves with high fraction of energy going to the water jacket also the calculated heat rate to the room may have large uncertainties. A methodology for the parameter identification process and identified parameters for two different stoves and three boilers are given. Finally the identified models are compared with measured data showing that the model generally agreed well with measured data during both stationary and dynamic conditions.

  20. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  1. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  2. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  3. Impacts of cooking system on indoor air environment: a case study on a Bangladeshi village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Afroze, S.; Azam, M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is needed to meet the subsistence requirement as well as to meet the demand for economic growth and development. As like many other third world countries still more than half of the total consumed energy comes from the traditional fuels in Bangladesh. This is causing rapid deforestation and consequently a change in the eco-systems leading to erosion and change in the climatic pattern. Extreme use of raw (low quality) biomass traditional cook stoves causes significant impacts on indoor air environment and as well on human health. In the study, an assessment of the cooking energy usage pattern, its potential impacts on indoor air environment and human health in a village named Deyara in Khulna district has been performed. The socio-economic status of the villagers and cooking energy usage pattern were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. In the study village Deyara, about 74% of the total households rely on biomass fuel, where the mostly used biomass is trees and its residues (46%), next the crop wastes (39%) and lastly the cow dung (15%). Emissions of different types of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from the burning of biomass cooking fuels the study village are estimated. In the study area the estimated annual emission of CO/sub 2/ is 45.5 tons which about 94% of the total emission, where CO is 4.5%, PM is 1 % and about 0.5% emission is of SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, N/sub 2/O. In the study area the concentrations of air pollutants in the kitchen environment were estimated using an indoor air quality model. The model results show that the concentration around the household areas is not at tolerable level and due to only 1 hour biomass burning this concentration is 323 mg/m/sup 3/ for CO, 50.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for PM, 15 mg/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub 2/ and 9.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/. Not only this, from the combustion of biomass cooking fuels this concentrations of different carcinogens are also at high levels. For 1 hour burning of biomass fuel this concentration is

  4. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  5. Evaluation of several air cleaners for reducing indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Montassier, N.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, studies have been made of the effectiveness of several kinds of air cleaners in removing radon decay products from indoor air using a recently developed automated, semi-continuous measurement system that can determine the activity-weighted size distributions in occupied homes. Measurements of activity-weighted size distributions and radon concentrations were made every 90 min in a home with a high air exchange rate. A week-long series of measurements was made for the home with no cleaner operating and a similar set of measurements were made for each of the air cleaners. Two different types of air cleaners were tested in this study; filtration units (two different designs from two different manufacturers) and two ion generator/fan systems (identical design NO-RAD systems, but from two different manufacturers). It was found that the filtration units resulted in a median reduction in exposure of 15% and 36% for the two units and corresponding dose reductions of 32% and 53%. The two NO-RAD systems produced 37% and 10% reductions in the median exposure, but the reductions in the median dose were 49% and 46%. (author)

  6. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  7. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  8. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  9. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  10. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated... the purposes of this rule. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content requirement for all hand cleaners and/or sanitizers shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

  12. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  13. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  14. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    on almost identical questionnaires centering on the previous day’s eating as reported by the individuals: this included foods eaten, the social context of its consumption and details of who had prepared the food. We make use of a sub-sample encompassing respondents from two-adult households who ate dinner...... developments in the gendering of cooking dinners in multi-person households. The analysis is based on two surveys from a project investigating changes in meal patterns in the Nordic countries. Individuals from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were interviewed in 1997 (n = 4823) and 2012 (n = 8242) based...

  15. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  16. Navigating the limitations of energy poverty: Lessons from the promotion of improved cooking technologies in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesan, Temilade

    2012-01-01

    Energy poverty has been defined as the lack of access of households in developing countries to modern energy sources, and their consequent reliance on solid biomass fuels for cooking. Improved stoves have been promoted by development actors since the 1970s to alleviate various environmental and health problems associated with biomass use, with largely disappointing outcomes. Against this background, this paper examines the intervention of an international development organisation – Practical Action – in West Kochieng, Kenya, where the organisation's energy poverty alleviation efforts are aimed at addressing the health hazards of biomass smoke with six ‘low-cost’ improved cooking technologies. The study reveals that the cooking technology most valued by poor West Kochieng households is the one which most reflects their priorities, rather than those expressed by Practical Action. The findings point to three aspects of appropriateness of energy poverty alleviation interventions – technological, economic and cultural – which combine to influence acceptance and uptake of such interventions. The evidence highlights some of the limitations inherent in the generic policy recommendation to ‘leapfrog’ towards the resolution of energy poverty-related problems, and suggests that more measured steps which respond to the socio-economic realities of poor households are likely to engender more appropriate solutions. - Highlights: ► The technological, economic, and cultural appropriateness of stoves influence uptake. ► Appropriate energy technologies take cognisance of the limitations of poverty. ► Such technologies are more likely to be adopted by biomass-reliant poor households. ► Energy poverty cannot be isolated from the broader context of poverty. ► Eliminating poverty is a prerequisite to alleviating energy poverty.

  17. Gases emissions and excess air measurements for performance analysis of a wood stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Canto, Sergio Aruana Elarrat; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Maneschy, Carlos Edilson de Almeida; Santos, Tiago da Silva; Gazel, Hussein Felix [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: aruana@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br, cemaneschy@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    Millions of people in Africa, Central and South America and Asia rely on rudimentary and inefficient wood stove that causes respiratory diseases and demand for large quantity of biomass from native forest. The international agents as World Bank, UNESCO and International Energy Agency has pointed out the relevancy of wood stove. Research on this subject has been done by Shell Foundation and Aprovecho Research Center that indicates Rocket Stove technology as the most promising and able to provide efficiency together with low cost. This work presents performance results obtained from one wood rocket stove manufactured by a Brazilian company named Ecofogao. The stove performance was measured characterizing the amount of energy supplied to the stove in the biomass and characterizing the eluding gases. The incoming energy was quantified through the high heating value for the Jabot (using a bomb calorimeter) plus the Ultimate Analysis (content of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen), Proximate Analysis (content of moisture, fixed carbon, volatiles and ash) and the mass flow rate of biomass feed to the stoven. The leaving energy in the exhaustion gases was quantified measuring its temperature and composition immediately at the exit of the stoven what is the inlet of chimney. The results show the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO in the concentration ranges of (0.9% to 6.30%), (14.30% to 19.90%) and (0.17% to 2.50%) respectively. The excess air is in the range (3.33 to 23.33) based on carbon dioxide measurements in the eluted gases. These results provided information to promote also further improvements on the stoven design. (author)

  18. FASHION THE KITCHEN: CAST IRON STOVES THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC, 1900-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aesthetics in the marketing strategies of Quebec’s foundries and retailers at the beginning of the 20th century is not well known. This qualitative analysis of published cast iron stove advertisements suggests that the use of aesthetics to market stoves was far more elaborate than the simple alignment with trendy or classic style categories. In fact, aesthetics were the cornerstone of advertising activities aimed at developing and capitalizing on various market segments at a time of burgeoning consumerism.

  19. Intelligent Heat System – high energy efficient wood stoves with low emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2016-01-01

    This development and demonstration project conducted by HWAM A/S and DTU Chemical Engineering has contributed to the development of an automatically controlled wood stove (HWAM IHS), which is on the market today. The new digital control system ensures optimal combustion conditions by keeping...... compared to traditional manually controlled stoves. The tests also showed that in many cases it is impossible to visually tell if non-optimal combustion occurs. Also, in practice it is impossible to manually control the combustion air as fast and optimally as the automatically controlled air inlet valves...

  20. Cooking up a Culinary Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongshem, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A program to introduce inner-city students to the fundamentals of French cooking has spread to more than 100 schools in 6 cities. The program awarded $400,000 in scholarships nationwide this year. Highlights a cooking competition of 10 juniors and seniors from the District of Columbia public schools. (MLF)

  1. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    home. Working for 6-10 year increased the risk of "cough" with an Odd Ratio (OR) of 3.19 (P restaurant using 4 or more stoves had increased risk of "wheeze" with OR of 3.81 (P Restaurant workers are at risk of respiratory symptoms caused by exposure to toxic compounds from cooking fumes. Job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at home were the predictive factors. Workplace Health and Safety protection of restaurant worker is urgently needed and the issue should receive more public attention.

  2. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  3. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  4. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  5. Cleaners in reducing the hazards of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; Wasiolek, P.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three types of air cleaners on the concentration and size distribution of radon progeny in a normally occupied house. Using an automated, semi-continuous, graded-screen array system and a radon monitor, the activity size distribution and radon concentration was measured and the exposure of the occupants of the home to radon could be assessed. The dose model developed as part of the recently released U.S. National Academy of Sciences report was used to related the exposure to deposited dose in the tissue of the bronchial epithelium. Thus, the effectiveness of the air cleaners in reducing both exposure and dose were evaluated. (author)

  6. Guide to cleaner coal technology-related web sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R; Jenkins, N; Zhang, X [IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Guide to Cleaner Coal Technology-Related Web Sites' is a guide to web sites that contain important information on cleaner coal technologies (CCT). It contains a short introduction to the World Wide Web and gives advice on how to search for information using directories and search engines. The core section of the Guide is a collection of factsheets summarising the information available on over 65 major web sites selected from organizations worldwide (except those promoting companies). These sites contain a wealth of information on CCT research and development, technology transfer, financing and markets. The factsheets are organised in the following categories. Associations, research centres and programmes; Climate change and sustainable development; Cooperative ventures; Electronic journals; Financial institutions; International organizations; National government information; and Statistical information. A full subject index is provided. The Guide concludes with some general comments on the quality of the sites reviewed.

  7. Rethinking improved cookstove diffusion programs: A case study of social perceptions and cooking choices in rural Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, Christopher; Wingenbach, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Promoters of improved cookstoves (ICSs) argue they provide the “triple benefits” of improving health outcomes, preserving local ecosystems, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The majority of ICS research reveals a strong pro-diffusion bias toward proving these benefits. Few studies have examined ICSs from the adopters' point-of-view. The purpose of this case study was to describe how culture and social perceptions affect the adoption and use of ICSs. Results showed that stoves in this rural Guatemalan community had several layers of practical importance beyond cooking food. Most prominently, household members valued stoves as heat and light sources, and as a social gathering point for families. Most ICS models have been purposely designed in controlled conditions to deliver maximum heating efficiency at the lowest production cost. However, this case study revealed that the fuel-efficient designs sacrificed important functional, social, and cultural needs. Efforts to increase adoption rates of ICSs will be more successful if the macro-level “triple benefits” paradigm is adapted to include functional consumer-centric benefits beyond heating food, such as providing heat and ambient light. Adoption programs should account for the cultural and social needs of users, such as recognizing that stoves often serve as a gathering point for families. - Highlights: • Social, functional, and cultural domains affected improved cookstove adoption rates. • The fuel-efficient designs of improved cookstoves sacrificed important practical needs. • Households valued stoves as heat and light sources, and as a social gathering point for families

  8. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  9. Impacts of two improved wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of forest wood is still being used in rural housing in low and mid-income countries in South America - 36% in Peru and 6% in Brazil - generating hazardous wood smoke. Interviews were conducted to the users of improved stoves in 20 rural households. In Peru, the field study was carri...

  10. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  11. Beer, wood, and welfare - The impact of improved stove use among dolo-beer breweries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); J. Peters (Jörg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households

  12. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Tian, L.; Zheng, T.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective

  13. Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 {+-} 12%, 61 {+-} 10%, and 98 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. 50 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Field Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2014-01-01

    Wood stoves have the potential of providing CO2-neutral energy without transmission loss—but with the significant drawbacks of high emissions of pollutants and particulate matter at low altitude close to private homes, and with an uneven heat release profile which produces non-optimal heating...

  15. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M.J. (National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Division of Environmental Health)

    1994-12-01

    Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Toolo and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mgm[sup -3], and with electric stoves, 0.9 mgm[sup -3]. In Tooloo, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mgm[sup -3], respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  17. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  18. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation in the Impl...... to improve the firms' environmental activities (e.g. setting up environmental policies, targets and action plans, implementing new procedures and technologies).......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...

  19. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  20. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  1. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    thinking about, purchasing, and preparing food. Overall, prisoners reported being very pleased with self-catering systems. Prisoners also stressed the importance of making healthy food although some prisoners felt they lacked cooking skills. In addition, study data describe and explores prisoner food...... groups, which are formed for economic and social reasons. The food-groups are understood as arenas for group solidarity, and opportunities to measure access, or lack thereof, to capital and resources. Self-catering supports prisoners’ responsibility, need for autonomy and improves prisoners’ cooking...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  2. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...) Garbage shall be agitated during cooking, except in steam cooking equipment, to ensure that the prescribed...

  3. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  4. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpalu, Wisdom; Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: → Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. → We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. → We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. → This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  5. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Wisdom, E-mail: wakpalu@yahoo.com [Department of History, Economics and Politics, Farmingdale State College, State University of New York, Farmingdale, 2350 Broadhollow Road, NY 11735 (United States); Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B. [Department of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2011-10-15

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: > Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. > We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. > We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. > This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  6. Emission factors and thermal efficiencies of cooking biofuels from five countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Saksena, S.; Shankar, V.R.; Joshi, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the environmental and thermal performance of cooking biofuels from five countries. The standard water boiling test was used to determine thermal parameters. The fuels were burnt in a metal stove in a test chamber in accordance with standard protocol. Low-flow air samplers were used for particulate matter measurements, both TSP and RSP. Later, benzo(a)pyrene was determined using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique after extraction from particulate samples in benzene. CO was measured using an electronic datalogger and HCHO using a passive sampler. The ventilation conditions during the experiments were manipulated by using different combinations of doors, windows and fans to ensure minimum stratification of pollutants in the chamber. The indirect method of deriving emission factors was used. Levels of most of the pollutants measured was found to be higher than that reported by previous studies, especially that of benzo(a)pyrene. (author)

  7. Results of Laboratory Testing of 15 Cookstove Designs in Accordance with the ISO/IWA Tiers of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Dean; Bentson, Samuel; Li, Haixi

    2015-03-01

    The widespread adoption and sustained use of modern cookstoves has the potential to reduce harmful effects to climate, health, and the well-being of approximately one-third of the world's population that currently rely on biomass fuel for cooking and heating. In an effort to understand and develop cleaner burning and more efficient cookstoves, 15 stove design and fuel/loading combinations were evaluated in the laboratory using the International Workshop Agreement's five-tiered (0-4) rating system for fuel use and emissions. The designs evaluated include rocket-type combustion chamber models including reduced firepower, sunken pots, and chimneys (three stoves); gasifier-type combustion chambers using prepared fuels in the form of wood pellets (four stoves); forced draft stoves with a small electric fan (five stoves); and a single insulated charcoal stove with preheated secondary air. It was found that a charcoal burning stove was the only stove to meet all the Tier 4 levels of performance. Achieving over 40% thermal efficiency at high power was made possible by reducing firepower and gaps around the pot, although batch-fed stoves generally do not "turn down" for optimal low power performance. While all stoves met Tier 4 for carbon monoxide, only stoves equipped with electrical fans reduced respirable particulate matter to Tier 4 levels. Finally, stoves with chimneys and integrated pots were fuel efficient and virtually eliminated indoor emissions. It is hoped that these design techniques will be useful in further development and evolution of high-performance cookstove designs.

  8. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health.

  9. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Emissions of Gases and Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Hansen, Brian Brun; Lin, Weigang

    2015-01-01

    performance has been verified by field tests in private homes. The main components of an Autopilot IHS wood stove are: a modern wood stove with three separate combustion air inlets, and a control system composing of measuring devices for vital process parameters and a system of controlling valves to regulate...... combustion charges and phases. The experiments showed that the digital control of the combustion process ensures constant and optimal temperatures and overall oxygen concentrations in the combustion chamber resulting in low PM and CO emissions.......A collaboration project between the CHEC research Centre, at DTU Chemical Engineering, and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has been established during the last years and has led to development and marketing of wood stoves (Autopilot IHS) equipped with a digital control system. The improved...

  10. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Michael P.

    1994-02-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  11. Public perceptions of cooking and the implications for cooking behaviour in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA. We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours. Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults. US adults aged ≥18 years. Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, Pcooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed. Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.

  12. Air pollution and inhalation exposure to particulate matter of different sizes in rural households using improved stoves in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Yilong; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Huang-Fu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Wu, Fuyong; Wong, Minghung

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is considered to be among the top environmental risks in China. To examine the performance of improved stoves for reduction of indoor particulate matter (PM) emission and exposure in rural households, individual inhalation exposure to size-resolved PM was investigated using personal portable samplers carried by residents using wood gasifier stoves or improved coal stoves in a rural county in Central China. Concentrations of PM with different sizes in stationary indoor and outdoor air were also monitored at paired sites. The stationary concentrations of size-resolved PM in indoor air were greater than those in outdoor air, especially finer particles PM 0.25 . The daily averaged exposure concentrations of PM 0.25 , PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and total suspended particle for all the surveyed residents were 74.4±41.1, 159.3±74.3, 176.7±78.1 and 217.9±78.1μg/m 3 , respectively. Even using the improved stoves, the individual exposure to indoor PM far exceeded the air quality guideline by WHO at 25μg/m 3 . Submicron particles PM 1.0 were the dominant PM fraction for personal exposure and indoor and outdoor air. Personal exposure exhibited a closer correlation with indoor PM concentrations than that for outdoor concentrations. Both inhalation exposure and indoor air PM concentrations in the rural households with gasifier firewood stoves were evidently lower than the reported results using traditional firewood stoves. However, local governments in the studied rural areas should exercise caution when widely and hastily promoting gasifier firewood stoves in place of improved coal stoves, due to the higher PM levels in indoor and outdoor air and personal inhaled exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... and people of the neighbourhood coexist through events in real-time and depositions over time. The infra-ordinary as a spatial discourse interrogates and acknowledges the latent qualities of the common and seemingly banal, yet vitally important, spatial materiality of everyday life, as an alternative...

  14. Reactive adsorption: A cleaner technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, G.; Szanya, T.; Hanak, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cleaner technology prefers work with minimal loss and the wastes cause the less environmental damages. In the spirit of the previous sentence in the present paper reactive adsorption is investigated for the removal of radioactive nuclides from nuclear power plant decontamination solutions. During alkaline, oxidative decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment a radioactive solution is produced. Owing to the storing difficulties of radioactive solutions it is necessary to develop a method for the in situ treatment of radioactive, alkaline, oxidative decontamination solutions, and for the concentration of radioactive components. Reactive adsorption seems to be promising for this purpose. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  16. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure vegetable oil production parameters for cooking energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Aboubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of vegetable oil from Jatropha from the Tanzanian variety with a fat content of 33.84 ± 2.58% and a moisture content of 5.4 ± 1.97%, was made using two methods: the traditional and the mechanical extraction method. The traditional consists in extracting the oil from the paste using boiling water as a solvent. While the mechanical consists of directly pressing the seeds of Jatropha using a ram press called Bielenberg press, to extract the oil contained in the seeds dried or heated before. The net yield of oil extraction by the traditional method was 22.02 ± 2.1%, with a oil cake percentage of 67.02 ± 3.3% and the ratio water/paste in mass adopted was 0.36. Mechanical extraction has an average raw yield of 26.15 ± 2.74%, with a recovery rate of 74.71%. After decanting for 10 days and filtration, the net yield was 15.39 ± 2.82% with a decantation and filtration rate of 58.67 ± 7.24%. The oil produced by traditional method has a water and volatile content of 1.01 ± 0.05% and a density of 0.884. The one produced by mechanical extraction has 0.19 ± 0.09% and a density of 0.891. The result of combustion test using two burners and one stove showed that the combustion rates were: 0.177 ± 0.034 g/min for the burner using one flame and 1.06 ± 0.04 g/min for the six flame burner and finally 3.07 ± 0, 4 g/min for the ten-flame stove. This ten-flame stove allowed 3 L of water to be boiled at 100 °C for 32 min, although during combustion it was observed a release of black fumes which indicates incomplete combustion with Jatropha in this Stove. The cost of the liter of Jatropha oil obtained is higher compared to fossil fuels such as petroleum (500 FCFA per liter and gas oil (624F CFA per liter. It would be possible to use vegetable oil from Jatropha as a cooking fuel. Keywords: Vegetable oil, Jatropha, Traditional extraction, Mechanical extraction, Bielenberg press

  17. Diffusion of rural innovations: some analytical issues and the case of wood-burning stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, B

    1983-04-01

    The literature on the diffusion of rural innovations in Third World countries reveals a spectrum of approaches to the diffusion process. It is argued here that the effectiveness of a particular approach in the diffusion of particular innovations would depend on the technical, the economic, and the social characteristics of the innovations. A typology of innovations in terms of these characteristics has been drawn up. This provides the analytical framework within which the instance of wood-burning stoves is concerned. A priori, the characteristics of this innovation are seen to be such as to necessitate the close involvement of the users approach to diffusion. Available evidence relating to actual experience with promoting woodburning stoves is seen to bear this out. 62 references.

  18. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The role of gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Jantunen, M.J.; Mukala, K.; Tuomisto, J. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Pasanen, P. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Personal 1-h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers of Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors, and their personal 1-wk NO{sub 2} exposures with Palmes tubes. The results were compared to fixed site ambient air monitoring results and related to the presence of high CO, low heat value town gas fired stoves in the homes of the children. Results show that fixed site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas, and also that town gas fired stoves have a profound effect on the CO exposures, and little or no effect on the NO{sub 2} exposures of the children. (author)

  19. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  20. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  1. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  2. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  3. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  4. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  5. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  6. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  7. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  8. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  9. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  10. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...

  11. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  12. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  13. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  14. Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhang Junfeng; Ma Yuqing

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades China has pursued a number of national energy policies as integral components of its 5-year development plans including the unprecedented dissemination of several generations of fuel saving stoves in the majority of its rural populations. These programs, although designed for conservation of fuel wood resources and using deceptively simple technologies, have much wider impacts on both a national and a global level through their impacts on health and emission of pollutants that have warming consequences for the atmosphere. In the current manuscript we examine these implications using emissions data collected as part of a comprehensive evaluation of 28 typical stove/fuel technologies in common use. We illustrate that relative benefits of biomass and fossil fuels, and subsequently policies regarding promotion of different fuel types, are dependent on which products of incomplete combustion are considered. If one only considers gases included within the Kyoto protocol, the burning of renewably harvested biomass appears to have an advantage over kerosene or LPG as a large component of PIC emissions from inefficient biomass stoves are not included in the calculation. If, however, one considers a more comprehensive list of compounds that have direct or indirect effects on global warming, at best the burning of fuel wood when 100% renewably harvested has a similar GWC to these better quality fuels, and, under conditions experienced in many rural areas of the world, often considerably worse. Comprehensive evaluation would require all major radiative forcing agents to be considered, even though that presents considerable difficulties considering reported uncertainties of some global warming potentials. The stove types in this study demonstrated a wide range of emission factors. This offers an effective mechanism for achieving short-term reduction in emissions of health damaging pollutants, and also accomplishes the longer-term goal of reducing of greenhouse

  15. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  16. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...

  17. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  18. Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Carter, Ellison; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Zhang, Yuanxun; Niu, Hongjiang; Lai, Alexandra M; Shan, Ming; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-09-01

    Cooking and heating with coal and biomass is the main source of household air pollution in China and a leading contributor to disease burden. As part of a baseline assessment for a household energy intervention program, we enrolled 205 adult women cooking with biomass fuels in Sichuan, China and measured their 48-h personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in winter and summer. We also measured the indoor 48-h PM2.5 concentrations in their homes and conducted outdoor PM2.5 measurements during 101 (74) days in summer (winter). Indoor concentrations of CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) were measured over 48-h in a subset of ~80 homes. Women's geometric mean 48-h exposure to PM2.5 was 80μg/m(3) (95% CI: 74, 87) in summer and twice as high in winter (169μg/m(3) (95% CI: 150, 190), with similar seasonal trends for indoor PM2.5 concentrations (winter: 252μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295; summer: 101μg/m(3); 95% CI: 91, 112). We found a moderately strong relationship between indoor PM2.5 and CO (r=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.72), and a weak correlation between personal PM2.5 and CO (r=0.41, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.71). NO2/NO ratios were higher in summer (range: 0.01 to 0.68) than in winter (range: 0 to 0.11), suggesting outdoor formation of NO2 via reaction of NO with ozone is a more important source of NO2 than biomass combustion indoors. The predictors of women's personal exposure to PM2.5 differed by season. In winter, our results show that primary heating with a low-polluting fuel (i.e., electric stove or wood-charcoal) and more frequent kitchen ventilation could reduce personal PM2.5 exposures. In summer, primary use of a gaseous fuel or electricity for cooking and reducing exposure to outdoor PM2.5 would likely have the greatest impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cook's Carteaux: Trends in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The following Nuclear News interview, conducted by associate editor Gregg M. Taylor, is with Paul F. Carteaux, training superintendent at Indiana/Michigan Power Company's Cook nuclear power plant. The site has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Cook-1, rated 1020-MWe (net), started commercial operation in August 1975, and the 1060-MWe Cook-2 began operation in July 1978

  20. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  1. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    : 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  2. From kitchen to classroom: Assessing the impact of cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves on primary school attendance in Karonga district, northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christine A; Crampin, Amelia C; Mortimer, Kevin; Dube, Albert; Malava, Jullita; Johnston, Deborah; Unterhalter, Elaine; Glynn, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains. The present paper capitalises on opportunities offered by the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest randomised trial of biomass-fuelled cookstoves on health outcomes conducted to date, the design of which allows for the evaluation of additional outcomes at scale. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of cookstoves on primary school absenteeism in Karonga district, northern Malawi, in particular by conferring health and time and resource gains on young people aged 5-18. The analysis combines quantitative data from 6168 primary school students with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions carried out among 48 students in the same catchment area in 2016. Negative binomial regression models find no evidence that the cookstoves affected primary school absenteeism overall [IRR 0.92 (0.71-1.18), p = 0.51]. Qualitative analysis suggests that the cookstoves did not sufficiently improve household health to influence school attendance, while the time and resource burdens associated with cooking activities-although reduced in intervention households-were considered to be compatible with school attendance in both trial arms. More research is needed to assess whether the cookstoves influenced educational outcomes not captured by the attendance measure available, such as timely arrival to school or hours spent on homework.

  3. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  4. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  5. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  6. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  7. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  8. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  9. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to

  10. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-01-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C 18 SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C 1 --C 7 carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed

  11. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion and meat cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.; Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Chow, J.; Watson, J.; Sagebiel, J.; Sheetz, L.; Batie, S.

    1998-01-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed to develop a chemical emissions profile. Samples were collected using a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler equipped with a 2.5 mm particle selective cyclone. Emissions were diluted 30-100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and were allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab in Riverside, California. Meat type, fat content, and the cooking appliance used were changed in different tests. Fine particle and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected on filter/PUF/XAD/PUF cartridges. Inorganic samples were collected on Teflon and quartz filters, which were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements by x-ray fluorescence, ammonium by automated colorimetry, organic and elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance, as well as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate by ion chromatography. Analysis of organic species was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These data have been utilized for constructing specific profiles for use in the Chemical Mass Balance model for apportionment of fine particle sources in the Denver, Colorado, region

  12. Role of Chinese cooking emissions on ambient air quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Stevanovic, Svetlana; Ristovski, Zoran; Salimi, Farhad; Gao, Jun; Wang, Hongli; Li, Li

    2017-07-01

    Chinese-style cooking often involves volatilization of oils which can potentially produce a large number of pollutants, which have adverse impact on environment and human health. Therefore, we have reviewed 75 published studies associated with research topic among Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, involving studies on the roles of food ingredients and oil type, cooking style impacting on generated pollutants, and human health. The highest concentration occurred including: 1) when peat, wood, and raw coal were used in stoves; 2) olive oil was adopted; 3) cooking with high temperatures; and 4) without cleaning technology. We conclude that PM concentrations for cooking emissions were between 0.14 and 24.46mg/cm 3 . VOC concentrations varied from 0.35 to 3.41mg/m 3 . Barbeque produced the greatest mass concentrations compared to Sichuan cuisine, canteen and other restaurants. The PAHs concentration emitted from the exhaust stacks, dining area and kitchen ranged from 0.0175μg/m 3 to 83μg/m 3 . The largest amount of gaseous pollutants emitted was recorded during incomplete combustion of fuel or when a low combustion efficiency (CO2/ (CO+CO2)<0.5) was observed. The variation range was 6.27-228.89mg/m 3 , 0.16-0.80mg/m 3 , 0.69-4.33mg/m3, 0.70-21.70mg/m 3 for CO, CO 2 , NO 2 and SO 2 respectively. In regards to the toxicity and exposure, current findings concluded that both the dose and exposure time are significant factors to be considered. Scientific research in this area has been mainly driven by comparison among emissions from various ingredients and cooking techniques. There is still a need for more comprehensive studies to fully characterise the cooking emissions including their physical and chemical transformations which is crucial for accurate estimation of their impacts on the environment and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Hong, Guang; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive. After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control. Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  16. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electricity savings with pellet stoves and solar heating in electrically heated houses; Elbesparing med pelletkaminer och solvaerme i direktelvaermda smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas [Hoegskolan Dalarna, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how electrically heated houses can be converted to using wood pellet and solar heating. There are a large number of wood pellet stoves on the market. Many stoves have a water jacket, which gives an opportunity to distribute the heat to domestic hot water and a radiator heating system. Three typical Swedish houses with electric resistance heating have been studied. Fourteen different system concepts using wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems have been evaluated. The systems and the houses have been simulated in detail using TRNSYS. The houses have been divided in up to 10 different zones and heat transfer by air circulation through doorways and open doors have been simulated. The pellet stoves were simulated using a recently developed TRNSYS component, which models the start- and stop phases, emissions and the dynamic behaviour of the stoves. The model also calculates the CO-emissions. Simulations were made with one stove without a water jacket and two stoves with different fractions of the generated heat distributed in the water circuit. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a pellet stove are greatly affected by the house plan, the system choice, if the internal doors are open or closed and the desired level of comfort. Installing a stove with a water-jacket connected to a radiator system and a hot water storage has the advantage that heat can be transferred to domestic hot water and be distributed to other rooms. Such systems lead to greater electricity savings, especially in houses having a traditional layout. It was found that not all rooms needed radiators and that it was more effective in most cases to use a stove with a higher fraction of the heat distributed by the water circuit. The economic investigation shows that installing a wood pellet stove without a water jacket gives the lowest total energy- and capital costs in the house with an open plan (for today's energy prices and the

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  19. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was

  20. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  1. Emissions and efficiency of a domestic gas stove burning natural gases with various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungchang Ko; Tahui Lin

    2003-01-01

    The heating value of a fuel, which depends on its composition, strongly affects burner performance. Using the same gas stove to burn natural gas with various heating values is inappropriate and hazardous due to the possible occurrence of incomplete combustion (i.e. a great increase of CO emissions and/or soot formation), liftoff, flashback and inadequate heat input. In this study, we aim to assess the effects of changes in gas composition on burner performance and propose suitable design or operational factors of domestic gas stoves burning natural gas with various heating values. A single gas burner, originally designed for burning natural gas with low heating value, is adopted to investigate the effects of variations in gas composition on the burner performance. The influence of five significant parameters, including gas composition, primary aeration, gas flow rate (heat input), gas supply pressure, and loading height, on the thermal efficiency and CO emissions were reported and discussed. Using natural gas with high heating value instead of natural gas with low heating value results in a decrease in thermal efficiency (due to higher thermal input) and an increase in CO emission (caused by incomplete combustion). These problems can be significantly improved by decreasing the gas pressure to a suitable value, by enlarging the primary aeration to a favorable level, by selecting a proper thermal input, or by adjusting the optimized heating height. (Author)

  2. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    2009-02-15

    In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

  3. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  4. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  5. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...... sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production'....

  6. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent study into the effectiveness of portable air cleaners (PACs), as an infection control measure against TB, delivered unexpectedly low results. That finding initiated a further study to understand the contribution of system...

  7. Short Communication: Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass Pellet Burning in a Modern Burner for Cooking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EF oPAHs ) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EF oPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EF oPAHs were 348±305 and 396±387 µg/kg in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EF oPAHs were 77.7±49.4 and 189±118 µg/kg, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EF oPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EF oPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower ( p < 0.05 ), likely due to increased combustion efficiencies and change in fuel properties. However, the difference between raw biomass fuels and the pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  8. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass pellet burning in a modern burner for cooking in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EFoPAHs) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EFoPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EFoPAHs were 348 ± 305 and 396 ± 387 μg kg-1 in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EFoPAHs were 77.7 ± 49.4 and 189 ± 118 μg kg-1, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EFoPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EFoPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower (p pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  9. Increased participation among cleaners as a strategy to improve quality and occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrling, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good wo...

  10. Residential space heating with wood burning stoves. Energy efficiency and indoor climate; Boligopvarmning ved braendefyring. Energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, A.; Bergsoee, N.C.; Carvalho, R. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aalborg Univ.. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2012-11-01

    Two issues turn up concerning how to use wood-burning stoves in modern homes. The first is whether wood-burning stoves in future may still act as a genuine heat source, given that new and refurbished single-family houses retain the heat much better than older ones and therefore need less and less energy for space heating. The second issue is whether it will still be possible to use wood-burning stoves in modern houses where the air exchange is controlled by mechanical ventilation or possibly heat recovery. It is a question whether firing techniques can be developed that will work in airtight houses with mechanical ventilation and negative pressure, so that harmful particle emissions can be avoided. To illustrate the first issue, a field study was designed to look carefully at seven modern wood-burning stoves that were set up in six new houses and one older house and investigated, both in terms of firing and heat release. As a background for this part of the study, a heat balance calculation was made for each house. The question is, whether wood-burning stoves will also in the future have a role to play as a heating source. Modern houses grow ever tighter and only need to be supplied with a small quantity of heat. The new Danish Buildings Requirement, 2010 has resulted in a further reduction of 25 % of the energy demand, including the energy supply for heating. However, the new requirements imply that the heating season eventually become so short that a traditional central heating installation becomes superfluous. This means that by using the small amounts of wood cut in gardens and hedgerows of the neighbourhood, a wood-burning stove will, in principle, cover the heating demand. Therefore, the question is rather whether a wood-burning stove is manufactured that can successfully be adapted to new houses. As a consequence of this development, future stoves must be further scaled down in order to meet the heating demand of a modern low-energy house and the stoves must

  11. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  12. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  13. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  14. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Annick N. Tanguay; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exa...

  15. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  16. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  17. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  18. Cooking in Crisis: Lessons from the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The concern with low levels of cooking skills among the British population can be traced back to the 1780s coinciding with the start of urbanisation of the English rural classes. Modern concerns with the lack of cooking skills, since the 1980s, have focused on the links to healthy food choice and preparation. This has resulted in a number of initiatives but little policy development to support cooking in any structured way. Cooking was de-facto removed from the educational experience in schoo...

  19. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Usability analysis of industrial cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Alexana Vilar Soares; Soares, Marcelo Márcio

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the comparative study of the equipment used for cooking in commercial of kitchens restaurants that use the system of traditional cooking and those ones which use the system called smart cooking (combination oven). The study investigates the usability issues concerning to the two systems, analyzing comparatively the aspects related to anthropometry, dimensional variables, the use of the product and also the product safety, as well as issues of information related to operation of the new concepts of cooking in intelligent systems.

  1. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    In much of Africa, the largest fraction of energy consumption occurs within the residential sector and is derived primarily from woodfuels burned in simple stoves with poor combustion characteristics. Many of the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are damaging to human health, particularly when they are concentrated in poorly ventilated indoor environments. Incomplete combustion also has potentially harmful impacts on the climate. Prevalent PICs include methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is among the pollutants subject to controls under the Kyoto Protocol as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter (PM), which can all have an effect on climate, but are not subject to controls under Kyoto. In addition, when woodfuels are used at a rate that reduces standing stocks of trees over the medium or long term, the CO2 released by combustion also has an impact. The choice of stove and fuel technology can have a significant impact on the emission of GHGs as well as on human exposure to health damaging pollutants. In this paper we analyze the emissions of different household energy technologies on a life-cycle basis. We use emission factors to estimate the emissions associated with production, distribution and end-use of common household fuels and assess the likely impacts of these emissions on public health and the global environment. We focus largely on charcoal, a popular fuel in many sub-Saharan African countries. Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of sufficient air for complete combustion to occur. This process removes moisture and most of the volatile compounds. The compounds driven off in the process consist of condensable tars as well as many gaseous hydrocarbons, including ~40 g CH4 per kg of charcoal produced. Combining upstream and end-use emissions, every meal cooked with charcoal has 2-10 times the global warming effect of cooking the same meal with firewood and 5-12 times the effect of

  2. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  3. Does pan diameter influence carbon monoxide levels during heating of water to boiling point with a camping stove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Smith, Simon; Stevenson, Richard; Watt, Martin; Watt, Ian; McFadyen, Angus; Grant, Stan

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether pan diameter influences carbon monoxide (CO) concentration during heating of water to boiling point with a camping stove. The hypothesis was that increasing pan diameter increases CO concentration because of greater flame dispersal and a larger flame. This was a randomized, prospective study. A Coleman Dual Fuel 533 stove was used to heat pans of water to boiling point, with CO concentration monitored every 30 seconds for 5 minutes. The stove was inside a partially ventilated 200-L cardboard box model that was inside an environmental chamber at -6 degrees C. Water temperature, water volume, and flame characteristics were all standardized. Ten trials were performed for each of 2 pan diameters (base diameters of 165 mm [small] and 220 mm [large]). There was a significant difference (P = .002) between the pans for CO levels at each measurement interval from 60 seconds onward. These differences were markedly larger after 90 seconds, with a mean difference of 185 ppm (95% CI 115, 276 ppm) for all the results from 120 seconds onwards. This study has shown that there is significantly higher CO production with a large-diameter pan compared with a small-diameter pan. These findings were evident by using a camping stove to heat water to boiling point when a maximum blue flame was present throughout. Thus, in enclosed environments it is recommended that small-diameter pans be used in an attempt to prevent high CO levels.

  4. Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Meena; Rizwan, Suliankatchi Abdulkader; Krishnan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass cooking fuel use is an important risk factor for a range of diseases, especially among adult women who are primary cooks, in India. About 80% of rural households in India use biomass fuel for cooking. The aim of this study is to estimate the attributable cases (AC) for four major diseases/conditions associated with biomass cooking fuel use among adult Indian women. We used the population attributable fraction (PAF) method to calculate the AC of chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis (TB), cataract, and stillbirths due to exposure to biomass cooking fuel. A number of data sources were accessed to obtain population totals and disease prevalence rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) for strength of association. Using this, PAF and AC were calculated using a standard formula. Results were presented as number of AC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The fixed effects pooled OR obtained from the meta-analysis were 2.37 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.54) for chronic bronchitis, 2.33 (1.65, 3.28) for TB, 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) for cataract, and 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for stillbirths. PAF varied across conditions being maximum (53%) for chronic bronchitis in rural areas and least (1%) for cataract in older age and urban areas. About 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.1) of 5.6 m cases of chronic bronchitis, 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) of 0.76 m cases of TB, 5.0 (2.8, 6.7) of 51.4 m cases of cataract among adult Indian women and 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) of 0.15 m stillbirths across India are attributable to HAP due to biomass cooking fuel. These estimates should be cautiously interpreted in the light of limitations discussed which relate to exposure assessment, exposure characterization, and age-specific prevalence of disease. HAP due to biomass fuel has diverse and major impacts on women's health in India. Although challenging, incorporating the agenda of universal clean fuel access or cleaner technology within the broader framework of rural

  5. Slow heat release - solid fuel stove with acetat-trihydrate heat storage sodium; Slow heat release - Braendeovn med salthydratvarmelager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, U.; Bjerrum, M.; Noergaard, T. (Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    Of the 700,000 solid fuel stoves in Denmark, 600,000 are installed in permanent residences, and 100,000 are installed in summer cottages. Recent examinations have shown that in the heating season, these stoves contribute with a not negligible share of air pollution in the cities. The reason is often inexpedient firing and an inappropriate performance of the stove. In many cases the thermal output of the stove exceeds the heating demand of a modern residence; and the user typically reduces the stove's combustion air supply with the purpose of lowering the temperature of the accommodation space. The result is a sooting combustion followed by undesired and environmentally damaging emissions. In worst case the user fires throughout the night reducing the air to an absolutely minimum. In these situations the fuel smoulders all night, and the stove emits large amounts of undesirable and unhealthy emissions. By constructing the stove with a heat storage that can accumulate the heat from the stove and emit the heat later (when not firing), the problem with the unhealthy ''night firings'' should be eliminated. The project started with a pre-examination regarding suitable materials for a heat storage and a literature study of the subject. By using an OGC material, in this case sodiumacetat-trihydrat, the weight of the stove, in spite of the heat storage, could be held within reasonable frames, since 130 kg PCM can contain the same heat amount as 1,200 kg stone. The great challenge was to compensate for PCM's poor heat conductivities, to distribute the heat in the whole heat storage, making it melt regularly without generating local boiling. This problem was solved by construction measures. The system with sodiumacetat-trihydrat, which melts by 58 deg. C, came to function satisfactorily. 14 hours after the last firing, the temperature of the heat storage was 30 deg. C. The tests with PCM were followed by an extensive emission measuring program

  6. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  8. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  9. Nuclear criticality safety calculations for a K-25 site vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    A modified Nilfisk model GSJ dry vacuum cleaner is used throughout the K-25 Site to collect dry forms of highly enriched uranium (HEU). When vacuuming, solids are collected in a cyclone-type separator vacuum cleaner body. Calculations were done with the SCALE (KENO V.a) computer code to establish conditions at which a nuclear criticality event might occur if the vacuum cleaner was filled with fissile solution. Conditions evaluated included full (12-in. water) reflection and nominal (1-in. water) reflection, and full (100%) and 20% 235 U enrichment. Validation analyses of SCALE/KENO and the SCALE 27-group cross sections for nuclear criticality safety applications indicate that a calculated k eff + 2σ eff + 2σ ≥ 0.9605 is considered unsafe and may be critical. Critical conditions were calculated to be 70 g U/L for 100% 235 U and full 12-in. water reflection. This corresponds to a minimum critical mass of approximately 1,400 g 235 U for the approximate 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. The actual volume of the vacuum cleaner is smaller than the modeled volume because some internal materials of construction were assumed to be fissile solution. The model was an overestimate, for conservatism, of fissile solution occupancy. At nominal reflection conditions, the critical concentration in a vacuum cleaner full of UO 2 F 2 solution was calculated to be 100 g 235 U/L, or 2,000 g mass of 100% 235 U. At 20% 235 U for the 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. At 15% 235 U enrichment and full reflection, critical conditions were not reached at any possible concentration of uranium as a uranyl fluoride solution. At 17.5% 235 U enrichment, criticality was reached at approximately 1,300 g U/L which is beyond saturation at 25 C

  10. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Self-Reported Use of Wood Stoves and Other Indoor Combustion Sources in Urban Nonsmoking Homes in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah B Wyss

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined particulate matter (PM exposure from self-reported use of wood stoves and other indoor combustion sources in urban settings in developed countries. We measured concentrations of indoor PM < 2.5 microns (PM2.5 for one week with the MicroPEM™ nephelometer in 36 households in the greater Oslo, Norway metropolitan area. We examined indoor PM2.5 levels in relation to use of wood stoves and other combustion sources during a 7 day monitoring period using mixed effects linear models with adjustment for ambient PM2.5 levels. Mean hourly indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher (p = 0.04 for the 14 homes with wood stove use (15.6 μg/m3 than for the 22 homes without (12.6 μg/m3. Moreover, mean hourly PM2.5 was higher (p = 0.001 for use of wood stoves made before 1997 (6 homes, 20.2 μg/m3, when wood stove emission limits were instituted in Norway, compared to newer wood stoves (8 homes, 11.9 μg/m3 which had mean hourly values similar to control homes. Increased PM2.5 levels during diary-reported burning of candles was detected independently of concomitant wood stove use. These results suggest that self-reported use of wood stoves, particularly older stoves, and other combustion sources, such as candles, are associated with indoor PM2.5 measurements in an urban population from a high income country.

  12. Guided synthesis of accumulative solutions for the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Cabrales, Alexis; Gaskins Espinosa, Benjamín Gabriel; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Simeón Monet, Rolando Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design is closely related to a product functional structure and the search of solution principles for its definition. This work exposes an accumulative method for the traceability of the functional structure that implements the guided conceptual synthesis of solutions in the preliminary analysis of this designing process stage. The method constitutes a contribution to Pahls and Beitzs classic design model. In it, the functional information system is manipulated, providing the designer with a help so that he can examine the different solutions that are obtained, giving him the possibility of selecting the most convenient one. The guided analysis of the accumulative solutions synthesis is illustrated by means of the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass. (author)

  13. Available exhaust gas power in different configurations in a pellet stove plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granada, E.; Patino, D.; Collazo, J.; Moran, J.C.; Porteiro, J. [Vigo University, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    With a view to finding the best configuration for a small cogeneration system based on the pellet combustion process, exergetic analysis was applied to a small pellet stove. The evaluation focuses on fume exergetic content for power generation purposes. Preheated air, secondary air, fume recirculation and basis configurations were studied. Global exergetic calculation was developed at these configurations based on experimental correlations of energy and emissions. The influences of the pellet feeding rate, excess air, secondary air and fume recirculation were studied. The results for multiple configurations are discussed and the best one is presented. Results show that CO emissions have a major influence on fume exergetic content, although if emissions diminish only a slight thermomechanical exergetic efficiency increase is expected. (author)

  14. Influence of the operating modes of wood-fired stoves on particle emissions; Einfluss der Betriebsweise auf die Partikelemissionen von Holzoefen. Projektzusatz 1+2 zum Projekt Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the influence of the operating characteristics of wood-fired stoves on their particle emissions. Four types of stove are compared: A metal stove with small combustion chamber and a low mass of ceramic lining, a stove with a large combustion chamber and heavier ceramic lining, a newly designed stove with two-stage combustion using gasification and gas oxidation in a separate combustion chamber using secondary air and a modern pellet-fired stove operated with wood and straw pellets. The report describes the measurement programme and presents the results obtained using gravimetric measurements. The spectrum of particle emissions measured for the four types of stove are presented and discussed. The correlation of carbon monoxide and fine-dust emissions is examined. The results of biological tests and the chemical analysis of the dust are discussed.

  15. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  16. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods...

  17. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  18. Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzolo, Elisa; Stanistreet, Debbi; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, 2.8 billion people rely on household solid fuels. Reducing the resulting adverse health, environmental, and development consequences will involve transitioning through a mix of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves (IS) of demonstrable effectiveness. To date, achieving uptake of IS has presented significant challenges. Objectives: We performed a systematic review of factors that enable or limit large-scale uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted systematic searches through multidisciplinary databases, specialist websites, and consulting experts. The review drew on qualitative, quantitative, and case studies and used standardized methods for screening, data extraction, critical appraisal, and synthesis. We summarized our findings as “factors” relating to one of seven domains—fuel and technology characteristics; household and setting characteristics; knowledge and perceptions; finance, tax, and subsidy aspects; market development; regulation, legislation, and standards; programmatic and policy mechanisms—and also recorded issues that impacted equity. Results: We identified 31 factors influencing uptake from 57 studies conducted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. All domains matter. Although factors such as offering technologies that meet household needs and save fuel, user training and support, effective financing, and facilitative government action appear to be critical, none guarantee success: All factors can be influential, depending on context. The nature of available evidence did not permit further prioritization. Conclusions: Achieving adoption and sustained use of IS at a large scale requires that all factors, spanning household/community and program/societal levels, be assessed and supported by policy. We propose a planning tool that would aid this process and suggest further research to incorporate an evaluation of effectiveness. Citation: Rehfuess EA, Puzzolo E, Stanistreet D, Pope D, Bruce

  19. Analyzing the Cooking Behavior of Sophomore Female Students : In relation to the ability for preparation of cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Imakawa, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the Dandori-ryoku (the ability for preparation in cooking) by analyzing the practical cooking behavior of sophomore female students. Ten sophomore female students were participated in the experiment to cook three kinds of food (cooking rice, making miso soup and fried vegetables). The behavior of the participants during cooking were videotaped and analyzed in detail later especially in relation to Dandori-ryoku. Such behaviors as “starting from cooking ric...

  20. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  1. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...... of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high...

  2. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  5. Laser cleaner development for decontamination of the primary water cooling system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2010-01-01

    We recently have performed the feasibility studies to develop laser cleaners utilizing several laser oscillator and amplifier systems like femto-second free-electron lasers, water-jet guided lasers, Q-switched YAG lasers, fiber lasers. Whenever we used to clean the RI-contaminated surface using the lasers, we should focus enough laser power in the surface to evaporate instantly without melting. Therefore, as the contaminated being deeply located into the surface could be removed using any one set of the lasers, we found that every trial of laser cleaning could remove very well the RI contamination being located deeply. Our cold decontamination test using a model sample being Cobalt plated successfully has been performed to show a very high decontamination factor. In order to develop an usable laser cleaner, we plan to develop the prototype laser cleaner next year. (author)

  6. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  7. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  8. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  9. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  11. Increased Participation Among Cleaners as a Strategy to Improve Quality and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Öhrling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, today the cleaning industry is affected more than ever by competition and pressure toward low prices, which leads to a nonadvantageous situation for cleaners. These days many Swedish municipalities choose to outsource cleaning service in order to save money, although the situation for the cleaners appears to be worsening. The aim of this paper is to evaluate an alternative organizational structure within a Swedish public cleaning division to investigate how good work environment for cleaners can be combined with economical savings for a municipality. Like many other cleaning organizations, both national and international, the present cleaning division has been struggling for a long time with high levels of sick leave and early retirements. After years of unsuccessful attempts to improve the situation by reducing the physical load, cleaning managers made a decision to broaden their strategy by changing the structure of their organization. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to identify and understand the effects of the organizational change, both on an individual level and on an organizational level. The results show that the organizational change, which leads to increased participation and autonomy for the cleaners, in combination with a high degree of social support, had a positive effect on job satisfaction, work motivation, and pride among the cleaners. Sick leave within the division has decreased, and both the quality and efficiency of the cleaning service have increased. It can be concluded that there are other alternative organizational structures that could be applied within the public sector and prove advantageous, both for the individual cleaners and for the municipality. Further research of similar organizational structures within the private cleaning sector is recommended.

  12. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  13. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413... Cooking and eating facilities. (a) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook in their individual unit, a space shall be provided and equipped for cooking and eating. Such space shall...

  14. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or...

  15. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  16. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  17. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  18. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  19. Differential effects of smoking on lung cancer mortality before and after household stove improvement in Xuanwei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.M.; Chapman, R.S.; Shen, M.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; He, X.; Hosgood, H.D.; Chen, B.E.; Rajaraman, P.; Caporaso, N.E.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    2010-08-24

    In Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China, lung cancer mortality rates in both males and females are among the highest in China. We evaluated differential effects of smoking on lung cancer mortality before and after household stove improvement with chimney to reduce exposure to smoky coal emissions in the unique cohort in Xuanwei, China. Effects of independent variables on lung cancer mortality were measured as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a multivariable Cox regression model that included separate time-dependent variables for smoking duration (years) before and after stove improvement. We found that the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk becomes considerably stronger after chimney installation and consequent reduction of indoor coal smoke exposure.

  20. Social perceptions about a technological innovation for fuelwood cooking: Case study in rural Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, Karin; Castillo, Alicia; Masera, Omar; Merino, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of traditional biomass fuels in open fires in developing countries brings about serious health effects, besides high fuelwood consumption. A technological innovation-i.e., improved cookstoves-reduce fuel consumption and address the health effects of indoor air pollution. Implementation projects have been conducted worldwide, but have frequently faced very low success rates. Different demographic and socio-economic factors have been analysed to explain low rates but there are almost no studies that try to understand, from the users' perspective, the factors involved when choosing among different cooking technologies. Through a qualitative methodological approach we documented the adoption of improved cookstoves through the implementation programme of a Mexican NGO. Results showed that although the programme raised public awareness, the improved cookstoves did not reach the poorest sector. The socioeconomic level was found positively correlated with the adoption of the improved cookstoves, but neither the age nor the educational levels were. Payment of the stove did not seem to be an adoption factor. Differences among individual users were more significant than differences between communities. Finally as men are the principal fuelwood harvesters, they should be considered as an important group in diffusion programs

  1. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners...

  2. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    -year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard rate...

  3. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  4. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  5. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  6. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  7. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  8. DASH Diet: Tips for Shopping and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dash-in-brief-html. Accessed April 7, 2016. Essential kitchen equipment. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyCooking/Essential-Kitchen-Equipment_UCM_430098_Article.jsp. Accessed April 7, ...

  9. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  10. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  11. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  12. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  13. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  14. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wright

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  15. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  16. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes...

  17. A study of selected aspects of the operation of thermoelectric generator incorporated in a biomass-fired stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High demands in the field of energy efficiency and clean combustion make it necessary to looking for the new developments in the field of stoves, fireplaces and stove-fireplaces with accumulation. An interesting idea is to use the thermoelectric modules, which receive a heat from flue gas and convert it to the electricity. Electricity generated in this way may be used to power combustion optimizers and other components. This paper shows results of studied carried out to determine the possibility of combined heat and power generation using the stove-fireplace with accumulation. Thermoelectric generator with maximum hot side temperature at a level of 150°C was placed on the surface of the exchanger. Cooling down was realized using the dedicated water exchanger as well as the heat sink without and with an air fan. The experimental results allowed to define the effect of the different cooling systems on the output TEG voltage. Moreover, dependence of the current-voltage characteristics and generated power from the temperature was obtained.

  18. Household air pollution from cooking and risk of adverse health and birth outcomes in Bangladesh: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; B Nurs, Cherri Zhang; Mofizul Islam, M; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Rahman, Md Mizanur

    2017-06-13

    Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has become a leading cause of death and disability in many developing countries including Bangladesh. We assess the association between HAP and risk of selected adverse birth and maternal health outcomes. Data for this study were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2007-2014. Selected adverse birth outcomes were acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), under-five mortality, neonatal mortality and infant mortality. Maternal pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery were considered as the adverse maternal health outcomes. Place of cooking, use of solid fuel within the house boundary and in living room were the exposure variables. To examine the association between exposure and outcome variables, we used a series of multiple logistic regression models accounted for complex survey design. Around 90% of the respondents used solid fuel within the house boundary, 11% of them used solid fuel within the living room. Results of multiple regression indicated that cooking inside the house increased the risk of neonatal mortality (aOR,1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), infant mortality (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.00-1.40), ARI (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.33), LBW (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.43), and cesarean delivery (aOR,1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Use of solid fuel, irrespective of cooking places, increased the risk of pregnancy complications (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19-1.55). Compared to participants who reported cooking outside the house, the risk of ARI, LBW were significantly high among those who performed cooking within the house, irrespective of type of cooking fuel. Indoor cooking and use of solid fuel in household increase the risk of ARI, LBW, cesarean delivery, and pregnancy complication. These relationships need further investigation using more direct measures of smoke exposure and clinical measures of health outcomes. The use of clean fuels

  19. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  20. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  1. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health.

  2. Influence of phosphorus content of coconut oil on deposit and performance of plant oil pressure stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, M.; Mueller, J. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik, Universitaet Hohenheim (440e), Garbenstrasse 9, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Influence of phosphorus lipids on formation of deposits and performance of plant oil pressure stoves was investigated. Refined coconut oil with an original phosphorous content of 5.9 mg/kg was used as base for fuel blends by adding lecithin to adjust increased phosphorous concentrations of 32.2, 51.6 and 63.0 mg/kg. The fuel blends were analysed for acid value, iodine value, total contamination, ash content and Conradson carbon residue according to standard methods. In burning trials, the specific fuel consumption, the required frequency of nozzle cleaning and the amount of deposits in the vaporizer were measured. Results showed an exponential increase of deposits in the vaporizer when phosphorous content was increased: deposits amounted to 0.12 g/kg of consumed fuel for unblended coconut oil and 0.92 g/kg for the blend with the highest phosphorous content. Furthermore, increased phosphorous content caused higher fuel consumption of 0.375 kg/h compared to 0.316 kg/h for the control. (author)

  3. Third quarterly report and final report within the counterpart subcontract no. 97/219: Support to the National Cleaner Production Centre, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The report analyses barriers and incentivres to cleaner production in Tanznaia based on experiences in three demonstration projects with around 25 companies.An outline for a policy study on cleaner production in Tanzania and for the strengthening of cleaner production in Tanzania is given....

  4. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  5. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  6. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...

  7. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  8. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropa- nol, acetonitrile, and dichloromethane were obtained from Acros Organics (Morris Plains, NJ). Dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) and 1...1. In the following solvents , swelling degree did not change in both heating and cooling processes: water, DMSO , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol...available alkylstyrene copolymer (imbiber beads). The cleaning ability of the gels was compared with the standard solvent cleaner trichloroethylene

  9. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  10. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  11. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  12. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  13. General wisdom concerning the factors affecting the adoption of cleaner technologies: a survey 1990-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaner technologies (CT) have recently received much attention in diverse media and policy agendas. This comes out of the clear role they play in environmental protection and sustainability and the large potential to contribute to economic growth and competitiveness. The realization of both

  14. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Woolley, Andrew [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zhao Chunnong [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Mount Lawley, WA 6050 (Australia); Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented.

  15. Application of new pre-isolation techniques to mode cleaner design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo; Woolley, Andrew; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    Two very low frequency pre-isolation stages can greatly reduce the residual motion of suspended optical components. In a mode cleaner this can reduce the control forces required on the mirrors, simplifying lock acquisition and reducing noise injection through control forces. This paper describes a 12 m triangular suspended mode cleaner under construction for the AIGO high optical power interferometer. A novel and very compact multistage isolator supports the cavity mirrors. It combines an inverse pendulum in series with a low-mass Roberts linkage, both with pendulum frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The suspension chain is connected to the Roberts linkage via a Euler spring stage and a cantilever spring assembly for vertical isolation. We present an analysis of the mode cleaner, emphasizing the advantage of the improved mode-cleaner suspension and its power-handling capability. The effect of seismic noise on the residual velocity of the mirrors and the predicted frequency stability of the optical cavity are presented

  16. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  17. CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-04-07

    Apr 7, 2003 ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu .... Dr Joshi believes that blending science and a recognition of the social ... One example of where AMESH was applied was in analyzing why the ward ...

  18. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  19. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  20. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  1. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  2. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  3. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  4. Condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, NR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available the quantity and profile of condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern ready-to-eat extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges. CT were analyzed using normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection and their content was compared to CT and total phenols...

  5. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  6. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  7. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  8. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  9. Influence of cooking method on arsenic retention in cooked rice related to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Arifur; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Miah, M A Majid

    2006-10-15

    Arsenic concentration in raw rice is not only the determinant in actual dietary exposure. Though there have been many reports on arsenic content in raw rice and different tissues of rice plant, little is known about arsenic content retained in cooked rice after being cooked following the traditional cooking methods employed by the people of arsenic epidemic areas. A field level experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the influence of cooking methods on arsenic retention in cooked rice. Rice samples were collected directly from a severely arsenic affected area and also from an unaffected area, to compare the results. Rice was cooked according to the traditional methods employed by the population of subjected areas. Arsenic concentrations were 0.40+/-0.03 and 0.58+/-0.12 mg/kg in parboiled rice of arsenic affected area, cooked with excess water and 1.35+/-0.04 and 1.59+/-0.07 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. In non-parboiled rice, arsenic concentrations were 0.39+/-0.04 and 0.44+/-0.03 mg/kg in rice cooked with excess water and 1.62+/-0.07 and 1.74+/-0.05 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Total arsenic content in rice, cooked with limited water (therefore gruel was absorbed completely by rice) were 0.89+/-0.07 and 1.08+/-0.06 mg/kg (parboiled) and 0.75+/-0.04 and 1.09+/-0.06 mg/kg (non-parboiled) for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Water used for cooking rice contained 0.13 and 0.01 mg of As/l for contaminated and non-contaminated areas, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in cooked parboiled and non-parboiled rice and gruel of non-contaminated area were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of contaminated area. The results imply that cooking of arsenic contaminated rice with arsenic contaminated water increases its concentration in cooked rice.

  10. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any...

  11. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  12. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  13. Evaluation of room air cleaners for the reduction of exposure and dose to indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Wasiolek, P.

    1994-01-01

    Since the proximate source of dose to the cells of the bronchial epithelium is the deposited radon progeny, the exposure and resulting dose could be reduced if the radon decay products were effectively removed from the indoor atmosphere. Thus, room air cleaners could be effective in reducing the risks associated with indoor radon. However, because of the short half-life of 218 Po, it grows back quickly and in the altered aerosol conditions that are produced by the presence of an air cleaner, the exposure/dose conditions as well as the magnitude of the dose can be substantially changed. To examine the nature of the exposure of individuals in normally occupied homes and to determine the effect of various types of room air cleaners on the exposure to and dose from the indoor radon progeny, a series of measurements have been made using an automated graded screen array system. Two extended experiments were performed in homes in Arnprior, Ontario and Parishville, NY, in which filtration systems, a positive ion electrostatic precipitator, and ioniser/fan systems have been tested for their ability to remove both airborne radioactivity and particles. In both experiments, measurements were made over one week periods with an air cleaner operating and the distributions of exposure are compared with measurements of the background conditions when no cleaner is functioning. The doses to both basal and secretory cells of the bronchial epithelium in the first eight generations of the bronchus were calculated using the model developed by James and their distributions are compared among the various exposure conditions. In most cases the presence of the air cleaner reduced the exposure to radon progeny. However, the reductions in dose were generally substantially smaller than the reductions in exposure. In the intercomparisons of the two filtration units and the two identical ioniser/fan systems, the units generally behaved in a similar manner. The results of this substantial set of

  14. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  15. Simplification of Home Cooking and Its Periphery

    OpenAIRE

    小住, フミ子; 北崎, 康子; Fumiko, OZUMI; Yasuko, KITAZAKI

    1997-01-01

    Sence of home cooking has been changing with the times. Various topics, which make us conscious of health and dietary habits, such as delicatessen, half-ready-made foods, eating out, and utilization of home delivery service and food imports are involved in those of simplification of cooking. We requested 64 students to fill in a questionnaire in three parts. The recovery was 96.4%. The results are as follows : The main reason for purchasing delicatessen or half-ready-made foods was that "they...

  16. γ-ray irradiation of cooked dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Cheng Wei; Wen Shengli; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Zhang Jinmu; He Jianjun; Lin Yong; Zhan Hanping

    2005-01-01

    Ready-to-eat cooked dishes, including stir-fried dishes, steamed dishes, roast meat, deep dried dishes, shrimps and seashells, and dishes of local flavor, etc were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, and the decontamination effects were studied. The results showed that most of the cooked dishes are suitable for irradiation. The effective dose is 4 kGy to 8 kGy. Index of microbe of the irradiated dishes was conformed to the National Food-Health standards, and no significant sensory changes was observed with the irradiated dishes. The quality guarantee period (0-5 degree C) is 60 days. (authors)

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cooking and their speciation: A case study for Shanghai with implications for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lina; Jing, Shengao; Lou, Shengrong; Tao, Shikang; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Li, Li; Lin, Li; Chen, Ying; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Chen, Changhong

    2018-04-15

    Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens. VOC species profiles and their chemical reactivities have been determined. The results showed that 51.26%±23.87% of alkane and 24.33±11.69% of oxygenated VOCs (O-VOCs) dominate the VOC cooking emissions. Yet, the VOCs with the largest ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) were from the alkene and aromatic categories, accounting for 6.8-97.0% and 73.8-98.0%, respectively. Barbequing has the most potential of harming people's heath due to its significant higher emissions of acetaldehyde, hexanal, and acrolein. Methodologies for calculating VOC emission factors (EF) for restaurants that take into account VOCs emitted per person (EF person ), per kitchen stove (EF kitchen stove ) and per hour (EF hour ) are developed and discussed. Methodologies for deriving VOC emission inventories (S) from restaurants are further defined and discussed based on two categories: cuisine types (S type ) and restaurant scales (S scale ). The range of S type and S scale are 4124.33-7818.04t/year and 1355.11-2402.21t/year, respectively. We also found that S type and S scale for 100,000 people are 17.07-32.36t/year and 5.61-9.95t/year, respectively. Based on Environmental Kuznets Curve, the annual total amount of VOCs emissions from catering industry in different provinces in China was estimated, which was 5680.53t/year, 6122.43t/year, and 66,244.59t/year for Shangdong and Guangdong provinces and whole China, respectively

  18. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk On ... hydrocarbons, and how are they formed in cooked meats? What factors influence the formation of HCA and ...

  19. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%-5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%-6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking stoves

  20. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability...