WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean rooms

  1. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  2. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  3. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  4. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  5. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  6. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Kapoor; Meenakshi Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA)/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow ...

  7. Clean room installations in a radiopharmaceutical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standards of radiopharmaceuticals on the facility, working environment and preparation control strategy are yet to be generated. In general, radiopharmaceuticals have short half-lives and emit gamma radiation. Due to its unique characteristics, its preparation has to be made in the fume hood and hot cell to avoid radiation exposure to workers. Considering radiation protection, the working environment has to be maintained under negative pressure so that dispersion of radiopharmaceuticals should be avoided. On the contrary, a positively pressurized working environment gives clean atmosphere and prevents contamination with harmful microorganisms during preparation. Hence, it is required to harmonize for mentioned contradictory conditions in preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for the safety of workers and its quality assurance as well. Therefore, it is reasonable that good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceutical production facility should be constituted according to the standards for production of biological agents accompanied with a radiation shielding

  8. I'm dreaming of a white clean room...

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    New HIE-ISOLDE cryomodules are now under construction in a state-of-the-art clean room facility in SM18.   The HIE-ISOLDE clean rooms in SM18. HIE-ISOLDE is set to be the world's leading nuclear physics site, ultimately accelerating radioactive nuclei to an impressive 10 MeV/u. Helping the facility reach this energy are new superconducting cryomodules, the first quarter-wave cavity module to be assembled at CERN and necessitating a custom clean-room in SM18. At a towering five metres tall, the new clean room houses a custom assembly frame and associated equipment, moving the components of the 6 tonne cryomodules both vertically and horizontally while they are being assembled. "Each cryomodule is made up of some 10,000 parts, which have come from across the continents to be assembled here," says CERN TE engineer Lloyd Williams, who is managing quality assurance for the project. "Each part is checked by the CERN team, catalogued and thoroughly cleaned, befor...

  9. CMS inner detector assembled in a clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    Serge Bellegarde

    2006-01-01

    The inner detector for the CMS experiment is assembled in a specially designed clean room. These rooms are sealed so that impurities in the air do not get trapped in the detector while it is being assembled. This inner detector will eventually be installed at the heart of the CMS experiment, taking measurements of particles produced in the collision of either proton or lead beams.

  10. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  11. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  12. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Corey A.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wearable computing technology in restrictive environments related to space applications offers promise in a number of domains. The clean room environment is one such domain in which hands-free, heads-up, wearable computing is particularly attractive for education and training because of the nature of clean room work We have developed and tested a Wearable Voice-Activated Computing (WEVAC) system based on clean room applications. Results of this initial proof-of-concept work indicate that there is a strong potential for WEVAC to enhance clean room activities.

  13. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct. The...... increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation that...

  14. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  15. Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well as partial 16S rDNA sequences, were analyzed. Results showed that all the five isolates belong to Gram positive bacteria, of which three were Staphylococcus, one Microbacterium and one Bacillus species. Sensitivity tests for these bacteria isolates to 3 disinfectants showed that isolate F03 was obtuse, and had low susceptivity to UV irradiation, while isolates F02, F01 and F04 were not sensitive to phenol treatment. Isolates F04, F01 and F05 were resistant to chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Bacteria widely distributed in clean rooms are mainly a group of Gram positive strains, showing high resistance to selected disinfectants. Significance and impact of the study: Clean rooms are essential in aseptic pharmaceutical and food production. Screening bacteria isolates and identifying them is part of good manufacturing practices, and will aid in finding a more effective disinfection method.

  16. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  17. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Kulha, P.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kadlec, Filip

    Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2010. s. 242. ["Jaszowiec" International School and Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors /39./. 19.06.2010-24.06.2010, Krynica Zdroj] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : silicon * clean room * microelectronics laboratory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kulha, P.; Kadlec, F.

    Praha: IOP AS CR, 2012 - (Fejfar, A.; Vetushka, A.) ISBN 978-80-260-0619-0. [Physics at Nanoscale. IUVSTA International Summer School /10./. Devět skal (CZ), 30.05.2012-04.06.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : silicon device technology * education and research * clean room laboratory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Clean laboratories and clean rooms for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    requirements are summarized of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Current methodologies and practices are described for planning the installation of a clean environment as well as protocols for maximizing the benefit-to-cost ratio and for achieving QA/QC. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of radionuclides, and measurement of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA and XRF. Also included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf

  20. Cleaning Hospital Room Surfaces to Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections: A Technical Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H; Sullivan, Nancy; Leas, Brian F; Pegues, David A; Kaczmarek, Janice L; Umscheid, Craig A

    2015-10-20

    The cleaning of hard surfaces in hospital rooms is critical for reducing health care-associated infections. This review describes the evidence examining current methods of cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring cleanliness of patient rooms, as well as contextual factors that may affect implementation and effectiveness. Key informants were interviewed, and a systematic search for publications since 1990 was done with the use of several bibliographic and gray literature resources. Studies examining surface contamination, colonization, or infection with Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci were included. Eighty studies were identified-76 primary studies and 4 systematic reviews. Forty-nine studies examined cleaning methods, 14 evaluated monitoring strategies, and 17 addressed challenges or facilitators to implementation. Only 5 studies were randomized, controlled trials, and surface contamination was the most commonly assessed outcome. Comparative effectiveness studies of disinfecting methods and monitoring strategies were uncommon. Future research should evaluate and compare newly emerging strategies, such as self-disinfecting coatings for disinfecting and adenosine triphosphate and ultraviolet/fluorescent surface markers for monitoring. Studies should also assess patient-centered outcomes, such as infection, when possible. Other challenges include identifying high-touch surfaces that confer the greatest risk for pathogen transmission; developing standard thresholds for defining cleanliness; and using methods to adjust for confounders, such as hand hygiene, when examining the effect of disinfecting methods. PMID:26258903

  1. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Kulha, P.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kadlec, Filip

    Rožnov pod Radhoštěm: TECON Scientific s.r.o, 2010, s. 455-456. ISBN 978-80-254-7361-0. [SILICON 2010 /12./. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (CZ), 02.11.2010-05.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : clean room * microelectronic * silicon device technology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Design and construction of the clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to design, construction and evaluation of clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly. The design conditions o Class : 1,000(1,000 ea ft3), o Flow Rate : 200 m3/h m2, o Temperature : 22 deg C±2, o Humidity : 55%±5. The main design results are summarized as follows: o Air-handling unit : Cooling Capacity : 13,500 kcal/h, Heating Capacity : 10,300 kcal/h, Humidity Capacity : 4 kg/h, Flow Rate : 150 CMM o Air Shower : Flow Rate : 35 CMM, Size : 1500 x 1000 x 2200, Material : In-steel, Out-SUS304, Filter : PRE + HEPA, AIR Velocity : 25 m/s o Relief Damper : Size : Φ250, Casing : SS41, Blade : AL, Shaft : SUS304, Weight Ring : SS41, Grill : AL o HEPA Filter Box : Filter Box Size : 670 x 670 x 630, Filter Size : 610 x 610 x 150, Frame: Poly Wood, Media : Glass Fiber, Filter Efficiency : 0.3μm, 99.97%, Separator : AL, Flow Rate : 17 CMM, Damper Size : Φ300 Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the clean room, for high precision apparatus assembly laboratory

  3. Air cleaning in clean rooms. Super-cleaning of mini-environments by UV/photoelectron method; Clean room ni okeru kuki seijo. UV/hikari denshiho ni yoru kyokusho kukan no cho clean ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, T. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Sakamoto, K. [Saitama Univearsity, Saitama (Japan); Yokoyama, Ss.; Hirose, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-04-20

    Prevention of wafer surface contamination is an important issue in semiconductor manufacturing as such contamination decreases LSI productivity. Although particulate contamination in work rooms is being reduced by newer cleanroom techniques, there are still sources of particulate contaminants, such as wafer delivering systems, wafer stockers, and load-lock chambers. Not only fine particles but also gaseous contaminants need to be controlled. The following introduces an outlook on various methods of removing such particle and gaseous contaminants. (author)

  4. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  5. Report of the consultants meeting on good manufacturing practices and clean room requirements for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    carried out in special facilities often with shielding and remote handling to protect the operators from radiation exposure. There are international norms for radiation exposure allowed for radiation workers and strong national organizations for monitoring and implementing radiation protection measures. Being part of the national nuclear programmes, radiopharmaceutical production has been from the very beginning subjected to regulations of radioactive material handling, transportation and use. However, the systems of surveillance and control for pharmaceutical products have not been implemented in many places to the same extent as for radiation protection. There are also technical difficulties in harmonizing the requirements of radiation safety and pharmaceutical safety. Simultaneously, there have been several technical developments in the field of Quality Assurance of pharmaceuticals. The concepts of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the requirements for clean rooms define quality of air for pharmaceutical production areas. Efforts have been made in recent years to apply these concepts also to radiopharmaceutical production. Significant progress appears to have been made in the developed countries and in the technology needed to fulfil these standards. The technical problems in upgrading the facilities of radioisotope laboratories to conform with the clean air requirements and the cost involved are still to be clearly understood in many developing countries. In many countries the regulatory authorities apply the same set of regulations for radiopharmaceuticals as for other pharmaceuticals. Some guidelines for radiopharmaceuticals have been published, e.g. Scandinavian, US FDA, Australian, Canadian and EU guidelines. No such guidelines are yet available from international agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or World Health Organization (WHO). A guideline from an international body of this nature would be very useful for institutions working

  6. Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-10-01

    In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

  7. Seismic simulation and functional performance evaluation of a safety related, seismic category I control room emergency air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a nuclear contract MSA was required to design, manufacture, seismically test and functionally test a complete Safety Related, Seismic Category I, Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System before shipment to the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Station in Rowe, Massachusetts. The installation of this system was required to satisfy the NRC requirements of NUREG-0737, Section III, D.3.4, ''Control Room Habitability''. The filter system tested was approximately 3 ft. wide by 8 ft. high by 18 ft. long and weighed an estimated 8300 pounds. It had a design flow rate of 3000 SCFM and contained four stages of filtration - prefilters, upstream and downstream HEPA filters and Type II sideload charcoal adsorber cells. The filter train design followed the guidelines set forth by ANSI/ASME N509-1980. Seismic Category I Qualification Testing consisted of resonance search testing and triaxial random multifrequency testing. In addition to ANSI/ASME N510-1980 testing, triaxial response accelerometers were placed at specific locations on designated prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal adsorbers and test canisters along with accelerometers at the corresponding filter seal face locations. The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the integrity of the filters, filter seals, and monitor seismic response levels which is directly related to the system's ability to function during a seismic occurrence. The Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System demonstrated the ability to withstand the maximum postulated earthquake for the plant site by remaining structurally sound and functional

  8. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  9. Clean room for the production of cold kits: two year experience with the production of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new clean room has been designed and constructed at Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, BRIT keeping in view the functional aspects for the production of 'cold' kits for the preparation of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for supply to nuclear medicine centers and is in operation, since October, 2008. This clean room is the first clean room in the country designed exclusively for cold kit production. The clean room was validated and trial batches were produced and quality controlled prior to put it in regular production operation. The clean environment is maintained by separate AHU (air handling unit) located out side the clean room. A technical crew maintain the AHU unit and maintain record of parameters such as humidity, air flow, blower speed, chiller temperature etc. During a typical batch production not more than two persons are present in the formulation room. The formulated solution (filtered through 0.22μ membrane filter) is passed though a pass box between the formulation and dispensing area. The no. of people allowed in the dispensing area which is a critical area of class 100 is restricted to not more than four that too no person is allowed to be in between direct flow of HEPA filtered air and the dispensing table. The number of vials to be dispensed is arranged in trays and 1 ml of the formulated sterile solution is dispensed into each vial and the vials are transferred in to the lyophilization chamber. Sterile vials are introduced into class 100 area and the vials are removed after lyophilization though a pass box. After lyophilization vials are sealed with aluminum caps and stored at 2-10 deg C. Since the commissioning of the new clean room, about 120 batches of 10 different kit products were prepared and 1,20,000 kit vials were supplied to various hospitals for nuclear medicine investigation

  10. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    OpenAIRE

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries includingDenmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles andgases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermalplasma, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafineparticles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a cleanroom. It was found that...

  11. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. PMID:23293134

  12. Microbiological monitoring of clean rooms in development of vaccines Monitoramento microbiológico de áreas classificadas em desenvolvimento de vacinas

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Lílian de Agostini Utescher; Marcia Regina Franzolin; Luiz Rachid Trabulsi; Valderez Gambale

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate an environmental monitoring program for clean rooms, or classified environments, involved in the filling and quality control of biological products produced by Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. This monitoring established the quantification, characterization and seasonality of the microorganisms in air and operators and, moreover, determined the alert and action limits. The total detectable microbial number showed some contrasts in installed ai...

  13. Assessment of the Forward Contamination Risk of Mars by Clean Room Isolates from Space-Craft Assembly Facilities through Aeolian Transport - a Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heereveld, Luc; Merrison, Jonathan; Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently there is a need for effective protocols to ensure efficient protection of the Martian environment against terrestrial microbiota. Despite the fact of constructing sophisticated clean rooms for spacecraft assembly a 100 % avoidance of contamination appears to be impossible. Recent surveys of these facilities have identified a significant number of microbes belonging to a variety of taxonomic groups that survive the harsh conditions of clean rooms. These microbes may have a strong contamination potential, which needs to be investigate to apply efficient decontamination treatments. In this study we propose a series of tests to evaluate the potential of clean room contaminants to survive the different steps involved in forward contamination. We used Staphylococcus xylosus as model organism to illustrate the different types of stress that potential contaminants will be subjected to on their way from the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Staphylococcus xylosus is associated with human skin and commonly found in clean rooms and could therefore contaminate the spacecraft as a result of human activity during the assembling process. The path the cell will take from the surface of the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars was split into steps representing different stresses that include desiccation, freezing, aeolian transport in a Martian-like atmosphere at Martian atmospheric pressure, and UV radiation climate. We assessed the surviving fraction of the cellular population after each step by determining the integrated metabolic activity of the survivor population by measuring their oxygen consumption rate. The largest fraction of the starting culture (around 70 %) was killed during desiccation, while freezing, Martian vacuum and short-term UV radiation only had a minor additional effect on the survivability of Staphylococcus xylosus. The study also included a simulation

  14. The different grading of 'clean rooms'; Les differents classements des ''salles propres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, C.

    2000-03-01

    The grading of clean rooms is performed according to precise criteria depending on the intended purpose of the rooms. Validation of this grading is different depending on the country. In this paper, the author proposes a synthesis of the different technical points which can give help in making a choice: grading families (particulates, biological hazards, risks, good manufacturing practices, contamination kinetics, air-flow), validation of grading (French and foreign standards, 'as built', 'at rest' and 'operational' grading), grading based on particulates (different classes, choice for a given class, consistency between definitions, extra-grading), grading based on microorganisms (efficiency of filters), grading based on air flow (integral or partial laminar flow, turbulent flow), grading based on air flow rates (different types of air, mixing ratio, new air inflow ratio). (J.S.)

  15. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi;

    2016-01-01

    the exposure to body generated bio-effluents in a hospital room was determined. Full-scale experiments were conducted in a climate chamber furnished as a single-bed patient room. Two heated dummies were used to simulate a patient and a doctor in the room. The patient was lying on a bed equipped with...... the VM. The patient's body was covered with either a cotton sheet or with the ACF material used as a blanket. Ammonia gas released from the patient's groins simulated the body generated bio-effluents. At the location of the groins the surface area of the VM was perforated through which the...... efficiently reduced the generated bio-effluents in the room with about 70%. Reduction in the exposure to body-emitted ammonia was up to 96% when the VM was operated at only 1.5 L/s and the ACF was used as a blanket....

  16. Study on contamination control in a minienvironment inside clean room for yield enhancement based on particle concentration measurement and airflow CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kwang-Chul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Kim, Hyuk-Soon; Oh, Myung-Do [Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    A study was carried out to look for the source of contamination and examine the route of contaminant transfer in the minienvironment applied in LCD process clean room of Korea. As the minienvironment model, one of the clean room with much large space and low particle concentration was selected to investigate. Firstly, the particle concentrations were measured without any information on the source and the route of contaminants transfer. Through considering the results of particle measurements and CFD simulations simultaneously, however, it was revealed that the critical contamination source was the stocker and the contaminants were transferred by the airflow pattern in this study. As an improvement action, reducing the airflow rate of exhaust fans and installing additional fan filter units (FFUs) were carried out. As a result, the velocity distribution was improved and the particle concentration was reduced in the target minievironment. Also, the defect rate related to this minienvironment decreased. With the help of the experimental and the numerical tools, the effective method for contamination control was developed. Furthermore, this article provides recommendation for future work to improve the yield and save the energy consumption simultaneously. (author)

  17. Investigation of the Contamination Control in a Cleaning Room with a Moving AGV by 3D Large-Scale Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motions of the airflow induced by the movement of an automatic guided vehicle (AGV in a cleanroom are numerically studied by large-scale simulation. For this purpose, numerical experiments scheme based on domain decomposition method is designed. Compared with the related past research, the high Reynolds number is treated by large-scale computation in this work. A domain decomposition Lagrange-Galerkin method is employed to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations and the convection diffusion equation; the stiffness matrix is symmetric and an incomplete balancing preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG method is employed to solve the linear algebra system iteratively. The end wall effects are readily viewed, and the necessity of the extension to 3 dimensions is confirmed. The effect of the high efficiency particular air (HEPA filter on contamination control is studied and the proper setting of the speed of the clean air flow is also investigated. More details of the recirculation zones are revealed by the 3D large-scale simulation.

  18. Effect of cleaning and disinfection in dental treatment room%口腔诊疗环境清洁消毒效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏静; 张涛; 赵红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京地区口腔诊疗环境现状,探讨提高口腔诊疗环境清洁消毒效果的方法及监测手段.方法 采用三磷酸腺苷(ATP)生物荧光检测法监测分层随机抽取的125所口腔医疗机构环境表面清洁现状,采用平行对照研究比较卡瓦布和乙醇棉的清洁消毒效果,分析菌落计数法与ATP生物荧光法数值的相关性.结果 采用ATP方法对医师侧操作台面、医师侧灯把手、患者左侧扶手分别对125份标本进行检测,医师侧操作台面合格率为45.6%;卡瓦布和乙醇棉经菌落计数法检测消毒合格率达100.0%,经ATP生物荧光检测法检测,合格率为50.0%;ATP法测定数值(RLU)与菌落计数法所计算的菌落形成单位(CFU)无明确相关性.结论 卡瓦布可以有效用于物体表面清洁消毒,口腔诊疗环境清洁状况需要加强监管,ATP生物荧光检测法可以作为快速监测的手段.%OBJECTIVE To identify the contamination status of general surface in dental treatment room in Beijing and to research on the disinfection and monitoring methods to improve the effect of environment cleaning. METHODS By means of ATP bioluminescence method, the contamination of object surfaces in 125 stratified randomly samples from Beijing dental clinics was evaluated. A parallel control study was conducted to compare the effect of alcohol gauze and CaviWipes. The correlation between the detected data of ATP bioluminescence method and plate culture method was analyzed. RESULTS With ATP bioluminescence method, among 125 groups of dental unit surface samples including light handle aside dentist, panel plate aside dentist and left armrest, the qualified rate in panel plate aside dentist was 45. 6%. With plate culture method, the qualified rate of alcohol gauze and CaviWipes was 100. 0%. The 1g RLU of bioluminescence method was not significantly associated with the lgCFU of plate-culture method. CONCLUSION CaviWipes can be effectively used in the

  19. Microbiological monitoring of clean rooms in development of vaccines Monitoramento microbiológico de áreas classificadas em desenvolvimento de vacinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lílian de Agostini Utescher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate an environmental monitoring program for clean rooms, or classified environments, involved in the filling and quality control of biological products produced by Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. This monitoring established the quantification, characterization and seasonality of the microorganisms in air and operators and, moreover, determined the alert and action limits. The total detectable microbial number showed some contrasts in installed air purification systems and in the operational impact on adopted procedures. The typical microbial population consisted of Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp and Penicillium sp. The highest microorganism concentration occurred during summer and springtime. The established internal alert and action limits supported the operational procedures. Therefore, the environmental monitoring program is recommended for other laboratories involved in the production of vaccines, hyperimmune sera and biopharmaceuticals.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar um programa de monitoramento microbiológico ambiental para áreas limpas, ou ambientes classificados, envolvidas na produção, envasamento e controle dos imunobiológicos produzidos pelo Instituto Butantan. Este monitoramento permitiu a quantificação, a caracterização e a sazonalidade da população microbiana presente no ar e nos operadores, e a determinação dos limites de alerta e ação. O número total de bactérias detectáveis revelou diferenças nos sistemas de purificação de ar instalados e o impacto operacional ocasionado pelos procedimentos realizados. A população microbiana característica foi composta por bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp e por fungos filamentosos do gênero Penicillium sp. A maior concentração de microrganismos ocorreu nos períodos de verão e primavera. Os limites internos de alerta e ação estabelecidos asseguram os

  20. Monitoring and evalution on the envirov mental clean level of hemodlalysis room%血液透析中心环境清洁水平的监测和改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐钦妹; 郭淑霞; 叶亚莉; 黄文碧; 黄向红

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and microbiological culture methods were used for evaluation of cleaning procedure changed before or after in hemodialysis room. These provide a real-time and effective method on monitoring and evaluation of the environmental clean level of hemodialysis room. Methods Choose five sites from the hemodiaylsis room and use ATP bioluminescence and microbiological culture methods to monitor and record the clean level of those sites before and after changing clean procedure, comparison of two results and evaluation of a new clean procedure. Results The mean of ATP bioluminescence method before changing clean procedure respectively is 788. 310. 530.600 and 900RLU, after cleaning procedure changed is 176. 130. 120. 220 and 239RLU. The mean of microbiological culture method respectively is 12. 4. 9. 6 and 8cfu, after cleaning procedure changed is 2. 1. 1. 1 and 2cfu. The surface contaminated level of homedialysis room was significantly reduced, the monitoring results of ATP bioluminescence are similar with microbiological culture method. Conclusions Effectively surface cleaning procedure can dramatically reduced the surface contaminated condition, ATP bioluminescence is much more quick and efficient technology used in monitoring and evaluation on the nosocomial environmental clean level.%目的 通过三磷酸腺苷(ATP)荧光监测法和微生物培养法去评价血液透析中心环境清洁程序改进前后的清洁水平变化情况,为血液透析中心环境清洁和监测提供一个实时有效的方法. 方法 选择透析室5个环境位点,通过ATP荧光监测法和微生物培养法去监测5个位点的清洁水平,通过改进现有的清洁方式再次进行监测并比较两次监测结果,评价改进后的清洁程序.结果 改进前5个监测位点ATP测量均值为788、310、530、600和900RLU,改进后清洁程序ATP测量均值176、130、1 20、220和239RLU.改进前微生

  1. The effect analysis of concentrated cleaning and disinfection in the supply room to the anesthesia laryngoscope in the operating room%手术室麻醉喉镜供应室集中清洗及消毒效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春红

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨手术室的麻醉喉镜在经过供应室集中清洗、消毒之后的效果,分析其方法的应用性。方法 A组回顾性抽取分析我院于2011年1月至12月经手术室手工清洗、浸泡并消毒的麻醉喉镜200片。B组抽取2012年1月至2013年4月经供应室集中用全自动喷淋式清洗消毒机按标准流程清洗、高压蒸汽灭菌的麻醉喉镜200片。所有的麻醉镜片均采用目测法、带光源的放大镜检测法及细菌培养计数法鉴定消毒效果,并记录镜片的损耗率。结果 A组和B组麻醉喉镜片,目测法、带光源的放大镜检测法及细菌培养计数法合格率分别是95.50%和100.00%、91.00%和98.50%,87.50%和96.50%,均具有显著性差异。麻醉喉镜片损耗率为98.00%和99.31%,不具有显著性差异。结论麻醉喉镜片由供应室集中清洗、消毒灭菌效果优于手工清洗方法。不但保证了麻醉喉镜彻底清洗的效果和灭菌质量,而且人力和物质资源得到了共享,为医院节约了医疗成本,降低医疗风险,保证患者安全。%Objective: To explore effect of concentrated cleaning and disinfection in the supply room to the anesthesia laryngoscope in the operating room, and to analyze the applications of the methods. Methods: 200 pieces of anesthesia laryngoscope which were cleaned manual y, soaked and disinfected were selected in the group A. While 200 pieces of anesthesia laryngoscope which were cleaned and disinfected concentratedly with automatic spray cleaning machine according to standard procedures, high-pressure steam sterilization were selected in the group B. Al anesthesia laryngoscope were identified by the visual method, magnifying glass with light detection and the bacterial culture counting method, and their loss rate were recorded. Results: The pass percent of group A and group B in the verification of the visual method, magnifying glass with light detection and the bacterial culture counting

  2. Dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention by automation; IC seizo clean room deno haiki duct funjin bakuhatsu jiko to jidoka ni yoru saihatsu boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    This paper describes dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention measures. A dust explosion occurred during periodical cleaning works of dust deposits in an exhaust duct of plasma CVD system in an IC factory in Toyama Prefecture in August, 1996, which killed one worker. Dust was removed by flowing a large amount of air in the duct from the end of duct. This dust is combustible, and it was well known that a dust explosion occurs when mixed with air. Nitrogen gas is used for the transport of powders with high risk of explosion, such as wheat flour and toner, and the full automatic operation is adopted. The prevention of this accident is to adopt automation based on the principle of powder transportation. A safety detection-type safety system has been proposed so as to remove the dust deposits in the duct automatically as well as to detect the deposition conditions in the duct. Based on the comparison between monitoring data of operation in an exhaust duct and past data, operation conditions of duct can be confirmed to ensure the safety by stopping the CVD system urgently when safety can not be confirmed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. 供应室对器械的清洗消毒灭菌的质量监测管理探究%Cleaning Supply Room Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments of Quality Monitoring and Management Inquiry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁蓓蓓

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨研究供应室对器械清洗消毒灭菌的质量检测管理.方法 利用调查问卷表的形式进行调查分析,把2014年3月~2015年2月予以全面且系统的质量监测管理作为研究阶段,抽取调查表共80份;将2012年3月~2013年2月未实施质量监测管理时期作为对照阶段,抽取调查表共80份,对比分析两个阶段器械性能完好满意情况和器械清洗消毒灭菌合格情况.结果 研究阶段器械性能完好满意度为96.27%,器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率为100.0%;对照阶段器械性能完好满意度为83.75%,器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率为87.5%,数据比较差异明显(P<0.05).结论从研究结果来看,供应室在器械清洗消毒灭菌中,加强质量监测管理,可提高器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率,减轻环境污染,保证患者安全.%Objective To evaluate research on equipment cleaning supply room disinfection and sterilization quality control management.Methods The survey questionnaire form of investigation and analysis, the March 2014~ February 2015 to be comprehensive quality monitoring and management system as the research stage, taking a total of 80 questionnaires; the March 2012~2013 February We may not implemented quality monitoring and management time as a control stage, taking a total of 80 questionnaires, comparative analysis of the two stages of instrument performance and satisfaction with good cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization qualified situation.Results The study period instrument performance intact satisfaction 96.27%, cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization pass rate of 100%; the control stage equipment performance intact satisfaction 83.75%, cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization pass rate of 87.5%, the difference was obvious data (P<0.05).Conclusion From the research Results , the supply chamber cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization, strengthen quality monitoring and management, cleaning and disinfection

  4. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  5. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  6. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  7. Economic and energy benefits in clean rooms, case of study: natural illumination and insulating capacity of the lagging; Beneficios economicos y energeticos en cuartos limpios, caso de estudio: iluminacion natural y capacidad aislante de la envolvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Agustin; Morillon Galvez, David [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of the present article is to show the electrical energy saving in clean rooms used to make pharmaceutical products using natural illumination instead of using fluorescent lamps. A study is performed in steady state of the heat load of buildings during three hours in order to observe the thermal its thermal behavior. And it is observed that at 1:00 o'clock p.m. the greatest heat load appears. With the global heat transference coefficients proposed in the official Mexican Norm NOM-008-ENER-2001 the heat load by conduction and convection of the building is estimated. Finally a bimonthly economic study of the energy saving of energy of the air conditioning system was realized with the system of artificial lighting and the system of natural illumination. All this study was realized in a site with temperate climate (Fraccionamiento Industrial Xalostoc, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico). [Spanish] El objetivo del presente articulo es mostrar el ahorro de energia electrica en cuartos limpios utilizados para elaborar productos farmaceuticos utilizando iluminacion natural en ves de utilizar lamparas fluorescentes. Se realiza un estudio en estado estable de la carga de calor de edificios para tres horas con la finalidad de observar el comportamiento termico de este. Y se observa que a las 13:00 horas se presenta la mayor carga de calor. Con los coeficientes globales de transferencia de calor propuestos en la norma oficial mexicana NOM-008-ENER-2001 se estima la carga de calor por conduccion y conveccion del edificio. Finalmente se realizo un estudio economico bimestral del ahorro de energia del sistema de aire acondicionado con el sistema de iluminacion artificial y con el sistema de iluminacion natural. Todo este estudio se realizo en un sitio con clima templado (fraccionamiento industrial Xalostoc, Ecatepec de Morelos Estado de Mexico).

  8. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  9. RLA room 20 cleanout and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering report documents the decontamination and stabilization of the Rupture Loop Annex located in room 20 of the 309 building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. Low level, mixed, and recyclable waste was removed from the room. Smearable contamination was removed and/or fixed in place with paint. The RLA was cleaned out and stabilized to meet the Environmental Restoration Contractor's turnover criteria

  10. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  11. Memory's Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  12. Waiting rooms /

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachel Lee

    2014-01-01

    Waiting Rooms is a collection of poetry broken into five sections, each containing a separate intention of form and content. These fives sections remain in conversation with the overarching themes of the collection as a whole. This collection maps the multiple types of violence perpetuated against women in domestic and institutional settings, as well as its historical presence in literary fiction/poetry and pop culture entertainment. Taking cues from Modernist poetry, Shakespearean plays, and...

  13. Discussion on air supply velocity of the class Ⅰ clean operating room: Part 5 of the series of research practice of the revision task group of the Architectural technical code for hospital clean operating department%Ⅰ级洁净手术室送风速度的探讨——《医院洁净手术部建筑技术规范》修订组研讨系列课题之五

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛维乐; 高龙; 王燕芹; 李屹; 党宇

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The revised code adjusts the average air velocity and the measure section height for the velocity in working area in the class Ⅰ clean operating rooms.Carries a theory research in order to obtain air supply velocity and air supply rate corresponding to average air velocity in working area.The results show that the air supply velocity should be up to 0.30 to 0.37 m/s and the air supply rate should be up to 6 800 to 8 400 m3/h for the class Ⅰ clean operating rooms,whose storey height is three meters,in order to obtain the average air velocity of 0.20 to 0.25 m/s in the projection area of air supply face at 1.2 meters from the floor.%修编的《医院洁净手术部建筑技术规范》(报批稿)对Ⅰ级洁净手术室工作区平均风速的检测断面高度和工作区平均风速均有调整.为了获得相应的工作区平均风速对应的送风速度和送风量,进行了理论研究,得出如下结论:对于层高为3.0m的Ⅰ级洁净手术室,为了在距地面1.2m高的送风面投影区域获得0.20~0.25 m/s的工作区平均风速,送风速度需要达到0.30~0.37m/s,送风量需要达到6 800~8 400m3/h.

  14. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  15. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  16. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  17. CLEAN CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is making every effort to handle its garbage in an environmentally sound manner Xu Yannian has gotten up at six in the morning each day for many years, so he can be ready when the garbage truck comes at 6:30 to collect the trash from the community in Beijing where he handles rubbish disposal. Xu manages the garbage room, an airtight, 50-square-meter space with more than

  18. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  19. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  20. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Černecký Jozef; Valentová Karina; Pivarčiová Elena; Božek Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours). Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of...

  1. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  2. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  3. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  4. Air Cleaning at the USAEC Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the air-cleaning requirements of production, research, development and biological facilities in the Y-12 area. Problems and their solutions in hazardous-material containment, air cleaning, contamination control, and air pollution control are enumerated. Bioclean and laminar-flow clean rooms, germ-free supply air systems, exhaust systems for handling toxic and radioactive materials, virus containment and exhaust facilities are described. The Plant's practices regarding air cleaning are discussed including standardization of specifications for high-efficiency particulate air filters and mounting frames, DOP testing of air filter systems, and the replacement of sub-standard filter installations. (author)

  5. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  6. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  7. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  8. Room Temperature Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Adir Moyses

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book on the subject of room-temperature superconductivity. The main purpose of the book is twofold. First, to show that, under suitable conditions, superconductivity can occur above room temperature. Secondly, to present general guidelines on how to synthesize a room temperature superconductor. The book begins with an introduction into the physics of the superconducting state and superconducting materials. The mechanisms of conventional, half-conventional and unconventional ...

  9. Improving operating room safety

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett Jill; Hurlbert Scott N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite the introduction of the Universal Protocol, patient safety in surgery remains a daily challenge in the operating room. This present study describes one community health system's efforts to improve operating room safety through human factors training and ultimately the development of a surgical checklist. Using a combination of formal training, local studies documenting operating room safety issues and peer to peer mentoring we were able to substantially change the culture of ...

  10. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  11. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was...... equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...... acceptability of air quality, odour intensity and air freshness at both desks in random order. Lower odour intensity and higher air freshness was reported at the desk with DPV with the activated carbon filter. The results suggest that using local air cleaning devices integrated with DPV may improve perceived...

  12. The Upstairs Room - Room for Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary F.

    1973-01-01

    Doubtless everyone is tired of the subject of censorship; but I do have to give vent to my feelings when they are as intense as they are over the selection of a book as full of profanity as a Newbery honor book ( The Upstairs Room''). (Author/SM)

  13. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  14. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  15. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Fosgerau, Anders; Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk;

    1999-01-01

    The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented.......The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented....

  17. ALICE’s new meeting room

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    There’s no reason to be late for a meeting in Wonderland (Point 2) anymore as ALICE gets a brand new conference room and a ‘clean up’. The new ALICE conference room.You won’t find Building 3294 on the CERN map yet, but it is already being used. If you follow the white rabbit just inside the entrance at point 2, you will find a new conference room and office space for 12 people. "Previously at Point 2 we’ve had very little office space at all. Our old conference room was inside the main building, SX2, but it was cramped and extremely noisy," explained Frank Cliff from ALICE. "As soon as they turned on the overhead cranes you could barely hear yourself think!" The plans for the new building were drawn up by the Civil Engineering Group, and construction started in August last year. The building was completed and already in use before Christmas. The 109 square metre conference room can fit up to 60 people and is fully equipped...

  18. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  19. Convection From a Slender Cylender in a Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Sandberg, M.

    1990-01-01

    with a negative buoyancy was supplied. The vertical distribution of both temperature and contamination in the room was measured as a function of the heat load and the air flow rate. The contaminant distribution showed a clear stratification between clean and contaminated air, while the temperature was...... measurements in the boundary layer flow around a heated vertical slender cylinder in a full-scale test room with displacement ventilation. Both velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer flow were recorded. The room was ventilated by a low velocity diffuser, standing on the floor, from which air...

  20. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  1. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  2. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  3. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  4. The Virtual Dressing Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Gao, Yi; Petersson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a usability and user experience test of a virtual dressing room. First, we motivate and introduce our recent developed prototype of a virtual dressing room. Next, we present the research and test design grounded in related usability and user...... experience studies. We give a description of the experimental setup and the execution of the designed usability and user experience test. To this end, we report interesting results and discuss the results with respect to user-centered design and development of a virtual dressing room....

  5. RILIS laser room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  6. RILIS laser room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  7. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be...

  8. Classes of almost clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  9. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  12. Nil-clean matrix rings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  13. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  14. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  15. Room for caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study explores how seriously ill hospitalized patients' experience and assign meaning to their patient room. Background Modern hospitals and the rational underlying care and treatment of today have their emphasis on diagnosis, cure and treatment. Consequently, aesthetics in the patient...... rooms such as a view of nature or natural light entering the room are often neglected in caring for these patients. Method A phenomenological-hermeneutic study design was applied and data was collected through multiple qualitative interviews combined with observations at a teaching hospital in Denmark......-being, relief and hope for the patients during serious illness. Therefore, these sensory impressions should be thought of as holding palliative potential and should be included as a part of caring for the seriously ill patients....

  16. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  18. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  19. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  20. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  1. Room to manoeuvre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2000-10-01

    Room and pillar mining is the best mining method for some situations and the use of the latest continuous miners can pay dividends. Mines in South Africa and the USA have shown high productivity. The advantages of this method are outlined. Major manufacturers such as Joy, Long Airdox and Voest Alpine are all investing in continuous monitoring to maximise productivity. 4 photos.

  2. Operating Room Status Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Francis R.

    1982-01-01

    A system has been devised at The Medical College of Virginia to schedule, monitor, and display the status of twenty-four operating rooms. A switch in each room indicates room status. Room status is matched with scheduling information to provide an airport-like display on 16 video monitors placed about the operating room area. Management and medical information is captured by the system.

  3. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  4. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  5. Fabrication method for a room temperature hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Sudipta (Inventor); Shukla, Satyajit V. (Inventor); Ludwig, Lawrence (Inventor); Cho, Hyoung (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for selectively determining the presence and measuring the amount of hydrogen in the vicinity of the sensor. The sensor comprises a MEMS device coated with a nanostructured thin film of indium oxide doped tin oxide with an over layer of nanostructured barium cerate with platinum catalyst nanoparticles. Initial exposure to a UV light source, at room temperature, causes burning of organic residues present on the sensor surface and provides a clean surface for sensing hydrogen at room temperature. A giant room temperature hydrogen sensitivity is observed after making the UV source off. The hydrogen sensor of the invention can be usefully employed for the detection of hydrogen in an environment susceptible to the incursion or generation of hydrogen and may be conveniently used at room temperature.

  6. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C....

  7. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  8. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  9. Room for improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvang, Pia; Dalby, Mette Strømgaard

    2015-01-01

    from a project with four Danish medium-sized manufacturing companies aiming to become more competitive in the European export market. In the project, one challenge was how to convey results from customer interviews and user studies from the researcher team (which in all instances included a company...... manager) to the development team in each company. We chose to collaboratively build a ‘war room’ in each of the companies to make sense of research materials and establish design principles for products that would better align with customer needs.......This paper develops the notion of a project war room as an innovation practice in companies. We argue that the consistent use of a project war room, in which customer and user research serves as a background for design work, improve the quality of product innovation. We describe our experiences...

  10. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  11. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...

  12. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  13. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them

  14. Effectiveness of ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems for terminal room decontamination: Focus on clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Anderson, Deverick J; Chen, Luke F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Boyce, John M

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, substantial scientific evidence has accumulated that indicates contamination of environmental surfaces in hospital rooms plays an important role in the transmission of key health care-associated pathogens (eg, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter spp). For example, a patient admitted to a room previously occupied by a patient colonized or infected with one of these pathogens has a higher risk for acquiring one of these pathogens than a patient admitted to a room whose previous occupant was not colonized or infected. This risk is not surprising because multiple studies have demonstrated that surfaces in hospital rooms are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. To reduce surface contamination after terminal cleaning, no touch methods of room disinfection have been developed. This article will review the no touch methods, ultraviolet light devices, and hydrogen peroxide systems, with a focus on clinical trials which have used patient colonization or infection as an outcome. Multiple studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet light devices and hydrogen peroxide systems have been shown to inactivate microbes experimentally plated on carrier materials and placed in hospital rooms and to decontaminate surfaces in hospital rooms naturally contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens. A growing number of clinical studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems when used for terminal disinfection can reduce colonization or health care-associated infections in patients admitted to these hospital rooms. PMID:27131140

  15. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  16. On f-clean rings and f-clean elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Handam

    2011-01-01

    An associative ring R with identity is called f -clean ring if every element in R is the sum of an idempotent and a full element. In this paper, various basic properties of f -clean rings and f -clean elements are proved. Also, we give some new charaterizations of f -clean rings. In addition, we prove that the ring of skew Hurwitz series T = (HR, σ) where σ is an automorphism of R is f -clean if and only if R is f -clean.

  17. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  18. Computerized Operating Room Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Helsel, Philip; Smith, R. Brian; Albin, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    In order to pursue greater efficiency of overall anesthesia resources and provide a database for operating room (O.R.) utilization, we have developed and implemented a computerized operating room information system (C.O.R.I.S.).

  19. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of

  20. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  1. Making room for volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  2. Room in the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2003-10-01

    Room and pillar techniques have a place in longwall mines. Speaking at Voest Alpine's recent mining symposium in Australia, Jim Bryja, senior vice president of RAG's US Eastern Operations said that gateroad development is becoming the major cost driver in longwall mines. The article gives highlights from some papers presented at the symposium, including those by Professor Horst Wagner of Leoben University. Andrew Myors of Newstan Colliery, NSW, Australia, discussed benefits of the latest continuous miners - his paper is reported in some detail. 2 photos.

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  4. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  5. Mechanism of clean development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  6. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  7. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  8. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  9. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  10. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  11. CLEAN_LNAME: Stata module to clean lastname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes within a string variable. It also returns the uppercased version of the variable. clean_lname (together with clean_fname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  12. CLEAN_FNAME: Stata module to clean firstname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes from a string variable. It returns the proper version of the variable. clean_fname (together with clean_lname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  13. Acoustic Echoes Reveal Room Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M.; Vetterli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room’s response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to “blindfoldedly” estimate the room geometry. This is achiev...

  14. Status report on cleaning and maintaining laser disk amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities and advances in engineering and technology made by the Solid State Mechanical Maintenance Group within the laser program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It includes design and operation of clean rooms, contamination control on optical surfaces, cleaning techniques, and glass damage mechanisms. This report, a much expanded version of a section in the laser program's 1976 annual report, covers work accomplished from July 1976 to April 1977. It has been used as the source for five papers presented at various national conferences

  15. Performance and Effectiveness of Portable Air Cleaners in an Office Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, many people work in an office environment. Air pollutants, including particles and gases, are generated by humans and by different devices that are used in offices. Pollutants can also enter an office room with the air supplied from outdoors. It has been established that air pollutants...... have adverse health effects on human body. Air cleaning devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial for the health by removing air pollutants and consequently improving indoor air quality. The performance of five air cleaning technologies was tested in order to determine the generation of ozone...... and particles in an office room. The particle removal effectiveness of the technologies was also determined in order to clarify their ability to remove UFPs (ultrafine particles) in the office room. The tested five air cleaning technologies are non-thermal plasma, corona discharge ionizer, portable...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  18. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  19. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  20. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  1. ISR main control room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The ISR main control room (SRC) on the night of 20 October when beam was first successfully injected into Ring I. The panels along the left contain controls and observational information about the beam-transfer system and injection. Along the right are recorders showing beam intensity (in the centre) and controls for currents in the main magnets, the pole face windings, and auxiliary magnets, and the magnetic field display panel (further for the rear). At the far back are controls and observations for the r.f. system and the betatron-frequency meter. Also at the far back (in the centre) are oscilloscopes for looking at signals from the pick-up electrodes.

  2. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations

  3. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Spata, Michael; Fanning, Harry; Oren, Tom C

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  4. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  5. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facility's 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week maintenance period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  6. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount o

  7. Mental health. Clean sweep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Kathryn

    2003-10-30

    A private finance initiative-built psychiatric unit has replaced a crumbling hospital block in Essex. Chapters House includes single rooms for patients, with two-way doors for safety. It was designed by a specialist architect to create a more comfortable and pleasant environment. PMID:14619168

  8. Method of cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  9. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  10. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  11. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  12. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;

    exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  13. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  14. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  15. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  16. Leadership in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the importance of leadership within the control rooms at nuclear power facilities. the leadership capability of control room staff has a significant influence over the improvement of human performance and the development of an 'event free' culture within the business. The development of leadership competency in the control room must be an important part of any nuclear power utility business improvement plan. (author)

  17. Nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short presentation is given of the nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France with respect to pressurized water reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, radioactive waste management facilities, and the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The effects of fires in rooms and ventilation ducts in all nuclear facilities is being studied and computer simulation codes are being developed. A brief review of filter development and filter testing is also presented

  18. Acoustic echoes reveal room shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M; Vetterli, Martin

    2013-07-23

    Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room's response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to "blindfoldedly" estimate the room geometry. This is achieved by exploiting the properties of Euclidean distance matrices. Furthermore, we show that under mild conditions, first-order echoes provide a unique description of convex polyhedral rooms. Our algorithm starts from the recorded impulse responses and proceeds by learning the correct assignment of echoes to walls. In contrast to earlier methods, the proposed algorithm reconstructs the full 3D geometry of the room from a single sound emission, and with an arbitrary geometry of the microphone array. As long as the microphones can hear the echoes, we can position them as we want. Besides answering a basic question about the inverse problem of room acoustics, our results find applications in areas such as architectural acoustics, indoor localization, virtual reality, and audio forensics. PMID:23776236

  19. Improving operating room schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Operating rooms (ORs) in US hospitals are costly to staff, generate about 70 % of a hospital's revenues, and operate at a staffed-capacity utilization of 60-70 %. Many hospitals allocate blocks of OR time to individual or groups of surgeons as guaranteed allocation, who book surgeries one at a time in their blocks. The booking procedure frequently results in unused time between surgeries. Realizing that this presents an opportunity to improve OR utilization, hospitals manually reschedule surgery start times one or two days before each day of surgical operations. The purpose of rescheduling is to decrease OR staffing costs, which are determined by the number of concurrently staffed ORs. We formulate the rescheduling problem as a variant of the bin-packing problem with interrelated items, which are the surgeries performed by the same surgeon. We develop a lower bound (LB) construction algorithm and prove that the LB is at least (2/3) of the optimal staffing cost. A key feature of our approach is that we allow hospitals to have two shift lengths. Our analytical results form the basis of a branch-and-bound algorithm, which we test on data obtained from three hospitals. Experiments show that rescheduling saves significant staffing costs. PMID:25687390

  20. More room for ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To meet the needs of the new ISOLDE experiments, a new extension has been added to the facility's Building 170. The new extension to Building 170. Moving around the ISOLDE hall was almost like an obstacle course until now. The facility's Building 170 simply didn't have an inch to spare and the ISOLDE team's need to set up new experiments, whose installation could have created difficulties from the safety point of view, only exacerbated the problem. "We had ambitious plans to develop new experiments but no room for them", says Mats Lindroos, ISOLDE's technical coordinator. The only solution was to extend the existing building". This was how a new building saw the light of day. Measuring 24 metres long, 20 metres wide and 12 metres high, it is an extension to the existing Building 170 and should be ready for use this year. The new structure makes use of the existing infrastructure, with part of the end wall of Building 170 being kept as a support for steel platforms. The top of this wall had to be cut away ...

  1. AVESTAR Center for clean energy plant operators of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Clean energy plants in the modern grid era will increasingly exploit carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), fuel/product flexibility, and load following. Integrated power/process plants will require next generation of well-trained engineering and operations professionals. High-fidelity dynamic simulators are well suited for training, education, and R&D on clean energy plant operations. Combining Operator Training System (OTS) with 3D virtual Immersive Training System (ITS) enables simultaneous training of control room and plant field operators of the future. Strong collaboration between industry, academia, and government is required to address advanced R&D challenges. AVESTAR Center brings together simulation technology and world-class expertise focused on accelerating development of clean energy plants and operators of the future.

  2. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  3. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  4. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Mary D

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community - materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists - give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 2.1: Introduction (306 KB). Chapter 2.2: Semiconductor device equations (121 KB). Chapter 2.3: The p-n junction model of Shockley (1,017 KB). Chapter 2.4: Rea

  5. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  6. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  7. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  8. Clean air suits vs scrub suits: what are the benefits of using them for infection control in hospitals?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So far there is no clear explanation or mandatory obligation why the surgical team has to wear clean air suits or scrub suits in the operating rooms (OR´s) and more importantly, what are the main differences between these two type of clothing. There is a general perception that the two are equal or very similar. So, what are clean air suits and scrub suits? Wh...

  9. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  10. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černecký Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours. Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of ionized air. Due to the experiment there was simulated smoking at the relative air humidity φ = 37 % and φ = 39 % and temperature of 20 °C in the room. Increased PM10 concentrations were caused only by cigarette smoke pollution or more precisely by artificially created higher humidity in the measuring room excluding ambient environment impacts. The aim of the experiments was to prove influence of ionization on the elimination of cigarette smoke. The measurements showed that the highest efficiency of PM10 particulate removal was achieved when the distance of smoking cigarettes from ionization source was 3 m and the air humidity was 39 %. The consequent increase of the distance of smoking cigarettes from the ionization source significantly decreased the efficiency of particle removal. The difference between ionized and natural air is minimal at the bigger distance.

  11. Online soot cleaning using infrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torra i Fernandez, Eric; Ellebro, Martin [Infrafone AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-01

    The company Infrafone has been using infrasound as a soot cleaning method for more than 30 years. Infrasonic soot cleaning increases the efficiency, the availability and the lifetime of marine and industrial boilers. The properties and the description of infrasound and Infrafone's soot cleaning method are presented. Moreover, a brief comparison with audible sonic horns is carried out. The results and the savings of installing Infrafone's infrasonic cleaners are presented here with several case studies. (orig.)

  12. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  13. Control room lay-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIUMF (Tri-University Meson Facility) is Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. There are 6 accelerators and 3 Control Rooms at TRIUMF. The main control room serves the big cyclotron, the 500 MeV, and the adjacent experiment. The 42 MeV and two 32 MeV ones are production dedicated. These cyclotrons belong to a private company but are operated by TRIUMF staff from ATG (Applied Technology Group) Control Room. The last is ISAC (Isotope Acceleration and Separation) Control Room, from which the LINAC is controlled. Research areas cover theoretical (2 subjects), pure (5 subjects) and applied (8 subjects) physics. In the early '70s, as the 500 MeV was being completed, the first Control Room was built in the main accelerator building. The recent topics covered by this paper are proton and pion therapy, what are the operator's duties?, the CP42, TR30 and TR13 cyclotron control rooms, the ISAC control systems including control room modification. Due to the nature of an operator's job, the Control Room layout is pretty important. This is true for any work environment, but when working shifts it becomes essential. Lots of time and effort, not to mention money, were spent to figure out the optimum configuration. It seems to me that the key factor in the control room layout is versatility, and this is because it has to keep happy a group of people with different inclinations, which have a tendency to become quite moody after the second night shift. No matter what, there will still be unhappy people, but we are trying our best. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. In the LEAR control room

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  15. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... design suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while...... others filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  16. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  17. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  18. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  19. Suitable control choices: exploring the roles of clean air suits and scrub suits in infection control

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So far there is no clear explanation or mandatory obligation why the surgical team has to wear clean air suits or scrub suits in ORs and, more importantly, what the main differences are between these two types of clothing. There is a general perception that the two are equal or very similar. So, what are clean air suits and scrub ...

  20. 32 CFR 518.9 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reading room. 518.9 Section 518.9 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM FOIA Reading Rooms § 518.9 Reading room. (a) Reading room... the records described, DA may elect to place other records in their reading room, and also make...

  1. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  2. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological...

  3. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  4. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  5. Ni/YSZ electrode degradation studied by impedance spectroscopy: Effects of gas cleaning and current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    anode degradation, tests were set-up both with and without gas cleaning. Gas cleaning was done by passing the H2 over porous nickel at room temperature. It was found that cleaning of the inlet H2 gas more than halved the anode degradation under current load. For tests at OCV the increase in the Ni......–YSZ charge transfer reaction resistance changed from 0.10 Ωcm2 to become negligible (below 0.002 Ωcm2) upon applying H2 gas cleaning over the couple of hundred of hours of testing. Both for tests with and without H2 gas cleaning applied, it was surprisingly found that operating the solid oxide fuel cells at...

  6. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  7. Room acoustic auralization with Ambisonics

    OpenAIRE

    Polack, Jean-Dominique; Leão Figueiredo, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the year of 2009, the room acoustics group of the LAM (Équipe Lutheries, Acoustique, Musique de l’Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris) performed a series of acoustical measurements in music halls in Paris. The halls were chosen in regarding their importance to the historic, architectural or acoustic domains. The measured ensemble of fourteen rooms includes quite different architectural designs. The measurements were carri...

  8. Chemical titration of clean silicon surfaces with N2O and O2: Atomic nature of "5x1" reconstructed Si(110)

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Enrico G.; Wormeester, Herbert; Silfhout, van, A.

    1990-01-01

    Using spectroscopic differential reflectometry (SDR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) we have studied the room temperature adsorption behavior of N2O and O2 at the clean low-Miller index Si surfaces

  9. Surface passivation of nickel-chromium alloys at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface composition and room temperature oxidation of atomically clean single crystal Ni-15%Cr(110) and polycrystalline Ni-23%Cr alloy have been studied using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and Electron Stimulated Ion Desorption (ESID). It was found that Ni segregated preferentially to the surface of Ni-15%Cr(110) in vacuum at temperatures between 500 to 650 degree C, and the heat segregation was 2550 cal/mole. The surface region of the Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Ni during Ar ion bombardment at temperatures above 200 degree C, which is an agreement with the model of preferential sputtering of Ni caused by radiation-enhanced surface segregation of Ni. But the subsurface region of room temperature sputtered Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Cr. Possible causes for this observation were discussed

  10. The acid cleaning method of labware for trace element analysis in snow and ice samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Acid cleaning processes were performed on a class 100 laminar flow clean bench assembled inside a class 1000 clean room.The ultrapure water was produced by Millipore RO (Reverse Osmosis) and Milli-Q water purification systems.The three purity grades of nitric acid used for cleaning include Merck reagent grade HNO3,Fisher "TraceMetal" grade HNO3,and the purest Fisher "Optima" grade HNO3.The various bottles,containers and other labware,which are in contact with the samples,are made of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and FEP or PFA Teflon materials.The acid cleaning procedures of the bottles and other containers follow a successive four times cleaning through immersion in increasing purity of nitric acid baths at different concentrations during four weeks.The first acid bath is performed at room temperature,but the following three acid baths are heated on ceramic hotplates with a surface temperature of 45℃.In order to verify the efficiency of the acid cleaning method,cleaned bottles underwent a blank determination procedure using ELAN 6100 inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results show that most measured trace elements are not detected and the elements detected are at very low concentrations.The blank values are comparable with that of bottles cleaned at Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI).Although the acid cleaning method is developed mainly for reliable measurements of trace elements in snow and ice samples,it can also be used for investigations of trace elements in other environmental samples.

  11. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  12. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  13. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  14. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  15. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  16. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  17. A note on clean abelian groups

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Brendan; Vamos, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nicholson defined a ring to be clean if every element is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. A module is clean if its endomorphism algebra is clean. We show that torsion-complete Abelian p-groups are clean and characterize the clean groups among the class of totally projective p-groups. An example is given of a clean p-group which is neither totally projective nor torsion- complete

  18. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  19. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic fuel cleaning has been demonstrated to be effective for avoiding or postponing the axial offset anomaly (AOA) in high-duty PWRs. In addition, the reduction in corrosion product inventory achieved by this method of fuel cleaning has been shown to reduce ex-core dose rates, and hence reduce personnel exposure. Through laboratory mock-up tests as well as tests on discharged fuel in the Callaway spent fuel pool, the EPRI ultrasonic fuel cleaning system was demonstrated to clean crud from fuel rods throughout the assembly without deleterious effects on fuel integrity. This paper presents details of the evaluation tests at AmerenUE's Callaway PWR, as well as the full-reload ultrasonic cleaning for Cycle 12. Ninety-six once-burned fuel assemblies were cleaned via the EPRI ultrasonic process during refueling outage 11 in April 2001. Fuel cleaning activities presented no special problems in or around the fuel pool, neither in terms of activity nor in terms of turbidity of the pool water, nor were special radiological situations encountered by personnel working in the area. The corrosion products were captured on cartridge filters designed to avoid loss of material into the fuel pool water during interim storage. Activity levels on the cartridges were maintained sufficiently low for ease of handling, processing, and shipment in Radwaste. The fuel cleaning operation was completed within a time window of approximately 48 hours. The cleaned fuel was returned to service in May 2001 for Cycle 12. To date, this fuel cycle remains free of AOA (Axial Offset Anomaly). This result is in contrast to earlier cycles of similar design and power duty, but without reload fuel cleaning. These cycles were operated at a reduced TAVE in order to mitigate AOA. Nevertheless, Cycle 11 experienced AOA starting as early as 6 GWD/MTU. Based on the favorable Cycle 12 data, the utility intends to institute fuel cleaning as a routine outage activity, thus expecting to recover the TAVE

  20. On strongly clean matrices over commutative clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The literature about strongly clean matrices over commutative rings is quite extensive. The sharpest results are about matrices over commutative local rings, for example those by Borooah, Diesl and Dorsey. The purpose of this note is to show that, using Pierce sheaf techniques, many of the known results about matrices over commutative local rings can be extended to those over commutative clean rings in general.

  1. [Cleanliness in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2010-05-01

    With regard to recent findings in the cleanliness of the operating room, concerning handwashing and performing operations, the traditional method of excessive scrubbing using a brush is not effective, and handwashing using only an alcohol-containing antiseptic hand rub (rubbing method) has become common practice. Use of a brush has already been abolished in some medical institutions. In addition, sterilized water used for handwashing when performing operations has no scientific basis and use of tap water is considered sufficient. Furthermore, the concept of operating room zoning has also undergone a dramatic change. It was discovered that a layout focusing on work efficiency is more desirable than the one that follows an excessively rigid zoning pattern. One-footwear System not requiring change of shoes also has various advantages in improving the efficiency of the operation room, and this is thought to become commonplace in the future. PMID:20486565

  2. Control room and ergonomic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The important basis for the configuration of the control room of a nuclear power station is the concept for controlling a fault and that for controlling normal operation. The tasks resulting from this for the control room personnel are decided by the control room concept. In this configuration process (from the division of process control tasks between the system components operators and control technology to the configuration of individual means of operation) the characteristics and capabilities of the personnel, which are subject to special requirements as regards their qualifications, are observed. New concepts which are only now technically feasible are therefore being developed for information processing and display, in order to give the personnel a better oversight of the state and trends of the plant. (orig./DG)

  3. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  4. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  5. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  6. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  7. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  8. Possible mechanism for the room-temperature stabilization of the Ge(111) T > 300 deg.C phase by Ga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhringer, M.; Molinás-Mata, P.; Zegenhagen, J.;

    1995-01-01

    ) appearing at temperatures above 300 degrees C (T > 300 degrees C phase). We report scanning tunneling microscopy, LEED, as well. as surface x-ray diffraction measurements on the Ga-induced room-temperature (RT) phase and compare it with a model for the T > 300 OC phase of clean Ge(111). RT deposition of Ga......At low coverages, Ga on Ge(111) induces a hexagonal, domain wall modulated (2 x 2) adatom phase, stable at room temperature, that is characterized in low energy electron diffraction (LEED) by split 1/2-order reflections. This pattern closely resembles the one observed for a phase of clean Ge(111...

  9. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  10. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  11. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  13. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    OpenAIRE

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields...

  14. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  15. Cleaning services in local authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Klungseth, Nora Johanne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses cleaning services in local authorities and is a response to calls for new knowledge on public facility management (FM). The research was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD). The aim is to describe and explore cleaning in order to provide new knowledge which may contribute to developing and improving FM in local authorities. The research undertaken was based on a descriptive and exploratory mixed-method approach consisting...

  16. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  17. 39 CFR 3004.12 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 3004.12 Section 3004.12 Postal... Reading room. (a) The Commission maintains a public reading room at its offices (901 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20268-0001) and an electronic reading room at http://www.prc.gov. The...

  18. 32 CFR 296.6 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 296.6 Section 296.6 National... Reading room. (a) The NRO shall provide a reading room equipped with hard copy and electronic records as required in the “Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996”. The NRO Reading Room is...

  19. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  20. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Kofoed, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Axisymmeric circular buoyant jets are treated both theoretically and experimentally. From a literature study the author concludes that the state of experimental knowledge is less satisfactory. Further three different measuring methods have been established to investigate the thermal plumes from pure sources of heat in ventilated rooms.

  1. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  2. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  3. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should not...

  4. Instituting a filtration/pressurization system to reduce dust concentrations in a control room at a mineral processing plant

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, J; Cecala, A.; Hummer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has observed that many control rooms and operator compartments in the U.S. mining industry do not have filtration systems capable of maintaining low dust concentrations in these areas. In this study at a mineral processing plant, to reduce respirable dust concentrations in a control room that had no cleaning system for intake air, a filtration and pressurization system originally designed for enclosed cabs was modified and installed. T...

  5. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γflows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially

  6. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR{trademark}). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  7. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S.Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR™). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  8. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  9. Commentary on nuclear power plant control room habitability - including a review of related LERs (1981-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of Licensee Event Reports filed by the operator of commercial nuclear power plants from 1981 through 1983 has revealed that approximately 3% pertain to systems that maintain or monitor control room habitability. Dominant contributors were deficiencies in normal and emergency trains of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and air cleaning systems (45%), deficiencies in atmospheric monitors for toxic and radioactive substances (27%) and deficiencies in fire protection systems (13%). To correct the situation revealed by these analyses and by information provided from other sources, it is recommended that the NRC incorporate into its program plan the development of information that anticipates the conditions within a control room during emergencies, and that criteria for habitability within the control room be better defined. In addition, it is suggested than an improved protocol for testing control room air-related systems be developed, that the required thickness and number of layers of charcoal adsorption beds for control room air cleaning systems be re-evaluated, and that steps be taken to improve the quality of heating, ventilating, air conditioning and air cleaning components. It is also recommended that greater emphasis be placed on maintaining nuclear power plant control rooms in a habitable condition during emergencies so that the operators can remain there and safely shut down the plant, in contrast to placing reliance on the use of remote shutdown panels or auxiliary control facilities

  10. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  11. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group. PMID:21462818

  12. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  13. Multimodal texts in kindergarten rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Granly, Astrid; Maagerø, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the results of our project “The Kindergarten Room: A Multimodal Pedagogical Text”. Our major initiative was to investigate what the multimodal texts in kindergarten represent and the extent to which they reflect and provide attributions to the children’s activities. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether kindergarten walls and floors can be called ‘pedagogical texts’, and the extent to which texts on walls and floors establish a particular text cult...

  14. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  15. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  16. The Mini-CLEAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because liquid neon is easily purified, has no intrinsic radioactivity, and scintillates brightly in response to ionizing radiation, it is a promising material for the detection of rare low-energy events. The Mini-CLEAN experiment will contain an active mass of approximately 100 kg of liquid neon viewed by 32 photomultiplier tubes and will serve as a prototype for the 10-100 ton CLEAN detector. Mini-CLEAN will be used to test the practicality of liquid neon as a scintillation material for neutrino detection. Additionally, the liquid neon can be replaced with liquid argon to provide improved sensitivity to dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. The ability to exchange the two cryogens, with different sensitivities to dark matter and fast neutrons, will allow the two event types to be accurately characterized. Radioactive backgrounds from gamma rays and 39Ar beta-decay will be rejected through pulse-shape discrimination

  17. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  18. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  19. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  20. Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Gopala K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. Methods During a 6-week period, we cultured commonly touched surfaces (i.e. bedrails, telephones, call buttons, door knobs, toilet seats, and bedside tables in rooms of patients with CDAD and VRE colonization or infection before and after housekeeping cleaning, and again after disinfection with 10% bleach performed by the research staff. After the housekeeping staff received education and feedback, additional cultures were collected before and after housekeeping cleaning during a 10-week follow-up period. Results Of the 17 rooms of patients with VRE colonization or infection, 16 (94% had one or more positive environmental cultures before cleaning versus 12 (71% after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.125, whereas none had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by the research staff (p Conclusion Our findings provide additional evidence that simple educational interventions directed at housekeeping staff can result in improved decontamination of environmental surfaces. Such interventions should include efforts to monitor cleaning and disinfection practices and provide feedback to the housekeeping staff.

  1. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  2. Some problems on rf breakdown in room temperature accelerator structure, a possible criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion is confined to high gradient, room-temperature accelerators which have clean well-finished cavity surfaces and good vacuum conditions. Breakdown-initiating mechanisms due to ''cold'' field electron emission occurring at isolated sites on broad-area cavity surfaces, where the field is enhanced, are described. The influences of an alternating field and transition time tunneling are taken into account. The thermal instability resulting in vacuum voltage breakdown is hypothesized to derive a new criterion for room-temperature accelerator structure. 18 refs., 5 figs

  3. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed. PMID:24858515

  4. Nuclear power industry needs to know: How clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) provides a unified nuclear power industry approach on generic nuclear regulatory and technical issues and interacts with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or other government agencies, as appropriate, on those issues. NUMARC's membership includes every U.S. utility that has a license to build or operate a commercial nuclear plant. The reactor vendors and major architect/engineering firms are also of NUMARC. The NRC has made determined efforts over the past several years to establish a coherent risk-based policy to govern decisions on applications of radioactivity of such low levels that they do not warrant the same regulatory controls as do higher levels of radioactivity. All agencies responsible for environmental quality have struggled with the question 'How clean is clean?' The NRC is preparing to conduct a participative rule-making process on one aspect of this question, residual contamination criteria. This is an area for which the nuclear power industry needs to know 'how clean is clean.' NUMARC fully supports the NRC's efforts to establish technically correct residual contamination criteria that have public acceptance and plans to actively participate on behalf of the nuclear power industry

  5. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  6. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  7. On some constructions of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings

    OpenAIRE

    Stancu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several constructions that lead to new examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings. A characterization of the idempotents in the algebra defined by a 2-cocycle is given and used to prove some of the algebra's properties (the infinitesimal deformation case). From infinitesimal deformations we go to full deformations and prove that any formal deformation of a clean (exchange) ring is itself clean (exchange). Examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings arising ...

  8. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    OpenAIRE

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models. Based on this outcome, a new cleaning model is proposed to capture cleaning dynamics for 10 different cleaning agents, varying from acidic, alkali and oxidizing to sequestering agents ...

  9. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  10. Using the inside of SWCNT's as a nano clean room reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, several research groups throughout the world started to use the inside of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT's) as a reaction chamber on the nano-scale. It began with the filling of SWCNTs with fullerenes, thus producing so-called peapods. By annealing these peapods to high temperatures (∼ 1200 oC) it is possible to transform the enclosed fullerenes into inner tubes. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the radial breathing modes of the inner tubes can be very narrow with intrinsic linewidths down to 0.4 cm-1. This small widths indicate long phonon lifetimes and hence very defect free inner tubes. Due to the interaction with the outer tubes the inner tube RBMs show a characteristic splitting. Considering the mean outer tube diameter of about 1.4 nm and the van der Waals spacing between inner and outer tubes, the inner tubes have rather small diameters around 0.7 nm. Thus, due to the inverse relation between RBM frequency and diameter, the spectral distance between the RBMs of different inner tube types is (with few exceptions) much larger than between different outer tube RBMs. This opens the possibility to study the properties of individual SWCNTs in a bulk sample. Additionally, by using fullerenes with different 13C enrichment levels it is possible to produce inner tubes with different 13C levels. This allows the isotope engineering of SWCNTs. (author)

  11. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  13. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  14. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  17. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  18. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  19. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  20. 32 CFR 701.6 - Reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading rooms. 701.6 Section 701.6 National... Reading rooms. The FOIA requires that (a)(2) records created on or after 1 November 1996, be made available electronically (starting 1 November 1997) as well as in hard copy, in the FOIA reading room...

  1. VIDEO CONFERENCE ROOM CERN-PUB

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We would like to inform our users that the video conference room CERN-PUB has been transfered to the following address: 4-S-013. From now on, you can book the room from the Conference Rooms Booking System (CRBS) here. Thank you

  2. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  3. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for $Sb_2Te_3$, $Sb_2Se_3$, $Bi_2Te_3$ and $Bi_2Se_3$ crystals. Our calculations predict that $Sb_2Te_3$, $Bi_2Te_3$ and $Bi_2Se_3$ are topological insulators, while $Sb_2Se_3$ is not. In particular, $Bi_2Se_3$ has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of $0.3 eV$, suitable for room temperature applicat...

  4. Ergonomics and control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)

  5. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  6. Guidelines for control room design reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine

  7. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  8. Web based emergency room PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wished to develop the web based Picture Archiving and Communication System in the emergency room for early decision making in emergency treatment planning at a full PACS Hospital. The program tools were Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 - Visual C++ 6.0, and the Microsoft SQL 7.0 under the Microsoft Windows 2000 server operation system. The achievement of images was performed by an auto transport program installed in the ER and the radiology department. The average compression rates were 5:1 for CT and MR, and 20:1 for CR with JPEG 2000 lossy compression. All the images were stored on hard disk for 3 months. The patients' information was displayed for 2 weeks for reducing the security risk. For interdepartmental consultation, patient query by patient hospital number was available. Our Web based ER PACS could be useful system for early decision making for treatment planning in the emergency room because it reduces the risk factors for the security of the Web Paces by using a system independent from PACS in the hospital and minimizing the information patients

  9. Large HTGR control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard HTGR control room arrangement is based on an extensive program that started with a study of human engineering principles and evolved with the use of a full-scale mock-up employed to arrive at an optimized control board layout and select proper components for the man-machine interface. The integrated control system makes extensive use of a dual computer as a tool for data collection, alarming, and formating information for the operator, using cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as the prime display. Window type annunciators, recorders, and large pistol-grip switches have been replaced by multicolor CRTs, line printers, and miniature pushbutton switches designed into a compact monitoring and control console. The console is designed for stand-up and sit-down operation and is shaped for maximum operator convenience. Indicators and controls are functionally arranged so the operator can easily scan, compare like parameters, and respond to abnormal conditions. A summary is presented of the features General Atomic has included in the HTGR control room design and of approaches used to develop a modern design that meets General Atomic's objectives as well as current regulatory and code requirements. (U.S.)

  10. Room design in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography and radiographic examination of the patient form most valuable diagnostic tool in providing comprehensive dental care. The safe and effective use of the X-ray equipment is important for the protection of the patient, other members of the public and all members of the dental team. For patients, the risk that is associated with exposure to X-rays must always be weighed against the clinical benefit of an accurate diagnosis. The risks associated with the exposure to the X-rays during the radiographic examination of the patient must be minimised by meticulously adhering to good practice and thus carefully managing the use of dental radiological procedures. The dentist or the personnel who is the license holder for the X-ray equipment is ultimately responsible for the radiation safety at the workplace. One important method in limiting the possible risk of radiation exposure at workplace is the correct design of an X-ray room. This paper is aimed at discussing the guidelines and recommendations on X-ray room designs in dental radiology in order to facilitate radiation control and safe working conditions for radiation workers as well as the public. (author)

  11. Healthcare quality in Emergency Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sarafis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study wants to clarify the issue of quality in health but also to determine the qualitative and quantitative quality indicators in Emergency department that their measurement is a discipline to countries developed in the area of health in order to promote quality in emergency care. Measurement of specific indicators through the evaluation of data and results, quality in Emergency Room is verified.Method: Review of relative bibliography was made in electronic bases of Blackwell-Synergy (1990-2008, and Medline (1990-2008 using as key words Emergency Room, safety, quality, responsiveness, satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, appropriateness, accessibility, competence. Complementary bibliography was found through other electronic search engines and by reviewing references of already found articles.Results: determinants for quality in the provision of health services were found to be the credibility that consists of the stability of care, the consistency and the duration of performance, the personnel responsiveness and the vigilance to serve the health user, its efficiency, the accessibility of health services, the politeness, understanding and communication of health professionals in relation to their professionalism, the security and the working environment.

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  14. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  15. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  17. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  18. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Gothwal; Abhijit Dhumal; Anand Gang; Siddharth Gavali; Sandip Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer ...

  19. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Camur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you ever cleaned a carpet on which mercury was spilled?” It is stated that mercury spillage has happened just a very short time ago and nothing have been done after that. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the 32 companies work in Istanbul, 37.5% in Ankara and 22.5% in Izmir. Three companies from Ankara, five from Istanbul, one from Izmir stated that they have encountered with mercury spillage before. Three of the companies who have stated that the have not encountered with mercury spillage before, asked “What is mercury?” and one of them asked whether “Mercury is a communicable disease, isn’t it?”. Twenty-two of the interviewed cleaning companies stated that they could clean the carpet with stain remover and three of them offered vacuuming, one washing the carpet with carpet shampoo, one person cleaning the stain by wiping with alcohol/ethyl alcohol. Five of the companies stated that they could not clean the stain and one of them he has advised throwing the carpet away. CONCLUSION: In many developing countries there is no responsible association or institution for mercury spills. Such simple surveys may be very important in determining training and gaps concerning public health problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 557-562

  20. Clean Assembly of Genesis Collector Canister for Flight: Lessons for Planetary Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; Allen, C. C.; Warren, J. L.; Schwartz, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of solar composition in the Genesis collectors requires not only high sensitivity but very low blanks; thus, very strict collector contamination minimization was required beginning with mission planning and continuing through hardware design, fabrication, assembly and testing. Genesis started with clean collectors and kept them clean inside of a canister. The mounting hardware and container for the clean collectors were designed to be cleanable, with access to all surfaces for cleaning. Major structural components were made of aluminum and cleaned with megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW). The UPW purity was >18 M resistivity. Although aluminum is relatively difficult to clean, the Genesis protocol achieved level 25 and level 50 cleanliness on large structural parts; however, the experience suggests that surface treatments may be helpful on future missions. All cleaning was performed in an ISO Class 4 (Class 10) cleanroom immediately adjacent to an ISO Class 4 assembly room; thus, no plastic packaging was required for transport. Persons assembling the canister were totally enclosed in cleanroom suits with face shield and HEPA filter exhaust from suit. Interior canister materials, including fasteners, were installed, untouched by gloves, using tweezers and other stainless steel tools. Sealants/lubricants were not exposed inside the canister, but vented to the exterior and applied in extremely small amounts using special tools. The canister was closed in ISO Class 4, not to be opened until on station at Earth-Sun L1. Throughout the cleaning and assembly, coupons of reference materials that were cleaned at the same time as the flight hardware were archived for future reference and blanks. Likewise reference collectors were archived. Post-mission analysis of collectors has made use of these archived reference materials.

  1. Improving room acoustics at low frequencies with multiple loudspeakers and time based room correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Small and medium size rectangular rooms are often used for sound reproduction. These rooms have substantial acoustical problems at low frequencies primarily caused by the reflections from the room boundaries. The spatial variation in sound pressure level (SPL) can be up to 30 dB in a room at low...... wall. With the back wall reflection removed a homogeneous sound field will be created in the whole room at low frequencies. Simulations and measurements of normal size listening rooms show that 4 loudspeakers are enough to even the sound field in a room. The CABS system is controlled by a developed DSP...

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  7. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  10. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  15. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  3. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  5. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  12. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  13. Air cleaning in accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  14. Gaseous cleaning in enrichment installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), either pure or mixed to other gases, is widely used as a process gas in the great majority of the known uranium isotopic enrichment processes. Due to a long term operation of the enrichment facilities there is a decomposition of the UF6, which solid products like UO2F2 and UF5, deposit on the walls of the reservoirs. This work describe a cleaning process used to remove the solid products of the UF6 decomposition from one of the reservoirs (V = 620 l) of the Jet Nozzle enrichment project facilities of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/Belo Horizonte. It was used a gaseous mixture which presented the advantage of cleaning up the reservoir without dismounting the equipment. The yielded products are all gaseous and can be easily pumped out. (author)

  15. Magnetic pulse cleaning of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the application of a magnetic impact for inventing new equipment and methods of cleaning cast precision blanks from fragile or granular thickened surface coatings, which are difficult to remove and highly resistant to further mechanical processing. The issues relating to a rational use of the new method for typical products and auxiliary operations have been studied. The calculation and design methods have been elaborated for load-carrying elements of the equipment created. It has been shown, that the application of the magnetic pulse method, combined with a low-frequency vibration process is perspective at enterprises of general and special machine construction, for cleaning lightweight blanks and containers, used for transporting bulk goods.

  16. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  17. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  18. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  19. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  20. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  1. Room acoustics for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, R; Duquesnoy, A J

    1980-12-01

    This article deals with the combined effects of noise and reverberation on the speech-reception threshold for sentences. It is based on a series of current investigations on: (1) the modulation-transfer function as a measure of speech intelligibility in rooms, (2) the applicability of this concept to hearing-impaired persons, and (3) hearing loss for speech in quiet and in noise as a function of age. It is shown that, generally, in auditoria, classrooms, etc. the reverberation time T, acceptable for normal-hearing listeners, has to be reduced to (0.75)DT in order to be acceptable for elderly subjects with a hearing loss of D dB for speech in noise; for listening conditions as in lounges, restaurants, etc. the corresponding value is (0.82)DT. PMID:7462459

  2. Operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Rasiah; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2013-06-01

    Development of surgical care in the 21st century is increasingly dependent on demonstrating safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Over the past 2 decades, the potential role of simulation in surgery has been explored with encouraging results; this can now be linked to direct improvement in the quality of care provision. Computer-assisted surgical platforms, such as robotic surgery, offer us the versatility to embrace a host of technical and technological developments. Rapid development in nanomedicine will expand the limits of operative performance through improved navigation and surgical precision. Integration of the multiple functions of the future operating room will be essential in optimising resource management. The key to bringing about the necessary paradigm shift in the design and delivery of modern surgical care is to appreciate that we now function in an information age, where the integrity of processes is driven by apt data management. PMID:23266083

  3. Experimental investigation of performance of a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Brand, Marek

    2010-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) was developed to reduce the exposure of medical staff, visitors, etc. to coughed air from a sick patient. The performance efficiency of the unit was studied in a full-scale mock-up of a hospital room with two beds with patients...... and a doctor. Four HBIVCUs were placed along the two sides of the two beds. The room was ventilated by mixing air distribution (ceiling installed supply air terminals) at room air temperature of 22 °C. The coughing patient and the second exposed patient were simulated by two heated dummies with...... simplified geometry. Thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface temperature distribution was used to mimic the doctor standing beside the bed of the coughing patient. The doctor and the coughing patient were facing each other. The coughing dummy was equipped with a cough generator. The cough...

  4. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  5. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  6. Very clean matrices over local rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Ungor, B.; Halicioglu, S.

    2014-01-01

    An element $a\\in R$ is very clean provided that there exists an idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $ae=ea$ and either $a-e$ or $a+e$ is invertible. A ring $R$ is very clean in case every element in $R$ is very clean. We explore the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a triangular $2\\times 2$ matrix ring over local rings is very clean. The very clean $2\\times 2$ matrices over commutative local rings are completely determined. Applications to matrices over power series are also obtained.

  7. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ; DRAGAN S. PEŠIĆ; SNEŽANA S. MITIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be ...

  8. Clean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2005-01-01

    Core competitiveness is a notion familiar to most managers with an MBA degree, These days, this is what is taught at renowned business schools and colleges. And in the real world,large and small enterprises are increasingly following this course of action, To concentrate on one or two single lines of business in most cases makes sense and boosts profit, There are, however,

  9. Cleaning and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Sanjeev Juwarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where, health care organisations now have legal responsibility to implement changes in accordance with the newer technology to reduce health care associated infection. There is a need to develop evidence-based infection prevention and control programs and set national guidelines for disinfection and sterilisation of anaesthesia equipment which all the institutions should comply with.

  10. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gothwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.

  11. From Baltic rooms to conference rooms: my jouney with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    From time spent in murky, mosquito-filled mangrove swamps searching for fiddler crabs, to being transported off ships in webbed "man-baskets" on inky-black winter mornings to sample sea ice, to teaching rooms full of students the benefits of information organization, the wonders of science have long shaped my career path. Regardless of surroundings, the driving factor has always been a desire to learn new skills, then try to figure out how to use them to make work easier or more efficient for myself and hopefully others. Somewhere along the way, I've switched from doing it primarily for my "own" research projects, to a focus on helping others with theirs. Like many in this field, my route to a career in data science has influenced how I do my work. Along the way I've carried skills with me but also learned a few things that have made my journey both practical and fun. In this presentation, I'll discuss a few key factors that contribute to my current efforts as a data curation specialist in a research library, including communication (translation of "library" concepts to "science" concepts and vice versa), flexibility (ability to accomodate ideas, pace and values of those I'm working with), and prioritization (learning to balance what's valuable to researchers with principles important to libraries, curators, repositories, archives and other groups with which I interact).

  12. Room acoustics modeling using a point-cloud representation of the room geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    geometry acquisition is presented. The method exploits a depth sensor of the Kinect device that provides a point based information of a scanned room interior. After post-processing of the Kinect output data, a 3D point-cloud model of the room is obtained. Sound transmission between two selected points...... within the room is simulated using a 3D point-cloud model to define a room geometry and a discrete ray-tracing method to calculate sound propagation paths within the enclosure. Based on a 3D point-cloud room model a voxel grid is created and each voxel has been assigned certain properties. These......Room acoustics modeling is usually based on the room geometry that is parametrically described prior to a sound transmission calculation. This is a highly room-specific task and rather time consuming if a complex geometry is to be described. Here, a run time generic method for an arbitrary room...

  13. Presence of protein deposits on 'cleaned' re-usable anaesthetic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D M; Youkhana, I; Karunaratne, W U; Pearce, A

    2001-11-01

    Twenty previously used and supposedly clean, sterilised laryngeal mask airways, five bougies and five Magill forceps from the operating theatre, and 61 laryngoscope blades from different sites within a single hospital were randomly collected and stained with erythrosin B dye, which stains proteins if present on surfaces. All 20 laryngeal mask airways had been used before and were stained: four (20%) showed heavy staining, five (25%) moderate staining and 11 (55%) mild staining. Two unused laryngeal mask airways used as controls were without staining. Thirty-four of 44 (77%) laryngoscope blades taken from the operating theatres, six of seven (86%) from the overnight intensive recovery room and all 10 (100%) from the wards were stained. None of the other items was totally clean. These findings suggest that current cleaning methods do not remove all proteinaceous material. PMID:11703239

  14. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    concentrations of surface active agents in combination with other compounds affect the tearfilm and the mucous membranes of the airways means that it is impossible to assess the importance of the concentrations found here. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge about the amounts o surface active agents other...... VOCs. In one experiment, the concentration of nonpolar VOCs in the breathing zone of a person who treated the floor in a large climate chamber (45 m3) using a water based polish product was found to be 3,9 mg/m3. Use of scented cleaning agents usually means that odour thresholds of some compounds are...... exceeded, which means that the perception of the air in the cleaned room is changed and the indoor air quality is affected.The group of polar VOCs consists of the different water miscible solvents frequently used in cleaning agents to improve the properties of the products. The two wash and vax products...

  15. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications. PMID:26200694

  16. Emergency Room Thoracotomy for Thoracic Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Sayan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In this study we discussed that indication and effect on survival of emergency room thoracotomy in cardiac and respiratory arrest patients after penetrating or blunt chest trauma. Material and Method: Between March 2013 and September 2014, five emergency room thoracotomies were performed. The medical record of patients were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Emergency room thoracotomy was performed for 4 patients with penetrating and 1 patient with blunt chest trauma. 2 patients have died ...

  17. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  18. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  19. Markkinointisuunnitelma case: Clean Water Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Ida-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Clean Water Oy:n uudelle tuoteryhmälle markkinointisuunnitelma. Tuoteryhmänä on kuluttajakäyttöön suunnitellut jätevesijärjestelmät. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena on löytää markkinoinnilliset ratkaisut uuden tuoteryhmän lanseeraukseen. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään niitä osa-alueita, joita käsitellään myös itse markkinointisuunnitelmassa. Markkinointi on jaettu perinteisiin markkinointikeinoihin ja digitaaliseen markk...

  20. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  1. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  2. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  3. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  4. Prevention of airborne disposal from staff in the O.R. reducing the risk of infection : what are the benefits of using clean air suits or scrub suits?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria José Araújo Marques

    2012-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So, what are clean air suits and scrub suits? This article seeks to highlight the most relevant information of this products and try to define the benefits of using them for preventing airborne disposal from the surgical staff, reducing the risk of infection. No scientific data support the practice of using scrub suits as a means for preventing transmis...

  5. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  6. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  7. Glow discharge cleaning of vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Toya, H. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that glow discharge cleaning has ben advancing as a means of degassing vacuum chambers constructed for a large accelerator or for nuclear fusion research. To clean the whole surface of parts inside a vacuum switch tube (VST), a new technique is tried which generates glow discharge between the inner electrodes and copper grid surrounding it. Photographic observation reveals that the glow discharge spreads out and cleans the whole surface inside the VST. A breakdown test between the inner electrodes shows the effect of the cleaning with this technique. Higher breakdown voltage between the inner electrodes is attained by performing this glow discharge cleaning in argon rather than hydrogen gas. The difference of the cleaning effect seems to be attributed to that of the energy transfer from ion species to the absorbed molecules and microprotrusions on the surfaces.

  8. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  9. Operating Room Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bruce; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary operating room technology education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in operating room technology in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival…

  10. 32 CFR 701.35 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 701.35 Section 701.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.35 Reading room. Location where...

  11. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near the...

  12. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction. PMID:18822819

  13. VRML Programs for Room Ventilation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker

    Cheap 3D models for visualization of room ventilation applications are now available. VRML (Virtu~l Reality Modelling Language) is found to be a good format to describe buildings, rooms and furniture. A 3D model in VRML can be placed on a World Wide Web (www) page and others can see the model in ...

  14. An automated cleaning system for hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient hygienic practices in Irish hospitals coupled with one of the highest number of reported cases of MRSA in Europe have highlighted the need for solutions to aid in the task of cleaning. This automated cleaning system consisted of two robots: a core robot developed separately with navigational and task scheduling capabilities integrated. The cleaning task was carried out by making use of a commercially available Roomba vacuum cleaner which had been adapted to operate in conju...

  15. Deep cleaning--valid or publicity stunt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    While deep cleaning is not new--hospitals have undertaken deep cleans ward-by-ward for some time, often following a "superbug" outbreak, Health Secretary Alan Johnson and Prime Minister Gordon Brown both emphasised on announcing the mandate that this was the first time all English NHS hospitals had been asked to deep clean their entire site, "restoring surfaces and fabrics to as close as possible as their original condition". PMID:18411818

  16. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  17. Selling Australia as 'Clean and Green'

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Kristiansen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    'Green and clean' has been used as a key marketing tool to promote Australian products overseas. The rationale is that consumers are generally concerned about personal health and the environment and will choose, and pay price premiums, for products that are, or perceived to be, clean (good for them) and green (good for the environment) over alternative products. But is Australia seen as clean and green? Is it really why people buy Australian products? And how effective is it as a marketing to...

  18. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  19. Reliability of estimating the room volume from a single room impulse response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuster, M.

    2008-01-01

    The methods investigated for the room volume estimation are based on geometrical acoustics, eigenmode, and diffuse field models and no data other than the room impulse response are available. The measurements include several receiver positions in a total of 12 rooms of vastly different sizes and aco

  20. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  1. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured. PMID:15030561

  2. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  3. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  4. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  5. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  6. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens;

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...... where dirty areas are detected, that operator assistance is called only when cleanness hypothesis cannot be made with confidence. The paper describes the design of the system where learning from experience maps and operator instructions are combined to obtain a smart and autonomous cleaning robot.......Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform...

  7. Multi-Scale CLEAN: A comparison of its performance against classical CLEAN in galaxies using THINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J. W.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Cornwell, T. J.; Brinks, E.; Walter, F.; Bagetakos, I.; Kennicutt Jr., R. C.

    2008-01-01

    A practical evaluation of the Multi-Scale CLEAN algorithm is presented. The data used in the comparisons are taken from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). The implementation of Multi-Scale CLEAN in the CASA software package is used, although comparisons are made against the very similar Multi-Resolution CLEAN algorithm implemented in AIPS. Both are compared against the classical CLEAN algorithm (as implemented in AIPS). The results of this comparison show that several of the well-known cha...

  8. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  9. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Miniclean Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquids) detector is a prototype experiment in the search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. A target of single phase liquid argon with a fiducial mass of 150 kg is being deployed in a spherical detector surrounded by cryogenic temperature photomultiplier tubes. This design maximizes light yield and allows pulse shape discrimination to be used to separate nuclear recoils from electron recoil background events. The detector will demonstrate the technologies necessary for a future generation dark matter and low energy solar neutrino experiment using, interchangeably, targets of argon and neon. This talk will summarize the status of the ongoing commissioning and first physics runs at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  10. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public...... industry policy based on Michael Porters cluster theory. The paper however suggest that the narrow focus on productivity and economic growth in Porters theory should be qualified and integrated with a broader scope of societal policy aims including social and environmental issues. This suggestion also...

  11. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  12. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  13. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na202 and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na202 and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI

  14. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  15. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model for room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...... are used to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over...

  16. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model in room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...... are used to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over...

  17. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  18. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  19. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of t

  20. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  1. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution - Addendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single......A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...

  2. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single......A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...

  3. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...... activity in the room -like peoples movements -in previous studies has been shown to influence the effectiveness of the ventilation. In this study we have compared results from previous tests, where a cylindrical person simulator was used, to results obtained when using a person simulator of more human...

  4. Evaluation of a dark-room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequate operation conditions of a dark-room are essential to guarantee the image quality, the least exposure of the patient and the staff, contributing also to reduce the expenses with specific equipments and processing solutions. Therefore, to install a dark-room, it is necessary a previous study about its physical dimensions, the location of equipments, accessories, light safeguards and visual warning, besides adequate darkening and correct filme processing. We propose three basic tests to check the adequacy and the integrity of a dark-room: light safeguards test, hygiene test, developing time and temperature test. (Author)

  5. Clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, P.C. (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van dit onderzoek is het in kaart brengen van de private clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland (Gelderland en Overijssel). Clean tech is de verzamelnaam voor producten en diensten die een bijdrage leveren aan een schonere aarde. Als basis voor het onderzoek is een zo volledig mogelijke lijst

  6. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  7. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  8. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  9. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  11. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  12. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  17. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  18. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  19. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  20. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  1. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  2. CO2-pellet cleaning process cuts costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non Destructive Cleaning (NDC) process is truly a ''dry process'' that generates no secondary waste streams. Since no solid grit or aggregate is used, there is no need for bulk radioactive solid waste handling equipment. Moreover, since no chemicals are used, the mobile decontamination facility requires no radioactive chemical processing or mixed waste handling facilities. Instead the NDC process uses solid carbon dioxide particles propelled by dry compressed air as the cleaning medium. The carbon dioxide particles shatter upon impact with the surface of the material to be cleaned and flash into dry carbon dioxide gas. This flashing into gas results in a rapid volume expansion of about ten to one. The cleaning action is due to the rapidly expanding carbon dioxide gas flashing into the surface of the item to be cleaned (which is porous at the microscopic level) and flushing foreign materials out. The microscopic particles of foreign material are captured on high efficiency particulate filters. Larger sized fragments are lifted off the surface by the flashing carbon dioxide gas, fall to the bottom of the cleaning area and are vacuumed away to dry air filters. The NDC process also has the advantage that it does not attack the surface of the material being cleaned, making it unique among cleaning processes. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  4. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  5. 19 CFR 151.71 - Laboratory testing for clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory testing for clean yield. 151.71 Section... Laboratory testing for clean yield. (a) Test and report by Customs laboratory. The clean yield of all general... clean yield. A report of the percentage clean yield of each general sample as established by the...

  6. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Levitsky; R. Naim; A. Duek; V. Gitis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning tim

  7. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  10. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  11. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  12. What Happens in the Emergency Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Happens in the Emergency Room? KidsHealth > For Kids > ...

  13. What Happens in the Operating Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Happens in the Operating Room? KidsHealth > For Kids > ...

  14. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  15. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  16. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  17. Ergonomics influence on control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)

  18. Superconducting vs room temperature magnets at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief comparison is made of superconducting and room temperature magnets for experiments at ISABELLE. Considerations include construction costs, operation costs, configuration, start-up time, quenching, and power costs

  19. The Whys and Hows of Training Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Offers advice on building and equipping a college athletic training room that can serve in preventing and treating athletic injuries. Issues concerning space utilization, protecting confidentiality, and making accommodations for amenities such as hydrotherapy pools are addressed. (GR)

  20. Emergency Room Thoracotomy for Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Sayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we discussed that indication and effect on survival of emergency room thoracotomy in cardiac and respiratory arrest patients after penetrating or blunt chest trauma. Material and Method: Between March 2013 and September 2014, five emergency room thoracotomies were performed. The medical record of patients were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Emergency room thoracotomy was performed for 4 patients with penetrating and 1 patient with blunt chest trauma. 2 patients have died after the procedure. 1 patient died on the 10th day after surgery due to multi organ failure. 2 patients have survived and they discharged from the hospital without any sequelae. Discussion: Emergency room thoracotomy is a life-saving approach after thoracic trauma especially patients with penetrating trauma.

  1. Dilute chemical cleaning of PWR steam generators off-line cleaning process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project evaluated the feasibility of using a low-concentration (approx. 0.5 wt %) chemical cleaning process to remove corrosion product deposits from steam generator surfaces and magnetite from tube-to-support plate crevices of PWR steam generators. The primary objective was to develop a dilute process that could be safely applied at scheduled intervals, such as during normal refueling outages, to maintain a clean operating condition in the steam generator. The dilute chemical cleaning process developed in this project was demonstrated successfully on two model generators which were operated on faulted chemistry by DOE/CRC at Commonwealth's State Line Facility. Unit 5 was cleaned after 48 days of operation with 1% seawater fouling, and Unit 6 was cleaned after 112 days of operations with Lake Michigan water. This report describes work leading to the model generator cleaning demonstrations and provides details of the cleaning operation for each model steam generator

  2. Patient Safety in the Operating Room

    OpenAIRE

    Ellsworth, Warren A.; Iverson, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of surgeons, hospitals, and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential, and the pressure to avoid these complications during elective cosmetic surgery is especially important. Traditionally, nursing and anesthesia staff have managed patient positioning and most safety issues in the operating room. As the number of office-based procedures in the plastic surgeon's practice increases, understanding...

  3. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana PETREVSKA; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  4. Suicide attempts and emergency room psychiatric consultation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppegno, Patrizia; Gramaglia, Carla; Castello, Luigi Mario; Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Ressico, Francesca; Coppola, Isabella; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Torre, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicidal behaviours are major public health concerns worldwide. They are associated with risk factors that vary with age and gender, occur in combination, and may change over time. The aim of our study was to investigate how frequently patients visiting a hospital emergency room (ER) require a psychiatric consultation for attempted suicide, and to outline the characteristics of this population. Methods Determinants of emergency room visits for psychiatric reasons were studied prosp...

  5. The Advanced Photon Source main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today's requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout

  6. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  7. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  8. Study of dielectric liquids at room temperature for high energy x ray Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of X rays by means of a dielectric liquid detector system, at room temperature, is discussed. The physico-chemical properties of a dielectric liquid, the construction of a cleaning device and of two electrode configurations, and the utilization of different amplifier models are studied. The results allowed the analysis and characterization of the behavior of the dielectric liquid under X ray irradiation. Data obtained is confirmed by computerized simulation. The choice of Tetramethyl-germanium for the X ray tomography, applied in nondestructive analysis, is explained. The investigation of the system parameters allowed the setting of the basis of a prototype project for a multi-detector

  9. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Jun Sik Son; Kyo-Han Kim; Tae-Yub Kwon

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF) at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control) or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link) were bonded to each treated plate. All bond...

  10. Cleaning up Wismut's waste dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive uranium ore mining activities in Saxony and Thuringia up until 1990 have produced not only some 220,000 t of uranium, but also a multitude of shafts, dumps, sludge ponds, and a big hole left over from open-cast mining, on a total plant area of approx. 37 square kilometers. Decommissioning and disposing of these installations, and cleaning up and recultivating the plant areas, is the purposes and sole activity of Wismut GmbH. Under applicable law, the strategy of the firm is aimed at using modern technical procedures to decommission and dispose of the mining and dressing facilities and make plant areas and the site available for other uses and, in doing so, strike an optimum balance between ecological, economic, and social aspects of cleanup. For this purpose, international exerience is utilized by the firm in arranging workshops on important problems. After flooding of the mines and clearing of the tailings had been treated in previous years, a workshop on dump cleanup was organized in Chemniti in November 1995. The paper deals with aspects of preparing for dump cleanup on the Aue and Ronneburg sites. (orig.)

  11. Condensate cleaning-up method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon cleaning-up condensates by filtration through thread-like hollow porous membranes in BWR type reactors, the thread-like hollow porous membranes used have average pore size of 0.01 - 1 μm and porosity of 40 to 80 % , having ionic exchange capacity corresponding to 0.05 to 2 meq of sulfonic groups introduced per one gram of the thread-like hollow porous membranes, in which the sulfonic groups at the outer surface are in the form of salts of non-dissociating metals. By using the thread-like hollow porous membranes capable of satisfying such conditions, it is possible to prevent the formation of solid-like iron deposited to the inner and the outer surfaces of the thread-like hollow membranes even when the condensates in a nuclear power plant are filtered for a long period of time. Further, since there is no scarce reduction in the water permeation rate, stable operation is possible. (T.M.)

  12. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  13. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  14. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  15. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included:  Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors.  Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org.  Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  16. Computational study of room scattering influence in the THOR BNCT treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT dosimetry has often employed heavy Monte Carlo calculations for the beam characterization and the dose determination. However, these calculations commonly ignored the scattering influence between the radiations and the room structure materials in order to facilitate the calculation speed. The aim of this article attempts to explore how the room scattering affects the physical quantities such as the capture reaction rate and the gamma-ray dose rate under in-phantom and free-air conditions in the THOR BNCT treatment room. The geometry and structure materials of the treatment room were simulated in detail. The capture reaction rates per atom, as well as the gamma-ray dose rate were calculated in various sizes of phantoms and in the free-air condition. Results of this study showed that the room scattering has significant influence on the physical quantities, whether in small phantoms or in the free-air condition. This paper may be of importance in explaining the discrepancies between measurements and calculations in the BNCT dosimetry using small phantoms, in addition to provide a useful consideration with a better understanding of how the room scattering influence acts in a BNCT facility. - Highlights: • The room scattering effect at THOR BNCT room was discussed in this paper. • The room scattering factors of 4 different sizes of PMMA phantoms were calculated. • The room scattering effect was significant in small size phantom. • The room scattering neutron and gamma-ray spectra were calculated free-in-air. • The room scattering contributions of supporting table and materials were discussed

  17. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  19. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  20. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  1. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  2. Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos

  3. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  4. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-08-31

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements.

  5. Control room habitability study: findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. Participants in the study review the plant design as contained in the Updated Safety Analysis Report, Technical Specifications, Three Mile Island action item III.D.3.4 submittal on Control Room Habitability, NRC staff evaluation of the III.D.3.4 submittal, appropriate plant operating procedures, system drawings, and significant Licensee Event Reports on Loss of Cooling to the Control Room Envelope. A two-day visit is then made to the plant to determine if the as-built systems are built, operated, and surveillance performed as described in the documentation reviewed prior to the visit. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  6. Reduced exposure to coughed air by a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Brand, Marek

    2012-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) for local airflow control and cleansing, limiting the airborne spread of contagious air coughed from a sick patient in a hospital room, was developed. The performance efficiency of the unit, to successfully reduce occupants......’ exposure to coughed air, was studied in a full-scale, two-bed hospital room mock-up, 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 2.60 m (W x L x H), with two patients and a doctor. Four units were placed along the two sides of both beds close to the head. The room was ventilated by overhead mixing air distribution at 22 °C room air...... temperature. The sick coughing patient was simulated by a heated dummy with simplified geometry equipped with a cough generator. Similar heated dummy was used for the second patient. A dressed breathing thermal manikin with realistic human body and surface temperature was used to mimic a doctor standing...

  7. Advances in materials for room temperature hydrogen sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sunil K; Krishnan, Subramanian; Silva, Hayde; Jean, Sheila; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-06-21

    Hydrogen (H(2)), as a source of energy, continues to be a compelling choice in applications ranging from fuel cells and propulsion systems to feedstock for chemical, metallurgical and other industrial processes. H(2), being a clean, reliable, and affordable source, is finding ever increasing use in distributed electric power generation and H(2) fuelled cars. Although still under 0.1%, the distributed use of H(2) is the fastest growing area. In distributed H(2) storage, distribution, and consumption, safety continues to be a critical aspect. Affordable safety systems for distributed H(2) applications are critical for the H(2) economy to take hold. Advances in H(2) sensors are driven by specificity, reliability, repeatability, stability, cost, size, response time, recovery time, operating temperature, humidity range, and power consumption. Ambient temperature sensors for H(2) detection are increasingly being explored as they offer specificity, stability and robustness of high temperature sensors with lower operational costs and significantly longer operational lifetimes. This review summarizes and highlights recent developments in room temperature H(2) sensors. PMID:22582176

  8. Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

    2005-09-21

    In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

  9. The third generation CANDU control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CANDU stations, as in most complex industrial plants, the man/machine interface design has progressed through three generations. First Generation control rooms consisted entirely on fixed, discrete components (handswitches, indicator lights, strip chart, recorder, annunciator windows, etc.). Human factors input was based on intuitive common sense factors which varied considerably from one designer to another. Second Generation control rooms incorporated video display units and keyboards in the control panels. Computer information processing and display are utilized. There is systematic application of human factors through ergonomic and anthropometric standards and cookbooks. The human factors are applied mainly to the physical layout of the control panels and the physical manipulation performed by the operators. Third Generation control rooms exploit the dramatic performance/cost improvements in computer, electronic display and communication technologies of the 1980's. Further applications of human factors address the cognitive aspects of operator performance. At AECL, second generation control rooms were installed on CANDU stations designed in the mid 70s and early 80s. Third generation features will be incorporated in the CANDU 3 station design and future CANDU stations. There have been significant improvements in the man/machine interface in CANDU stations over the past three decades. The continuing rapid technological developments in computers and electronics coupled with an increasing understanding and application of human factors principles is leading to further enhancements. This paper outlines progress achieved in earlier stations and highlights the features of the CANDU 3rd generation control room. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  10. Role of Magnetocardiography in Emergency Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. E.; Lim, H. K.; Park, Y. K. [Biomagnetism Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Y. G.; Chung, N. [Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    In emergency rooms, patients with acute chest pain should be diagnosed as quickly as possible with higher diagnostic accuracy for an appropriate therapy to the patients with acute coronary syndrome or for avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions. At present, electrocardiography(ECG) and biochemical markers are generally used to detect myocardial infarction and coronary angiography is used as a gold standard to reveal the degree of narrowing of coronary artery. Magnetocardiography(MCG) has been proposed as a novel and non-invasive diagnostic tool fur the detection of cardiac electrical abnormality associated with myocardial ischemia. In this study, we examined whether the MCG can be used fur the detection of coronary artery disease(CAD) in patients, who were admitted to the emergency room with acute chest pain. MCG was recorded from 36 patients admitted to the emergency room with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The MCG recordings were obtained using a 64-channel SQUID MCG system in a magnetically shielded room. In result, presence of CAD could be found with a sensitivity of 88.2 % in patients with acute chest pain without 57 elevation in ECG, demonstrating a possible use in the emergency room to screen CAD patients.

  11. New bio-cleaning strategies on porous building materials affected by biodeterioration event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Federica; Diamanti, Alessia; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, a new bio-cleaning procedure based on the glucose oxidase (GOx) has been applied on the travertine and peperino substrata to remove the biological patina (i.e., biofilm). Glucose oxidase, used as a model enzyme system, is able to produce in situ H 2O 2 (the cleaning agent having oxidizing properties) by the enzymatic reaction at room temperature. The travertine and peperino samples came from the Villa Torlonia in Rome (Italy), and an analytical diagnosis on them was performed applying several analytical techniques, such as the differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), the optical microscope (OM), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) that evidence the presence of biofilms on the substrata. Better results were obtained on the travertine samples in terms of the cleaning efficiency and the absence of the etching effect on the surface, eventually induced by the peroxide molecule. These results could be explained in terms of the different porosities of the two kinds of stone materials, according to the BET data. A comparative study was also performed to validate the new bio-cleaning procedure, using both traditional approaches based on saturated (NH 4) 2CO 3 solution and EDTA in buffer solution and the enzyme lipase treatments. Among all, the cleaning procedure via GOx shows the best result, probably because the enzyme controls the concentration of the H 2O 2 in situ and also retains the H 2O 2 preferentially on the surface (where the biological patina is present) depending on the porosity of the substrata. A synergistic effect, with other enzymes such as lipase and protease, combined with the biocompatibility of the enzymatic treatments, could represent a new way for a higher cleaning efficiency to apply on different stone substrata.

  12. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  13. Environmental Cleaning and Disinfecting for MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections Share Compartir Environmental Cleaning & Disinfecting for MRSA On this Page Selecting ... or dust. Disinfectants are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). You can use a disinfectant ...

  14. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  15. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  16. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  17. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  18. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  19. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is a national air quality monitoring network designed to provide data to assess trends in air quality, atmospheric...

  20. Clean conditions during the erection phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the basic requirements of the Regulatory Guide 1.37 and ANSI 45.2.1 - Standard on Cleaning of Fluid Systems and Associated Components during the Construction Phase of Nuclear Power Plants as a guideline, the implementation of cleaning operations in the pre-installation phase, the installation phase and the maintenance of clean conditions until the operational phase is covered. Specific information will be given from the practical experience point of view with the work execution under clean conditions of piping and components at the semi-finished product manufacturer, the prefabrication workshop and the on-site installation with specific reference to the various detailed procedures required by individual system builders for nuclear power plants in Germany and abroad. (orig.)

  1. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Bate, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity $\\psi / c_h$ instead of $\\psi$. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, $c_h$, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving $\

  2. Knowledge spillovers from clean and dirty technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Martin, Ralf; Mohnen, Myra

    2014-01-01

    How much should governments subsidize the development of new clean technologies? We use patent citation data to investigate the relative intensity of knowledge spillovers in clean and dirty technologies in two technological fields: energy production and transportation. We introduce a new methodology that takes into account the whole history of patent citations to capture the indirect knowledge spillovers generated by patents. We find that conditional on a wide range of potential confounding f...

  3. 2013 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) in 2013, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  4. Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Allison E.; Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart B.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Lin, Susan X.; Larson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug re...

  5. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  6. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  7. komunikace značky Clean & Clear

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to describe a communication campaign of Clean & Clear brand. A brand owned by Johnson & Johnson company specializing in cosmetics for teenage girls. Campaign is described into details, evaluated in terms of effectiveness of its communication tools by achieving marketing goals over a specified period of time. This thesis should confirm the suitability and effectivity of the communication mix applied for Clean & Clear brand in a specific enviroment of anti-acne c...

  8. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  9. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  10. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  11. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá; Calbo, Lilian Reig

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot...... other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that...... in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called “room gain” is proposed....

  12. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV) and six workstations, three of which had DPV. The DV kept air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor). Pollution load was simulated by PVC floor covering and the bioeffluents generate...

  13. Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yadavalli Gopala K; Sethi Ajay K; Rao Agam; Eckstein Elizabeth C; Adams Daniel A; Eckstein Brittany C; Donskey Curtis J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. Methods During a 6-week period, we cultured commonly touche...

  14. Cleaning laser spark spectroscopy for online cleaning quality control method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutin, T. Y.; Smirnov, V. N.; Veiko, V. P.; Volkov, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    This work is dedicated to spectroscopic investigations of laser spark during the laser cleaning process. The goal is to proof its analytical possibilities for chemical composition determination for online cleaning quality control. Photographic recordings of laser spark were performed to estimate its parameters. Fiber spectrometer was used to analyze the emission of cleaning process established with fiber laser. Conclusions have been made about fiber laser radiation usability for spectroscopic purpose.

  15. Financing clean energy market creation : clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean ener...

  16. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  17. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  18. A numerical model for a room fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple room fire experiment has been used as a development case for numerical fire simulation based on computational fluid dynamics. Experimental values (Steckler et al. 1982) are used to verify simulation. A limited method to use a flee flow boundary condition has been described (flow is assumed to be oblique to the boundary). Description of buoyancy terms, atmospheric pressure and additional terms of turbulence due to buoyancy are also given. Fire source is described as a predefined heat source. Comparison to the experiments shows that flow velocity at the room door, which is the only opening to the room, can be predicted with a good and temperature with a moderate accuracy. (au) (3 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulation System was used. A large number of simulations were performed for 3 rooms (window configurations) under overcast, intermediate, and 40-50 sunny sky conditions for each window (7 months, three orientations and for every other hour with direct sun penetration through...... the windows). A number of light indicators allowed understanding and describing the geometry of daylight in the space in a very detailed and thorough manner. The inclusion of the daylight factor, horizontal illuminance, luminance distribution, cylindrical illuminance, the Daylight Glare Index, vertical...

  20. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D.N.; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2001-01-01

    Today there is an increasing focus on the importance of a proper ventilation system to obtain good working conditions in the term of air and thermal quality to ensure high productivity. Different ventilation principles are used, e.g., mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation. In order to...... that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal...... exposure. Full scale experiments along with a breathing thermal manikin (BTM) have been used. The results show that the location of the sources is of great importance, just as well as temperature differences. Furthermore, the concentration in the breathing zone showed large differences throughout the room....

  1. An Informationally Structured Room for Robotic Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuo Tsuji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  2. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N2 atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N2-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N2 plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N2 storage and transfer.

  3. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  4. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  5. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Ch.; Kuhr, S.; Geffers, H.; Schmidt, Th.; Flege, J. I.; Aschenbrenner, T.; Hommel, D.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, Bremen 28334 (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N{sub 2} atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N{sub 2}-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N{sub 2} plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N{sub 2} storage and transfer.

  6. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  7. Improved low frequency room responses by considering finiteness of room boundary surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    For room acoustic simulations, the acoustic characteristics of room boundary surfaces are typically calculated under the assumption that the surfaces are sufficiently large. In this study, a reflection coefficient for finite surfaces is suggested and its performance is assessed through case studi...

  8. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, B.C.; Coleman, B.K.; Destaillats, H.;

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m(3) chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm......-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h(-1) and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented......-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone...

  9. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  10. One size fits all? Mixed methods evaluation of the impact of 100% single-room accommodation on staff and patient experience, safety and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Penfold, Clarissa; Simon, Michael; Anderson, Janet E; Robert, Glenn; Pizzo, Elena; Hughes, Jane; Murrells, Trevor; Barlow, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives There is little strong evidence relating to the impact of single-room accommodation on healthcare quality and safety. We explore the impact of all single rooms on staff and patient experience; safety outcomes; and costs. Methods Mixed methods pre/post ‘move’ comparison within four nested case study wards in a single acute hospital with 100% single rooms; quasi-experimental before-and-after study with two control hospitals; analysis of capital and operational costs associated with single rooms. Results Two-thirds of patients expressed a preference for single rooms with comfort and control outweighing any disadvantages (sense of isolation) felt by some. Patients appreciated privacy, confidentiality and flexibility for visitors afforded by single rooms. Staff perceived improvements (patient comfort and confidentiality), but single rooms were worse for visibility, surveillance, teamwork, monitoring and keeping patients safe. Staff walking distances increased significantly post move. A temporary increase of falls and medication errors in one ward was likely to be associated with the need to adjust work patterns rather than associated with single rooms per se. We found no evidence that single rooms reduced infection rates. Building an all single-room hospital can cost 5% more with higher housekeeping and cleaning costs but the difference is marginal over time. Conclusions Staff needed to adapt their working practices significantly and felt unprepared for new ways of working with potentially significant implications for the nature of teamwork in the longer term. Staff preference remained for a mix of single rooms and bays. Patients preferred single rooms. PMID:26408568

  11. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  12. Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing.

  13. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D. N.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm;

    2001-01-01

    that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal......Today there is an increasing focus on the importance of a proper ventilation system to obtain good working conditions in the term of air and thermal quality to ensure high productivity. Different ventilation principles are used, e.g., mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation. In order to...

  14. Computer vision based room interior design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  15. Video Conferencing for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Fosgerau, A.; Hansen, Peter Søren K.;

    2002-01-01

    A PC-based video conferencing system for a virtual seminar room is presented. The platform is enhanced with DSPs for audio and video coding and processing. A microphone array is used to facilitate audio based speaker tracking, which is used for adaptive beam-forming and automatic camera-control. ......A PC-based video conferencing system for a virtual seminar room is presented. The platform is enhanced with DSPs for audio and video coding and processing. A microphone array is used to facilitate audio based speaker tracking, which is used for adaptive beam-forming and automatic camera...

  16. Going clean: structure and dynamics of peptides in the gas phase and paths to solvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas phase is an artificial environment for biomolecules that has gained much attention both experimentally and theoretically due to its unique characteristic of providing a clean room environment for the comparison between theory and experiment. In this review we give an overview mainly on first-principles simulations of isolated peptides and the initial steps of their interactions with ions and solvent molecules: a bottom up approach to the complexity of biological environments. We focus on the accuracy of different methods to explore the conformational space, the connections between theory and experiment regarding collision cross section evaluations and (anharmonic) vibrational spectra, and the challenges faced in this field. (topical review)

  17. Going clean: structure and dynamics of peptides in the gas phase and paths to solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Carsten; Rossi, Mariana

    2015-12-16

    The gas phase is an artificial environment for biomolecules that has gained much attention both experimentally and theoretically due to its unique characteristic of providing a clean room environment for the comparison between theory and experiment. In this review we give an overview mainly on first-principles simulations of isolated peptides and the initial steps of their interactions with ions and solvent molecules: a bottom up approach to the complexity of biological environments. We focus on the accuracy of different methods to explore the conformational space, the connections between theory and experiment regarding collision cross section evaluations and (anharmonic) vibrational spectra, and the challenges faced in this field. PMID:26598600

  18. 9 CFR 590.522 - Breaking room operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breaking room operations. 590.522..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.522 Breaking room operations. (a) The breaking room shall be kept... room personnel shall wash their hands thoroughly with odorless soap and water each time they enter...

  19. 45 CFR 612.2 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public reading room. 612.2 Section 612.2 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.2 Public reading room. (a) The Foundation maintains a public reading room... reading room records. (b) Information about FOIA and Privacy at NSF and copies of frequently...

  20. 22 CFR 303.5 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public reading room. 303.5 Section 303.5 Foreign... Public reading room. (a) The Peace Corps will maintain a public reading room at its headquarters at 1111... records will be made available in the public reading room: (1) All final public opinions,...